CASTOR, CESAR and the Esbjerg CO Capture Pilot Plant - Zero

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CASTOR, CESAR and the Esbjerg CO Capture Pilot Plant - Zero

Esbjerg Power Station 23 rd October 2009

CASTOR, CESAR and the Esbjerg CO 2 Capture Pilot Plant

Jacob Nygaard Knudsen - Project manager CO 2 capture pilot plant


CASTOR Project: Objectives and Main Data

CASTORCO 2 from capture to storage

4-year European integrated project (Feb 2004 – Jan 2008)

CASTOR

Budget: ~16 M€ (EU funding: 8.5 M€)

Objectives

Reduce the cost of CO 2 post-combustion capture

Contribute to the feasibility & acceptance of the geological storage concept

Validate the concept on real site(s)

Pilot plant testing for capture

Detailed studies of future storage projects

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CASTOR Consortium

R&D

IFP (FR)

TNO (NL)

SINTEF (NO)

NTNU (NO)

BGS (UK)

BGR (DE)

BRGM (FR)

GEUS (DK)

IMPERIAL (UK)

STUTTGARTT U. (DE)

TWENTE U. (NL)

OGS (IT)

Oil & Gas

STATOILHYDRO (NO)

GDF (FR)

REPSOL (SP)

ENITecnologie (IT)

ROHOEL (AT)

Co-ordinator : IFP

Power Companies

DONG Energy (DK)

VATTENFALL (SE/DK)

E.ON (DE/UK)

ELECTRABEL (BE)

RWE (DE)

PPC (GR)

POWERGEN (UK)

Manufacturers

ALSTOM POWER (FR)

DOOSAN BABCOCK (UK)

SIEMENS (DE)

BASF (DE)

GVS (IT)

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CASTOR Project Overview

CASTORCO 2 from Capture to Storage

EU integrated project under FP-6

SP1 (budget: 0.75 M€)

Strategy for CO 2

Reduction

SP2 (budget: 10.3 M€)

CO 2 Post-Combustion

Capture

SP3 (budget: 3.8 M€)

CO 2 Storage

Performance

& Risk Assessment

Studies

WP2.5

Process Validation in Pilot Plant

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CASTOR Pilot Plant Objectives

The test facility shall

Prove long-term stable operation on coal flue gas

Act as a test facility for dedicated tests (e.g. test of novel solvents)

Provide information about

Operation costs

Maintenance costs

Reliability

Operation flexibility

Environmental issues

Engineering experience

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Esbjerg Power Station (ESV)

Esbjerg Power Station

400 MW e pulverized bituminous coal

High dust SCR deNO x plant

3 zones cold-sided ESP

Wet limestone FGD (saleable gypsum)

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CASTOR Pilot Plant Specifications

Pilot plant erected and commissioned during 2005

Design of pilot plant based on a commercial CO 2

production plant (MEA)

Pilot plant operates on a slip stream taken directly

after the wet FGD

Design flue gas conditions: ~47°C saturated,


CASTOR Pilot Plant Flow Diagram

Cooling water circuit

Wash section

Treated

flue gas

CO 2 Out

Make up water

Condensate

Reclaimer

Reboiler

Steam

Flue gas from

power plant

ABSORBER

Rich MEA

MEA/MEA heat

exchanger

Mechanical filters

STRIPPER

Lean MEA

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CASTOR Pilot Plant

Cooling water circuit

Wash section

Treated

flue gas

CO 2 Out

Make up water

Condensate

Reclaimer

Flue gas from

power plant

ABSORBER

Rich MEA

MEA/MEA heat

exchanger

STRIPPER

Lean MEA

Reboiler

FLUE GAS

5000 m 3 /h Steam

(0.5% of full load)

SO 2 < 10 ppm

NO x < 65 ppm

Particles < 10 mg/Nm 3

Temperature ~ 47°C

(saturated)

