Express Yourself 32
Wallace G. Eley and David J. Young created a unique luminaire suggestive of
the office they were lighting. Satellite dishes become a part of the architecture
at the Bell Expressvu Inc. Broadcasting Center in North York, Ontario.
Tunnel Vision 36
Vladimir Lyszcynski and Dominique Alba add color
and psychedelic pizzazz to a Paris highway.
Basque Splendor 40
Paul A. Zaferiou and Enrique A. Rojas cross the Atlantic to contribute
their lighting design expertise to Frank Gehry’s monumental
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.
Golden Age 46
Satoshi Uchihara, Shiho Fujii, and Hiroki Yagi provide nighttime
ambience to the 600-year old Golden Pavilion in Kyoto, Japan.
Seminar Preview 50
Paul Gregory, Sarah Gibson, Barbara Bouyea, Emlyn Altman, Stan
Walerczyk, Brooks Sheifer, and Kristen Richards give us a sneak
peek at their seminars at LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 1999 in
San Francisco next month.
Conventional Wisdom 65
In 1989 a new trade show took the lighting industry by storm. Editor
Mark A. Newman delves into the past to see how and why
LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL became the
lighting world’s pre-eminent event.
3 Regional Voices
4 Essay By Invitation
10 Views on the Visual
27 IES News
71 Light Products
74 Progress Report
Invitation to Submit
77 Scheduled Events
VOL. 29/NO. 4
79 Photo Credits
80 Ad offices/Ad Index
ON THE COVER: The Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto,
Japan evokes the mysteries of the Far East. The design team
of Satoshi Uchihara, Shiho Fujii, and Hiroki Yagi received a
1998 IIDA Paul Waterbury Award of Excellence for Outdoor
Lighting. Photo: Kanji Nakayama and Kazuaki Hiraga.
2 LD+A/April 1999
Joseph Good III, LC
Principal, Lighting and Theater Design
Spectrum Professional Services, Inc
David Geyman, LC
Clark Engineers, SW, Inc.
Senior Vice President
Ian Lewin, Ph.D., FIES, LC
Lighting Sciences, Inc.
Executive Vice President
William Hanley, CAE
Vice President---Educational Activities
M. Clay Belcher
Architectural Engineering Department
University of Kansas
Vice President—-Member Activities
Director, Lighting Services
Vice President—-Design & Application
Vice President—-Technical & Research
Richard G. Collins
Supervisor of the Photometry Laboratory
OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc.
Southeast Regional Manager
Edwin W. Best
Chief Executive Officer
Dickens & Associates, Inc.
Mary Beth Gotti
Manager, Lighting Education
Pamela K. Horner, LC
Manager, Technical Training
OSRAM SYLVANIA Products Inc.
Thomas C. Scott, LC
Southwestern Regional Manager
Vice President, Market Development
Regional Vice Presidents/Directors
Senior Electrical Designer/Lighting Specialist
Brinjac, Kambic & Associates
KME Consulting, LLC
Board of Directors
IES of North America
As I begin my first term as an
RVP, I look back to my 24
years as an IESNA member
and realize that the goals are still
the same, the members are still the
same, but the times have changed.
We now do lighting design by
computer, we communicate by
faxes and e-mail. Things move
faster and faster and we have less
time to devote to volunteering, to
families, and to ourselves.
But if we are to progress in life,
we must make time for the important
things. I have found that the
time I volunteer for the IESNA has
been time well spent. The educational
programs have helped me
in my lighting designs, and as
Education Co-Chair in the British
Columbia Section I have had the
satisfaction of seeing hundreds of
students take the ED-100 and ED-
150 courses. Many of the students
have gone on to do great things in
the lighting community.
With the advent of computer
technology, the lighting courses we
provide are even more important, so
that designers have a basic knowledge.
We need to maintain these
courses, keep them up to date, and
expand them where necessary.
We have had some wonderful
conferences over the years and if we
all work together, we can look
forward to many more wonderful
conferences. But, we have to work
smarter now. It takes a great deal of
work to arrange a conference and it
is only as good as its speaker
programs. That is the key to success.
When we had local regional conferences,
we were the only game in
the area. Even though there are
other ways to gain information, the
human contact and fellowship
cannot be duplicated. We must support
our local conferences and also
support the Annual Conference.
IESNA has many committees that
the membership is invited to be a
part of, so your voice can be heard
in fields where you are knowledgeable.
To survive in the coming
century we must all work at keeping
the Society alive and well. Many of
you can look back at your last 24
years or longer and say it’s been a
I hope to enjoy our IESNA associations
as much as possible, which
is why I became an RVP; I wanted to
return something to the Society. So
I guess it’s that old saying: “What
can I do for the Society, not what
can it do for me.”
We all know what it can do for
us—keep us up to date on new
developments, provide educational
programs, inform and entertain us
through LD+A, plus there’s the networking
and help. I look forward to
the rest of my term and also to
meeting many of you at LIGHTFAIR
INTERNATIONAL in San Francisco in
May and the Annual Conference in
New Orleans in August.
LD+A/April 1999 3
4 LD+A/April 1999
HID (high intensity discharge)
may not be the best option
for many lighting applications
for two reasons: (1) many
recent improvements in fluorescent
lighting, and (2) a more accurate
way of measuring how the human
eye really perceives light.
In our LIGHTFAIR seminar, “Fluorescent
vs. HID: 10 Rounds in the
High Bay Arena,” * we discuss how
both fluorescent and HID have
evolved. Attendees will learn how
HID competes with T8, T5, Tri-loop,
and induction fluorescents. We
evaluate fluorescent and HID
characteristics including warm-up
and restrike times, dimming, photometrics,
CRI, S/P ratios, lumen
depreciation, luminaire appearance,
cost, and maintenance.
Improvements In Fluorescents
This decade has produced dramatic
improvements in fluorescent lamp
and electronic ballast technology.
The existing CRI (color rendering
index), light output, and efficiency
packages are quite awesome. There
are basically five systems:
1. The 85 CRI (daylight has a
100 color rendition index) 4 ft
F32T8 lamps with high power
1.15–1.20 BF (ballast factor) electronic
2. 40–55 W bi-axial lamps with
3. Three-loop compact fluorescents
with electronic ballasts.
4. Straight T5 lamps with electronic
ballasting (although the lm/W
is no better than T8s with electronic
ballasts, the T5 system provides
more lumens per lamp foot and
better control of the light because
the lamp diameter is smaller).
5. Induction fluorescents without
electrodes, which have a 100,000
hour rating at 64 percent of initial
* “Fluorescent vs. HID: 10 Rounds in the
High Bay Arena” will be presented at LIGHT-
FAIR on Thursday May 13, 2:00–3:30 p.m.
All of these fluorescent systems
have high brightness and intensity,
not just sufficient lumens. This is why
at a distance, a single 100 W incandescent
lamp is seen much easier
than two side-by-side 60 W incandescent
lamps, even though both
conditions have the same lumens.
Another example is an old drum
fixture with thick white glass lens
and 75 W incandescent lamp that
we tried to retrofit a few years ago.
First, we replaced the incandescent
lamp with two 13 W compact fluorescents.
That did not provide
enough light. Then we installed a
third 13 W compact fluorescent.
That still did not make much difference.
We could have filled the
fixture with 13 W fluorescents with
little gain. Although the lumens
from the three 13 W compact fluorescents
more than doubled the
lumens from the one 75 W incandescent
lamp, the fluorescents
were not bright or intense enough
for the light to get through the thick
white lens. So we ended up replacing
the entire fixture. The new fluorescents
are able to deliver long
range punch and penetrate translucent
These fluorescent systems also
feature instant-on with no restrike
time, so they can easily be used
with frequent on and off switching,
photocontrols, and occupancy sensors.
Fixtures with more than one
ballast can have multilevel lighting.
Dimming ballasts can also be used
with fluorescents, and there is a
fairly linear relationship between
light level and wattage. HID fixtures
often burn for extended periods only
because of their unacceptable
warm up times and restrike times.
This wastes a ton of electricity.
Fluorescents are a linear, or area,
light source, so there is less shadowing,
contrast, and glare. When
used with electronic ballasts, there
is no stroboscopic effect.
Many maintenance people prefer
fluorescent systems because if one
or more of the lamps or ballasts burn
out in a fixture those remaining keep
operating normally. With HID fixtures,
if the single lamp or ballast
burns out, there is a large dark area
that needs attention as soon as
possible. One plus for HID is if the
maintenance staff uses a pole with
bulb changer, then HID maintenance
William Hanley, CAE
Mark A. Newman
Anthony S. Picco
Associate Art Director
Angel M. Roque
Book Review Editor
Paulette Hebert, Ph.D.
Director of Marketing
LD+A is a magazine for professionals involved in the art,
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is easier. Replacement lamp costs are
about the same. For example, eight
F32T8 lamps cost about the same as one
400 W HPS or metal halide lamp.
HID technology has not stood still. The
most significant ongoing improvement
is pulse start metal halide lamps and
ballasts with ignitors to drive them. This
system provides substantial gains in lm/W,
lumen maintenance, color stability,
shorter warm up times, shorter restrike
times, and minimum ambient temperature
starting. Lamp life can also be extended.
This system could replace standard
metal halide and HPS. Currently there is
a price premium, but much of that could
evaporate down the road.
There are other HID improvements,
such as energy saving lamps, extended
life lamps, double arc tube lamps, high
CRI, electronic ballasts, two stage (highlow)
systems with occupancy sensors
and/or photocontrols, and fixtures with
quartz backup, but most of these
upgrades are quite expensive. Some
have drawbacks. An example is color corrected
HPS lamps that have much better
color rendering, but also higher cost,
reduced light output, and shorter lamp
life. Electronic HID ballasts consume less
wattage than magnetic HID ballasts, but
HID lamps draw the same wattage either
way. Although the two stage systems for
HID do reduce power at low stage, it
is not linear. At 50 percent light output,
wattage is considerably higher than 50
percent often in the 60–70 percent range.
Better Way To Measure Light
The long established way of measuring
the amount of light a source produces
has been the photopic lumen. The
lumens listed in lamp catalogs are photopic
lumens. It is very easy to perceive
that photopic lumens are not realistic.
Following are two examples.
Compare 14,000 photopic lumens
175 W, 65 CRI standard metal halide
with 16,000 photopic lumens 150 W,
22 CRI standard HPS. Metal halide and
HPS are the two most common types of
HID. Although the metal halide has
slightly less photopic lumens, virtually
everyone perceives that it is brighter
than the higher photopic output HPS.
Another example is four various color
tone fluorescent lamps with not only
almost identical photopic lumens but
also identical CRI. When an F32T8
830, F32T8 835, F32T8 841, and
F32T8 850 lamp are compared, almost
everyone perceives the 850 lamp the
brightest, followed by the 841 lamp,
the 835, and the 830 lamp the least
With the substantial inconsistency
between photopic lumens and general
perception, we no longer base lighting
recommendations on just photopic lumens
or light meter measurements. Things got
more scientific after we stumbled on Sam
Berman’s work on pupil lumens (later
called task modified lumens) all beautifully
explained in his and Brian Liebel’s
“Essay By Invitation” in the November
1996 LD+A. 1
Photopic lumens are based on the
eye’s two degree central field of vision.
This is only 0.02 percent of the human
total visual field. There are two types of
photoreceptors: cones and rods. In this
two degree central field of vision, cones
are the main photoreceptors and photopic
lumens are based on cone sensitivity.
Rods, which greatly outnumber cones,
are excluded in photopic lumens. The
peak sensitivity for rods is in the bluegreen
region of the spectrum, compared
to green-yellow for cones. Scopotic
lumens are based on rod sensitivity.
Both cones and rods contribute to how
the eye perceives light for daytime tasks.
S/P (scotopic/photopic ratios) can be
used as a tool to show how the human
eye really sees. Page 79 of the 1996
Philips Lighting’s Lamp Specification
and Application Guide has S/P ratios
for many fluorescent lamps, including
1.83 S/P for F32T8 850 and 1.62 S/P
for F32T8 841. In addition to that listing,
standard 40K clear metal halide has
1.49 S/P, standard HPS has 0.62 S/P,
and low pressure sodium has 0.40 S/P.
For the vast majority of applications the
higher the ratio the better.
Berman and Liebel listed three task
application factors for various tasks. For
general evaluation we tend to use the 0.78
exponent, where good vision is a requirement.
photopic lumens x (S/P) 0.78 = initial
task modified lumens
We believe that worst case, when lamps
are old, is more relevant, so we include
lumen maintenance in the equation.
photopic lumens x (S/P) 0.78 x
lumen maintenance = end-of-life task
Generic composites of a variety of
lamp and ballast combinations are
shown in Table 1.
Contra Costa Newspapers, Walnut
Circle 13 on Reader Service Card.
Table 1— Generic composites of various lamp and ballast combinations.
Initial Initial task End of Life EOL task
System phototopic modified Rated life Lumen task modi- modified
System watts lumens lumens (hours) maintenance fied lumens lm/W
400 W standard 22 CRI HPS
lamp & ballast 465 50000 34500 24000 70% 24150 52
400 W color improved 65 CRI HPS
lamp & ballast 465 37500 37500 15000 75% 28125 60
360 W standard 22CRI HPS
energy saving lamp & ballast 420 47500 32760 24000 70% 22930 55
400 W standard 65 CRI
metal halide lamp & ballast 455 39000 53040 20000 60% 31820 70
360 W standard 65 CRI metal halide
energy saving lamp & ballast 415 37000 50320 20000 55% 27676 67
320 W pulse start metal halide
lamp & ballast with ignitor 350 32000 43520 20000 75% 32640 93
350 W pulse start metal halide lamp
and ballast with ignitor 385 37000 50320 20000 75% 37740 98
400 W pulse start metal halide
lamp & ballast with ignitor 440 41000 55760 20000 75% 41820 95
350 W pulse start metal halide lamp
and electronic ballast 365 37000 50320 25000+ 85% 42772 117
400 W pulse start metal halide lamp
and electronic ballast 415 41000 55760 25000+ 85% 47396 114
Eight 42 W triple-loop 841 fluorescent
lamps and 1.00 BF electronic ballasts 392 25600 37380 10000 85% 31775 81
Eight 32 W triple-loop 841 fluorescent
lamps and 0.90 BF electronic ballasts 268 17200 25230 10000 85% 21450 80
Six 40 W biaxial 841 fluorescent lamps
and 0.96 BF electronic ballasts 220 18144 26490 20000 89% 23050 105
Four 55 W biaxial 841 fluorescent lamps
& two 0.95 BF electronic ballasts 234 18150 26890 12000 87% 23390 100
Nine F32T8 841 fluorescent lamps &
1.18 BF electronic ballasts 339 31350 45740 24000 93% 42540 125
Eight F32T8 850 fluorescent lamps
& 1.18 BF electronic ballasts 305 27850 44560 20000 93% 41440 136
Six F32T8 850 3100 lumen fluorescent
lamps & 1.18 BF electronic ballasts 225 21950 35120 24000 93% 32660 145
Four 54 W 841 T5 HO fluorescent lamps
& two 1.0 BF electronic ballasts 230 20000 29120 16000 95% 27740 121
Two 150 W 41K inductively coupled
electrodeless lamps and ballasts 314 24000 34940 100000 64% 22362 71
• It is difficult to obtain MH lumen maintenance data because of large variations. Numbers are rounded off. You
can plug in specific values and calculate with lamps and ballasts of your choice. There is a wide range of MH
ballasts — CWA, modified CWA, reactor, high reactance autotransformer and regulated lag, electronic, etc.
• HID lamp life is based on 10 hours/start and 50 percent mortality. At 120 hours/start, HID lamp life is longer—
many pulse start lamps are rated for up to 30,000 hours. At 120–hour cycles, Hubbell claims standard 400 W MH
lamps will last 40,000 hours and have 90 percent lumen maintenance when operated by their Howard/Hubbell
Electro-Reg 2.0 ballasts.
• Fluorescent lamp life is based on 3 hours/start. At 12–hour cycles, fluorescent lamp life is extended 20–30 percent.
At constant operation lamp life is extended 40–50 percent (extended-life F32T8 lamps average 36,000 hours at
• The amount of usable light depends on a specific fixture’s efficiency, coefficient of utilization, fixture height, and
other factors. For example, if too many fluorescent lamps are crammed into a small fixture, efficiency may be poor.
• This table is not intended to be comprehensive. In fact, technology is evolving so rapidly that this article may
soon be outdated.
• From a design standpoint the two most important columns are EOL task modified lumens/watt and rated life.
• Pulse start metal halide lamp performance would be improved with a 277 V linear magnetic ballast.
6 LD+A/April 1999
A production area and warehouse
had 1000 W mercury vapor high
bays mounted at 18 ft. The lamps
were not very depreciated. Each
fixture was replaced with a gull
wing 8-ft hooded industrial fixture
with eight F32T8 841 lamps, two
three-lamp high power 1.18 BF
electronic ballasts, and one two-lamp
high power 1.18 BF electronic
ballast. Fixture wattage was reduced
from 1075 to 302. Horizontal footcandles
at floor level remained about
the same, averaging 40. A major
advantage of the fluorescent system
is substantial increase of vertical
footcandles, necessary for loading
and unloading materials in shelves
The main press area in the same
facility had the same 1000 W mercury
vapor fixtures but got new 400
W metal halide high bays with standard
lamps and magnetic ballasts.
This was done so maintenance
could continue using a pole and cup
to replace lamps in these fixtures,
which had difficult access.
Reed School District, Tiburon, CA
The main gym had 2 x 2 surface
mounted fixtures with 400 W metal
halide lamps mounted at 20 ft.
Each fixture was retrofitted with four
55 W bi-axial lamps, two two-lamp
electronic ballasts, and custom
reflector kit. The District is pleased
with the lighting. Fixture wattage
was reduced from 455 to 220. With
instant-on and no restrike delay, the
fixtures are no longer left on all
day, only as needed. So kilowatthours
are saved, not just kilowatts.
In a typical 2 x 2 configuration, a
well designed retrofit or new fixture
with four 55 W bi-axial lamps can
outperform a system with five 55 W
bi-axial, five 50 W bi-axial, or six 40
W bi-axial lamps. Lamps need to be
spaced far enough apart for reflectors
to be effective.
San Jose Unified School District,
San Jose, CA
Three gyms had 400 W HPS high
bays mounted 20–25 ft high. Each
fixture replaced with eight or nine
F32T8 lamps in hooded industrial
fixtures, reducing wattage from 465
to 305 or 340. With no warm up or
restrike time, the new fixtures are
turned off much more than the old
fixtures, so both kilowatts and substantial
kilowatt-hours have been
Fairfield-Suisun Unified School
District, Fairfield, CA
Fairfield High School had 8 ft
hooded industrial fixtures with two
F96T12 VHO lamps. The District
wanted more light, so each fixture
was retrofitted with a hooded
industrial kit, six F32T8 841 lamps,
and two three-lamp high power 1.18
BF electronic ballasts. Wattage was
reduced from about 450 to 224 and
lighting is substantially better.
Kaiser Hospital, Vallejo, CA
The exterior covered loading dock
area had 2 x 2 175 W metal halide
troffers. Each fixture was replaced
with a 2 x 2 troffer, three-lamp electronic
ballast, three 40 W bi-axial
lamps, and a 95 percent reflective
enhanced aluminum reflector. Light
levels were increased by about 20
percent. Wattage was reduced from
Circle 20 on Reader Service Card.
