SEPTEMBER 2011 – 3rd ISSUE - enerea

SEPTEMBER 2011 – 3rd ISSUE - enerea




World News – New PV Technology for World’s Largest CSP Plant

in Mojave ................................................................................................ 2

Energy Agencies – United Sustainable Energy Agency (USEA) ....................... 4

Policy – UK Feed-in Tariff scheme ................................................................. 4

Partner search – Local-government of Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg county

from Hungary .......................................................................................... 7

Innovation companies – Lavina Foundation, Hungary.................................... 10




New PV Technology for World’s Largest CSP Plant in


Source: Clean Technica

Solar Millennium will now use PV at its CSP plant.

With the price of solar panels dropping significantly over the last five years, Germany’s Solar

Millennium AG reports it will convert the first 500 megawatts of its 1 000 MW Blythe solar

power plant in the Mojave desert from concentrated solar power/solar

thermal system to PV.

Photograph: Solar Millennium AG

It will decide what technology to use for the second half of the

project at a later date. The company has not named who the PV

panel supplier will be for the project.

“Solar Millennium responds quickly and pragmatically to market

conditions, and at the moment the California market favors PV

technology,” said Solar Millennium CEO Christophe Wolff said in a

prepared statement.

“the price of

solar panels


significantly over

the last five


This announcement represents the latest in a number of similar conversions this year by solar

thermal power plant developers in California. This year at least four projects, producing some

1 850 MW of power generation, have changed most or all of their technology to PV.



PV systems turn sunlight into electricity, while concentrated solar power (CSP) uses heat to

create steam that then powers a generator to create electricity.

Since California mandated that the state’s utilities must obtain 20 percent of their power from

renewable sources, the price of PV panels have fallen by almost 50 percent. This has been

followed by dramatic growth in solar and wind projects.

“to finance the project

in the commercial

bank market rather

than through loan

guarantees from the

U.S. Department of


Solar Millennium officials in the United States said the switch to PV

will allow its projects to become operational in smaller phases

compared to the larger scale required by CSP technology.

Because of the switch to a more widespread PV technology, the

company plans to finance the project in the commercial bank

market rather than through loan guarantees from the U.S.

Department of Energy. The loan guarantee program was

developed to fund new technologies that have had trouble securing

financing from traditional lenders.

Solar Millennium said it still sees strong demand for concentrated solar power, also referred to

as solar thermal power, in markets such as Africa, the Middle East, India, China and Southern


Solar Trust of America, a joint venture between Solar Millennium and Ferrostaal AG, is

developing the Blythe power plant.


CSP systems use mirrors

or lenses to concentrate

a large area of sunlight,

or solar thermal energy,

onto a small area

Professor Giovanni Francia

(1911–1980) designed and

built the first solar

concentrated plant which

entered in operation in

Sant'Ilario, near Genoa,

Italy in 1968. (Wikipedia)





USEA and the new Feed-in Tariff scheme in the UK

United Sustainable Energy Agency


USEA was founded in 1998 under the EU

SAVE Programme. Originally set up my

Milton Keynes Council, the Agency has since

gone on to merge with two other agencies

and operates across the South East of

England. It employs 24 staff and runs a number of initiatives aimed at helping individuals and

organisations reduce their carbon emissions.

One of USEA’s core competences is to work with the supply chain, such as insulation installers

and bring in local government support for projects which creates

confidence and trust with consumers. USEA has operated projects

to help transform the marketplace involving

“the urban planning

high efficiency

system collects a fee

heating boilers and insulation. The focus is

from developers, if

now on

renewable energy measures.

USEA has also been successful at securing

any new

developments are

not carbon neutral”


government funding for projects. One such

example is the

Milton Keynes Carbon Offset fund where the urban planning

system collects a fee from developers, if any new

developments are not

carbon neutral. The fund is used to pay for other carbon reducing measures on the existing

building stock to offset the amount generated by the new development.

UK Feed-in Tariff scheme

In order to support the EU’s 20:20:20 vision, the UK has committed to

delivering 15% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by




Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) were introduced on the 1st April 2010 and are the UK government's

support scheme for small scale electricity generating technologies, such as photovoltaic (PV)

and wind turbines.

Owners of eligible systems:

receive a fixed payment

for every unit of

electricity generated,

regardless of how it is

used (generation tariff).