Mechanical filters

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CASTOR Pilot Plant

Cooling water circuit

Wash section

Treated

flue gas

CO 2 Out

Make up water

Condensate

Reclaimer

Reboiler

Steam

Flue gas from

power plant

ABSORBER

MEA/MEA heat

exchanger

STRIPPER

Doc. info

Rich MEA

Mechanical filters

Lean MEA

Absorber

Total height: 34.5 m & Diameter: 1.1 m

Sump + 4 beds + 1 wash section

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CASTOR Pilot Plant

Cooling water circuit

Wash section

Treated

flue gas

CO 2 Out

Make up water

Condensate

Reclaimer

Reboiler

Steam

Flue gas from

power plant

ABSORBER

MEA/MEA heat

exchanger

STRIPPER

Rich MEA

Mechanical filters

Lean MEA

Cleaned Flue Gas and CO 2 Product

are returned to the power plant's flue gas duct

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CASTOR Pilot Plant Test Programme

Four test campaigns have been conducted in CASTOR:

1000 hours using standard solvent ”30%-wt. MEA” (Jan. – Marts 2006)

1000 hours using standard solvent ”30%-wt. MEA” (Dec. 2006 – Feb. 2007)

1000 hours using novel solvent ”CASTOR 1” (April – June 2007)

1000 hours using novel solvent ”CASTOR 2” (Sep. – Dec. 2007)

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Outline of Test Campaigns

Test 1 – Parameter variation

a) Optimisation of solvent flow rate (at 90% capture)

b) Variation of reboiler steam input at optimum solvent flow

c) Variation of stripper pressure (at 90% capture)

Test 2 – 500 hours of continuous operation

- Operation at ”optimised” conditions

- Achieving 90% CO 2 capture (on average)

- Quantification of solvent consumption and degradation

- Characterisation of corrosion behaviour

Test 3 – Miscellaneous tests

- Absorber pressure drop measurements

- Emission measurements

- Etc.

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Tests with MEA: Proving the concept

The operation of the pilot plant with the standard solvent (30% MEA) for more than

2000 hours has among others demonstrated that:

The amine based post combustion process is stable and reliable

The process functions at the tail-end of a coal fired power plant

More than 90% CO 2 capture can be achieved

The energy consumption with the standard solvent is relatively high

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2 nd MEA Test: Solvent Flow Rate Optimisation

Specific steam consumption and CO 2 recovery at stripper

pressure 0.85 bar g and flue gas flow ≈5000 Nm 3 /h

4,0

Steam consumption

CO2 recovery

100

Steam consumption (GJ/ton CO 2 )

3,8

3,6

3,4

3,2

90

80

70

60

CO 2 recovery (%)

3,0

50

1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0

Absorber L/G ratio (kg/kg)

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2 nd MEA Test: 500 Hours of Continuous Operation

Flue gas flow Steam consump. CO2 recovery

6000

100

Flue gas & Steam (Nm

3 /h wet, MJ/ton CO 2 )

5000

4000

3000

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

% CO 2 recovery

2000

15-01-07 20-01-07 25-01-07 30-01-07 04-02-07 09-02-07

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Average steam consumption: ≈3.7 GJ/ton CO 2 Average CO 2 capture: 88 %

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2 nd MEA Test: Flue Gas Emissions

Emission measurements have been conducted on flue gas and CO 2 exhaust streams:

Very low emission of MEA and other alkanolamines

Detectable emissions of the more volatile degradation products: NH 3 (25 mg/Nm 3 ),

acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde

Remaining acidic components in the coal flue gas (SO 2 , HCl) are quantitatively removed

High purity of the produced CO 2 . Degradation products present in trace amounts

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Development and Test of New Solvents

In the CASTOR project, screening and validation procedures were set up for the

selection of new solvent systems:

30 solvent systems were initially selected for experimental characterisation based on

literature review

The 8 most promising solvent candidates were selected for more detailed characterisation

in bench scale

Finally two solvents (CASTOR 1 and 2) were selected for tests in the Esbjerg pilot plant

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Comparison of Regeneration Energies with MEA, CASTOR 1 & 2

Specific steam consumption at stripper pressure 0.85-1.0 bar g ,

flue gas flow ≈5000 Nm 3 /h and ≈90 % CO 2 recovery

4,5

MEA CASTOR 1 CASTOR 2

Specific steam consumption (GJ/ton)

4,3

4,1

3,9

3,7

3,5

1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0

Absorber L/G ratio (kg/kg)