210 to 101. Photocells were also
installed for the three fixtures closest
to sunlight. Maintenance will be
reduced because these biax-T5s are
rated for 20,000 hours, compared to
10,000 hours for the 175 W metal
halide lamps. This is a big plus
because these fixtures have tricky
access. Three replacement bi-axial
lamps cost slightly more than one
175 W metal halide lamp.
Eastmont Mall, Oakland, CA
At Eastmont Mall, interior areas
with recessed cans were replaced
with retrofit cans. Interior cans
got 42 W triple-loop electronically
ballasted fluorescent lamps rather
than 50 W metal halide. Other locations
got units with 2–42 W triple
loop lamps over 100 W metal halide.
Kaiser Hospital, Walnut Creek, CA
The exterior roof maintenance
area had 100 W mercury vapor
wall packs. Owing to warm-up time
and restrike time, these fixtures
were left on all night, every night.
Each fixture was replaced with a
flood fixture with two F17T8 835s
and electronic ballast. Wattage
was reduced from 118 to 33. A
timer switch was also installed,
so lights are only on when engineering
staff is present.
It should be noted that across
the board owners and occupants
have been extremely satisfied with
lumen quantity and quality, and
Should you eliminate HID
It definitely should be considered
as an option.
The best light source is only part
of the problem. The other part is
the fixture’s job of getting as much
of the available light out of the fixture
and directing it where needed.
There are some very well designed
HID fixtures and some that are
incredibly mediocre. The full range
is also true for fluorescent fixtures.
Since HID is more of a point source
than fluorescent, it is easier to
focus the light, but some fluorescent
fixtures will do a reasonably
good job. For fluorescent fixtures,
enhanced aluminum with 95 percent
reflectivity often works best
for high fixture mountings, while
90–92 percent white reflectors
tend to work best for lower fixture
In lighting, as in other endeavors,
it is important to “follow the
money.” If a sales person or manufacturer’s
representative works for
an HID fixture company, do not be
surprised if that person pushes HID.
They may not even be aware what
the new fluorescent systems can
do. Even internal battles in the
major lamp manufacturing companies
occur when the HID division
does not want to lose market share
to the fluorescent division.
we no longer
or light meter
We have endeavored to remain
independent, not linked to any
technology or manufacturer. We
still recommend some HID, usually
for high wattage pole fixtures, wall
packs, and floods for exterior applications.
For these applications
pulse start metal halide is the
preferred choice. HID is usually
better for cold ambient temperatures.
Also, fluorescents cannot
easily compete with the PAR metal
halide lamps used for accent and
Task modified lumens are not
easily measured with a light meter,
and are not yet accepted by the
IESNA. If you require legal protection,
meeting IESNA recommended
light levels is still advised.
If S/P ratios are useful to you,
request the lamp manufacturer of
your choice provide up-to-date
ratios for established and new
1. Berman, S. and Liebel, B.
1996. Essay by Invitation. LD+A 26
(no. 11): 11–17.
The Authors: Stan Walerczyk and
Brooks Sheifer are vice presidents
of Alamo Lighting, where they
focus on turn-key energy efficient
lighting upgrades, consulting and
new construction design.
This article was previously
published in a condensed version
in Energy User News, September
1998, as “Comparing Fluorescent
Authors’ Note: We applaud LD+A
for providing a forum of controversy
as may appear in “Essay by Invitation.”
From the perspective of designers
who repeatedly specify HID and
fixture manufacturers who are heavily
invested, our findings may seem to
encroach on sacred turf. In the spirit
of free speech, LD+A has permitted
diverse ideas at the risk of infuriating
readers and advertisers.
We design and manage the retrofit
of millions of square feet annually.
Our methods emanate from the
trenches, through trial and error. We
are independent of any lamp, ballast,
or luminaire manufacturer.
There are many applications
where point source HID outshine
fluorescent. In other settings fluorescent
enjoys an advantage, even
over pulse-start metal halide. Our
intention is to simply explain the
merits and drawbacks of each.
Please be aware these findings
do not reflect the opinions of LD+A
or the IESNA.
LD+A/April 1999 9
10 LD+A/April 1999
Foster Sampson in Contrast
Rendition in School Lighting,
1970, presented a list from Dr.
Richard Blackwell’s Visual Task
Evaluator which assessed “how
much light was necessary for critical
seeing.” 1 The list included the
following: Ink handwriting, 1.4 fc;
VIEWS ON THE
8-point Bondini type, 1.9 fc; 8-point
text-type, 1.1 fc; typed original,
good ribbon, 1.0 fc; transcribing #3
pencil shorthand, 76.5 fc; typed
carbon, fifth copy, 133.0 fc; and
thermal reproduced copy, poor
quality, 589.0 fc.
Lorrin A. Riggs defines acuity as
the ability to see fine details of an
object. 2 Standard visual acuity is
the ability to see an object so small
that the angle subtended at the eye
is only one minute of arc, or 1/60 of
a degree. (One minute of arc,
0.0167 degrees, is defined by its
tangent, 0.000291, which represents
a height of 1 at a distance of
3438 units of any measure.)
Contrast is the more elusive concept
at the base of visual abilities.
An early definition of contrast 3 :
C = (L B - L o )/L A
where L B is luminance of background,
L o is luminance of object,
and L A is luminance of adaptation.
Later, other equations were
added, all purporting to define
identification of equation—used
when referring to contrast. J.M.
Waldram wrote, “Since contrast is
a sensation, it is resident in the
observer and it cannot be measured
directly.” How many other subjective
sensations are given objective
measurements Glare Color
Blackwell’s list embraces both
size and contrast, but is more
expressive of the need to add light
when contrasts are reduced than it
is with respect to acuity; but acuity
requires an almost linear increase in
lumens required; as the acuity rises
from 0.5 to 2.0, lumens rise from
0.01 to 10 lm/ft 2 .
Moon posed the question, “How
does vision vary as the luminosity
is changed” 3 He described an
approach embracing both contrast
and size, and constructed graphs
based on research findings of
Cobb and Moss. 4 The graphs had
size as the ordinate, adaptation
as the abscissa. The lines of the
graph were varying percentages of
contrast. One can determine the
appropriate level of adaptation by
applying the proper size and contrast
for a specific problem. These
are construed as minimal, and
Moon suggests, “A safety factor of
at least 10 is indicated.”
Luckiesh and Moss in their influential
1916 paper “Prescribing
Light and Lighting” state, “It has
been adequately proved that size is
of primary importance and contrast
of secondary importance for small
objects of high contrast. The
reverse is true for relatively large
objects of low contrast. The transition
from size to contrast, as the primarily
important factor, occurs
when the object becomes larger
than about two minutes in visual
size.” 5 They then propose a standard:
“8-point Bondini Book Monotype...
printed with a non-glossy black ink
upon an excellent grade of nonglossy
white cardboard... A standard
of 10 fc of uniform and diffused
lighting has been specified for this
visual task.” To further this concept
a Visibility Meter was developed.
They comment, “This specification
of footcandles is arbitrary and it is
very conservative.” (Compare with
Blackwell’s 1.9 fc “necessary for
The IESNA, at first influenced by
Luckiesh and Moss, later adopted
Blackwell. 6 They have since abandoned
both and now base their
recommendations on consensus.
Those forming the consensus (members
of various IESNA Committees),
having been trained under the earlier
system, made few changes in the recommended
values. There is growing
recognition that design needs to
serve the mental desire to perceive,
and to comprehend what is seen.
The IESNA Lighting Handbook,
8th Edition, contains the following:
“Lighting design is a synthesis of
light and shadow, color, form, space,
rhythm, texture, and proportion,
achieved through an understanding
of the technology necessary to produce
these effects.” This suggests
that an entirely new procedure must
be undertaken if such objectives are
to be realized. Let us examine each
of the components.
Light and Shadow
The dynamic range 7 (the ratio of
the highest to the lowest luminance)
is a function of the size of
the source. A large source produces
little or no highlight and minimal
shadows—a weak contrast; while
a small source produces sharp highlights
and dense shadows—a
strong dynamic contrast.
The eye sees the contrast difference
by comparing one element
with another. This mental assessment
removes the activity from an
objective physical measurement to
become the mental perception of
contrast. Moon observes, “It is
perhaps natural to forget that
between the familiar world of physics
and the world of consciousness
yawns an immense abyss and that
the methods of one world cannot
be applied to the other.”
Dr. Richard Corth explains, “That
color resides in the surface reflectivity
makes biological sense.
Surface reflectivity is a physical
constant that can serve to identify
the external scene
interior designer’s selection and
placement of his objects within the
space, as well as the luminaires and
their light distributions to provide
not only light-to-see, but also lightto-communicate.
This dual purpose
requires that the luminaires contribute
to the objective physical makeup
of the scene as well as to provide
highlights and shadows that evoke
desired perceptions of the space and
As J.J. Gibson analyzes it, “the
visual quality of texture...is the stimulus
correlate of a visual surface.” 9
He elaborates, “A visual object in
depth may be analyzed in terms of
several abstract variables,...the
slope of its surfaces, ...the orientation
of its surfaces to the source of
illumination, the corners or curves
of its surfaces..., and above all, its
outline or contour separating it from
Gibson concludes with a provocative
question, “Is it possible that
the microgradient of intensity is the
fundamental stimulus underlying...
the phenomenon of texture, visual
acuity in its different modes, the
focused image, and clear vision in
general” (The lexicon of textures
is infinite. Every visible surface has
a texture that changes with the
direction of view, with its relation to
the light source, with the viewer’s
adaptation. They are fundamental to
our perception of the physical world.)
Compare any of light’s attributes:
intensity (illuminance), color,
form (distribution), or motion
(change). Comparison suggests a
mental judgment, so proportion
joins the preceding qualities that
characterize design as a subjective
and creative, mental activity—
quite distinct from the objective
photometric properties of the
physical scene! Gibson observed,
“It is easy to assume that the
retinal image and the retinal excitations
are the same thing. But
the former, clearly, is a matter of
physics while the latter is a matter
an object. Awareness of the illumination
is inaccessible to the visual
system.” 8 Color belongs to Moon’s
“world of consciousness” and is
therefore, subjective, unique, and
If color resides in surface reflectivity,
it lies in the province of the
architect or interior designer. It can
be illuminated but not significantly
changed by the lighting. (Perhaps
the interior designer should be
encouraged to provide the lighting
design in addition to selection of
furnishings, colors, and arrangements
within the space)
Form, Space, and Rhythm
These elements of composition,
as sense of order, that leads to
clear communication as opposed
to chaos resulting from disorder.
These elements belong to both the
In closing this portion of the discussion
it may be well to quote another
paragraph from the IESNA Lighting
Handbook 8th Edition: “In the past
there has been an overwhelming
emphasis on assuring that an appropriate
quantity of light is delivered to
the task or work surface. Quality of
light has been considered mainly in
the limited sense of controlling direct
glare...” This is a trial-and-errorapproach
to the “appropriate quantity.”
To predetermine the illuminance level
best suited to the problem one turns
to the table “Selecting an Adaptation.”
(LD+A, August 1998).
Selecting an adaptation replaces
Luckiesh and Moss’ Visibility Meter
and Blackwell’s Visual Task Evaluator,
and provides information, not
only of contrast and acuity, but also
detailed answers to other problems
such as sensitivity, color, and the
IES Visibility Reference Function.
The table “Selecting and Adaptation”
presents detailed visual
characteristics at five different
adaptation levels. The first and last
apply primarily to exterior scenes,
the central three to interiors.
Adaptation is the automatic adjustment
of the eye to the brightness
and color of the visual field.
Be aware that in the selection of
an adaptation we have transferred
our attention from the external
scene to our visual sensation and
appraisal thereof. Visual sensations
are judged by comparison of a lightness,
brightness, or color of one
area with that of another area.
Photometric quantities are measured
in terms of candelas or lumens.
Adaptation has no such measured
base, but is, nonetheless, a fundamental
Just as adaptation is a fundamental
of vision, reflectance is a
constant property of the physical
scene that remains unchanged as
the sun, sky, and all of the other
multitude of natural phenomena
moving through their daily, monthly,
and seasonal cycles. Steinmetz
refers to reflectance as the albedo
of a reflector; i.e., the ratio of
reflected light to impinging light, or
the “efficiency” of the reflector. Dr.
Corth expands the role of reflection:
“Color is the visual response to the
surface reflectivity. The characteristics
of the illumination are irrelevant
information to that purpose.”
As a measurement of the physical
scene reflectance can be related to
other photometric quantities:
p = π L/E
where p is reflectance; L, luminance;
and E, illuminance.
By specifying the adaptation of
the visual system, the eye’s sensitivities
have been defined. By measuring
the average overall reflectance
of the field encompassed by
the eye, the essential determinations
required for the complete
interior design are in hand.
L a = E/π x p/(1-p)
where L a is luminance of adaptation;
E, illuminance required, overall,
to achieve the desired luminance;
and p, average reflectance.
When Adaptation-Reflectance is
the design method, the equations
embody average reflectance and
average illumination on all surfaces.
Later when area becomes a factor
in the equations, the areas will also
be total areas.
The adaptation level is the minimum
consistent with the total flux
and the average reflectance.
Regardless of the luminaires selected
and their placement, illumination
will never be uniform on all
surfaces. The adjustments are necessary
to ensure that the desired
adaptation level prevails on the task
or whatever wanted. Fudge factors,
maintenance, impaired vision, and
other special considerations must
wait another day.
1. Sampson, F.K. 1970. Contrast
Rendition in School Lighting. New
York: New York Educational
2. Riggs, L.A. 1971. Vision. New
York: McGraw Hill Encyclopedia.
3. Moon, P. 1936. Scientific
Basis of Illuminating Engineering.
New York: McGraw Hill.
4. Cobb, P.W. and Moss, F.K. 1928.
The four variables of the visual
threshold. New York: IES Trans (no. 23).
5. Luckiesh, M. and Moss, F.K.
1936. Prescribing light and lighting.
6. Blackwell, H.R. 1952. Development
of procedures and instruments
for visual task evaluation.
Illuminating Engineering 65 (no. 4).
7. Worthy, J.A. 1989. Geometry
and amplitude of veiling reflections.
IESNA Conference Proceedings.
New York: IESNA.
8. Corth, R. 1985. The effect of
illuminant spectral composition on
the perception of surface colors.
9. Gibson, J.J. 1950. The
Perception of the Visual World.
New York: Houghton Mifflin.
12 LD+A/April 1999
P H O T O N S
NOTES ON LIGHTING DESIGN
New World Symphony
A team of Japanese lighting designers believed that just as a quiet dining
environment helps to ensure a pleasant meal or an office’s innovative interior
design can positively effect the work of its employees, then lighting could
enhance the sound quality of a symphony orchestra.
When the ambitious designers—Koichi Moto, Setuko Ando, Chiho Tanaka,
Hisakazu Fujita, and Tomokazu Ishikawa—were given the task of illuminating
the Sumida Symphony Hall in Tokyo, Japan, they decided that their primary
design goal would be to visualize sound. The Hall is located in Sumida, downtown
Tokyo, built with the aim of bringing classical music to the community.
It is currently the home of the New Japan Philharmonic.
The main concert hall, constructed in what the designers call “a shoe box
style” on a slightly slanted plane, is the major architectural element. The
concert hall seats 1800 and was designed to have multiple acoustic spaces
created by several dark wooden “screens,” or panels, installed along the
walls. The lighting designers’ first priority was to optimize this unique design
feature, as well as call attention to the hall’s space with sound as the
design’s unifying theme. After all, since light and sound share similar properties
and vocabulary (e.g., wave, intensity, frequency), why not merge the two
The idea of sound visualized was based on the designers’ ideas about
“wave lengths” and “oscillations.” Images of semicircle canals and musical
instruments, as well as reflected and refracted rays of light, were all used to
convey the designers’ intentions.
Indirect lighting is used to emphasize the grandeur of the main concert
hall; at the same time, it brings out the contrast between the walls and wood
screens. A 1.8 m high chandelier with fiber optic points is the concert hall’s
Extending the sound theme outside of the concert hall, musical notes are
patterned on the light receptors of chandeliers in the foyers and lobbies. The
glittering chandeliers add dazzle to the contemporary interior. The designers
made sure that the light sources for the chandeliers were located in remote
spots, out of view whenever possible.
The lighting designers of Sumida Symphony Hall have subtly brought
together two distinct and hard-to-define fields, light and sound, with flair and
meaning and united them in a space devoted to culture and community.
14 LD+A/April 1999
Hideo Yasui, whose theories on lighting design have been profiled before
in LD+A (“Semi-Charmed Light,” February 1999), approached the design of
Dgrace, a fashion boutique in Tokyo, using his concept of “spacial light.”
Yasui believes lighting is a significant design element that should not
impose itself on a space, but merge with it under one unified concept.
Spacial light works to stress the color and form of a
space, while integrating itself within it.
Yasui wanted to create a bright, rich space for the
boutique, located on the basement floor of a department
store. For Dgrace, as is the case with many
department stores, design restrictions were numerous
and the budget was tight, making the installation
of new or additional ceiling lights impossible. Instead,
Yasui turned his attention to the boutique’s wall surfaces,
enveloping them with white light, making them
appear illuminated by natural light.
Polycarbonate, more often used on the exterior
surfaces of buildings, was used to decorate
Dgrace’s walls with a wallpaper-like effect. Yasui
conceived of the hollow polycarbonate as film that
wrapped the boutique. He then arranged fluorescent lighting to enhance
the walls’ film-like quality, turning the polycarbonate material into a light
source which gently encloses the entire space from its circumference.
The same material was used for the boutique’s shelves, thereby maintaining
the continuity of the design and the sense of unity. The polycarbonate,
along with transparent acrylic fittings, expand the visual depth of
the space, making it appear wider than it actually is. Having white light
illuminating and overlapping a white space highlights the clothing—the
reason for the boutique’s existence.
P H O T O N S
NOTES ON LIGHTING DESIGN
16 LD+A/April 1999
P H O T O N S
NOTES ON LIGHTING DESIGN
The tumultuous and dramatic political history of Mexico has produced a countless number of songs, slogans, and flags. The Hall
of Flags exhibit in Chapultepec Castle, home of the National Museum of History in Mexico City, pays homage to the latter.
The museum’s namesake in the indigenous language Nahuatl means, “hill of the grasshopper.” The castle, built on a hill in 1785,
was once the residence of a viceroy and, later, a military college. Currently the museum has 44 different exhibit areas showing the
various stages of Mexican history. The Hall of Flags is one of the museum’s most recent installations.
The government of Mexico City awarded the task of lighting the Hall to Gustavo Aviles of Control Luminico. Aside from providing
the recommended levels of illumination for the museum, one of Aviles’ primary objectives was to enhance the appearance of the
hall by gracing all of the surfaces with soft and dramatic direct and indirect lighting.
In the Hall’s passageway, a suspended luminaire with an indirect dimmable fluorescent lamp was installed, in balance with the
halogen 4-degree beam AR11. Despite a low illuminance level of under 50 lx, the colors of the Hall’s artifacts in the display cases
stand out well.
In one of the more prominent display cases, a 3500K T8 dimmable lamp washes the surface of the Sierra flag, which was used in
Mexico’s War of Independence from Spain (1821–1823), while halogens pinpoint the viewer’s focus to the gold medals and artifacts.
