PDF: 1832 KB - Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional ...

bitre.gov.au

PDF: 1832 KB - Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional ...

BITRE | Working paper 74

Table 3.2

Population and population densities of selected cities

City

54

Population

(million)

Population density

(persons/km 2 )

Hong Kong 6.5 29 400

Singapore 4 8 350

Mexico City 18.1 7 150

London 8.3 5 100

Tokyo-Yokohama 34.3 4 350

Berlin 3.7 3 750

Beijing 11.3 3 700

Moscow 14 3 600

Vienna 1.6 3 400

Paris 10.4 3 400

Glasgow 1.2 3 250

Rome 2 8 3 200

Stockholm 1.4 2 700

Amsterdam 1.1 2 650

Los Angeles 13.8 2 400

Brussels 1.6 2 150

Sydney 3.5 2 100

Auckland 1.1 2 100

Montreal 3.2 1 850

New York City 19.7 1 750

Melbourne 3.2 1 500

Lyon 1.3 1 400

Adelaide 1 1 350

Perth 1.2 1 200

Brisbane 1.5 950

Source: Demographia (2007, pp. 9 –30).

The table illustrates that Australia’s cities have relatively low population densities.

This makes it more difficult for Australian cities to justify provision of the good quality

public transport systems that may be necessary to bring about driver behavioural

change without cripplingly high congestion charges that could undermine the

economic case for a scheme.

Good public transport could be key to

behavioural change. Australia’s urban

form tends to work against good public

transport. This makes it less likely that a

congestion charge can be successful.

In those cities where the population size

and density result in severe and costly

congestion, it can be easier to justify

good alternative (public) transport

systems. Ironically, this provision then

makes it easier to achieve behavioural

change. As well as population level

and density, highly-centralised retailing

and business combined with high levels of tourism all contribute to high levels of

congestion but also serve to underpin the provision of high quality public transport.

Of course, congestion can occur in the smallest of settlements and in modest

towns—such as Durham and Valletta. But here a mode change is possible without

major enhancements to the public transport system. The cordon zone for these cities

is so small that private vehicles can readily access the perimeter of the zone and

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines