lightfair international - Illuminating Engineering Society

lightfair international - Illuminating Engineering Society




Express Yourself 32

Wallace G. Eley and David J. Young created a unique luminaire suggestive of

the office they were lighting. Satellite dishes become a part of the architecture

at the Bell Expressvu Inc. Broadcasting Center in North York, Ontario.

Tunnel Vision 36

Vladimir Lyszcynski and Dominique Alba add color

and psychedelic pizzazz to a Paris highway.

Basque Splendor 40

Paul A. Zaferiou and Enrique A. Rojas cross the Atlantic to contribute

their lighting design expertise to Frank Gehry’s monumental

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.

Golden Age 46

Satoshi Uchihara, Shiho Fujii, and Hiroki Yagi provide nighttime

ambience to the 600-year old Golden Pavilion in Kyoto, Japan.


Seminar Preview 50

Paul Gregory, Sarah Gibson, Barbara Bouyea, Emlyn Altman, Stan

Walerczyk, Brooks Sheifer, and Kristen Richards give us a sneak

peek at their seminars at LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 1999 in

San Francisco next month.


Conventional Wisdom 65

In 1989 a new trade show took the lighting industry by storm. Editor

Mark A. Newman delves into the past to see how and why


lighting world’s pre-eminent event.


3 Regional Voices

4 Essay By Invitation

10 Views on the Visual


14 Photons

27 IES News

71 Light Products

74 Progress Report

Invitation to Submit

77 Scheduled Events

78 Classified

APRIL 1999

VOL. 29/NO. 4


79 Photo Credits

80 Ad offices/Ad Index


ON THE COVER: The Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto,

Japan evokes the mysteries of the Far East. The design team

of Satoshi Uchihara, Shiho Fujii, and Hiroki Yagi received a

1998 IIDA Paul Waterbury Award of Excellence for Outdoor

Lighting. Photo: Kanji Nakayama and Kazuaki Hiraga.

2 LD+A/April 1999


Joseph Good III, LC

Principal, Lighting and Theater Design

Spectrum Professional Services, Inc

Past President

David Geyman, LC


Clark Engineers, SW, Inc.

Senior Vice President

Ian Lewin, Ph.D., FIES, LC


Lighting Sciences, Inc.

Executive Vice President

William Hanley, CAE

Vice President---Educational Activities

M. Clay Belcher

Architectural Engineering Department

University of Kansas

Vice President—-Member Activities

Mary Peyton

Director, Lighting Services

SmithDuncan Associates

Vice President—-Design & Application

Douglas Paulin

Product Manager

Ruud Lighting

Vice President—-Technical & Research

Richard G. Collins

Supervisor of the Photometry Laboratory



Randy Reid

Southeast Regional Manager

Robertson Transformer


Edwin W. Best

Chief Executive Officer

Dickens & Associates, Inc.

Ronnie Farrar

Lighting Specialist

Duke Power

Mary Beth Gotti

Manager, Lighting Education

GE Lighting

Pamela K. Horner, LC

Manager, Technical Training


Thomas C. Scott, LC

Southwestern Regional Manager

Winona Lighting

Martyn Timmings

Vice President, Market Development

Canlyte Inc.

Regional Vice Presidents/Directors

Jean Black

Senior Electrical Designer/Lighting Specialist

Brinjac, Kambic & Associates

A.J. Mazza


KME Consulting, LLC


Board of Directors

IES of North America

As I begin my first term as an

RVP, I look back to my 24

years as an IESNA member

and realize that the goals are still

the same, the members are still the

same, but the times have changed.

We now do lighting design by

computer, we communicate by

faxes and e-mail. Things move

faster and faster and we have less

time to devote to volunteering, to

families, and to ourselves.

To survive

in the


century we

must all


at keeping

the Society


and well.

But if we are to progress in life,

we must make time for the important

things. I have found that the

time I volunteer for the IESNA has

been time well spent. The educational

programs have helped me

in my lighting designs, and as

Education Co-Chair in the British

Columbia Section I have had the

satisfaction of seeing hundreds of

students take the ED-100 and ED-

150 courses. Many of the students

have gone on to do great things in

the lighting community.