At the end of the hall, the “moon light” display case, holding the Flag of the San Blas Active Battalion (“Bandera del Batallón
Activo de San Blas”), is lit with 150 W metal halide fiber optics. The flag was carried by General Felipe Santiago Xicontencatl
during a famous battle against invading American
forces on September 13, 1847. The general, now a
Mexican national hero, died at the foot of Chapultepec
Hill that same day.
Aviles does justice to the history of his country,
illuminating the symbols of Mexico’s past so they can
viewed, at last, in a peaceful setting.
18 LD+A/April 1999
San Francisco Treat
Overlooking the breathtaking Golden Gate Bridge and
the bay, the Westin St. Francis Hotel’s banquet facility
is sure to make a few dishes go cold as diners focus on
the view outside instead of what’s on their plates.
Redesigned and renamed Victor’s Palace, the 6500 ft 2
banquet facility sits on the top floor of this landmark hotel.
Robert Mapes, George Balle, and the late Craig Roeder
were the brains behind the new lighting design which is as
moving as the view outside the windows.
The designers’ challenge was in creating the most
spectacular banquet space in San Francisco under some
difficult conditions. Asbestos abatement costs required
an absolute minimum of ceiling perforation. Of 80 existing
downlights, 35 were removed; the rest were repainted
and relamped from 300 W to 100 W R40 floods.
New chandeliers were relamped with 60 W blue A19
lamps. All other lighting was completed from one perimeter track running along the 14 ft ceiling, accentuating
the art, drapes, and tables with 42 W 9 degree lamps. Additionally, the designers added a small preset dimming
system to accommodate time of day/night functions.
Electrical conditions of the banquet facility also had to be brought to current codes. In the end, the cost
of the project ran only $40,000 with a fixture cost of only $6.15/ft 2 . Wattage was reduced from 24,000 to
10,000 and with only 1.53 W/ft 2 .
The result is a more energy efficient and beautifully lit banquet facility, which is always booked months in
advance. Wonder if the view has anything to do with it
P H O T O N S
NOTES ON LIGHTING DESIGN
When the architects Hampton/Rivoira renovated the Bank Boston
in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Ernesto Diz was called in to design the
old building’s new lighting system. His goal was to enhance an
already established building with a well-lit exterior, and provide a
lighting design that was energy-efficient and respectful of the
building’s old-style appearance.
Extensive projectors with 250 W halogen mercury lamps, placed in
two levels of the architectural molding, were used on the bank’s
facade. On the balcony, columns are lit by 150 W halogen mercury
lamps. Concealed 150 W sodium lamps provide backlighting to the
banisters, as well as light the balcony space’s arches. Also concealed
from passersby below, 36 W fluorescent luminaires light up the
Again using extensive projectors, this time with 400 W sodium
lamps, Diz’s lighting washes the bank’s roof, while 150 W incandescent
halogens light the roof’s decorative globe.
Maintenance for the facade’s lighting is relatively simple, with
direct access to 70 percent of the luminaires. The remaining 30
percent is accessible by scaffold. All of the lamps used have a
12,000 hr life-span, with the exception of the incandescent halogens
which have a 2000 hr life.
Having been given carte blanche for his design, Diz provides the colorful
Argentine capital with another lighting treasure.
20 LD+A/April 1999
The advertising dynamos at Ackerman McQueen Advertising come up
with many of their ideas sitting in a “conversation pit”—one of the many
unique features to their Colorado Springs offices. Rand Elliott, of Elliott +
Associates Architects of Oklahoma City, designed the ad agency’s lighting.
Elliott worked closely with Bill Yen, AIA, the project architect.
“The design is meant to put the client into a feeling that they’re inside
an idea,” explains Elliott; as if those inside the space are both watching
and taking part in the idea of what an advertising agency could and should
The sense of freedom necessary for coming up with new ideas for advertisements
is manifested throughout the office’s design. One example is that
employees carry cell phones or headsets, so as to not be physically bound
to anything and able to move about the offices as they wish, giving employees
a sense of freedom from physical constraints, such as a desk or chair.
Another essential goal for the designers was to create a memorable
link between the company and its location. They accomplished this by
greeting visitors at the entrance with a large mountain form, enhanced
by “shape lighting”—lighting which gives form and a three-dimensional
appearance to flat objects. The office’s link to its location is further
emphasized by a breathtaking view of Pike’s Peak from a large, half-circle
window in the conversation pit. Set near this window in the pit, sandwiching
two sofas, are glass tables. Fluorescents make the etched
glass tables glow. Since many ideas are discussed in this pit, the
design supports the agency’s belief that ideas sometimes come “out of
the blue.” Elliott’s design also associates the interior volume with the
majesty and power of the Rocky mountains outside,
through the use of cool shades of blue.
With high ceilings, the offices could have easily
appeared cavernous and dark, or too brightly lit.
Scrim and task lighting, balanced with daylighting
and track lighting, gives the office visual comfort
and avoids any extremities with the lighting. (The
building standards required that no more than 3
W/ft 2 be used.) Work areas integrate natural, task,
and accent lighting, with budget-conscious track
lighting doing much of the work. The lighting’s performance
and energy efficiency is enhanced by a
Dangling from the individual work stations are
shiny electrical/fiber/computer “icicles”—long silver
cord coverings stretching from the desks to the
ceiling. A video/audio control tower high above the
floor is the center for all lighting and video controls.
One of the office’s most conspicuous and attractive
features is a semi-transparent drape that separates the video conference
area from the rest of the office. The drape is meant to provide those
within it a sense of privacy, though the effect is more psychological since
outside employees can partially see through it and hear what is being said.
The goal of the lighting in this space was to allow for maximum flexibility
and maintenance. Having met these goals, Elliott transforms the space
into a presentation “stage.”
Due to an ambitious design plan, an office where ads and images are created
and packaged has become a visual showcase itself.
P H O T O N S
22 LD+A/April 1999
NOTES ON LIGHTING DESIGN
P H O T O N S
NOTES ON LIGHTING DESIGN
Architects, engineers, and designers spend so much time working on projects
outside the office that it’s a rare treat when they get to design their own offices.
The lighting design for the new corporate office of Gresham Smith and
Partners—an architectural and engineering design firm in Nashville, TN—was
handed to Anthony J. Denami, LC, who has worked at GS&P for the past ten years.
The project turned out to be a lighting design bonanza for Denami.
Starting on the tenth floor lobby, visitors receive a warm visual welcome from
an illuminated wood wall and artwork highlighted with bi-directional dimmable
track-mounted MR16 luminaires. Set into the wall and visible behind a black desk
is the company’s name and backlit logo.
The office’s corridors feature company designed projects illuminated by
dimmable recessed track MR16 white fixtures. Throughout the office, projects
in progress are featured in display niches, highlighted by adjustable MR16 accent
lights. Circulation paths are lit with triple-tube PL fluorescent downlights, with
every other one on an emergency power setting for exit lighting.
The office’s large Nashville Conference Room has several lighting systems,
allowing for flexibility. A ceiling cove uses continuous staggered strip fluorescent
fixtures, gently washing the cove and bringing a sense of calm to the space.
Separately dimmable incandescent downlights were installed over the table and
along the perimeter. Corridor-matching recessed track-mounted MR16 fixtures
highlight project presentations along the wall. Other conference rooms in the
office feature compact fluorescent downlights mounted over the table and dimmable
incandescents which supply perimeter ambient lighting.
Two existing concrete floors were removed from the office space for a
stairway. Compact fluorescent fixtures light up the corridors and the catwalk
underneath. MR16s are mounted on energized stainless steel cables, illuminating
the stair risers from above. The wood wall along the stairs is caressed from below
by incandescent fixtures.
Last, an open area for C.A.D.D. systems and other office work is lighted with threelamp
T8 fixtures with specular precision parabolic louvers designed to achieve the
luminance criteria described in IESNA’s RP-1.
24 LD+A/April 1999
San Francisco Shines
San Francisco, famous for its steep
hills, unique architecture, the Golden
Gate Bridge, and signature cable cars,
plays host to LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL
1999. Aside from attending the usual,
exciting LIGHTFAIR events, participants
will be offered many opportunities to
take in this special, history-rich city.
LIGHTFAIR’s festivities begin on
Sunday, May 9, from 9:00 a.m. until
1:00 p.m., with “Architectural Wonders:
The History of San Francisco Through
Its Architecture,” a tour led by a former
Berkeley professor of Architecture
that will depart from the San Francisco
Marriott. The tour, at a cost of
only $22, will illustrate interesting
historical facts and folklore of some of
San Francisco’s architectural treasures.
Also on May 9, a walking tour
of Chinatown will take place from
noon to 3:30 p.m. For $52, visitors
can explore one of the most unique
districts of the city and home to one
of the largest Asian expatriate populations
in the world. Both tours are a
wonderful way to enjoy San Francisco
and begin LIGHTFAIR.
Throughout LIGHTFAIR’s run, award
winning lighting photography will be on
display, featuring recipients of the 1998
IIDA and IALD Awards. Admission is free.
On Tuesday, May 11 at 10:00 a.m.,
VOLUME 29, NUMBER 4
Calendar of Events
May 9, 1999
Regional Vice Presidents
San Francisco, CA
May 10, 1999
Board of Directors
San Francisco, CA
May 11–13, 1999
San Francisco, CA
Contact: Libby Morley
IESNA Southeast/South Central
Embassy Suites Hotel
Contact: Ronnie Farrar
IESNA Annual Conference
Sheraton New Orleans Hotel
New Orleans, LA
Contact: Valerie Landers
the 10th Anniversary Ribbon Cutting
Ceremony will be held at the Moscone
Center’s Exhibit Hall entrance, attended
by representatives from the IESNA,
IALD, and AMC, Inc. Later on May 11,
the recipients of the 1999 $20,000
Nuckolls Funds Grant and the 1999
$5000 Edison Price Fellowship Grant
will be announced at The Nuckolls Fund
for Lighting Education Luncheon/
Seminar in the Moscone Center from
12:15 to 1:45 p.m.
That evening, the complimentary
10th Anniversary Cocktail Reception
will be held in the Moscone Center
Atrium and Exhibit Hall from 4:00 to
6:00 p.m. Welcoming remarks will be
made by world-renowned architect John
C. Portman, FAIA, along with IESNA
President, Jody Good and IALD
Chairman, Philip Gabriel. Enjoy complimentary
wine, beer, and hors d’oeuvres,
a cake cutting ceremony, and
The Cocktail Reception will be followed
by LIGHTFAIR’s Birthday Bash at
Bimbo’s 365 Club, located in scenic
North Beach. The bash will take place
from 8:00 to 11:00 p.m. and costs
$75. Complimentary hors d’oeuvres,
two drink tickets, and a cash bar will
be provided. Relax, have a few drinks,
dance the night away, and enjoy
LIGHTFAIR’s 10th birthday.
The San Francisco Bay Walk in
memory of Craig A. Roeder begins the
morning of Wednesday, May 12. Rise
at 7:00 a.m. and bring your walking
shoes (or rollerblades or bicycle) as
the walk travels from the Embarcadero
to Pier 39. After the walk, a
light, healthy breakfast will be served
at the San Francisco Marriott. For
more information, visit the website at
In the afternoon from 12:15 until
1:45 p.m., the NCQLP Lighting Certified
Luncheon will take place. For
$40, gain firsthand knowledge of
professional lighting certification
continued on following page
LD+A/April 1999 27
continued from previous page
exam and network with colleagues.
Dean McCauley, RPA, will discuss
“The Federal Interest in Lighting Certification.”
McCauley will point out
business opportunities for lighting
designers, along with issuing a national
charge, “What Uncle Sam Needs
Then from 6:30 p.m. to midnight at
the newly renovated (and lit) San
Francisco War Memorial Opera House,
IALD’s 16th Annual Awards Presentation
and Dinner will take place. Cost
is $140 for IALD members, $175 for
non-members. A third of the ticket cost
will be donated to the IALD Education
Trust; a portion of the ticket also qualifies
as a charitable donation. After the
awards presentation, the IALD Education
Trust Benefit, sponsored by Philips
Lighting Company, will be held from
10:00 p.m. to midnight. The cost is
$50 for IALD members, $75 for nonmembers.
A portion of the ticket also
qualifies as a charitable deduction.
IESNA’s IIDA Luncheon Seminar
will be held in the Moscone Center on
May 13 from 12:15 to 1:45 p.m. Join
Don Newquist and Jim Zastovnik as
they provide the information you
need to enter your project in the
IESNA’s IIDA Program. At a cost of
$20, participants will have the opportunity
to interact with the IIDA
Committee and benefit from their
knowledge and experience. A box
lunch will be provided.
At the same time the IIDA Luncheon
Seminar takes place, the Lighting
Industry Resource Council Luncheon
will be held, also in the Moscone
Center, at a cost of $35. While you
lunch, learn more about the LIRC, an
IALD adjunct for manufacturers.
Discussion between presenters and the
audience will be encouraged on topics
such as specification integrity and
national lighting distribution.
Last, Friday May 14 from 9:00 a.m.
to 4:00 p.m. a Wine Country Tasting
Tour will be offered for $85. You will
tour the Pine Ridge Winery and
Viansa Winery and enjoy a picnic
continued on following page
The following companies
have elected to support the
Society as Sustaining Members
which allows the IESNA to fund programs
that benefit all segments
of the membership and pursue
new endeavors, including education
projects, lighting research, and
The level of support is classified
by the amount of annual dues,
based on a company’s
annual lighting revenues:
Silver: $1,000 annual dues
Lighting revenues to $10 million
Gold: $2,500 annual dues
Lighting revenues to $50 million
Platinum: $5,000 annual dues
Lighting revenues to $200 million
Emerald: $10,000 annual dues
Lighting revenues to $500 million
Diamond: $15,000 annual dues
Lighting revenues over $500 million
OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc.
Philips Lighting Co.
Georgia Power Company
Lutron Electronics Co., Inc.
Venture Lighting Int’l
A.L.P. Lighting Components Co., Inc.
The Bodine Company
Duke Power Company
Edison Price Lighting
Indy Lighting, Inc.
The Kirlin Company
Kurt Versen Co.
LexaLite International Corp.
Matsushita Electric Works Ltd.
Philips Mexicana SA de CV
Prudential Lighting Corp.
San Diego Gas & Electric
SPI Lighting Inc.
Thomas Lighting Outdoor Division
Alabama Power Co.
American Illuminetics Inc.
American Louver Co.
BJB Electric Corporation
Cinergy PSI Energy
City of Calgary Electric System
City of San Francisco
Bureau of Light & Power
Con Edison Co. of New York
Custom Lighting Services, LLC
Custom Lights, Inc.
Day Lite Maintenance Co.
Earth Protection Services
Energy Savings Inc.
Elf Atochem North America, Inc.
Enterprise Lighting Sales Corp.
Eye Lighting Industries
Focal Point LLC
H.A.Williams & Assoc.
High End Systems Inc.
Hinkley Lighting Inc.
Hubbell Lighting Inc.
Imexcom Light & Power Inc.
Kansas City Power & Light Co.
Kenall Manufacturing Co.
King Luminaire Co.
Kirby Risk Supply Company, Inc.
Ledalite Architectural Products
Legion Lighting Co.
Lightron of Cornwall, Inc.
LSI Lighting Systems, Inc.
Multi Electric Manufacturing Inc.
Optical Research Associates
Optima Engineering PA
Paramount Industries, Inc.
Peerless Lighting Corp.
Philips Electronics, Ltd.
Portland General Electric
Poulsen Lighting Inc.
Power Lighting Products Inc.
R.A. Manning Company
Ralph Smith Engineering
The Reflex Lighting Group, Inc.
Sierra Pacific Power
Southern California Edison
Stage Front Lighting
Sterner Lighting Systems, Inc.
Strand Lighting Inc.
TIR Systems Ltd.
United Illuminating Co.
WAC Lighting Co.
West Philadelphia Electric
Wisconsin Public Service Corp.
Zumtobel Staff Lighting Inc.
As of March 1999
28 LD+A/April 1999
continued from previous page
lunch and tasting at Le Mura, a
majestic garden building. The last
tour takes place at the estate of
Domaine Carneros Winery.
If wine isn’t your taste, then come
along with “See the Forest for the
Trees: Muir Woods, Sausalito, and
Lunch” from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.
For $72, tour the coastal environment
of northern Marin County—one
of the few places in the world where
the 750 year-old giant Sequoia redwoods
still stand tall. After this
nature walk, you will journey to the
ocean-side village of Sausalito and
have lunch at Alta Mira, a Spanishstyle
villa with spectacular views of
the San Francisco skyline.
Both of Friday’s events will bring a
wonderful and relaxing close to
LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 1999.
Members in the News
Cary S. Mendelsohn
has been elected
Chair of the
National Lighting Bureau,
by trade associations,
societies, industries, and agencies of
the federal government. Mendelsohn
has served on the NLB Executive
Committee since 1988, most recently
as Vice Chair. Mendelsohn runs his own
lighting management company, Chicagobased
Imperial Lighting Maintenance
Company, which he founded in 1973.
Debi Moen, marketing
specialist for High
End Systems, Inc.,
received the Award of
Excellence from the
Society of Technical
Austin Chapter. She was given the
award for her cover story on High End
System’s new lighting products that
appeared in Performance magazine’s
Equipment Manufacturers Directory,
Honored by AIA
Howard Brandston, FIES, President of H.M.
Brandston & Partners and adjunct professor of
Architecture at the LRC, has been named a 1999
recipient of Institute Honors for Collaborative
Achievement by the American Institute of
Architects. The honor is given by the AIA “to recognize
and encourage distinguished achievements”
by those who have had a significant influence
on the architectural profession.
AIA jurors called Brandston “a great collaborator
and a lighting design maestro who has
demonstrated a consistent sensitivity to the aesthetic design of more than
2500 projects.” Some of Brandston’s best known designs are the relighting
of the Statue of Liberty, the new lighting system for the Getty Museum
Period French Rooms, and the lighting master plans for Detroit’s Central
Business District, Battery Park City in Manhattan, and New York City’s
Central Park Zoo. Brandston served as the 1983–1984 IESNA President.
Brandston has also been involved extensively in education, most recently presenting
at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the Cooper Union Symposium,
and the Society of Graphic Designers. From 1995–1997, Brandston was a Public
Review participant in IESNA RP-3, Educational Facilities Lighting. Additionally, he
has authored numerous articles for LD+A and other publications, such as Interior
Design and Progressive Architecture. His work has appeared in many magazines,
including LD+A, Architecture, Architectural Record, and Interiors.
Review Information Available Online
In the February issue of LD+A, the submission of the revised IESNA recommended
practice on Roadway lighting, RP-8, to ANSI for public review was
announced (review dates February 15–April 14).
The revised standard provides three methods for designing continuous roadway
lighting systems: illuminance, luminance, and small target visibility (STV).
David Keith, Chair, IESNA Roadway Lighting Committee’s Fundamentals and
Education Sub-committee, has prepared educational information available online
at http://resodance.com/Road_STV to help the user of the draft standard.
Connection to the online site may be also be made through IESNA’s website
at www.iesna.org (click on “Events”). The online information includes software
that calculates the values for each of the methods, enabling comparisons of
each one’s performance.
published September 1998. A frequent
contributor to LD+A, Debi most recently
wrote about the LeAnn Rimes tour in
the September 1998 issue.
