PDF: 1832 KB - Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional ...

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PDF: 1832 KB - Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional ...

Contents

Foreword................................................................................................................................... iii

At a glance................................................................................................................................. v

Executive summary................................................................................................................ xv

Chapter 1 Introduction.............................................................................................. 1

1.1 Defining ‘congestion’ ................................................................ 3

1.2 Report outline ............................................................................ 4

Chapter 2 Prevailing strategies to manage congestion........................................ 7

2.1 Increasing supply of road space.............................................. 8

2.2 Better utilisation of the available space................................ 15

2.3 Reducing the demand for road space................................... 19

2.4 Other strategies ....................................................................... 26

2.5 Induced travel........................................................................... 26

2.6 Conclusions............................................................................... 35

Chapter 3 Congestion charging as an alternative strategy................................ 37

3.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 37

3.2 The attraction of congestion charging................................. 39

3.3 Criteria used to determine ‘success’ .................................... 41

3.4 Technical success ..................................................................... 41

3.5 Political success ........................................................................ 42

3.6 Financial success ...................................................................... 42

3.7 Economic success .................................................................... 43

3.8 Nature of the aims.................................................................... 44

3.9 Case study: Is the London scheme successful ................. 49

3.10 Transferability of overseas experiences .............................. 53

3.11 Primary benefits of congestion charging schemes............ 56

3.12 Exploring congestion charging options can be costly ...... 66

3.13 Conclusions............................................................................... 72

vii

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