With the advent of computer

technology, the lighting courses we

provide are even more important, so

that designers have a basic knowledge.

We need to maintain these

courses, keep them up to date, and

expand them where necessary.

We have had some wonderful

conferences over the years and if we

all work together, we can look

forward to many more wonderful

conferences. But, we have to work

smarter now. It takes a great deal of

work to arrange a conference and it

is only as good as its speaker

programs. That is the key to success.



When we had local regional conferences,

we were the only game in

the area. Even though there are

other ways to gain information, the

human contact and fellowship

cannot be duplicated. We must support

our local conferences and also

support the Annual Conference.

IESNA has many committees that

the membership is invited to be a

part of, so your voice can be heard

in fields where you are knowledgeable.

To survive in the coming

century we must all work at keeping

the Society alive and well. Many of

you can look back at your last 24

years or longer and say it’s been a

rewarding experience.

I hope to enjoy our IESNA associations

as much as possible, which

is why I became an RVP; I wanted to

return something to the Society. So

I guess it’s that old saying: “What

can I do for the Society, not what

can it do for me.”

We all know what it can do for

us—keep us up to date on new

developments, provide educational

programs, inform and entertain us

through LD+A, plus there’s the networking

and help. I look forward to

the rest of my term and also to

meeting many of you at LIGHTFAIR

INTERNATIONAL in San Francisco in

May and the Annual Conference in

New Orleans in August.

Kay Ferguson




LD+A/April 1999 3

4 LD+A/April 1999

HID (high intensity discharge)

may not be the best option

for many lighting applications

for two reasons: (1) many

recent improvements in fluorescent

lighting, and (2) a more accurate

way of measuring how the human

eye really perceives light.

In our LIGHTFAIR seminar, “Fluorescent

vs. HID: 10 Rounds in the







High Bay Arena,” * we discuss how

both fluorescent and HID have

evolved. Attendees will learn how

HID competes with T8, T5, Tri-loop,

and induction fluorescents. We

evaluate fluorescent and HID

characteristics including warm-up

and restrike times, dimming, photometrics,

CRI, S/P ratios, lumen

depreciation, luminaire appearance,

cost, and maintenance.

Improvements In Fluorescents

This decade has produced dramatic

improvements in fluorescent lamp

and electronic ballast technology.

The existing CRI (color rendering

index), light output, and efficiency

packages are quite awesome. There

are basically five systems:

1. The 85 CRI (daylight has a

100 color rendition index) 4 ft

F32T8 lamps with high power

1.15–1.20 BF (ballast factor) electronic


2. 40–55 W bi-axial lamps with

electronic ballasts.

3. Three-loop compact fluorescents

with electronic ballasts.

4. Straight T5 lamps with electronic

ballasting (although the lm/W

is no better than T8s with electronic

ballasts, the T5 system provides

more lumens per lamp foot and

better control of the light because

the lamp diameter is smaller).

5. Induction fluorescents without

electrodes, which have a 100,000

hour rating at 64 percent of initial

light levels.

* “Fluorescent vs. HID: 10 Rounds in the

High Bay Arena” will be presented at LIGHT-

FAIR on Thursday May 13, 2:00–3:30 p.m.

All of these fluorescent systems

have high brightness and intensity,

not just sufficient lumens. This is why

at a distance, a single 100 W incandescent

lamp is seen much easier

than two side-by-side 60 W incandescent

lamps, even though both

conditions have the same lumens.

Another example is an old drum

fixture with thick white glass lens

and 75 W incandescent lamp that

we tried to retrofit a few years ago.

First, we replaced the incandescent

lamp with two 13 W compact fluorescents.

That did not provide

enough light. Then we installed a

third 13 W compact fluorescent.

That still did not make much difference.

We could have filled the

fixture with 13 W fluorescents with

little gain. Although the lumens

from the three 13 W compact fluorescents

more than doubled the

lumens from the one 75 W incandescent

lamp, the fluorescents

were not bright or intense enough

for the light to get through the thick

white lens. So we ended up replacing

the entire fixture. The new fluorescents

are able to deliver long

range punch and penetrate translucent


These fluorescent systems also

feature instant-on with no restrike

time, so they can easily be used

with frequent on and off switching,

photocontrols, and occupancy sensors.

