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Figures

Figure 1.1 Location of congestion charging zone within Greater London...... 5

Figure 2.1 Sydney’s orbital network......................................................................... 9

Figure 2.2 Melbourne’s CityLink............................................................................. 10

Figure 2.3 US road capacity growth and mobility level...................................... 11

Figure 2.4 Sources of US highway congestion.................................................... 17

Figure 2.5 Number of vehicles needed to carry 57 people............................... 20

Figure 2.6

Annual public transport expenditures, fare revenue and

Federal assistance, 1961–2003............................................................... 25

Figure 2.7 Capacity expansion impact on travel cost......................................... 28

Figure 2.8 London’s M25.......................................................................................... 30

Figure 2.9

Figure 2.10

Quality adjusted 2004 purchase prices for private cars

1906 –2004: US and Switzerland............................................................ 32

Changes in the real cost of transport and in income:

United Kingdom, 1980 to 2005.............................................................. 33

Figure 3.1 Broad classification of congestion charging systems...................... 39

Figure 3.2

Figure 3.3

Impact of introducing congestion charges on peak-period

throughput and speeds (91 Express Lanes, California)................... 40

One perspective of the costs and benefits of the London

Congestion Charging scheme............................................................. 50

Figure 3.4 Congestion charging zone in London................................................ 51

Figure 3.5 Intra-zone enforcement equipment in London............................... 52

Figure 3.6 Congestion dominates road user externalities................................ 57

Figure 3.7

Historical trends in US National Highway spending,

user fee revenue/expenditure ratio.................................................... 61

Figure 3.8 The ‘selling’ of the Washington gas tax increase.............................. 63

Figure 3.9

US state and local combined fuel tax comparisons,

by state (US June 2005)......................................................................... 64

Figure 3.10 Stockholm congestion charging structure........................................ 68

Figure 4.1

Options for disbursement of (net) congestion charging

revenue..................................................................................................... 85

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