Lighting Alliance has
hired Jim Zastovnik
to their specification
sales team. Zastovnik,
who has over 12
years of lighting and
will assist designers,
engineers, and architects in the
Mark Bolton has been named Area
Vice President, Northwest, for Cooper
Lighting. Also, Brian Deady has been
appointed Sales Manager, Industrial
for Cooper Lighting. Bolton and
Deady’s promotions are part of Cooper
Lighting’s restructuring efforts to
build closer relationships with business
partners and consumers.
Gordon Alexander of AMX Corporation
has been invited by the
International Communications Industries
Association Board of Governors
to become a faculty member of the
continued on following page
LD+A/April 1999 29
Members in the News
continued from previous page
ICIA Academy. Gordon, who has been
an instructor at ICIA Academy and for
a number of years at AMX University,
will teach Lighting and Control System
Design at the Academy’s School of
Design. AMX has also announced the
expansion of its AMX East sales office
into a complete support center for the
northeastern US region.
W.A.C. Lighting has appointed
Lumiplastic S.A. de C.V. as its new
sales agency in Mexico. Lumiplastic,
based in Monterrey, Mexico, will represent
W.A.C.’s line of track, recessed,
and rope lighting throughout Mexico.
Call for Members
The IESNA Landscape Lighting Committee Chair, Lloyd Reeder, is seeking
new members for the committee to help write a recommended practice on the
subject. If you are interested in working on this project, please contact Rita
Harold, at (212) 248-5000, x115, or email email@example.com.
The Committee is planning to meet during LIGHTFAIR in San Francisco on
Wednesday afternoon, May 12, 1999.
Chair Patricia Hunt announced
that the IESNA gained 3
Sustaining Members and 86
members (M), associate members,
and student members in
Clark Engineers SW Inc., Phoenix,
Light Factors, San Diego, CA
Schubert Advanced Lighting
Technologies, Peterborough, ON
Mike Budge , NEDCO, Ottawa, ON
Harry Friedrich (M), Schubert
Advanced Lighting Technologies,
Laurie Swan, Philips Lighting,
East Central Region
Craig Avant (M), Design Build
Concepts, Inc., Virginia Beach,
David Brown (M), Penn Lighting
Assoc., Philadelphia, PA
Aaron Buster, Lutron Electronics,
Carl Canatella (M), Henry Adams,
Inc., Baltimore, MD
William J. Di Bui (M), Rumsey
Electric Co., Conshohocken, PA
Susan M. Fox, Lutron Electronics
Co., Inc., Coopersburg, PA
Jimmy Gold, Lightolier, Columbia,
Gentry Harrington, Lutron
Electronics, Coopersburg, PA
Jim Lilley, Federated Lighting,
Upper Marlboro, MD
Tracey Merritt (M), Endecon, Inc.,
Thomas Myers (M), Lutron
Electronics Inc., Coopersburg, PA
Denise Palmer, Schaedler Bros.,
Inc., Harrisburg, PA
Jake Pauls, Jake Pauls Consulting
Services, Silver Spring, MD
Elisabeth Pelham, The Breckstone
Group, Inc., Wilmington, DE
Wendl Penn, Lightolier/Genlyte,
Montgomery Village, MD
Donna Sink, AOL-B Architects,
Alfred W. Zaher (M), Dann Dorfman
Herrell & Skillma, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania State University
Great Lakes Region
Richard Doppes (M), Power
Engineering Technology, Inc.,
Patrick Hickey, Donald J. Hickey &
Associates, Farmington, MI
Wally Lukasik (M), Wesco
Distribution Inc., Cheeto Waga,
Charles La Fontaine (M), Clark
Engineers SW Inc., Phoenix, AZ
Jerry Gains, Voss Lighting,
E. Dwayne Tatalovich, Tatalovich &
Associates, Inc., Phoenix, AZ
Arizona State University
Carli A. Hart
Nicholas T. DiMercurio (M), Clark,
Richardson & Biskup, Kansas
Mike Furney (M), Clark, Richardson
& Biskup, Kansas City, MO
Paula Parke, Transystems Corp.,
Matt Stuckey, GE Lighting, Wichita,
Kansas State University
Danna Lethbridge, Jeremy Sharp
North Central Region
Samantha M. Falbe, Schuler &
Shook, Inc., Chicago, IL
Ann Grooms, Schuler & Shook, Inc.,
George Jue (M), Cooper Lighting,
Elk Grove Village, IL
Russ Miller, LSI Industries,
Kathleen A. Romfoe, Phoenix
Products Company, Inc.,
Dan Walsh, Phoenix Products
Company, Inc., Milwaukee, WI
Greg Aery, AERY Lighting, Yonkers,
Jennifer Brons, Lighting Research
Center, Watervliet, NY
Mark Gold, Enterprise Lighting
Sales, New York, NY
Jean Jacques (M), Continental
Lighting Systems, Inc., New
Anthony Jannetti, Town of
Brookhaven, Shirley, NY
Jeff LaPar (M), Carrier Corporation,
Denene Smerdon, Philips Lighting
Company, Somerset, NJ
Thomas D. Tarantino (M), Advanced
Technology Sales Inc.,
John Van Derlofske (M), Lighting
Research Center, Watervliet, NY
Rensselear Polytechnic Institute
C. Brooke Carter
Pacific Northwest Region
Maurice Mikytyshyn, City of
South Central Region
Ric Landers, MagneTek Inc.,
Rob Turner, JH&H Ltd., Jackson,
University of Alabama
Jerry A. Dabkowski (M),
Greenhorne & O’Mara, Inc.,
James E. Fleagle (M), Greenhorne
& O’Mara, Inc., Tampa, FL
Devin Grandis, Advanced Power
Technologies, Inc., Pompano
Jennifer Jones (M), Advance
Transformer Co., Norcross, GA
William Raygor, Cleveland Electric
Co., Atlanta, GA
Fala Shafeei (M), Largent
Consulting Engineers, Chapel
William L. Teeter (M), Wright-Teeter
Engineering Group, Charlotte, NC
South Pacific Coast Region
Dave Chamberlain (M), AAA
Construction & Electrical,
John R. Freese (M), Light Factors,
San Diego, CA
Sharhram Salehi (M), Salehi &
Salehi Engineering, San Diego,
Sharmarjoorie Solomon, Pacific
Electrical Sales Agency, Kaplei,
Michael Font (M), American Light,
Patricia Rizzo, Sparksfly Ent. Inc.,
Texas A&M University
Veronica Brown, Kristen Carrell,
Lauren Deck, Josh Mullin, Chris
Reynolds, Thomas Schaffer,
Colin Stanley, Katherine
Stempien, Stephanie Toone,
Jessica Ward, Philip Zoch
University of Texas at Austin
Mary Buzbee, Maya Kwan, Patricia
Arlindo Marques Filho, Plank
Eletrodom Ind. Com. Ltd., Brazil
Naqui Maurice Nashed, El Nour Co.
for Import & Agencies, Egypt
Andres Otero, Architechnika, San
Juan, Puerto Rico
Rafael Pagan (M), RG Engineering,
Inc., Santurce, Puerto Rico
Franco Pagliarini (M), Aeralite, Italy
Cho Seung-Yun, Hykor International
Co., Ltd., South Korea
30 LD+A/April 1999
INTERNATIONAL ILLUMINATION DESIGN AWARDS
Wallace G. Eley
and David J. Young created
a unique luminaire suggestive of
the office they were lighting.
Satellite dishes become a
part of the architecture
at the Bell Expressvu Inc.
Broadcasting Center in
North York, Ontario.
The lighting design for
the Bell Expressvu Inc.
call center incorporates a
variety of satellite dishes.
(opposite) The ballasts for
the large dishes are remote
to reduce noise and
(right) The satellite dishes
were given a silver finish
to blend with
How can satellite dishes with perforations act as lighting reflectors
This was the challenge we faced when appointed to work
with architect Julian Jacobs on the design for a direct-to-home
satellite TV company, the Bell Expressvu Inc. Broadcasting Center,
located in North York, Ontario, Canada. The design received a 1998
IIDA Edwin F. Guth Memorial Award of Excellence on behalf of the
whole lighting design team.
Inspired by Bell Expressvu’s avant garde corporate culture and by
President Michael Neuman, it was Jacobs’ idea to use satellite dishes as
luminaires. However, it
was immediately apparent
that this would not be easy,
since the satellite dishes
are perforated and allow
light to pass through them.
In addition, time was limited
as this project was
designed and built in less
than 140 days. Such were
the challenges facing the
Crossey Engineering Ltd.
(CEL) team, which
worked with Jacobs.
Call centers generally
experience high turnover
of phone operators due to
the stressful nature of the
work. To counter this, the
purpose of the entire facility—not
just the lighting—is
to honor the person
in the midst of high
technology. Key to this formula
is the lighting that
stimulates and energizes
and is reminiscent of daylight,
24 hours a day.
The concept of using the
large obsolete and smaller
current satellite dishes as
luminaires was tied in with
the concept of ever-changing
obsolete large satellite dishes
as chandelier lighting
fixtures in large open
spaces, and the more current
oval satellite dishes as
wall sconces and wall standards,
shows the recycling of the old and the inclusion of the
new into a high-tech continuum. “Their unusual usage also
brings a surreal quality to the Call Center,” commented Jacobs.
CEL, led by David Young, Senior Designer, instigated the
thought process on the lighting’s task-oriented design mandate.
It required lighting that complemented Bell Expressvu Inc.’s
function and architectural design. Inside, the building structure
was exposed and the floors were stained concrete. There are
The lighting needed to be suitable for both VDT and reading
tasks. There was to be a full layout in the Call Center, as well
as wall sconces like pizza dishes developed for the corridor
leading to the open plan cafe, and control room at the center of
A tight budget and scanty time line dictated the design solutions.
Satellite dishes as luminaires were supplemented in the
Call Center, cafe, and open office area by direct downlight fluorescent
tubelights. The tubes were fitted with straight blade
white louvers to minimize the direct glare. Both sources have
some glare control available within the fixtures, and are capable
of exhibiting similar color rendering properties, which
allows them to be used together.
But our biggest concern was the efficiency of the satellite
dishes, since they were not originally designed to act as light
fixtures. The testing time, required to determine how the
perforated satellite dishes could operate as lighting reflectors,
was reduced to a minimum. Yet coverage losses could
only be resolved after mocking up and carrying out extensive
tests to determine if the concept would work. CEL therefore
suggested mocking up the fixtures.
Jacobs quickly arranged for the satellite dishes to be sent to
a custom lighting manufacturer, Nelson & Garrett in Toronto,
with whom the team had previous experience. There they suspended
a large satellite dish from the shop ceiling along with a
metal halide luminaire.
Jacobs, myself, and other team members reviewed the
appearance and effect of the mock-up. We decided to have the
dish painted silver to blend in with the architectural colors and
to improve reflective quality. We also determined the mounting
height and location of the light source below the dish. The
400 W metal halide lamp was housed in a bowl fixture. During
the mock-up, light meter readings were taken, which reassured
CEL that the dish would perform as expected. The
mounting height of the dish luminaires was also decided at
this mock-up meeting.
The small dish luminaires were also mocked-up and discussed.
Nelson & Garrett went on to produce shop drawings
of the dish luminaires, which were reviewed by the design and
construction teams including Vanbots, the construction managers.
CEL’s recommendations for installations were then
We were responsible for reviewing the installation made by
the electrical contractor, Guild Electric. As the large satellite
dishes were to be used in the Call Center and open office, we
drew up a layout that included supplemental fluorescent tubelights
that ran in between the dishes.
The layout was given to another CEL team member, Bill
Hirons, who transferred the layout to a lighting program. The
32 LD+A/April 1999
LD+A/April 1999 33
(right, top) A wall mounted 2 ft diameter dish is illuminated by a
90 W PAR38 lamp. The small dish transmits packages of light along the corridor.
(right, bottom) The 10 ft ceiling luminaire is lighted by a
400 W coated metal halide lamp.
printouts indicated that the levels were consistent with those of a modern
office. The results showed 30–35 fc maintained. This was of some concern,
so we indicated to the interior designer, Gail Weininger of Julian
Jacobs Architects, that the furniture system specified must have task lighting
included. This would allow employees to bring the lighting levels up
to 50 fc, when required.
Issues of noise sensitivity are of concern in call centers, which can be
office work stations. Mounting these ballasts on the structure
above may have caused noise. Plus, they would be difficult to
maintain. So ballasts were located in an adjacent room.
During the installation, Young observed that, at certain
angles, the lamp image was visible within the large luminaires.
He instructed Guild Electric that the bowl must be lifted higher.
In doing this, the bowl also provided a cut-off angle to the
light and confined the direct beams of light to the dish itself,
and not to the space above. The lamp has the smallest maximum
overall length in this lumen package.
A 400 W coated metal halide lamp illuminates the 10 ft dish,
while a 90 W PAR38 lamp illuminates the wall-mounted, 2 ftdiameter
dish from its focal point. The small dish is used to
transmit packages of light along the corridor where actual lighting
levels were less critical there than those in the Call Center
or in the open office.
In the Call Center, the large dishes are used along with louvered
fluorescent tube luminaires to provide an average of 30 fc
at desk level. Task lights in the modular furniture are switched
locally to raise levels to 50 fc where required. In order to minimize
the feature above the fixture, the uplight was minimized
by making the tubelights downlight only.
The Call Center’s lighting concept was carried over to the
cafe. The seating area adjacent to the cafe is illuminated by a
large skylight during daylight hours. In the evening, the
small dishes are supplemented by borrowed light from the
The extension of the connecting corridors borrows light
from the Call Center and cafe. The design used energy efficient
technology which minimized lamp quantities, thereby reducing
Commenting on the effect the lighting design has had on its
business, Bell Expressvu President and CEO Michael Neuman
remarked, “The lighting has created a fun, yet effective, design
attribute in our building, which has a positive impact on everyone
passing through, and on employee morale in particular.”
The designers: Julian Jacobs is
Senior Partner of Julian Jacobs
Architects of Toronto, Canada.
Founded in 1979, this Governor
General’s Award-winning firm is
regarded as one of the most creative
in Canada. With associate
offices in strategic centers across
the Americas, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, its theater of
operations is global. The company’s expertise includes
most building types, urban design, planning, interior
design, and research. He has been an IESNA member
Wallace G. Eley, P. Eng., is President of Crossey
Engineering Ltd. of Toronto, Canada, where he has
worked for 23 years.
David J. Young is a Senior Project Manager with Crossey Engineering Ltd.,
which has provided lighting consulting on many theater, casino, pharmaceutical,
library, municipal, university, school, hospital, and office complex commissions
in Canada and the United States.
noisy places. Jacobs therefore decided to spray an
acoustic-absorbing material onto the underside of
the structure above the Call Center.
Remote ballasts also were a design element that
we considered. If the ballasts were located within
the bowl-shaped housing suspended below the
dish, the dish could then act as a reflector to the
sound, aiming down into the Call Center and open
(left, top)The seating area adjacent to the cafe is illuminated
by a large skylight during the day. At night, small dishes are
supplemented by borrowed light from nearby spaces.
(left, bottom) In the Call Centre, the large dishes are used
along with louvered fluorescent tube luminaires to
provide an average of 30 fc at desk level.
34 LD+A/April 1999
Located in west Paris, the A14 tunnel passes under the
commercial area of “La Defense” and connects Paris to
the A14 and A86 highways. Opened in December, 1996,
it stretches for 5 km and consists of two separate westbound
and eastbound tubes.
In 1994, lighting designer Vladimir Lyszczynski was contacted
by the EPAD (Etablissement Public d’Amenagement de
La Defense), a state body in charge of the layout and refurbishing
of the “La Defense” area in Paris. The EPAD was afraid that
in a 5 km tunnel, drivers would become bored or phobic and
thus more accident prone. They wanted to make the ride
through the tunnel more pleasant. Lyszczynski prepared a
small brief for the EPAD, concluding that the tunnel project
could not be done by a lighting designer alone, but for a multitalented
team comprising an urban developer, a colorist, and a
lighting designer, among others.
In 1995 a small competition between three teams took place,
after which the ROUX-ALBA agency was awarded the project.
At EPAD’s urging, ROUX-ALBA added Lyszczynski to the
design team. The rest of the team was composed of architect
and urban development specialist Dominique Alba, assisted by
Christophe Choblet, and graphic designer Jérome Reysat.
The objectives were to design color schemes to paint the tunnel,
implement color and light treatment for the security niches
and the safety exits, and provide special lighting effects independent
of the sodium fixtures chosen to light the tunnel.
One of the main challenges facing the team was the extremely
narrow space between the lanes of traffic and the walls, as
well as the low ceiling height. Also, the fixtures had to be
placed in sites where directional signposts, security niches, and
safety exits would not be obscured. Also, the fixtures could not
be too close to the tunnel’s entrance or exit.
Some of the tunnel’s features are: each kilometer point
inside the tunnel is marked with a special signal; a special
effect symbolizes the point at which the tunnel passes under
local government headquarters; and a special effect symbolizes
the point at which the tunnel passes under the Grande
Arche de la Défense. A design requirement was that the lighting
equipment last at least ten years and operate independently
of normal tunnel lighting.
La Grande Arche
The driver passes through an arch of light 115 m long symbolizing
the “Grande Arche” located above the tunnel. This
arch of light changes color so that the driver is confronted by a
different image each time he or she passes through. For
instance, the driver will see a blue archway in the morning, a
green one in the evening, and a yellow one the next morning.
The technique used in the arch is the additive synthesis of
the basic primary colors—red, green, and blue—produced by
three colored light sources. In theory, all colors of the spectrum
can be created with this system. However, about 15 colors
can be produced in practice (a fourth, white source would
have to be added in order to produce more hues). The change
in color is obtained by controlling the intensity of each of the
three light sources. For instance, if the red and green sources
are switched on at a certain level, a yellow tone results; while
a mix of blue light at a high level and green and red light at a
lower level will give a light blue tone.
Vladimir Lyszcynski and Dominique Alba add color
and psychedelic pizzazz to a Paris highway.
36 LD+A/April 1999
(opposite and above) Drivers through the A14 Tunnel are treated to a
varied spectrum of color during their journey. A total of 250 different
scenes were created through the use of fluorescent tubes
encased in colored filters.
In all, 250 different scenes were created. The programming
of the scenes was done on location before opening the tunnel
to traffic. The time line was entered separately. Each scene
mixes a pattern with one or multiple colors of light and lasts 5
minutes. Two types of scene changes can be implemented: random
or a fixed path through the 250 scenes. A computer controls
the sequence of scenes over a 24-hour period. The change
from one scene to another is made at a slow pace over a period
of minutes so that it is not perceptible by the drivers.
To create the desired graphic effect, fluorescent tubes coated
with gel filters were used as light sources. The colored light produced
by the three tubes illuminates a frosted glass pane on
which the colors blend. The succession of these lighted panes
fixed on the ceiling and walls at a 45 degree angle facing the
oncoming traffic recreates a colored arch.
The idea was to try and use a standard tunnel fixture as a
base. This way, all security specifications would be covered at a
lower cost than that of having to design a specific fixture. The
difficulty, though, was in blending the colors evenly.
Tests were done with frosted glass replacing the usual clear
LD+A/April 1999 37
glass mounted on a standard FV3 (IP65)
Comatelec fixture. The frosted coating and
the control of lighting intensity prevents any
glare that could distract drivers.