Fixtures with more than one

ballast can have multilevel lighting.

Dimming ballasts can also be used

with fluorescents, and there is a

fairly linear relationship between

light level and wattage. HID fixtures

often burn for extended periods only

because of their unacceptable

warm up times and restrike times.

This wastes a ton of electricity.

Fluorescents are a linear, or area,

light source, so there is less shadowing,

contrast, and glare. When

used with electronic ballasts, there

is no stroboscopic effect.

Many maintenance people prefer

fluorescent systems because if one

or more of the lamps or ballasts burn

out in a fixture those remaining keep

operating normally. With HID fixtures,

if the single lamp or ballast

burns out, there is a large dark area

that needs attention as soon as

possible. One plus for HID is if the

maintenance staff uses a pole with

bulb changer, then HID maintenance


William Hanley, CAE


Mark A. Newman

Assistant Editor

Roslyn Lowe

Associate Editor

Kevin Brady

Art Director

Anthony S. Picco

Associate Art Director

Angel M. Roque


Christopher Cuttle

Louis Erhardt

John Kesselring

Michael Lane

Bill Thornton

Book Review Editor

Paulette Hebert, Ph.D.

Director of Marketing

Beth Bay

Advertising Coordinator

Celeste Picco

LD+A is a magazine for professionals involved in the art,

science, study, manufacture, teaching, and implementation

of lighting. LD+A is designed to enhance and

improve the practice of lighting. Every issue of LD+A

includes feature articles on design projects, technical

articles on the science of illumination, new product developments,

industry trends, news of the Illuminating

Engineering Society of North America, and vital information

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Statements and opinions expressed in articles and editorials

in LD+A are the expressions of contributors and

do not necessarily represent the policies or opinions of

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Advertisements appearing in this publication are the sole

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United States of America by the Illuminating Engineering

Society of North America, 120 Wall Street, 17th Floor,

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LD+A is available on microfilm from University

Microfilm, Ann Arbor, MI.

is easier. Replacement lamp costs are

about the same. For example, eight

F32T8 lamps cost about the same as one

400 W HPS or metal halide lamp.

HID technology has not stood still. The

most significant ongoing improvement

is pulse start metal halide lamps and

ballasts with ignitors to drive them. This

system provides substantial gains in lm/W,

lumen maintenance, color stability,

shorter warm up times, shorter restrike

times, and minimum ambient temperature

starting. Lamp life can also be extended.

This system could replace standard

metal halide and HPS. Currently there is

a price premium, but much of that could

evaporate down the road.

There are other HID improvements,

such as energy saving lamps, extended

life lamps, double arc tube lamps, high

CRI, electronic ballasts, two stage (highlow)

systems with occupancy sensors

and/or photocontrols, and fixtures with

quartz backup, but most of these

upgrades are quite expensive. Some

have drawbacks. An example is color corrected

HPS lamps that have much better

color rendering, but also higher cost,

reduced light output, and shorter lamp

life. Electronic HID ballasts consume less

wattage than magnetic HID ballasts, but

HID lamps draw the same wattage either

way. Although the two stage systems for

HID do reduce power at low stage, it

is not linear. At 50 percent light output,

wattage is considerably higher than 50

percent often in the 60–70 percent range.

Better Way To Measure Light

The long established way of measuring

the amount of light a source produces

has been the photopic lumen. The

lumens listed in lamp catalogs are photopic

lumens. It is very easy to perceive

that photopic lumens are not realistic.

Following are two examples.

Compare 14,000 photopic lumens

175 W, 65 CRI standard metal halide

with 16,000 photopic lumens 150 W,

22 CRI standard HPS. Metal halide and

HPS are the two most common types of

HID. Although the metal halide has

slightly less photopic lumens, virtually

everyone perceives that it is brighter

than the higher photopic output HPS.