This changes depending

upon technology and


receive an additional

3.1p for every unit of

electricity exported to

the national grid

(export tariff)

benefit from avoided

electricity costs where

the electricity

generated is used


The generation tariff is expected to reduce each financial year for new entrants to the scheme,

reflecting anticipated cost reductions in the technologies, however, once a system is registered

to receive FITs it will continue on the same tariff for 20 years, or 25 years in the case of PV. All

generation and export tariffs are linked to the Retail Price Index (RPI) meaning tariffs will rise

with inflation, ensuring their value does not decrease over time.

The UK’s Energy Act (2004) defines microgeneration as the generation of electricity up to 50kW

(and 45kW for heat). For micro-electricity generating systems to qualify for Feed-in Tariff

payments both the technology and the company installing the system must be MCS

(Microgeneration Certification Scheme) certificated. MCS is the UK’s certification scheme for

microgeneration ensuring the technologies and installations are of a high standard.

The current generation tariffs for micro PV are:


Tariff levels for new


1/4/2011 - 31/3/2012

≤4kW (retrofit*) 43.3p/kWh

≤4kW (new build**) 37.8p/kWh

>4 – 10kW 37.8p/kWh

>10 – 50kW 32.9p/kWh

* "retrofit" means installed on a building which is already occupied

** "new build" means installed on a new building before first occupation



FITs are paid by energy suppliers. Ofgem, the for the UK energy industry, charges energy

companies a levy, which is subsequently passed on to energy consumers, and FITs payments are

made from this.

Since its inception in 2010, the scheme has supported over 40 720 installations with a total

installed capacity of 146MW. Around 98% of these installations have been

installed on domestic properties. There is still a long way to go if the

UK wants to meet is target of 15% renewable energy by 2020 but

this is certainly a step in the right direction.

“the regulator

charges energy

companies a levy,

which is


passed on to energy



FITs typically include three key


• guaranteed grid access

• long-term contracts for the

electricity produced

• purchase prices based on the

cost of generation

As of 2011, feed-in

tariff policies have

been enacted in over

50 countries in the


The first form of feedin

tariff was

implemented in the

US in 1978 under

President Jimmy

Carter, who signed

the National Energy

Act (NEA).

Source: Wikipedia – Feed-in tariff




Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County – Hungary

The local-government of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County is

committed to the new and renewable energy resources

• Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County in brief








Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County (NUTS Level 3) is

located in the north-east part of the country,

along the Ukrainian and Romanian border with a

population of about 560 000. There are 12 microregions

(NUTS Level 4) in the county with its 229

settlements taking up 59% of the region’s all

settlements. Near the Ukrainian and Romanian

border several small settlements can be found having numerous adverse effects on the county

and the rural area is characteristic (small villages, farms), (at the half of the micro-regions) not

allowing the development of the area to be founded on the city's knowledge, economic strength

and attractiveness. As a benefit of the circumstances mentioned above, half of the region

developed distinctly.

Migration, high unemployment

rate, breaking of local

businesses and local

governments with lack of

resources is typical. On the

contrary Nyíregyháza shows an

outstanding development.

Considerable areas were taken

out of cultivation that could be

appropriate for alternative

utilization and supports could be

available for deployment of

arboreal or herbaceous plants.

Tisza River



“weather conditions

are optimal for


- 1950-2050 hours

- 9-10,5 °C

- 550-600 mm

In Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County the weather conditions are optimal

for agriculture, the annual sunshine days are between 1950-2050

hours, the annual average temperature is 9-10,5 °C, and the

annual precipitation is 550-600 mm. The county's agriculture

contributes 9,4% of the country's agricultural GDP.

In the past 10 years, the county’s modern industry has started to

flourish. In the trading export 72% goes towards the EU member

states, which shows that shifting from Eastern to Western markets

was successful.

The transport infrastructure is well developed in the county, the railway network structure is

central (the centre is Nyíregyháza – the chief of the county), and the public road network is

relatively dense.

• The local-government of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County

The main functions of the local-government of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County are to prepare

the administrative cases for decision and implementation. It employs 53 people.

Their scope of activities are to help, organize and co-ordinate of the work of the general

meeting, the office holders; and to prepare, achieve or follow up the cases lying within the

president or the town clerk, as well as to operate the local-government institutions.

The local-government of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County is committed for their buildings

corresponds the energy requirements. In order to achieve this requirement we apply projects.

The goal of the KEOP project –complex energy modernization of the County Hall –is to increase

the energy efficiency in terms of energy used for heating and lighting.

The County Hall baroque decoration building with an eclectic style was built in 1891-92 based

on the plans of Alpár Ignác. The building is registered as an ancient monument by the National

Office of Cultural Heritage. The increase of energy efficiency contributes

to the expansion of safe energy supply. Our distinct aim is to revise

and improve the thermal technique conditions of the building as

the building currently is very inefficient in terms of energy use.

For more information please

contact the ENEREA office:

Name: Valeria Szabo


Tel: +36302320788

“The County Hall is

registered as an


monument by the

National Office of

Cultural Heritage.”



• Energy commitment of the Local-government of Szabolcs-Szatmár-

Bereg County

One of the main

responsibilities of the

Local-government of


County is to maintain

the institutions, besides

the maintenance of the

conditions of economic,

financial and technical

operation. This function

includes the provision of

sustainability and

supporting the energy


The County Hall – Nyíregyháza

Strategic goals include:

energy efficiency, rational use of energy resources,

promotion of the application of new and renewable energy sources

supporting energy diversification

promotion of utilization of the new and renewable energy resources related to the

Northern Great Plain Region

Our mission is to facilitate the implementation of energy projects that are supported both

technically and financially.

As one of the co-owners of the ENEREA Észak-Alföld Regional Energy Agency

the Agency's activities in the international area, we recognize the importance of

adapting good international practices and experience. We could reduce our

energy consumption with the help of the above mentioned.

We are open to adopt the new and good examples, and would like to expand our international

relations with the help of a large team of experts at our disposal.

We would like to be one of the leaders among 19 counties who take part as a partner in

international projects and participate in R&D programs in order to implement a model program

setting an example for other councils.






Lavina Foundation is a non-profit applied research organization in Hungary with

several business area specified working fields. The Researching Department of

Biotechnology (BIO) and Engineering Solutions (ENSO) has had a long lasting

cooperation with the academic and business sphere.




organization in


We have fruitable connection with other Hungarian researching Institutes and

innovative cluster organisations as well. We could free entrance some new and modern

laboratories, where we could solve high level biological, technological and logistical problems.


BIO is the centre of Hungarian applied research in the subject of bioremediation including in

situ processes, aerob and anaerobic techniques and using of inorganic additives.

ENSO’s workers have become a leading regional actor in the area of sensor development, and

specially controlling and measuring techniques.

Moreover, the network of the Foundation make a central role as a technological background

for Hungarian and regional SMS.

The Foundation's background makes possible financing of larger projects and has the proper

human resources and equipments for the project implementation.

Adapting the practical requirements, the Foundation take a significant role in the field of

remediation techniques based on biotechnology developments cooperating with the main

stakeholders and SMS’s. Several significant projects are running – handled by our researchers –



at the same time in the fields of remediation, its monitoring, controlling, biosensor research and

expert decision supporting systems.

“Foundation is interested

in participation in

projects under EU

Research programmes

and in other

international projects

involving developments

in algae technology”

Foundation is interested in participation in projects under EU

Research programmes and in other international projects involving

developments in algae technology.

According to the broadcasts, algae technology has an important

role in the technology of the near future– much depends on the

investors, the economics, the biologists and on the engineers.

The independency from energy import, and the utilization of the

by-products produced in various agriculture and industrial activities

makes such challenges for developers, which extends beyond borders.

The goal to develop a pilot level, algae biomass production system (and its energetic nature

processing) which is capable of producing green energy and the source material is agriculture

and industrial by-products.



The conditions of the industrial production of the green algae are (which are the main

development directions):

• Appropriate breeding technology

reactor technique

algae extraction technique

ferment liquid recycling.

• The optimal composition of the nutrients needed in the algae production

ensure the CO 2 source (flue gas)

appropriate temperature (waste heat, geothermal)

Minerals (N, P, K) (wastewater etc.)

• Algae based product development

Product aimed algae isolation

Product development optimized to algal strains and algae breeding methods.

The expected results of the project:

• The technology of algae production in Central Europe.

Contact info





Nonprofit Llc.

4400 Nyíregyháza, Sóstói str.

31/B, building ’A’., III/345.



ext.: 2816



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