The desired blend of colors was achieved
with the tubes mounted ±20 cm away from
the glass. The fixture was then fitted with
three 58 W fluorescent tubes, each with an
independent 0–10 V controlled ballast. The
tubes all have a neutral color temperature of
4000K. Each tube in the fixture has a different
gel coating of red, green, and blue. For
maintenance purposes (quick change), each
fixture is plugged into a 220 V socket for
power and into a 0–10 V socket for color
control. The ballasts were controllable in
0–10 V from 3 to 100 percent.
In all, 216 fixtures were used forming 24
lines of nine fixtures (two on the right and
left wall, five for the ceiling). Each row was
spaced 5 m apart. In each line, the nine tubes
of the same color light up simultaneously.
Thus, there are three 0–10 V lines per row
and 72 controls for the whole arch.
The change in the color intensity from 3
to 100 percent enables each row in the arch
to have a different color. For example, if only
the red tubes in the 24 rows are fed, the arch
appears red, while if the red and green tubes
are switched at 100 percent and 60 percent,
respectively, then a yellow tone results.
Seeing Red, White, and Blue
On the wall of the tunnel a red, white, and
blue French flag symbolizes the local government
headquarters. It is boxed in dark
blue lining like a “jewel.”
The necessary fixtures had to have round
glass in order to diffuse light in all directions.
The fixtures also had to have some
kind of diffusion to attenuate the glare of
the tubes. The designers were lucky to find
an existing product that had these characteristics,
as well as tunnel grade safety specifications—the
MY2 (IP67) Comatelec fixture
also used in the “chunnel” tunnel linking
France and England.
Forming this flag of light are 78 standard fixtures, each containing
two 58 W 4000K fluorescent tubes. Of these fixtures,
26 have a red gel coating, 26 have a blue coating, and the last
26 have no coating. The surrounding dark blue lighting is
formed by 233 single-tube 58 W 4000K standard tunnel fixtures
with a dark blue gel coating.
To balance light glare, the ballasts are controlled 30–100 percent
to balance light output between the three colors. The levels
are set manually. In each fixture, each of the two tubes has
a different power supply, reducing the light output at certain
times by half if required.
The lighting for the security niches is placed at a high level
to reinforce the feeling of safety. Backlit by fluorescent tubes,
vertical lexan stripes mark the safety exits green and safety
Last, there are nine kilometer points in the two tubes of the
tunnel. Each kilometer point is marked by a rose-colored light
stripe in the form of a half portico resting on a vertical yellow
band. The thread of light is formed by 36 W 4000K single-tube
fixtures with a rose gel coating mounted in a continuous row.
These fixtures are of the same type as those lighting the perimeter
of the flag. The number of fixtures varies between 8 and 14
depending on the width of the tunnel at the kilometer marker.
Due to the intensity of traffic, it is difficult to close the tunnel
for maintenance and repairs, which has become a greater
problem than originally anticipated. In the narrowest parts of
the tunnel, the exhaust fumes from vehicles cover everything
with a black sooty film, particularly the graphic inscriptions at
the kilometer points and the yellow strips on the tunnel’s sides.
Only the lighting effects have remained clearly visible.
The designers feel that the tunnel is a great success, though
if a similar type of lighting project were done elsewhere, it
would be better to conceive it before the tunnel was built. This
way, the necessary space could be reserved in the concrete walls
and ceilings to place and maintain the equipment without having
to close the tunnel.
The designers: Vladimir
Lyszczynski began his design
work for the cinema as an assistant
director. Beginning 20 years
ago, Lyszczynski designed the
lighting for several theater projects
and fashion shows. He has
designed lighting for the Mont
Sant Michel abbey under the patronage of UNESCO, the Porcelain Museum of
Mehun Sur Yevres, the Costume Museum at Wesserling, and the Cherbourg
War Museum. Lyszczynski has a French Baccalaureate from the University of
Berkeley, where he studied for 2 years.
Dominique Alba began her work with the architect Jean Nouvel in 1982. In
1986, Alba and architect Philippe Roux opened ROUX-ALBA, an architecture
and urban planning firm. Aside from working in France, Alba has developed
projects in Rotterdam, Prague, and Budapest.
(top) The security areas in the tunnel are at a high
light level to reinforce the feeling of safety. Vertical
lexan stripes backlighted by fluorescent tubes mark
the safety exits green and the safety niches red.
(middle) One of the nine kilometer markers within
the tunnel. The thread of light is formed by 36 W
4000K single tube fixtures with a rose gel coating
mounted in a continues row.
(bottom) The French flag consists of 78 fixtures—26
in red, 26 in blue, and 26 without any coating. All
fixtures contain two 58 W 4000K fluorescent tubes.
38 LD+A/April 1999
The worlds of art and architecture were set on their
respective ears when architect Frank O. Gehry’s Guggenheim
Museum Bilbao was opened in October 1997.
Bilbao is a large industrial city on the northern coast of
Spain, also known as the Basque region, where the majority
of Spain’s Basque population live. The museum is the keystone
of a decade-old urban development plan initiated by
the city’s civic leaders. In addition to the museum, Bilbao has
been graced by new bridges, a new subway, and a new performing
Many articles have been written about the Guggenheim
Museum Bilbao describing Gehry’s masterpiece. However,
relatively little has been revealed or published about the lighting
of this outstanding building. So what is the lighting sys-
ish hardware), not obtrusive or overpowering, and flexible
enough to be applied throughout the galleries. Wherever possible,
he also envisioned the use of natural lighting to enhance
the artwork and the experience of the museum’s visitors.
Gehry is a genius in manipulating form and natural light.
The artificial lighting reinforces the near-living forms, and the
two combine to produce a glowing and seductively luminous
environment. There is always a sense of adjacent vertical and
horizontal space around the corner waiting to draw one in.
The clever undulation of form and infused natural light creates
the feeling of an endless spatial precipice without the
“doldrums” lighting environments that often cause fatigue in
Paul A. Zaferiou and
Enrique A. Rojas cross the
Atlantic to contribute their
lighting design expertise
to Frank Gehry’s monumental
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.
tem for what the architect Philip Johnson calls “the greatest
building of our times”
Paul Zaferiou, Principal-in-Charge, and Enrique Rojas,
Senior Associate of Lam Partners Inc. in Cambridge,
Massachusetts were brought on board by Gehry as the museum’s
lighting designers. “The task that Tom Krens, the
Guggenheim Museum’s director, and the Basque government
set before Frank Gehry,” explains Paul Zaferiou, “was to design
a spectacular international museum of modern art that would
become the centerpiece of the Basque administration’s $1.5 billion
commitment for the urban cultural redevelopment of
Bilbao.” In other words, Gehry’s mission was to “put Bilbao on
the world map.”
As Gehry’s vision for the new museum began to take shape,
his goal for lighting was to create a design that would be compatible
with the building form (as opposed to displaying styl-
The monumental Guggenheim Museum Bilbao uses a wealth of natural
light supplemented by artificial fixtures. Architect Frank Gehry
mandated that the lighting must be compatible with the building form.
40 LD+A/April 1999
LD+A/April 1999 41
museums of past eras.
The spatial organization of the 300,000 ft 2 structure is
composed of groups of distinctly shaped galleries that Gehry
swirled around a central atrium and froze before colliding
with one another. The catalytic space is the 50 m high atrium—a
kindred gesture to the Guggenheim’s now symbolic
rotunda in New York.
The galleries range in size and shapes, from rectilinear conventional
forms to curvilinear walls. At other times they seem
like spaces within spaces, sometimes separated by partial height
walls that act like visual funnels. Ceiling heights range from 4.5
to 20 m, arranged in flat, sloped, or curving planes, at times
interrupted by rectilinear skylights with organic shaped wells or
structural beams. Each space has its own unique spatial quality
and character, so much so that the gallery designers nicknamed
them “Nemo,” “Zorro,” “the Boot,” “the Boat,” and so on.
Outsiders on the Inside
“As an outsider it was intriguing to observe the Bilbao studio
designers prepare for a design review,” Enrique Rojas said of his
experience working with Gehry’s studio. “They scurried
around to pull together the assortment of large scale models to
an assemblage approximately 6 x 12 ft in size. Crude as the
forms seemed, they fit beautifully. Minutes before the design
session, the team gathered in almost orchestra form and waited
for the conductor to descend from the upper floor.
“Gehry moved pieces here and there, studied the shapes and
one got the distinct sense that he used every square inch of that
building to express his ideas. Everyone listened with absolute
silence and attention.”
Without the use of the large scale “work models” of the
gallery spaces, it would have been almost impossible to imagine
the geometry and luminous qualities of each gallery. The
designers explored numerous ideas for providing indirect and
object lighting placement—from movable light-columns to
Gehry loves sunlight but precious artwork
doesn’t. To minimize light damage to certain
types of artwork, the museum established
a maximum combined illumination level
of 20 fc incident on the art surface.
pendant horizontal ladders and to
“pick-up sticks” suspended from
concealed motorized lowering
devices and catwalks.
To study the placement of object
(i.e., art) lighting, the designers used a
series of vertical cross section diagrams
to help establish strategic fixture
locations (set at the intersection
between 30 degrees from nadir and
1.57 m above floor level) to light the
art walls and possible sculpture or
temporary wall-mounted exhibits. To
keep their sense of scale in these large
and colossal spaces, which were
drawn in metric scale, Zaferiou and
Rojas often sketched in people and
possible sculptural art pieces. During one of his visits in Bilbao,
Zaferiou was shocked to see Claes Oldenburg’s Swiss Knife
exhibited in the Boat Gallery, “just as we had amusingly shown
it in our lighting study sketches three years before the opening.”
Let the Sun Shine In!
Frank Gehry loves sunlight and the Guggenheim’s conservation
staff fears it, and with good cause. To minimize ultraviolet
and infrared radiation damage to certain types of sensitive artwork,
the museum established a maximum combined illumination
level of 20 fc (215 lx) incident on the art surface, with a
2:1 uniformity ratio on the display walls.
Lam Partners Inc.’s capability in understanding and predicting
daylight illumination levels and direct sunlight path travel
in the exhibition spaces was an important part of the lighting
analysis process. Given the large-scale gallery study models
produced by Gehry’s office, physical model testing was the best
way to study and measure the amount and effects of daylight
and sun path entering the art display areas.
The designers were thankful for Gehry’s models, since there
is no substitute method available for observing daylighting
design in a building, especially in structures of the museum’s
complexity. A case in point was the visual information that the
models relayed to the designers. During daylight testing they
noticed that in the large high spaces with skylights, the ceiling
went dark during strong daylight conditions. Working with
accurate physical models, Zaferiou and Rojas detected the need
to add indirect ambient light to balance the brightness ratios
between the skylight wells and adjacent ceiling planes.
To help quantify and measure the natural lighting, the
designers used the firm’s proprietary software program called
SunScan (developed by Robert Osten, Principal) to test the
architect’s study models. The program reads information
measured through light sensors that are placed in the models
and normalizes the data for the latitude in Bilbao, Spain (or
anywhere on the globe).
To record the sunlight paths, a special rotating table was
designed that calibrates the sun’s geometry between the test site
and the project site. A miniature video camera was installed in
the models to record the daily sun path in each gallery for different
times of the year at typical Summer, Winter, and
Equinox daylight conditions. The invaluable information
recorded in the videos was enhanced with dubbed in music
and visual graphics to label hours of the day and seasonal conditions
at a local television studio and then presented to the
museum’s staff for evaluation.
This Guggenheim Museum has more daylight fenestration
than most museums, but through the use of carefully selected
glazing materials (made up high daylight-low UV-transmission
glass, frit glass sandwiched with UV absorbing interlayer) and
motorized shades the light levels are maintained according to
the museum’s criteria.
Lighting a Modern Masterpiece
The lighting design for this uniquely modern building is
responsive to the complex nature and power of the major volumes
and interstitial crevices, which seem to multiply at every
turn and junction. “Without our constant coordination with
the design team and review of the work models it would have
been impossible to layout our design in two-dimensional format,”
explains Rojas. The design team’s intent was to create
spaces which evoked the “artist-in-residence” idea, and the
lighting design would contribute to this goal.
Unlike American lighting designers, Europeans seem to
design with higher levels of glare tolerance and use fluorescent
and metal halide sources in addition to incandescent sources.
Given the high ceilings in the museum, the selection of
European lamps was limiting. After researching light sources
and fixture manufacturers in the European market, and considering
special 220 V electrical power characteristics in Spain,
it became clear that the fixtures for the
galleries would be custom designed.
“The building design presented
physical and conceptual lighting challenges,”
says Zaferiou. The physical
challenges had to deal with complex
geometry of unusually tall ceilings
and curving walls. The conceptual
challenge was driven by Gehry’s goal
to create a flexible lighting system that
did not “scar” the ceiling with permanent
lines of recessed track lighting
and that would be relatively easy to
maintain. Gehry instructed the lighting
designers to “create a bag of lighting
tricks,” and informed them that
he “would not be opposed to using a
In the galleries, a family of lamps was
needed that had a range of wattages
and beamspreads to properly illuminate
the artwork in these diverse spaces.
non-traditional system of lighting, as long as it was not too visible
and not an aesthetic imposition in the building.”
The designers worked with the architect’s highly creative
staff to further develop a unique power-point and power-bar
system that Gehry first conceived for the Weisman Museum in
Minneapolis, MN. Special recessed, structural outlet boxes
with split-wired receptacles occur in a regular 2 m 2 pattern on
all the gallery ceilings, and are regarded as power-points. An
individual object light fixture can be directly attached to these
points on special clamping bars (power-bars) with built-in
receptacles, which can be secured to hold between two and six
fixtures, depending on the length of the power-bar. The bars
can rotate 360 degrees on the power-points, which then offers
more mounting position flexibility than a conventional track
system. A fixture can be located almost anywhere on a gallery
ceiling. In some of the taller galleries, power-points are also
installed on the upper wall surfaces and in light wells for additional
The special power-bar clamping system proved to be a cost
effective alternative to custom curved track, and it is not limited
to any fixture manufacturer. Retractable magnetic covers
painted to match the ceiling conceal the power-points that are
not in use and therefore minimize visual clutter and the scarring
of the ceiling plane.
In the galleries which have ceiling heights beyond reach by
motorized lifts, it was ultimately decided to provide 11 m high
catwalks in order to suspend the object lights, ambient wall
washers and uplights, and the work lights, and to facilitate
maintenance access without disturbing the art.
Since dimming for light reduction is not desirable in museum
lighting due to color temperature shift, a family of lamps
with a range of wattages and beamspreads was necessary to
illuminate artwork in these diverse spaces. The generous range
42 LD+A/April 1999
LD+A/April 1999 43
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is the keystone of a decade of
urban development that includes a new subway, bridges, and
performing arts center. As seen from the outside, it’s not hard to see why
Philip Johnson called the museum ‘the greatest building of our time.’
of choices available in U.S. 120 and 12 V lamps provided the
flexibility that was needed. In addition, the advantage of selecting
from numerous lamp choices for lighting specific art conditions
minimizes the use of light blocking screens and therefore
conserves energy. Three lamp types were selected to meet
the demanding criteria and custom fixtures were then
designed to take full advantage of each lamp’s characteristics.
For galleries with lower ceilings, a small fixture was developed
for the PAR36 12 V lamp or the 111 mm aluminum
reflector lamp. These lamps offer excellent color rendition in a
good assortment of beamspreads.
The workhorse in the tall galleries is GE’s Q250 W, 120 V
halogen PAR38 lamp with extra long lamp life. A special fixture
with a 220–120 V transformer was developed to accommodate
this unique lamp. The same fixture is used for object lighting
in the galleries with medium height ceilings.
For the tallest spaces another fixture was developed for the
12 V PAR56 lamp. This capped filament lamp is superior to the
European line voltage version because it has excellent beam
control, lower glare, and a good choice of wattages and beamspreads.
A prime design consideration of this fixture’s clamping
system was the requirement to install the heavy objects by slipping
the clamps over the power-bars without fixture rotation.
Therein is the need for the square cross-sectional shapes of
power-bar and the clamps.
In the central atrium, the same PAR56 fixture delivers the
powerful, narrow beam intensity necessary to highlight art
sculpture and architectural features while providing exceptional
glare control. To balance the brightness of the skylight wells,
uplights are installed to illuminate the flowing white plaster
curves of the upper atrium. Metal halide and quartz uplights
are concealed on top of the tower elements and clamped onto
the upper level catwalks and structural nodes.
All three fixtures were designed with independent, lockable
rotation of the lamp and lens accessory assembly without altering
focusing or aiming alignment—an essential feature to
reduce maintenance time and maintain aesthetic integrity.
They also employ a coiled cord and plug, special clamp, and
safety cable for attachment to the power-bars.
Icing on the Cake
ERCO Lighting, a well-known European manufacturing
company, was ultimately selected to manufacture the 3000+
custom-made object luminaires. After exhaustive reviews of
shop drawings and several rounds of prototypes, full-size partial-Gallery
mockups were constructed near the architects’
office in Los Angeles. Approval for production on the customfixtures
was then released.
To round out the bag of lighting tricks, custom simple
shaped quartz wallwashers and
indirect pendants were developed
and manufactured by
Odelux, a Spanish manufacturer,
and used in the Galleries to
provide a soft, 2:1 uniform
wash of ambient light on the art
walls. All the special fixtures
satisfy functional, programmatic
needs with a neutral appearance
that does not compete
with the sculptural lines of the
galleries, just as Gehry envisioned them.
As a measure to conserve energy and lamp life, the entire
building lighting, motorized shades, and emergency system is
computer controlled by three linked Lutron 6000 series dimming
Gehry does not prefer direct illumination on the exterior
facades of his buildings. In this museum the exception is the
uplighting of the Spanish limestone wall behind the polished
stainless steel letters of the main entry sign.
The building’s internal lighting emanates through the glazed
canyons and crevices of the outer envelope. The warm glow of
light is inter-reflected between the titanium, white plaster, and
Spanish limestone cladding. As night sets in, the museum redefines
itself with every changing cloud and hue in the sunset sky
and becomes another elegant expression of this international
landmark on the banks of the Nervion River.
On the east end of the building Gehry incorporated a tower
which is solely a sculptural element. After experimenting with
20–25 models, he settled on an open steelwork structure clad
with Spanish limestone. The stone cladding is bolted to the
steel structure arranged in a pattern with small slits between
the panels rather than mortar joints. This detail creates glimmers
of light that is visible both day and night. High wattage
metal halide fixtures are mounted on the structure of the tower
and provide internal direct and indirect illumination.
The success of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao can be measured
by the pilgrimage of art aficionados to the once little
known city in the Basque region. Today the the Guggenheim
Museum, the city of Bilbao, and Frank Gehry are household
names. Gehry achieved his mission “on time and on budget,”
and in so doing he also created marvelous spaces filled with
glowing and living light that provide a memorable experience
to the visitors who make the journey there.
For the designers at Lam Partners, Inc. it was a once in a lifetime
opportunity to participate in the making of this architectural
The designers: Enrique A. Rojas,
Senior Associate at Lam Partners
Inc., has 25 years of experience in
architecture, interior design, and
lighting design for commercial,
institutional, hospitality and
urban projects of various uses and
scope. As project manager of the
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Rojas was recently presented with the 1997 GE
Edison “Award of Excellence” for lighting of the museum. Most recently Rojas
was presented with the IIDA Edwin F. Guth Memorial Award of Excellence for
lighting design of the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts in Vancouver, B.C.