Another example is four various color

tone fluorescent lamps with not only

almost identical photopic lumens but

also identical CRI. When an F32T8

830, F32T8 835, F32T8 841, and

F32T8 850 lamp are compared, almost

everyone perceives the 850 lamp the

brightest, followed by the 841 lamp,

the 835, and the 830 lamp the least


With the substantial inconsistency

between photopic lumens and general

perception, we no longer base lighting

recommendations on just photopic lumens

or light meter measurements. Things got

more scientific after we stumbled on Sam

Berman’s work on pupil lumens (later

called task modified lumens) all beautifully

explained in his and Brian Liebel’s

“Essay By Invitation” in the November

1996 LD+A. 1

Photopic lumens are based on the

eye’s two degree central field of vision.

This is only 0.02 percent of the human

total visual field. There are two types of

photoreceptors: cones and rods. In this

two degree central field of vision, cones

are the main photoreceptors and photopic

lumens are based on cone sensitivity.

Rods, which greatly outnumber cones,

are excluded in photopic lumens. The

peak sensitivity for rods is in the bluegreen

region of the spectrum, compared

to green-yellow for cones. Scopotic

lumens are based on rod sensitivity.

Both cones and rods contribute to how

the eye perceives light for daytime tasks.

S/P (scotopic/photopic ratios) can be

used as a tool to show how the human

eye really sees. Page 79 of the 1996

Philips Lighting’s Lamp Specification

and Application Guide has S/P ratios

for many fluorescent lamps, including

1.83 S/P for F32T8 850 and 1.62 S/P

for F32T8 841. In addition to that listing,

standard 40K clear metal halide has

1.49 S/P, standard HPS has 0.62 S/P,

and low pressure sodium has 0.40 S/P.

For the vast majority of applications the

higher the ratio the better.

Berman and Liebel listed three task

application factors for various tasks. For

general evaluation we tend to use the 0.78

exponent, where good vision is a requirement.

photopic lumens x (S/P) 0.78 = initial

task modified lumens

We believe that worst case, when lamps

are old, is more relevant, so we include

lumen maintenance in the equation.

photopic lumens x (S/P) 0.78 x

lumen maintenance = end-of-life task

modified lumens

Generic composites of a variety of

lamp and ballast combinations are

shown in Table 1.

Recent Applications

Contra Costa Newspapers, Walnut

Creek, CA

Circle 13 on Reader Service Card.

Table 1— Generic composites of various lamp and ballast combinations.

Initial Initial task End of Life EOL task

System phototopic modified Rated life Lumen task modi- modified

System watts lumens lumens (hours) maintenance fied lumens lm/W

400 W standard 22 CRI HPS

lamp & ballast 465 50000 34500 24000 70% 24150 52

400 W color improved 65 CRI HPS

lamp & ballast 465 37500 37500 15000 75% 28125 60

360 W standard 22CRI HPS

energy saving lamp & ballast 420 47500 32760 24000 70% 22930 55

400 W standard 65 CRI

metal halide lamp & ballast 455 39000 53040 20000 60% 31820 70

360 W standard 65 CRI metal halide

energy saving lamp & ballast 415 37000 50320 20000 55% 27676 67

320 W pulse start metal halide

lamp & ballast with ignitor 350 32000 43520 20000 75% 32640 93

350 W pulse start metal halide lamp

and ballast with ignitor 385 37000 50320 20000 75% 37740 98

400 W pulse start metal halide

lamp & ballast with ignitor 440 41000 55760 20000 75% 41820 95

350 W pulse start metal halide lamp

and electronic ballast 365 37000 50320 25000+ 85% 42772 117

400 W pulse start metal halide lamp

and electronic ballast 415 41000 55760 25000+ 85% 47396 114

Eight 42 W triple-loop 841 fluorescent

lamps and 1.00 BF electronic ballasts 392 25600 37380 10000 85% 31775 81

Eight 32 W triple-loop 841 fluorescent

lamps and 0.90 BF electronic ballasts 268 17200 25230 10000 85% 21450 80

Six 40 W biaxial 841 fluorescent lamps

and 0.96 BF electronic ballasts 220 18144 26490 20000 89% 23050 105

Four 55 W biaxial 841 fluorescent lamps

& two 0.95 BF electronic ballasts 234 18150 26890 12000 87% 23390 100

Nine F32T8 841 fluorescent lamps &

1.18 BF electronic ballasts 339 31350 45740 24000 93% 42540 125

Eight F32T8 850 fluorescent lamps

& 1.18 BF electronic ballasts 305 27850 44560 20000 93% 41440 136

Six F32T8 850 3100 lumen fluorescent

lamps & 1.18 BF electronic ballasts 225 21950 35120 24000 93% 32660 145

Four 54 W 841 T5 HO fluorescent lamps

& two 1.0 BF electronic ballasts 230 20000 29120 16000 95% 27740 121

Two 150 W 41K inductively coupled

electrodeless lamps and ballasts 314 24000 34940 100000 64% 22362 71

• It is difficult to obtain MH lumen maintenance data because of large variations. Numbers are rounded off. You

can plug in specific values and calculate with lamps and ballasts of your choice. There is a wide range of MH

ballasts — CWA, modified CWA, reactor, high reactance autotransformer and regulated lag, electronic, etc.

• HID lamp life is based on 10 hours/start and 50 percent mortality. At 120 hours/start, HID lamp life is longer—

many pulse start lamps are rated for up to 30,000 hours. At 120–hour cycles, Hubbell claims standard 400 W MH

lamps will last 40,000 hours and have 90 percent lumen maintenance when operated by their Howard/Hubbell

Electro-Reg 2.0 ballasts.

• Fluorescent lamp life is based on 3 hours/start. At 12–hour cycles, fluorescent lamp life is extended 20–30 percent.

At constant operation lamp life is extended 40–50 percent (extended-life F32T8 lamps average 36,000 hours at

constant burn).

• The amount of usable light depends on a specific fixture’s efficiency, coefficient of utilization, fixture height, and

other factors. For example, if too many fluorescent lamps are crammed into a small fixture, efficiency may be poor.

• This table is not intended to be comprehensive. In fact, technology is evolving so rapidly that this article may

soon be outdated.

• From a design standpoint the two most important columns are EOL task modified lumens/watt and rated life.

• Pulse start metal halide lamp performance would be improved with a 277 V linear magnetic ballast.

6 LD+A/April 1999

A production area and warehouse

had 1000 W mercury vapor high

bays mounted at 18 ft. The lamps

were not very depreciated. Each

fixture was replaced with a gull

wing 8-ft hooded industrial fixture

with eight F32T8 841 lamps, two

three-lamp high power 1.18 BF

electronic ballasts, and one two-lamp

high power 1.18 BF electronic

ballast. Fixture wattage was reduced

from 1075 to 302. Horizontal footcandles

at floor level remained about

the same, averaging 40. A major

advantage of the fluorescent system

is substantial increase of vertical

footcandles, necessary for loading

and unloading materials in shelves

and racks.

The main press area in the same

facility had the same 1000 W mercury

vapor fixtures but got new 400

W metal halide high bays with standard

lamps and magnetic ballasts.

This was done so maintenance

could continue using a pole and cup

to replace lamps in these fixtures,

which had difficult access.

Reed School District, Tiburon, CA

The main gym had 2 x 2 surface

mounted fixtures with 400 W metal

halide lamps mounted at 20 ft.

Each fixture was retrofitted with four

55 W bi-axial lamps, two two-lamp

electronic ballasts, and custom

reflector kit. The District is pleased

with the lighting. Fixture wattage

was reduced from 455 to 220. With

instant-on and no restrike delay, the

fixtures are no longer left on all

day, only as needed. So kilowatthours

are saved, not just kilowatts.

In a typical 2 x 2 configuration, a

well designed retrofit or new fixture

with four 55 W bi-axial lamps can

outperform a system with five 55 W

bi-axial, five 50 W bi-axial, or six 40

W bi-axial lamps. Lamps need to be

spaced far enough apart for reflectors

to be effective.

San Jose Unified School District,

San Jose, CA

Three gyms had 400 W HPS high

bays mounted 20–25 ft high. Each

fixture replaced with eight or nine

F32T8 lamps in hooded industrial

fixtures, reducing wattage from 465

to 305 or 340. With no warm up or

restrike time, the new fixtures are

turned off much more than the old

fixtures, so both kilowatts and substantial

kilowatt-hours have been


Fairfield-Suisun Unified School

District, Fairfield, CA

Fairfield High School had 8 ft

hooded industrial fixtures with two

F96T12 VHO lamps. The District

wanted more light, so each fixture

was retrofitted with a hooded

industrial kit, six F32T8 841 lamps,

and two three-lamp high power 1.18

BF electronic ballasts. Wattage was

reduced from about 450 to 224 and

lighting is substantially better.

Kaiser Hospital, Vallejo, CA

The exterior covered loading dock

area had 2 x 2 175 W metal halide

troffers. Each fixture was replaced

with a 2 x 2 troffer, three-lamp electronic

ballast, three 40 W bi-axial

lamps, and a 95 percent reflective

enhanced aluminum reflector. Light

levels were increased by about 20

percent. Wattage was reduced from

Circle 20 on Reader Service Card.

210 to 101. Photocells were also

installed for the three fixtures closest

to sunlight. Maintenance will be

reduced because these biax-T5s are

rated for 20,000 hours, compared to

10,000 hours for the 175 W metal

halide lamps. This is a big plus

because these fixtures have tricky

access. Three replacement bi-axial

lamps cost slightly more than one

175 W metal halide lamp.

Eastmont Mall, Oakland, CA

At Eastmont Mall, interior areas

with recessed cans were replaced

with retrofit cans. Interior cans

got 42 W triple-loop electronically

ballasted fluorescent lamps rather

than 50 W metal halide. Other locations

got units with 2–42 W triple

loop lamps over 100 W metal halide.

Kaiser Hospital, Walnut Creek, CA

The exterior roof maintenance

area had 100 W mercury vapor

wall packs. Owing to warm-up time

and restrike time, these fixtures

were left on all night, every night.

Each fixture was replaced with a

flood fixture with two F17T8 835s

and electronic ballast. Wattage

was reduced from 118 to 33. A

timer switch was also installed,

so lights are only on when engineering

staff is present.

It should be noted that across

the board owners and occupants

have been extremely satisfied with

lumen quantity and quality, and

energy savings.

Should you eliminate HID

It definitely should be considered

as an option.

The best light source is only part

of the problem. The other part is

the fixture’s job of getting as much

of the available light out of the fixture

and directing it where needed.

There are some very well designed

HID fixtures and some that are

incredibly mediocre. The full range

is also true for fluorescent fixtures.

Since HID is more of a point source

than fluorescent, it is easier to

focus the light, but some fluorescent

fixtures will do a reasonably

good job. For fluorescent fixtures,

enhanced aluminum with 95 percent

reflectivity often works best

for high fixture mountings, while

90–92 percent white reflectors

tend to work best for lower fixture


In lighting, as in other endeavors,

it is important to “follow the

money.” If a sales person or manufacturer’s

representative works for

an HID fixture company, do not be

surprised if that person pushes HID.

They may not even be aware what

the new fluorescent systems can

do. Even internal battles in the

major lamp manufacturing companies

occur when the HID division

does not want to lose market share

to the fluorescent division.


the substantial


between photopic

lumens and

general perception,

we no longer

base lighting


on just

photopic lumens

or light meter


We have endeavored to remain

independent, not linked to any

technology or manufacturer. We

still recommend some HID, usually

for high wattage pole fixtures, wall

packs, and floods for exterior applications.

For these applications

pulse start metal halide is the

preferred choice. HID is usually

better for cold ambient temperatures.

Also, fluorescents cannot

easily compete with the PAR metal

halide lamps used for accent and

display lighting.

Additional Notes

Task modified lumens are not

easily measured with a light meter,

and are not yet accepted by the

IESNA. If you require legal protection,

meeting IESNA recommended

light levels is still advised.

If S/P ratios are useful to you,

request the lamp manufacturer of

your choice provide up-to-date

ratios for established and new



1. Berman, S. and Liebel, B.

1996. Essay by Invitation. LD+A 26

(no. 11): 11–17.

The Authors: Stan Walerczyk and

Brooks Sheifer are vice presidents

of Alamo Lighting, where they

focus on turn-key energy efficient

lighting upgrades, consulting and

new construction design.