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Summary CASTOR 2 vs. MEA

Improvements with CASTOR 2 compared to MEA

Decreased regeneration energy 3.7 => 3.5 GJ/ton CO 2 (further improvement is plausible)

Increased CO 2 carrying capacity i.e. reduced pumping works

Degradation rate significantly reduced

Low corrosiveness

... and the drawbacks

Possible loss of solvent by physical mechanisms (entrainment & evaporation)

Cost of solvent

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Implications: 600 MW e bituminous coal fired power plant

Power plant without CO 2 capture:

Advanced super critical boiler, 45.2 % electrical efficiency (LHV, net) => 769 g CO 2 /kWh e

Power plant with MEA based CO 2 capture including compression to 110 bar:

33.7 % efficiency (penalty 11.5 %-points) => 104 g CO 2 /kWh e (86% reduction)

Power plant with CASTOR 2 based CO 2 capture including compression to 110 bar:

35.2 % efficiency (penalty 10 %-points) => 99 g CO 2 /kWh e (87% reduction)

CASTOR 2 offers about 1.5%-points improvement according to the standard MEA

process, however the penalty is still significant

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Conclusions

Four 1000 hours test campaigns with MEA and novel solvents have been conducted

at the CASTOR pilot plant in Esbjerg. The campaigns have indicated that:

Stable operation on coal-derived flue gas is possible

The impact of flue gas impurities can be handled

Regeneration energy with MEA: ≈3.7 GJ/ton CO 2 at 90 % CO 2 removal

Small improvement in regeneration energy with CASTOR 2: ≈3.5 GJ/ton CO 2

at 90 % CO 2 removal (further improvement plausible)

Efficiency penalty of power plant equipped with CO 2 capture ≈10 %-points

Implications for further work:

Possible to develop solvents with greater chemical stability and that are less

corrosive

Possible to develop solvents with improved regeneration energy compared to

MEA, however, difficult to obtain major improvements with solvent alone

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CESAR Project Consortium

CESAR: CO 2 Enhanced Separation And Recovery

3-year EU project (2008 – 2011) in the 7 th Framework Programme

Aim: To reduce the cost of CO 2 post-combustion capture

R&D

IFP (FR)

TNO (NL)

SINTEF (NO)

NTNU (NO)

POLYMEN (FR)

CNRS (FR)

U. KAISERSLAUTERN (DE)

Oil & Gas

STATOILHYDRO (NO)

GDF (FR)

Power Companies

DONG Energy (DK)

VATTENFALL (SE/DK)

E.ON (DE/UK)

ELECTRABEL (BE)

RWE (DE/UK)

PPC (GR)

POWERGEN (UK)

Manufacturers

ALSTOM POWER (SE)

DOOSAN BABCOCK (UK)

SIEMENS (DE)

BASF (DE)

Coordinator: TNO

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Outline CESAR Project

WP1

Advanced separation processes

Solvent selection

Novel solvents

High flux membrane contactors

WP3

Solvent process validation

Qualification of solvents

Solvent process validation in

Esbjerg pilot plant

Environmental impact

WP2

Process modeling & Integration

Development of process models

Integration studies

European benchmark task force

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CESAR Objectives of Pilot Plant Testing in Esbjerg

Evaluate the potential of advanced absorption/desorption process

configurations in pilot-scale

Determine the performance of novel solvents in realistic operation

conditions for future full-scale application in coal-fired power plants

Measure energy requirement and temperature levels for regeneration of the

novel solvents

Monitor actual solvent degradation, losses and by-products, corrosion,

fouling and emissions for novel solvents

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CESAR Pilot Plant Modifications: Inter-cooler & Flash

Absorber inter-cooler skid Flash vessel for vapour recompression

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CESAR Pilot Plant Test Programme

Three test campaigns will be conducted in CESAR:

2000 hours using standard solvent ”30%-wt. MEA” (March – July 2009)

2000 hours using novel solvent ”CESAR 1” (Oct. – Dec. 2009)

2000 hours using novel solvent ”CESAR 2” (Feb. – May 2010)

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For further information on CESAR

European project

www.CO2cesar.eu

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