Paul A. Zaferiou is a Principal at Lam Partners Inc. In his 14 years of lighting
consulting experience with Lam Partners Inc., he has managed scores of projects
representing a wide range of types and geographic locations. His professional
experience is complemented by his teaching and authoring of articles on
architectural lighting design. As Principal-in-Charge of the Guggenheim
Museum Bilbao project, Paul was recently presented with the 1997 GE Edison
“Award of Excellence” for lighting of the museum.
For the tall galleries, a special fixture
was developed to accommodate the
GE Q250 W, 120 V halogen PAR38
lamp with extra long life.
The filament capped 12 V PAR56
lamp used in the tallest spaces was
superior to the European line voltage
version due to its excellent beam
control, lower glare, and variety
of wattages and beam spreads.
44 LD+A/April 1999
INTERNATIONAL ILLUMINATION DESIGN AWARDS
Satoshi Uchihara, Shiho Fujii, and Hiroki Yagi
provide nighttime ambience to the 600-year old
Golden Pavilion in Kyoto, Japan.
(above) The approach to the
Golden Pavilion is divided into
three spaces that represent expectancy,
purification, and tranquillity.
(opposite) The Golden Pavilion itself
consists of a variety of lighting schemes,
each emphasizing a different element
of the structure and its surroundings.
Kinkakuji, the Temple of the Golden Pavilion, is one of Japan’s most famous and
impressive buildings. It has a history reaching back some 600 years, and became
a World Heritage site in 1994. Aside from the ancient splendor of its architecture,
the gardens in its spacious precincts are considered an important national site of scenic
beauty, enjoyed by more than 5 million visitors from around the world every year. The
designers came to know afresh the cultural significance of this temple through the five
years they spent working on it, from the conception of this project to its completion.
Two concepts were key to the design of Kinkakuji’s scenic lighting. The first was the
production of a scene centered on the temple building which would bring out the
46 LD+A/April 1999
(below) By highlighting the water, the designers hoped to embody the
profundity of the gold leaf that covers the temple. The Golden Pavilion
shines when lit from any angle.
grandeur of the Golden Pavilion. The second was, within the
lighting plan covering the whole area of the temple precincts,
to create a particular space in the path approaching the temple
buildings which would spiritually uplift and purify.
The production of the scene with the Golden Pavilion at its
center consists of three elements. The first uses outside lighting
to create the impression that the building is covered in gold
leaf—a perfect reflective material which gives off a bright glare
in direct light—and that it is its own source of the light. The
second scene gives the gold leaf a more symbolic expression by
having the ripples on the surface of the lake in front of the temple
projected over the entire building; the ripples along with
the light reflected from the water embody the profundity of the
gold leaf, reflecting the movement around it. The third scene
involves a complete reversal, taking all light away from the
golden pavilion to leave only a silhouette.
Beneath the final surface finish of the gold leaf, there are over
60 coats of Japanese lacquer; Kinkakuji’s gold leaf in fact conceals
a jet-black building. Imagining this hidden jet-black
shape, the designers succeeded in highlighting the silhouette of
the building by lighting the mountains behind it. Creating a jetblack
Golden Pavilion from a golden building that shines when
lit from any angle was one of the most difficult challenges. In
becoming a silhouette, the building’s appearance changed dramatically
from its usual gorgeous, glowing surface; the Golden
Pavilion sublimes from a material into a spiritual presence.
Particular attention was paid to the approach to Kinkakuji,
which was divided into three spaces designed to represent the
themes of expectancy, purification, and tranquility. The designers
expressed these three themes through careful control of the
shape, brightness, and light quality of lamps placed at ground
level, which are an updated version of traditional Japanese
The lighting equipment used for the first scene centered on
Kinkakuji is, for the exterior, 16 500 W narrow-beam halogens,
14 150 W wide-beam halogens, and 8 12 V 250 W ultra-narrow
beam spotlights, arranged so that light levels are the same
at each corner of the eaves. Great care was taken to ensure that
the spotlights in the gardens are not visible during the daytime.
The gold leaf construction has the same reflective properties
as a mirror, and numerous adjustments to the angle of illumination
were necessary to create the illusion that the gold was
glowing from within. For the second scene, where the surface
water is lit, a moving spotlight with a 1200 W short-arc metal
where installation, safety, and disturbance to daytime viewing
was closely monitored.
The Golden Pavilion project was brought to fruition thanks
to the many people involved who were kind enough to understand
the designers’ theme of “preservation and renewal.”
Additionally, they are sincerely grateful to all those from overseas
who have come to know about this project through having
received a 1998 IIDA Paul Waterbury Award of Excellence
for Outdoor Lighting for their work.
The designers: Satoshi Uchihara
graduated from Tama Art University’s
Design program. From
1982–1992 he worked with
Motoko Ishii Lighting Design
Inc. In 1993 he established
Uchihara Creative Lighting
Design, Inc., which has worked
on the lighting design for several temples in the Kyoto
area, as well as museums.
Shiho Fujii, a graduate of Osaka University of Arts’ Stage
Art program, had worked with Uchihara Creative
Lighting Design since 1995.
Hiroki Yagi, a graduate of Tokyo Zokei University’s Fine
Art program, has worked with Uchihara Creative
Lighting Design, Inc., since 1996. From 1989 to 1994 he
worked at Motoko Ishii Lighting Design, Inc.
halide lamp was used. Again, precise and careful adjustments
to the angle of illumination and control were necessary. For the
third scene of the jet-black silhouette, 34 500 W wide-beam, 16
500 W narrow-beam, and 10 1 kW wide-beam halogen lamps
were used to illuminate the mountains behind the temple.
Minute repeated adjustments were needed to ensure that all
light illuminated the mountains and that none of it lit the golden
pavilion. These three scenes rotate every three minutes
under a computer-controlled system.
This world of light that the designers created never disturbs
the solemnity of 600 years of history, and, moreover, seeks to
bring about a new grandeur to the temple. The designers
believe that one of their biggest successes is the use of over 500
custom made outdoor fixtures—bamboo from the Kyoto
foothills was used for lamp housings at ground level, and a special
type of Japanese paper sanded with acrylic resin was used
for the lamp covers. The positions of the outdoor lamps were
painstakingly checked one-by-one.
Since 1994, the designers have worked on six temples in
Kyoto, including Kinkakuji: Kiyomizudera, Jyubuzan Kodajii
and Higashiyama Jishoji (1994), Uji Byodo-In (1995), and Sho-
Ren-Nin Temple (1996). All of these temples are national treasures
and important cultural properties which have been designated
World Heritage sites. The temples’ special status meant
the designers had to work in a tightly controlled environment
(above, top) The approach to the Gold Pavilion represents ‘purification.’
(above, bottom) The final approach to the temple represents ‘tranquillity.’
Great care was taken to ensure that the spotlights in the
gardens were not visible during the day.
48 LD+A/April 1999
Paul Gregory, Sarah Gibson,
Barbara Bouyea, Emlyn Altman, Stan Walerczyk,
Brooks Sheifer, and Kristen Richards give us
a sneak peek at their seminars at LIGHTFAIR
INTERNATIONAL 1999 in San Francisco next month.
As it celebrates its tenth year,
heads to San Francisco for 1999.
This is the third year that LD+A
has sponsored a track of seminars
to be presented at LIGHT-
FAIR; we are proud to be able to
bring attendees the presentations
comprising the Energy & Technology
LD+A is also pleased to be the
only lighting publication to give
attendees a preview of what they can expect from the numerous seminars conducted at LIGHTFAIR.
Each year the seminars become more and more varied and this year is no different.
This year LD+A is including five seminar previews in this section. There is also an Essay by Invitation
on page 4 by Stan Walerczyk and Brooks Sheiffer based on their LIGHTFAIR seminar, “Fluorescent vs.
HID: 10 Rounds in the High Bay Arena.” This promises to be a very controversial session to be sure!
Paul Gregory will discuss what’s been successful and what hasn’t in recent restaurant lighting projects in
his seminar, “Restaurant Lighting.” He’ll give attendees a highly informative and entertaining overview of
new approaches and trends in restaurant projects from around the world.
Emlyn Altman provides a nice overview of her seminar “Lite Bytes: Lighting for the 21st Century—-
Lighting Software Review,” which gives designers the inside track on the various lighting design software
packages on the market.
Kristen Richards, News Editor for Interiors Magazine, is going to let attendees to her seminar in on the
secrets of getting projects published in the design press. Her seminar, ”Getting Ink,” will give you all the
details you need to know on how to approach magazine editors.
Sarah Gibson had an exciting project featured in the December 1998 LD+A on her lighting work for an
exclusive home in Acapulco, Mexico. In her seminar, “Residential Lighting Design,” she will give participants
tips on how to create projects that clients will love to call home.
Barbara Bouyea is quickly becoming LIGHTFAIR’s very own Oprah as she hosts her second annual
“Light Channel.” Structured like a TV talk show, Barbara hosts a panel of electrical contractors to discuss
the details of budgeting for the lighting design process. Last year’s “episode” was sold out, so be sure to
get your tickets early!
I would like to give a special thanks to all of the contributors for allowing us a special advance look at
their innovative and exciting presentations. Also, kudos to the LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL
Conference Advisory Committee. They have assembled an eclectic and exciting program that promises to
be the best LIGHTFAIR yet.
Mark A. Newman
50 LD+A/April 1999
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In my seminar, “Getting
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From executives of
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We open with a discussion to
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You know you’re good at what you do so why not let
everybody else know Interiors Magazine’s Kristen
Richards presents an interactive seminar that provides
an insider’s view on how you can showcase your talent.
Wednesday, May 12th,1999, 2:00–3:30 p.m.
On the Mark
There are simple steps you can
take to ensure your envelope
catches editors’ attention.
Editors have a lot of
and a million
other things on
their desks. You
need to know what
to do to catch an
editor’s eye in the 15
seconds your release
has to make
It is important to
know what mistakes
can lose points and
with media contacts.
crude copies, incomplete
and lack of visuals
could all raise the ire
of an editor and keep
your project in the
dark. If an editor sees
the perfect graphic, you
could have yourself a
Editors are warm-blooded, too. Personalize to create the connection
that pays off in the future. You will see the simple steps
and procedures you need to take to make all the difference in
an editor’s perception of you and your firm. If there is a simple
oversight that could possibly alienate an editor, you need to
52 LD+A/April 1999
Nuts & Bolts
During the course of this interactive
seminar, you will take part in actual exercises
in analyzing good and not-so-good
releases to gain understanding
of an editor’s perspective.
Once you have the knowledge
and the know-how,
the process will suddenly
Among the things
you’ll learn in this seminar
• The correct format
• How to write a
catchy headline promoting
• How to get in
all the vital information
first 25 words
• What materials and info to
include to catch an editor’s eye
You will also get the inside track as to
what exactly a PR firm does that differs
from what you or your own in-house
staff can do. To showcase your work,
your firm, and yourself, you need to create
a relationship with the most influential
publications in your field and it’s
easier than you think.
The best part about
“Getting Ink” is that
you create this working
workshop. You will
leave this seminar with
a greater sense of your
creativity and the tools to
put it to work. You will
have asked questions, met
other professionals who
share your concerns, and
even get a homework
assignment from an editor
looking for your news.
Your expertise has just
Circle 49 on Reader Service Card.
In his “Restaurant Lighting” seminar, Paul Gregory
provides the perfect recipe for a successful project
that will whet any restauranteur’s appetite.
Wednesday, May 12, 1999 8:30–9:30 a.m.
Nothing makes a restaurant successful
like the owner’s love of projects through an extensive slide pre-
Lighting,” will examine many restaurant
pasta. Or love of sushi. The owner’s sentation to determine what makes each
thoughts, ideas, wishes, and feelings project successful.
are the key to a successful restaurant. It Channeling an owner’s feelings about
is the lighting designer’s obligation to a restaurant into the atmosphere of the
find the ideas or feelings that makes the space is the first step to success. What
owner successful, and then project it should the atmosphere be Will it be
across the restaurant.
“fun” or “formal” or “circus-like,” as in
Seeing the owner as the key to a successful
project is central to Paul Lighting a restaurant is like creating a
the case of Le Cirque 2000 in New York
Gregory’s approach to restaurant lighting painting or composing a portrait. Each
design. Gregory’s seminar “Restaurant look or view in the restaurant should be
treated as a well-composed photograph,
with the viewer as the camera.
With One Look
Successful restaurant lighting design is
organized around three major elements:
the “first look” as the viewer enters the
space; the “transition” to many interesting
smaller views; and the “task,” or the
viewer’s ability to perform the task of the
The first look is actually a series of first
impressions; the patron’s first look at the
space from the street, the first look upon
entering, the first look after turning a
corner into the main dining room. These
first “snapshots” invite people into the
space. A strong first impression of a
space is what the viewer will remember
As the viewer makes the transition
from the first look to the task, the journey
must be filled with interesting smaller
views. During the walk from the front
door to the table, the viewer’s eye might
be caught by a beautiful look at the bar
area, a sparkling wine display, or perhaps
a grand fireplace at the end of a long view
The challenge in lighting Le Cirque 2000 was to accent the surreal interior and enhance the existing architecture.
(left) The brightly lighted circus tent hides 24 MR16s. (right) The Gold Room Bar features two ellipses of dimmable colored neon supported by
four torcheres, each containing 11 different fixtures.
54 LD+A/April 1999
(left) In the Madison Room, the primary sources of ambient light are uplighting on the ornate ceiling and backlighting on the sandblasted glass panels.
(right) Table lighting is enhanced by fixtures attached to banquettes arching over seated patrons.
of the space.
The third important element in the
lighting design relates to the viewer’s
ability to perform the task of the space.
Can the menu be easily read Can two
people at a table see each other’s expressions
easily Do the faces look good
Does the food look good Lighting must
facilitate and enhance the task.
In particular, much care should be
taken with dining table lighting. On
some projects, dedicated downlight
accents on the center of each table serve
to avoid harsh or unpleasant shadows on
the faces of patrons by bouncing a warm
glow off the table. Light pink or amber
dichroic color filters also help to give the
light a softer and more pleasing effect.
Many layers of lighting ideas and
approaches help make a restaurant successful.
Restaurant tables could be
downlighted with individual sources
from overhead. Decorative chandeliers
and internally lit architectural elements
might be used to provide a warm, ambient
glow. Accent lighting on architectural
details or decor provides visual interest,
while a single primary image or feature
might be brightly lit to provide a
central focus. The key is that no single
approach alone can be successful. A well
thought-out system of lighting solutions
should be combined to create a stunning
Oh What A Circus!
In Le Cirque 2000, interior designer
Adam Tihany’s central image for the
restaurant was “a new Ferrari set in the
middle of a beautiful Italian Palazzo.”
The challenge: To accent the surreal interior
and enhance the existing architecture.
Paul Gregory and Adam Tihany’s
solution: “Use the new architectural elements
as light sources to create highlights
and a lovely ambient glow without
altering the existing architecture.” The
result: People look wonderful in Le
Cirque, just as a diamond looks wonderful
on black velvet. Faces seem to sparkle
and the combination of old and new
architectural elements creates the background
to show them off.
The use of architectural elements as
light sources is seen throughout the
restaurant, beginning with the striking
entrance area. The brightly lit circus tent
structure hides 24 MR16 fixtures, which
illuminate both the tent and the mosaic
vaults at the entry. This creates a stunning
first look upon entering the space.
The Gold Room Bar features four
torcheres made from stainless steel and
white fabric; the internal illumination
spreads a warm, ambient light throughout
the room. Eleven different fixtures
are hidden in each torchere, including
four hidden in the top of each flame,
adding a color accent at the top of the
room and projecting light up onto the
decorative ceiling. The torcheres support
two ellipses of dimmable colored neon.
Suspended above this structure, an internally
illuminated clock slowly moves
from one corner of the room to the
other—patrons eat and mingle “as time
There are five different effects involved
in the lighting of the bar itself. First, fiber
optic backlighting emanates from the
sandblasted glass panels from both the
bar front and the back bar wall area. The
use of crumpled gold foil behind the
glass gives sparkle and life to the front
glass at the base of the bar and the
patrons seated nearby. Next, the front
half of the glass bar top is uplighted with
LD+A/April 1999 55
MR11 lamps placed in the footrests. The
back half of the bar top is underlighted
by amber-gelled fluorescents, giving it a
warmer tone than the front half of the
bar top. This creates a nice delineating
line down the center of the glass bar top.
The light also punches through the glass
of the space
the extraordinary mosaic and marble
ceiling; they are hidden within a custombuilt
box, hidden on the second floor
Le Cirque 2000 is truly a successful
marriage of landmark architecture and
innovative interior design, held together
The same basic design approaches are
implemented on other projects, with
results as stunningly unique as the owners
Missouri Loves Company
Another recent successful restaurant
opened recently in Kansas City: Lidia’s,
created by Lidia Bafgianich of Felidia’s in
New York, with architecture and interior
design by David Rockwell.
In Lidia’s, the same design principles
were employed, but in quite different
ways. Here, the challenge was to create
the comfortable atmosphere of an Italian
country home inside a Kansas City
freight house. The designers and archi-
internally lit by a cluster of torpedo
lamps, and externally accented by colored
MR16 track fixtures with snoots to
reduce glare. To simplify maintenance,
all lamps are 50 W MR16 spots. Spread
lenses are used if required.
Repeating pilasters along each side
wall are accented by two PAR30 bullets
from above and two PAR20 lamps integrated
within each base. Glowing art
glass sconces on the walls are lighted
from within. The hanging wine displays
are lighted by a single framing projector,
providing a crisp image of the bottles on
the scrim-like backing of the display.
Here the dining tables are lighted softly
by PAR38 downlights suspended from
the ceiling. The 120 W lamps are
dimmed below 50 percent, providing
increased lamp life and a warm glow.
Two-circuit track mounted to the sides of
roof trusses allows for flexibility while
providing multiple locations from which
to highlight architectural features, displays,
bar top in the two colors, creating a
beautiful mixture of theatrical uplight on
the faces of the patrons. The shelves at
the back bar are frontlit from above with
small halogen sources, adding dimension
and sparkle to the bottles and glassware.
In the Madison Room, the primary
sources of ambient light are uplighting
on the ornate ceiling and backlighting on
the sandblasted glass panels at the doorways
and throughout the room. The
clean and elegant aqua light complements
the gold detail in this room, which
is in turn accented by uplighting on the
Table lighting is enhanced by fixtures
attached to the banquettes, arching over
the seated patrons. The windows in this
room mandated that the lighting on the
ceiling and walls be bright during the
day to keep the ambient level up and the
contrast ratio acceptable.
The Great Hall best showcases the
contrast between the historic architecture
and the colorful, contemporary interior
design. Twenty pin spots highlight
Lidia’s in Kansas City has the feel of a comfortable Italian home. The blown glass chandeliers
add a strong colorful and visual charm and are internally lighted by a cluster of torpedo lamps and
externally accented by MR16 track fixtures.
tects worked together to highlight a
series of icons that conveyed Lidia’s passion
for Italian food, wine, and culture.