This article was previously

published in a condensed version

in Energy User News, September

1998, as “Comparing Fluorescent

and HID.”

Authors’ Note: We applaud LD+A

for providing a forum of controversy

as may appear in “Essay by Invitation.”

From the perspective of designers

who repeatedly specify HID and

fixture manufacturers who are heavily

invested, our findings may seem to

encroach on sacred turf. In the spirit

of free speech, LD+A has permitted

diverse ideas at the risk of infuriating

readers and advertisers.

We design and manage the retrofit

of millions of square feet annually.

Our methods emanate from the

trenches, through trial and error. We

are independent of any lamp, ballast,

or luminaire manufacturer.

There are many applications

where point source HID outshine

fluorescent. In other settings fluorescent

enjoys an advantage, even

over pulse-start metal halide. Our

intention is to simply explain the

merits and drawbacks of each.

Please be aware these findings

do not reflect the opinions of LD+A

or the IESNA.

LD+A/April 1999 9

10 LD+A/April 1999

Foster Sampson in Contrast

Rendition in School Lighting,

1970, presented a list from Dr.

Richard Blackwell’s Visual Task

Evaluator which assessed “how

much light was necessary for critical

seeing.” 1 The list included the

following: Ink handwriting, 1.4 fc;






8-point Bondini type, 1.9 fc; 8-point

text-type, 1.1 fc; typed original,

good ribbon, 1.0 fc; transcribing #3

pencil shorthand, 76.5 fc; typed

carbon, fifth copy, 133.0 fc; and

thermal reproduced copy, poor

quality, 589.0 fc.

Lorrin A. Riggs defines acuity as

the ability to see fine details of an

object. 2 Standard visual acuity is

the ability to see an object so small

that the angle subtended at the eye

is only one minute of arc, or 1/60 of

a degree. (One minute of arc,

0.0167 degrees, is defined by its

tangent, 0.000291, which represents

a height of 1 at a distance of

3438 units of any measure.)

Contrast is the more elusive concept

at the base of visual abilities.

An early definition of contrast 3 :

C = (L B - L o )/L A

where L B is luminance of background,

L o is luminance of object,

and L A is luminance of adaptation.

Later, other equations were

added, all purporting to define

objective contrast—necessitating

identification of equation—used

when referring to contrast. J.M.

Waldram wrote, “Since contrast is

a sensation, it is resident in the

observer and it cannot be measured

directly.” How many other subjective

sensations are given objective

measurements Glare Color

Lightness Brightness

Blackwell’s list embraces both

size and contrast, but is more

expressive of the need to add light

when contrasts are reduced than it

is with respect to acuity; but acuity

requires an almost linear increase in

lumens required; as the acuity rises

from 0.5 to 2.0, lumens rise from

0.01 to 10 lm/ft 2 .

Moon posed the question, “How

does vision vary as the luminosity

is changed” 3 He described an

approach embracing both contrast

and size, and constructed graphs

based on research findings of

Cobb and Moss. 4 The graphs had

size as the ordinate, adaptation

as the abscissa. The lines of the

graph were varying percentages of

contrast. One can determine the

appropriate level of adaptation by

applying the proper size and contrast

for a specific problem. These

are construed as minimal, and

Moon suggests, “A safety factor of

at least 10 is indicated.”


eye sees










Luckiesh and Moss in their influential

1916 paper “Prescribing

Light and Lighting” state, “It has

been adequately proved that size is

of primary importance and contrast

of secondary importance for small

objects of high contrast. The

reverse is true for relatively large

objects of low contrast. The transition

from size to contrast, as the primarily

important factor, occurs

when the object becomes larger

than about two minutes in visual

size.” 5 They then propose a standard:

“8-point Bondini Book Monotype...

printed with a non-glossy black ink

upon an excellent grade of nonglossy

white cardboard... A standard

of 10 fc of uniform and diffused

lighting has been specified for this

visual task.” To further this concept

a Visibility Meter was developed.

They comment, “This specification

of footcandles is arbitrary and it is

very conservative.” (Compare with

Blackwell’s 1.9 fc “necessary for

critical seeing.”)

