BITRE | Working paper 74 Table 3.1 Selected congestion charging schemes Location Year Stated aims Time system Modulation Technology Response Concessions/ exemptions Facility charges 91 Express Lanes, Orange County, CA 1995 Finance 91 Express Lanes and reduce congestion elsewhere Posted speeds— applies at all hours Many small gradations ranging from US$1.20 –US$10 (Eastbound 3pm Friday) Tag & beacon plus ANPR New lanes 3+ car pool, motorcycles, disabled and zero-emission generally exempt Interstate 15, San Diego, CA 1999 Improve HOV lane utilisation; part fund PT; and test efficacy of congestion charging Applies 05:45–11:00 southbound; 12:00– 19:00 northbound Toll adjusted in US$0.25 increments to maintain target level of service. Tolls generally US$0.50 –US$4.00 (US$8.00 maximum). Tag & beacon plus ANPR New lanes 2+ carpools exempt Hudson and East River crossings (NY/ NJ) 2001 Reduce congestion Cars: 06:00 –09:00 and 16:00 –19:00 (weekdays); 12:00 –20:00 weekends. Lorries: 00:00 –06:00 weekdays Differential car/truck charge: Cars off-peak US$4; Trucks $US5/axle; Cars peak US$5; lorries US$6/axle; Cars overnight, free; lorries $3.50/axle Tag & beacon plus ANPR Registered car pool users and low emission vehicles receive discount 407ETR Toronto 1997 Finance 407ETR and provide a lowercongestion alternative route Charge applies at all hours; 7% discount for off-peak Distance-based charges that vary by vehicle class Tag & beacon plus ANPR New facility Diplomatic, emergency & defence vehicles Santiago de Chile 2004 Reduce air pollution and fund additional transport investment Variable (6, 12, 18 US cents/km)—applies at all hours Distance modulation; Congestion modulation based on speed reduction Tag & beacon plus ANPR Dubai 2007 (Jul.) Reduce congestion and raise revenue for roads Dh4 per entry with maximum charge of Dh24 per day. Toll (Salik) applies at all hours None Tag & beacon plus ANPR 25 per cent reduction Buses emergency vehicles and military vehicles Area charges London 2003; (extended in 2007) Reduce congestion and fund transport investment Fixed 07:00 –18:00 Mon.–Fri. £8 for non-exempt ANPR 30 per cent vehicles a reduction inside the zone Many categories exempt or heavily discounted (continued) 46
Chapter 3 | Congestion charging as an alternative strategy Table 3.1 Selected congestion charging schemes (continued) Location Year Stated aims Time system Modulation Technology Response Concessions/ exemptions Cordon charges Oslo 1990 Raise revenue for road investment Fixed-charge applies at all hours 20NKr veh.3.5t Tag & beacon plus ANPR Stockholm 2006 (Jan. –Jul., trial); 2007 (Aug.) Reduce congestion and emissions and fund public transport Bergen 1986 Fund road transport investment Trondheim 1991–2005 Fund road transport Singapore 1975 (area licence); 1998 (electronic) investment Reduce congestion and encourage PT Durham 2002 (Oct.) Reduce traffic in heritage and Rome 1998 (day zone); 2005 (night zone) pedestrianised area Reduce traffic in heritage area and increase PT use Valletta (Malta) 2007 (May) Reduce congestion and improve the environment Milan 2008 (Jan.) Reduce congestion, emissions and raise revenue Variable (three toll levels), twoway, 06:30 –18:29 (Regular weekdays except July) Fixed 06:00–22:00 weekdays Variable: 06:00– 18:00 (regular weekdays) Variable, 07:30– 19:00 (central area) and 07:30–09:30 (expressways/rings). Fixed 10:00–16:00 Mon.–Sat. Fixed: 06:30–18:00 Mon–Fri 14:00 –18:00 Sat; Annual permit or €20/day. Also night zone Variable– based on time within zone 08:00–18:00 Mon– Fri; 08:00–13:00 Sat 15NKr veh. 3.5t 15NKr veh.