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BITRE | Working paper 74

Table 3.1 Selected congestion charging schemes

Location Year Stated aims Time system Modulation Technology Response Concessions/

exemptions

Facility charges

91 Express Lanes, Orange County, CA 1995 Finance 91 Express

Lanes and reduce

congestion elsewhere

Posted speeds—

applies at all hours

Many small gradations

ranging from US$1.20

–US$10 (Eastbound

3pm Friday)

Tag & beacon plus

ANPR

New lanes 3+ car pool,

motorcycles, disabled

and zero-emission

generally exempt

Interstate 15, San Diego, CA 1999 Improve HOV lane

utilisation; part fund

PT; and test efficacy of

congestion charging

Applies 05:45–11:00

southbound; 12:00–

19:00 northbound

Toll adjusted in

US$0.25 increments

to maintain target

level of service. Tolls

generally US$0.50

–US$4.00 (US$8.00

maximum).

Tag & beacon plus

ANPR

New lanes 2+ carpools exempt

Hudson and East River crossings (NY/

NJ)

2001 Reduce congestion Cars: 06:00 –09:00

and 16:00 –19:00

(weekdays); 12:00

–20:00 weekends.

Lorries: 00:00 –06:00

weekdays

Differential car/truck

charge: Cars off-peak

US$4; Trucks $US5/axle;

Cars peak US$5; lorries

US$6/axle;

Cars overnight, free;

lorries $3.50/axle

Tag & beacon plus

ANPR

Registered car pool

users and low emission

vehicles receive

discount

407ETR Toronto 1997 Finance 407ETR and

provide a lowercongestion

alternative

route

Charge applies at all

hours; 7% discount for

off-peak

Distance-based

charges that vary by

vehicle class

Tag & beacon plus

ANPR

New facility Diplomatic, emergency

& defence vehicles

Santiago de Chile 2004 Reduce air pollution

and fund additional

transport investment

Variable (6, 12, 18 US

cents/km)—applies

at all hours

Distance modulation;

Congestion modulation

based on speed

reduction

Tag & beacon plus

ANPR

Dubai 2007 (Jul.) Reduce congestion

and raise revenue

for roads

Dh4 per entry with

maximum charge of

Dh24 per day. Toll (Salik)

applies at all hours

None Tag & beacon plus

ANPR

25 per cent reduction Buses emergency

vehicles and military

vehicles

Area charges

London 2003;

(extended in

2007)

Reduce congestion

and fund transport

investment

Fixed 07:00 –18:00

Mon.–Fri.

£8 for non-exempt ANPR 30 per cent

vehicles a reduction inside

the zone

Many categories

exempt or heavily

discounted

(continued)

46

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