The first look as the viewer enters the
space is a dramatic one—-looking down
the length of the space at internally lighted
round “cask” wine displays at the end
wall. Blown glass “grappa bottle” chandeliers
are a strong and colorful visual
element as well. The chandeliers are
Accentuating these elements while
providing general warmth throughout
the space, a welcoming environment is
created for both patron and client.
Other restaurant projects which will
be discussed at the Restaurant Lighting
seminar include the Samba Grill at the
Mirage Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas,
and Ruby Foo’s Pan-Asian Restaurant
and Nobu Next Door in New York City.
56 LD+A/April 1999
As technology advances, design professionals
must be adept in using the latest tools.
Emlyn G. Altman provides insight into the
latest software design packages and how you can
pick the one right for you.
Monday, May 10. 1999 9:00am – 4:00pm
ers are used from drafting construction
documents to creating photo-realistic
Yet how much do designers really
explore the potential of using computers
in lighting design Computers
enable designers to calculate lighting
levels quantitatively, “re-present”
designs qualitatively, repeat common
elements quickly and efficiently, and
help make modifications easier and less
The computer is a tool, much like the
pencil and, like pencils that have different
leads, sizes, and colors, there are
dozens of computer software applications
for lighting design alone. The challenge
is to find the right “lead” for the
job. “Lite-Bytes: Lighting Design for the
21st Century” will demonstrate how to
use the computer as an effective and efficient
design tool. With this tool, it is possible
to predict accurate results of lighting
designs—not just create an image of
how you want the space to look, but
rather how it will look. This doesn’t
mean that we give up our traditional
design tools; we supplement them with
another tool: the computer.
The most valuable suggestion I can
offer when using the computer as a
design tool is to think ahead. This simple
process allows you to consider
shortcuts and avoid having to redo
work which saves time and money in
the long run.
There are many important questions
to consider before purchasing software.
What type of system do you use
How well a lighting application
solves problems depends on the computer
one uses. Software applications
are limited by specific computer
requirements such as the operating system,
memory, processing speed, and
the graphics card on your computer. It
is important to understand what your
system can handle before purchasing
lighting design software.
Currently, most lighting design applications
run on PC platforms but Power
Mac users also have the opportunity to
use system emulation software to run
some Unix and PC applications.
Once you know that the software is
compatible with your computer, you
then need to know the minimum and
As the 21st Century approaches, new
developments in computer technologies
are influencing much of the
world around us. This is especially true
in the design profession where comput-
A greyscale rendering of a typical office space created with lighting design software (image created by
LD+A/April 1999 57
It is possible to achieve photo-realistic images with photometrically correct lighting by using a
computer as a design tool. This video conferencing room was calculated with IES photometric data
using Lightscape (image created by Emlyn G. Altman).
optimum system requirements the lighting
software needs to function properly.
Although any software will function
with the minimum requirements of
RAM (Random Access Memory) and
processing speed, it will have noticeably
improved performance to go a step or
more above the minimum system
What type of work do you do
Choosing the software which best
fits the job is an important consideration
when using computer-aided
design. Often, it is not merely a matter
of choosing one software application,
since it’s difficult to find a single program
that perfectly fulfills all needs. As
a lighting designer who works on many
different types of projects, including
interior spaces and site lighting, I
sometimes use three or four different
lighting programs on a single project.
Which program I use depends on
which software best suits the type of
calculations I need to perform and the
end result I want. For instance, when
working on exterior site lighting layouts,
I use software whose strengths
include the ability to use exterior luminaire
photometrics, a solar calculator
and a geographic locator.
58 LD+A/April 1999
What results will your client
This is probably the most important
question to ask yourself before beginning
a lighting study. Answering it
before you undertake the design will
often save headaches later on. Know
your client, hear and address his or her
Designers need to consider how the
design should be presented for the client
to best understand the concept. Some
clients are confused by photo-realism.
(“Is the carpet really that blue”) Others
want numbers. Your task as a designer is
to design a lighting layout that you know
fulfills the client’s expectations and conveys
your ideas in a way that proves to
the client that your solution will work.
One of the greatest strengths a computer
can offer is that it can help “represent”
your design idea in different
ways for the client to visualize. Before
computers, the primary means to simulate
lighting designs were either to
create full-scale mock-ups of the space
or smaller, hand-held scale models.
Full-scale mockups add time and
money costs. Tangible models keep the
viewer on the outside looking into the
space instead of understanding what
the experience of standing in the space
would be like in reality. Depending on
the software, the computer not only
allows the viewer to “stand” inside the
space but it gives multiple ways to
interpret the same data.
What do you want to calculate
Identify the end product and start
from there. If you have ever seen a theatrical
stage set or went on a behindthe-scenes
tour of a movie studio,
you’ll notice they are only facades. Set
designers build only what the viewer
will see. Building more than that
requires more time, money, and effort
for something that is superfluous to the
understanding of the idea. The same is
true with lighting designs. If you’re not
going to see it, don’t construct it! That
way you have less work for yourself
and for the computer.
Think simply, yet creatively. A lighting
model does not need every little detail
described in order to give good results. It
is more time-efficient to start with a simple
massing model to achieve the generally
desired results, and then add more
details to the model as the design
demands them. In other words, even the
most complex design can have a simple
way to calculate the solution.
The reason to model only the essential
elements is because the amount of time
required to calculate the result is directly
affected by the size of the model itself.
The more information the computer has
to take into account, the larger the file
Composite of point-by-point numerical values
and iso-footcandle contours (image created by
Emlyn G. Altman).
size. Consequently, it takes the computer
longer to calculate the results.
Computers are like people—when
they get overloaded with work, they
break down (or crash). This results in
delays and possibly having to recreate
the model from scratch. It is important to
know the limitations of your computer
and the software before you start. It will
save you time and frustrations in the
Two major components comprise this
program. The first half (9 a.m. to 12
noon) is a general seminar elaborating
the issues mentioned here. The course
will focus on how to use the computer
effectively and efficiently as a design tool
and what features a designer should consider
before purchasing lighting software.
We will compare the benefits and
drawbacks of using massing models vs
photo-realistic models when using the
computer as a design tool. I will also
show specific examples of projects where
the type of computer analysis was determined
by the needs of the project.
The second half (1 to 4 p.m.) is a
“mini-exhibition hall” format where
attendees can view demonstrations by
software companies of the hottest lighting
design software. It is a great opportunity
to try the software hands-on.
The participating companies (software)
at this workshop will be:
Columbia Lighting (LitePro); Cooper
Lighting (Luxicon 2.2); Discreet Logic
(Light* [formerly Lightscape]); Heschong
Mahone Group (SkyCalc); Lawrence
Berkeley Laboratory (Radiance);
Lighting Technologies (Lumen Micro,
Simply Indoor, Simply Outdoor, Simply
Roadway); Lithonia Lighting (Visual
2.0); LTB-Soft (Let There Be Light); and
LuxArt (Microlux98). A comprehensive
matrix listing features of these software
applications will be provided for all
attendees to this program.
When you go into a client’s home, there are
a lot of factors to consider. In her seminar
“Residential Lighting Design,” Sarah Gibson talks
about the differences between lighting someone’s home
and someone’s workplace and the importance
of the designer/client relationship.
Thursday, May 13, 1999 8:30–10:00 a.m
In my five years as a lighting designer, design as well as a few special details, a
I have primarily worked on high-end spectacular result can leave the client
custom residential projects. I have had overjoyed and proud.
my share of commercial projects, but I have a tendency to become
residential projects have a completely wrapped up in the lives of my residential
clients, especially with the new
different flavor. The nature of residential
projects can be more fuzzy, touchyfeely,
and soft with regard to presenta-
time frame. Because the client is emo-
construction projects because of the
tion and concept.
tionally involved in the project, he or
The design process can be lengthy and she is generally very concerned about
fraught with revisions. Nevertheless, the every item that is part and parcel to this
result can produce such dramatic and new environment you are helping to
emotive responses that the fuzziness and create. This allows the opportunity to
the frustration just melt away. In the end, develop trust and camaraderie with the
through sound relationships, solid end user—something that is rarely
available in commercial projects.
Of course, every project is different and
so are the clients. Some clients will be
very private and some will be very open
to share their lives with you. Finding the
balance and understanding your residential
clients’ needs is what makes or breaks
a good residential project.
Working to create sound relationships
with other players helps the project
along as well. Communication is the
name of the game in all construction
projects regardless of project type. The
final product is only as good as the documents
represent. Having a sound concept
that is well communicated, both
graphically and verbally, is half the battle.
The other half is making sure that
the concept is understood and properly
built by the various trades people
involved. The only way to ensure quality
is to be available to the contractor,
electrician, and other installers that
impact your design.
Regardless of the relationships developed,
the lighting design is the actual
tool that can enhance the beauty and
functionality of the residence. Residences
are dynamic environments, just
60 LD+A/April 1999
Highlighting structural elements within a room
can bring added warmth to a client’s home.
like the people who inhabit them. To
echo this multi-tasked environment the
lighting must also be multi-functional.
The best way to accommodate this is to
“layer” the lighting. A combination of
applications—downlights, wall washing,
coves, decorative fixtures—should
Architectural features provide wonderful
opportunities for lighting applications
as well. Identifying a shape or a
geometric form with light gives depth
and dimension to the space that otherwise
would have been flat.
Control systems are THE way to provide
an even greater depth to the home.
Control systems these days have become
intensely sophisticated, and it is the residential
client who has been clamoring
for this sophistication. Certainly, the
level and type of control should be commensurate
with the comfort level of the
client. Perhaps the user requires simple
wallbox dimmers as opposed to a computer-driven
whole house dimming/control
system. Whichever version suits the
client best, it is paramount that the lighting
designer be an integral part of the
process to select, design, and program
As in many cases, the lighting is the
Layers of lighting are useful to match
the moods of the individuals who will be
inhabiting these personal spaces.
last issue to be resolved on the drafting
board, especially in residential projects.
Residential clients deserve more
In “Residential Lighting Design,” we
will examine the various relationships
and the process of design necessary to a
residential project. Applications will be
highlighted by slides of project examples
and field anecdotes.
After this seminar, I propose that you,
the conscientious lighting designer, will
take hold of the responsibility to develop
an exceptional design that will serve the
project well, as well as excite your client.
At the Villa in Acapulco, Mexico, all the stops
were pulled out to make this home away from
home a memorable experience for the client and
his family. Custom made lanterns (top) and an
imported entry pagoda (bottom) made this
home an unforgettable project.
62 LD+A/April 1999
Barbara Bouyea will once again host a panel
of electrical contractors in a lively talk show format
to candidly discuss the ins and outs of budgeting
when it comes to lighting.
Wednesday, May 12, 1999 2:00–3:30 p.m.
Since last year’s edition of “Light for deducting fixtures from the project
Channel” was such a success, we’ve Are you really charging extra for hanging
decided to do it again at LIGHTFAIR that decorative fixture Why wasn’t that
included in the original proposal if it was
The featured panel of contractors will on the drawings How can lighting consultants
be sure their clients are getting a
be asked to bid two to three projects with
various lighting and dimming components.
We will review the initial bids of
the three electrical firms to discuss how
the bids were calculated and compare
different features of each firm’s bids. This The better
year the bids will not only be on the
screen but distributed as handouts. the audience,
Those participating in the sold-out
crowd last year asked some great and the better
pointed questions. In fact, two of our
electrical contractors were so responsive
and enjoyable, we have asked them for a
so come to
repeat performance (Harry Grace of
Current Electric and Jerry Wade of Wade participate.
Electric). Our third contractor to join the
panel this year will be David Grifty of We expect this
LERA Electric. These gentlemen will
provide our audience with perspectives to again
from knowledgeable firms that are small
to large in size, union versus non-union, be a
and all three have residential and commercial
After the review of initial proposals,
we will discuss cost saving measures
when the proposals are too high for the
client’s budget. (I’m sure none of us have
ever had this experience!)
When lighting consultants provide the
This is always the exciting part of the contractor with detailed plans, specifications
for lighting and dimming, and cut
discussions and questions: labor vs.
equipment! Is it really less labor to install sheets of fixture types, we expect our
a residential grade fixture vs. an architectural
grade fixture Is a small, localized often, the estimator only counts open-
client to receive a thorough bid. All too
dimming system really more expensive ings and gives counts to his distributor
to install than wall box dimmers when along with schedules and never really
they are wired in the same manner Why realizes what he will be installing until
are we not receiving 100 percent credit the job begins. Should the contractor
and distributor provide alternates to the
owner without including the consultant
in the loop How can this be avoided
Better relationships and communication
between the consultant and the electrical
contractor so they work as a team can
really be effective.
It is wonderful to have a working relationship
with an electrical contractor
who realizes your expectations and
understands how your schedules and
plans coordinate, and how the consultant
expects certain details to be coordinated
and installed. A contractor who
realizes that we want accuracy on the
dimensions, want him available at the
job site on our construction visits, and
want and expect his crew to be involved
at the final focus and adjustment of the
lights is a valuable find indeed!
At the end of a project, costs have
increased and budgets have typically
been exceeded, so not having any surprise
electrical costs helps in giving the
end user a more positive electrical experience.
Let’s discuss having focus and adjustment
built in as a line item on the contractor’s
proposal. Let’s discuss not having
decorative fixtures as extras but
included in that initial proposal.
This year hopefully we will have “mic
runners” (short for “microphone runners”)
stationed throughout the audience
to allow for quicker questions and allowing
everyone to hear the initial questions
This seminar is for you. Come with
questions, horror stories, ideas, but most
of all a great attitude for obtaining knowledge
in an atmosphere that should be fun
The three electrical contractors are
talkative, honest about how they price,
will give straight answers (that we may
love or hate), but at least we will hear the
truth! The better the audience, the better
the panel, so come to participate. We
expect this to again be a sold-out seminar.
Our goal is for those participating in
this year’s talk show to leave feeling they
made a good choice by attending
because they obtained great information
for future use. Most importantly, we
want the attendees to have fun and look
forward to attending again next year!
See you at Light Channel!
LD+A/April 1999 63
In 1989 a new trade show took the lighting industry by storm.
Editor Mark A. Newman delves into the past to see how
and why LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL became
the lighting world’s pre-eminent event.
When LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL returns to
San Francisco May 10–13, it will celebrate its
tenth year as the largest architectural and commercial
lighting trade show in North America with the
largest architectural and commercial lighting conference
program in the world. LIGHTFAIR is a by-product of the
ever-evolving lighting industry—a renowned event that fills
a much-needed niche. The event is co-owned by the IESNA,
The International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD),
and Atlanta-based trade show management company, AMC,
Inc. AMC is responsible for producing and managing the
event every year.
LIGHTFAIR provides a unique opportunity that brings
lighting professionals together to view their industry on
national and international levels, according to IESNA
President Jody Good. “It lets designers and specifiers compare
notes in a unique venue and also get a chance to see the
latest and greatest product innovations,” he said.
LIGHTFAIR has definitely come a long
way in a short time. Many who
were there when the
event was in the
still find it hard to
believe it’s only been
10 years. “Not only
am I surprised, but it
doesn’t feel like a
decade,” Gary Steffy
said. Steffy was IALD
President when LIGHT-
FAIR was launched and
was integral in its formation.
“It’s wonderful that the
show has remained fresh and
robust after all these years.”
A Bright Idea in Atlanta
In 1989, AMC was trying to
launch a regional lighting
show called Southern Lights.
The original plan was to
have a fairly small trade
show with only 60 to 80
booths in the hopes of
attracting 2000 to 3000
specifiers from throughout
AMC’s Libby Morley
and Susan McCart
were in the process
of organizing Southern
Spiers told them to contact
the IESNA. In subsequent
meetings with IESNA Executive Vice President
William Hanley, it was noted that IESNA could not offer its
resources since Southern Lights would be in competition
with Lighting World International which the IESNA was
However, both associations envisioned a trade show that
would benefit the lighting industry.
“We needed to go into newer, fresher territory,” Steffy
said. “With LIGHTFAIR we created a lighting show that
would be driven by the lighting industry rather than the
trade show industry.”
The IESNA and the IALD invited a number of trade
show organizers to discuss the viability of creating an
industry-friendly show. Among those companies, AMC
The very first LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL brochure (left) and the
most recent (above).
LD+A/April 1999 65
was more than happy to oblige and helped organize a trade
show with international appeal.
Thus, LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL was born.
Let There be LIGHTFAIR...
The first LIGHTFAIR took place April 10–12, 1990 at the
New York Hilton. It was the first small step for the event. The
premise behind LIGHTFAIR was to develop a lighting trade
show created by the lighting industry for the lighting industry.
“LIGHTFAIR is like a breath of fresh air,” Good said. “The
transition to LIGHTFAIR was virtually seamless.” According
to Good, LIGHTFAIR is “more focused on education and on
a commercial and technical perspective.”
LIGHTFAIR is unique because the professional organizations
who sponsor it are also the owners, according to IALD
Chairman Philip Gabriel. “While many professions have
conferences and many industries have trade shows, the lighting
industry has both in LIGHTFAIR,” Gabriel said. “And
since the IESNA and the IALD are part owners, it gives the
event much more prestige than other industry shows.”
To make LIGHTFAIR more beneficial to the industry it
served, two advisory boards were put into place—-the
Conference Advisory Board and the Exhibitor Advisory
Board. The Exhibitor Advisory Board identified the appropriate
format to showcase new products and address the
needs of manufacturers. The Conference Advisory Board was
charged with developing an educational program to explore
issues that affect lighting professionals and others in the
In 1996 the New Product Showcase Advisory Committee
joined the other two committees. The committee was
created once it became obvious that the New Product
Showcase was going to be a permanent part of LIGHT-
FAIR. In 1998 a jury of lighting professionals was added to
help select the best new products.
Manufacturers were delighted at being included in
LIGHTFAIR’s planning stages. One manufacturer’s rep stated
in 1990 that if exhibitors have a say in molding LIGHTFAIR’s
direction, then the results will be of greater commercial success
to them. Another manufacturer applauded the Exhibitor
Advisory Committee stating that it provided a voice manufacturers
never had at other trade shows.
The original plan was to hold LIGHTFAIR every other year
on a grand, international scale in New York. During the alternating
years, the show would be held on the west coast or in
the mid-west. In even-numbered years it was held in New
York and alternated with Chicago and San Francisco.
Currently, LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL alternates
between New York, Las Vegas, and San Francisco.
Off and Running
The March 1991 LIGHTFAIR in Chicago attracted over
8000 attendees, over 140 exhibitors, and featured more than
20 seminars and workshops. That same month, LIGHTFAIR
had already sold 52 percent of its exhibitor space at the Jacob
Javits Convention Center for the 1992 event, representing
over 100 companies.
After only three years, it appeared that LIGHTFAIR INTER-
LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL provides attendees with a
plethora of activities ranging from checking out the latest technological
developments to networking with past and potential business
associates and friends. (top) From the 1995 event in Chicago at
McCormick Place, OSRAM SYLVANIA’s booth draws plenty of attention.
(middle) GE’s booth at the 1996 LIGHTFAIR in San Francisco
was a launching pad for many new products.
(bottom) Registration is in full swing at the 1996 event.
66 LD+A/April 1999
NATIONAL had surpassed its competition by shrewdly listening
to the lighting industry’s needs. Don Thomas, 1990-
1991 IESNA President, attributed the show’s success to the
commitment of both the IESNA and the IALD to an industry
that continues to evolve both technically and artistically. “We
not only track trends, we initiate them,” he said in April
1991. “That concept is the LIGHTFAIR concept.”
Apparently, this concept is one that manufacturers who
exhibit at LIGHTFAIR also embrace. “Prescolite•Moldcast
finds the quantity—and especially the quality—of floor traffic
very good indeed,” Don Emmons, president of Prescolite•Moldcast,
said about the 1998 event. “We were able to
successfully launch new products and generate hundreds of
worthwhile leads for post-show follow-up.”
With LIGHTFAIR 1991 in Chicago, the IESNA and the
IALD were official, on-the-record event co-sponsors.
Attendance was up from 6700 in 1990 to 7200 in 1991.
LIGHTFAIR 1992 in New York saw attendance numbers
hit the five-digit mark for the first time with 11,000 attendees
and 255 exhibitors, almost double the number from
the previous year.
The event really hit its stride in San Francisco in 1993
by hosting many more attendees than anticipated; 9500
lighting professionals came from every state and 38 foreign
countries. The educational seminars continued to
gain momentum with the largest number of seminar tickets
sold to that date and five sessions sold out completely.
The most popular session was “The Truth About
Electronic Ballasts” which had 468 attendees.
The 1993 New Product Showcase had 800 people on
hand. This was the first year Craig Roeder served as a co-presenter.
No doubt Roeder’s unforgettable presentation style
kept attendees “coming back for more” in subsequent years.
He would continue to be a co-presenter for the Showcase
until the 1997 event. Roeder was awarded a Certificate of
Appreciation for his five years of dedication to the New
Product Showcase in 1998, just prior to his untimely death
that June. The Roeder Award has been established in his
honor for 1999.
When LIGHTFAIR migrated back east to New York in
1994, attendance continued to soar at 12,000. This was also
the first year that the Best Booth Awards were presented to
exhibiting manufacturers. Also that year, LD+A sponsored
the Product Demonstration Pavilion in the Javits Center
LIGHTFAIR 1994 also saw seminar tracks sponsored by
industry publications. The publications received more exposure
than in previous years via speaker introductions, publicity
in event marketing promotions, on-site signage, and publication
distribution at seminars. Publications that have sponsored
seminar tracks include LD+A, Lighting Dimensions, Energy
User News, Visual Merchandising & Store Design, Architectural
Record Lighting, and Architectural Lighting, among others.
In 1995 LIGHTFAIR was back in the Windy City at
McCormick Place. Three specialized pavilions were set up
on the exhibition floor and were dedicated to Decorative
Lighting, International Lighting, and Lighting Components
and Accessories. This new plan was a hit with exhibitors
who liked the idea of grouping and promoting similar products
together and was a departure from the traditional “boutique”
style of merchandising.
The 1995 event also saw the debut of the Litecontrol Fun
Run to benefit the Nuckolls Fund for Lighting Education. The
Nuckolls Fund was named after Jim Nuckolls, one of the first
practicing architectural lighting designers in the U.S. The fund
supports college-level lighting programs that inspire students
with an understanding of light in architecture. Currently, the
Fun Run takes place at the IESNA Annual Conference.
LIGHTFAIR 1996 in San Francisco was the first year
that the event was hailed as the “world’s largest architectural
and commercial lighting conference program,”
according to AMC’s Renee Gable, Conference Director.
“This was also the first year of the Pre-Show Conference
which consisted of four workshops taking place prior to
the opening of the trade show and conference program.
Opportunities abound for manufacturers to sponsor a variety of events
at LIGHTFAIR. (right) At LIGHTFAIR 1996 in San Francisco, Philips
Lighting sponsored the banners on the shuttle buses while also
promoting the use of their products at UnderWater World. (below) Just
a few of the 12,000 attendees registering at the 1995 Chicago event.
This allowed for more in-depth educational training.”
In 1997, LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL had the biggest
attendance record in its history—over 15,500 lighting professionals
made the trek to the Big Apple.
When the event debuted in Las Vegas the following year,
over 14,200 people attended, the largest number for the
event outside New York and 3000 more attendees than the
event’s previous alternating venue of Chicago. Over 394
lighting manufacturers exhibited in over 1000 booths. The
largest number of seminar tickets were sold in the history of
the event, with 12 sold out seminars. The official LIGHT-
FAIR website, www.lightfair.com, also debuted in 1998.
The New Product Showcase evolved by adding a jury of
four renowned lighting professionals to select awards. In
addition to the Best New Product of the Year Award, four
new awards were presented: the Technical Innovation
Award, Design Excellence Award, Energy Award, and
Category Innovator Awards.
San Francisco Treats
The 1999 event in San Francisco will also see some new
additions as LIGHTFAIR celebrates 10 years of lighting
industry excellence. The Image Awards will be presented to
exhibitors that demonstrate pre-event marketing excellence.
“We’re always looking for ways to increase the event’s
value to exhibitors,” AMC’s Libby Morley, LIGHTFAIR Show
Director, said. “The Image Awards will encourage exhibitors
to reap as many rewards as possible from LIGHTFAIR by
promoting the event more among the industry. After all, the
event has improved over the years because of suggestions
from the industry itself, and that’s not going to change.”
With 36 seminars and 4 workshops, this will be the biggest
conference program in the event’s history and 1999 will
mark the first year that the entire conference program will
have AIA, ASID, IIDA, and IESNA accreditation, according
to Gable. “This is great news for those professionals who
realize how important continuing education is in an industry
that depends on technology that is never static.” These
CEU credits can be used for LEU (Lighting Education Units)
credits for the NCQLP’s LC recertification credential.
“Camaraderie and networking are very significant aspects
of LIGHTFAIR, but for me education is the number one
attraction,” Steffy said. “LIGHTFAIR is the single largest
resource I have as a lighting designer to learn about the
newest technology and their applications. The knowledge I
gain at the educational seminars is immeasurable.”
Both the IALD and the IESNA will be holding events that
highlight their lighting design awards programs.
On Wednesday evening, the IALD will have its 16th
Annual Awards Presentation and Dinner at the San Francisco
War Memorial Opera House. The Opera House was recently
renovated with an entirely new lighting scheme that won a
1998 International Illumination Design Award (IIDA) Edwin
F. Guth Memorial Award of Excellence for its refurbished
auditorium and main chandelier (which was featured in the
April 1998 LD+A). Later that night, the Opera House will be
the site of the IALD Education Trust Benefit.
On Thursday afternoon at 12:15, LIGHTFAIR attendees
can learn about the IESNA’s IIDA program at the IESNA
International Illumination Design Awards Luncheon
Seminar at the Moscone Center. The seminar will be conducted
by Jim Zastovnik and IIDA Committee Chair Don
Newquist. This is an ideal opportunity to learn how to
enter a design project in this world-renowned design program,
currently in its 26th year. Not only are the top award
recipients featured in LD+A, but many of the Awards of
Merit find their way into the magazine as well.
The first seminar to kick off the educational conference is
the New Product Showcase and Awards Presentation on
Tuesday, May 11 at 8:00 a.m. New products commercially
introduced in the last year will be presented in a multi-media
format featuring slides, video presentations, and descriptions
of each product. The presentation will showcase new developments,
designs, engineering improvements, line expansions,
trends, applications, and more. Categories include
Architectural, Ballasts/Transformers, Commercial Interior,
Components, Controls, Decorative Interior, Exterior Prod-
68 LD+A/April 1999
ucts, Lamps, Specialty, Theatrical/Entertainment, and
“The New Product Showcase and Awards Presentation
continues to evolve with the addition of two new awards: the
Judges’ Citation Award and the Roeder Award,” Gable said.
“Manufacturers overwhelmingly agree that the New
Products Showcase—and LIGHTFAIR as a whole—provides
an ideal launching pad for new products.”
The Judges Citation Award recognizes product excellence
at the judges’ discretion. The Roeder Award recognizes a
product that exemplifies the dedication, commitment to
excellence, use of color, and outrageous sense of fun reminiscent
of the late Craig Roeder.
“Participation in LIGHTFAIR has been the catalyst to .hessamerica’s
overwhelming success in the architectural lighting
market,” said Terry O’Toole, Vice President and General
Manager of .hessamerica. “It provides an ideal venue for new
product introductions to a specific audience. No other show
has the impact or effectiveness of LIGHTFAIR.”
Happy Birthday LIGHTFAIR!
As LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL celebrates its tenth
year, there are several special events for attendees to take
part in while visiting San Francisco.
On Tuesday, May 11, the New Product Showcase takes
place at 8 a.m. Afterwards, the Exhibit Hall is officially
opened with a tenth anniversary ribbon cutting ceremony at
the Exhibit Hall Entrance at the Moscone Convention
Center. Attendees are invited to join representatives from the
IESNA, IALD, and AMC for this special milestone.
Tuesday afternoon, attendees and exhibitors are invited to
attend the 10th Anniversary Cocktail Reception at the
Moscone Center from 4 to 6 p.m. This is a thank you to all
those within the industry who have supported LIGHTFAIR
over the past decade. Welcoming speeches will be made by
Good, Gabriel, and world-renowned architect John C.
Portman. Complimentary wine, beer, and hors d’oeuvres will
accompany a cake-cutting ceremony with musical entertainment
Later that night attendees can attend LIGHTFAIR’s
Birthday Bash at Bimbo’s 365 Club. For only $75, attendees
can celebrate 10 years of lighting industry excellence in style.
Whether you have cocktails in the Continental Lounge, the
Flambeau Terrace, or dance the night away in the Main Show
Room, you will definitely want to be at this party. Located in
scenic North Beach, Bimbo’s 365 Club was called “one of the
most plush and dramatically lit dance music spaces in the
country” by The Chicago Tribune.
The Nuckolls Fund will benefit from a special event at
LIGHTFAIR in San Francisco with the addition of the San
Francisco Bay Walk sponsored by Belfer Lighting in memory
of Craig Roeder. His humorous and unique outlook always
made the New Products Showcase a very memorable presentation.
The walk starts at the San Francisco Marriott, continues
down to Market Street down to the Embarcadero, on to
Pier 39, and then back to the Marroitt where a light, healthy
breakfast will be served.
Headed for the Future
As the millennium approaches and a new era dawns,
LIGHTFAIR will no doubt continue to play a major role in
the lighting industry just as it does today.
“As businesses become more national and less regional,
manufacturers are finding it difficult to maintain a regional
presence and are forced into national prominence,” Good
said. “Specifiers and designers are working all over the world
and an opportunity like LIGHTFAIR allows effective growth
for both manufacturers and end users.”
LIGHTFAIR has been a phenomenon because of the
industry it serves and the IESNA/IALD sponsorship,
according to Morley. “When your name is on the door, you
really roll up your shirtsleeves,” she said. “To have IESNA
and IALD associated with the event is why LIGHTFAIR is
so successful. Their hands-on management has made the
event grow and thrive because they are steering the event
that serves their members.”
When the millennium arrives, LIGHTFAIR 2000 will be
back in New York City—the place where it all began.
Anticipation is already building among the lighting community.
“We’re very excited about next year in New York City
for the millennium,” IALD’s Gabriel said. “It gives us another
reason to party all over again.”
“We couldn’t have planned it better,” Morley said of
LIGHTFAIR 2000. “It’s a fitting and appropriate venue
because New York is our largest market and I can’t think of
a better place to kick off the second decade and the next century
of LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL.”
When talk of LIGHTFAIR’s future takes place, two words
come to Hanley’s lips: bigger and better. “We want to make
LIGHTFAIR even bigger than it is, yet somehow keep the
‘small town’ atmosphere and community feeling,” he said.
“And we hope to make it better by enhancing the best that
LIGHTFAIR has to offer.”
When the 1999 LIGHTFAIR draws to a close, you may
have left your heart in San Francisco, but the camaraderie and
the education you’ll gain will stay with you for a lifetime.
LIGHTFAIR & LD+A: A Dynamic Duo
When LIGHTFAIR was still in its infancy, the February 1991 LD+A was almost
entirely devoted to LIGHTFAIR held in March at Chicago’s Merchandise Mart.
This issue set the stage for subsequent issues of LD+A.
Since then, every year LD+A has devoted a large portion of an issue
to LIGHTFAIR immediately prior to the event. For example, in this issue,
not only do we have this feature on the history of LIGHTFAIR, but we
also have five seminar preview articles, and an Essay by Invitation
by Stan Walerczyk and Brooks Sheiffer which discusses another
Last year, to commemorate LIGHTFAIR’s Las Vegas debut,
LD+A not only devoted a large portion of the April issue to a preview,
but the May issue was
devoted to lighting in Las
Vegas. This was the first
time in the magazine’s 28
year history that a single
issue has been devoted
to a single city. There were actually
attendees who only decided to go to LIGHT-
FAIR once they received the May issue.
Look for an issue devoted to New York City next year to
mark LIGHTFAIR’s return to the Big Apple in 2000.
LD+A is the official directory for LIGHTFAIR INTERNA-
TIONAL and has been since 1993. For the third consecutive
year LD+A is also sponsoring a seminar track at
LIGHTFAIR. This year, LD+A is presenting the Energy
and Technology track.
70 LD+A/April 1999
Circle 100 on Reader Service Card.
Lumisource, Inc. has released its
“tower of light,” the Tatami torchiere.
Constructed of a pine wooden
frame and hand-woven reed
shade, the lamp emits a warm natural
glow. Available in two sizes, the
lamp measures 12 inches wide by
36 inches or 60 inches tall. It holds
one lamp up to 100 W.
Circle 99 on Reader Service Card.
Advance Transformer Co. introduces
a new magnetic ballast for
the operation of two 18 W and 26
W four-pin quad rapid start compact
fluorescent lamps. The ballasts fea-
ture a compact 8-1/2 inch can with
bottom-exit leads and studs for
junction box mounting. A white can
option with end leads is also available.
Also featured is a magnetic
lead circuit design, similar to that
used in ballasts for larger rapid start
lamps. The design provides constant
lamp current and ballast temperature.
Circle 97 on Reader Service Card.
Indecon, from Columbia Lighting,
is a new energy-efficient indirect
ceiling-pendant fluorescent luminaire
which acts to minimize glare
on VDT screens and in employee,
customer, or public spaces. The
luminaire’s housing is made of premium-grade
steel. One-, two-, and
three-lamp models are available.
The fluorescent tube is on onelamp
models. The middle tube on
three-lamp models is angled diagonally
to maintain consistent fixture
length. T8 linear fluorescent
tubes are standard and units are
wired for electronic and magnetic
Circle 96 on Reader Service Card.
Lightolier’s new Discus compact
fluorescent can be mounted in a
wide range of configurations: wallmount;
up/down wall-mount horizontal;
as an hanging pendant (with
shade option); and as an overhead
surface mount (also with shade
option). A reflector shade is available
to direct light downward and to
Circle 95 on Reader Service Card.
Circle 98 on Reader Service Card.
Tivoli Industries Inc.’s Paravision is an integrated illuminated surveillance
system combining pendant-mounted overhead downlighting with hidden
surveillance cameras in a low-scaled, architecturally designed unit.
Nondichroic MR16 long-life halogens are employed in a straight or arced
aluminum light tube. Each point of light is housed in an adjustable, aimable
spherical mount. Units can incorporate one or multiple miniature high-resolution
Artemide Inc. releases Ariel, a
shade lamp created by designer
Ron Rezick. Ariel is constructed for
both residential and commercial
interiors, offering a table model in
two sizes and a floor model. It features
a heavy die-cast metal base
with a matte nickel plating finish.
The upper conical shade and the
lower complementing rings are in
solid white, plasticized paper material.
Light sources are standard A19
white lamps, 60 W for the small
table model and 100 W for the large
table and floor models.
LD+A/April 1999 71
efficient source for display downlighting,
spotlighting, as well as
cove, soffit, step, and strip lighting.
It uses a 250 W metal halide.
Optional built-in computerized controls
provide custom operating
effects. Motorized color wheels provide
up to eight color changes in
the illuminated fibers.
Circle 94 on Reader Service Card.
LumiSource Inc. introduces the
Egg (pictured), the Caterpillar,
and the Cocoon lamps, designed
by Chad Jacobs. The Cocoon and
Egg are set in a steel stand and
constructed of a thick, frosted
white glass. The Caterpillar is
made of styrene diffuser and is
encompassed by either clear or
green acrylic disks adjoined with
a steel frame.
Circle 92 on Reader Service Card.
Curly Torpedo, a flexible fixture
from Tech Lighting, features a 6–60
inch length hand-bendable stem,
which is narrow and holds it shape.
The aerodynamic head holds an
MR16 and may be accessorized
with several customized shades.
Curly Torpedo is available for lowvoltage
systems, or for monopoint
or three-head canopies.
Circle 91 on Reader Service Card.
The Model 601 fiber optic illuminator
from Fiberstars is an energy-
Circle 89 on Reader Service Card.
Christopher Poehlmann’s Donald
table lamp features post-consumer
acrylic shades in two colors:
white and parchment. Inspired
by Donald Deskey’s modern
designs, the hand-turned maple
wood base adds elegance to this
reading and accent lamp.
Circle 93 on Reader Service Card.
From Donovan Lighting, comes
the circular metal Metro 1800
Pendant of either spun aluminum
or brass. The bottom dish holds a
difusser of perforated metal or
prismatic polycarbonate. The
plastic diffuser may or may not be
tinted. An optional anti-glare
diffuser is suggested for lower
installations. This fixture is available
as a stem, cord, or cord track
Circle 90 on Reader Service Card.
Excelite, Inc.’s contemporary design fluorescent chandelier provides
indirect/direct lighting for large architectural spaces. The luminaires use
compact fluorescent lamps. The luminous diffusers/reflectors are available
in various shapes and materials to complement ceiling structure, in
48 and 60 inch sizes.
72 LD+A/April 1999
halogen minicandelabra lamps, diffused
by a white fused, seeded, and
slumped glass shade. Custom
glass colors are available.
Circle 88 on Reader Service Card.
The 450 W Uni-Form pulse start
system from Venture Lighting produces
50,000 lm—equal to 400
W high pressure sodium—with a
performance life of 20,000 hours.
The Uni-Form system includes
lamps with medium and mogul
bases and standard and reduced
jackets in 50–450 W.
Circle 87 on Reader Service Card.
LaserMedia Inc.’s StingRay laser
system produces a mono-chromatic,
green laser beam, requiring only
a 110/220 V power source with no
water cooling. The compact
StingRay series of laser systems
are available in 4.95, 50, 100, and
150 mW versions.
Circle 85 on Reader Service Card.
Neidhardt, Inc. announces its new
901S wall sconce. Meant for use in
bathrooms, vanities, or hallways,
the sconce is 6 x 18 x 4 inches in
size. The sconce contains two 60 W
Circle 84 on Reader Service Card.
Ruud Lighting introduces glarefree
security lighting, the Circular
Ceiling/Soffit Mount Security light
(CE2 Series). The compact CE2
Series unit measures 8.9 inches in
diameter by 8.6 inches deep and
carries a five-year warranty. The
luminaire includes a choice of 50
or 70 W metal halide, 35–70 W
high pressure sodium, or 13 W fluorescent
Circle 86 on Reader Service Card.
The Watt Stopper, Inc. announces a
new line of control products, IRC,
using a control-without-wires
design and offering many options
for customizing lighting and power
control in workstations, offices, and
buildings. The IRC family consists
of transmitters (TW-2, TW-6, and
TH-6), receivers (RM-1 and RM-2),
and a control module (CS-200).