The IESNA, at first influenced by

Luckiesh and Moss, later adopted

Blackwell. 6 They have since abandoned

both and now base their

recommendations on consensus.

Those forming the consensus (members

of various IESNA Committees),

having been trained under the earlier

system, made few changes in the recommended

values. There is growing

recognition that design needs to

serve the mental desire to perceive,

and to comprehend what is seen.

The IESNA Lighting Handbook,

8th Edition, contains the following:

“Lighting design is a synthesis of

light and shadow, color, form, space,

rhythm, texture, and proportion,

achieved through an understanding

of the technology necessary to produce

these effects.” This suggests

that an entirely new procedure must

be undertaken if such objectives are

to be realized. Let us examine each

of the components.

Light and Shadow

The dynamic range 7 (the ratio of

the highest to the lowest luminance)

is a function of the size of

the source. A large source produces

little or no highlight and minimal

shadows—a weak contrast; while

a small source produces sharp highlights

and dense shadows—a

strong dynamic contrast.

The eye sees the contrast difference

by comparing one element

with another. This mental assessment

removes the activity from an

objective physical measurement to

become the mental perception of

contrast. Moon observes, “It is

perhaps natural to forget that

between the familiar world of physics

and the world of consciousness

yawns an immense abyss and that

the methods of one world cannot

be applied to the other.”


Dr. Richard Corth explains, “That

color resides in the surface reflectivity

makes biological sense.

Surface reflectivity is a physical

constant that can serve to identify

Be aware

that in

the selection

of an


we have

transferred our

attention from

the external scene

to our

visual sensation

and appraisal


interior designer’s selection and

placement of his objects within the

space, as well as the luminaires and

their light distributions to provide

not only light-to-see, but also lightto-communicate.

This dual purpose

requires that the luminaires contribute

to the objective physical makeup

of the scene as well as to provide

highlights and shadows that evoke

desired perceptions of the space and

its contents.


As J.J. Gibson analyzes it, “the

visual quality of the stimulus

correlate of a visual surface.” 9

He elaborates, “A visual object in

depth may be analyzed in terms of

several abstract variables,...the

slope of its surfaces, ...the orientation

of its surfaces to the source of

illumination, the corners or curves

of its surfaces..., and above all, its

outline or contour separating it from

the background.”

Gibson concludes with a provocative

question, “Is it possible that

the microgradient of intensity is the

fundamental stimulus underlying...

the phenomenon of texture, visual

acuity in its different modes, the

focused image, and clear vision in

general” (The lexicon of textures

is infinite. Every visible surface has

a texture that changes with the

direction of view, with its relation to

the light source, with the viewer’s

adaptation. They are fundamental to

our perception of the physical world.)


Compare any of light’s attributes:

intensity (illuminance), color,

form (distribution), or motion

(change). Comparison suggests a

mental judgment, so proportion

joins the preceding qualities that

characterize design as a subjective

and creative, mental activity—

quite distinct from the objective

photometric properties of the

physical scene! Gibson observed,

“It is easy to assume that the

retinal image and the retinal excitations

are the same thing. But

the former, clearly, is a matter of

physics while the latter is a matter

of physiology.”

an object. Awareness of the illumination

is inaccessible to the visual

system.” 8 Color belongs to Moon’s

“world of consciousness” and is

therefore, subjective, unique, and


If color resides in surface reflectivity,

it lies in the province of the

architect or interior designer. It can

be illuminated but not significantly

changed by the lighting. (Perhaps

the interior designer should be

encouraged to provide the lighting

design in addition to selection of

furnishings, colors, and arrangements

within the space)

Form, Space, and Rhythm

These elements of composition,

as sense of order, that leads to

clear communication as opposed

to chaos resulting from disorder.

These elements belong to both the

In closing this portion of the discussion

it may be well to quote another

paragraph from the IESNA Lighting

Handbook 8th Edition: “In the past

there has been an overwhelming

emphasis on assuring that an appropriate

quantity of light is delivered to

the task or work surface. Quality of

light has been considered mainly in

the limited sense of controlling direct

glare...” This is a trial-and-errorapproach

to the “appropriate quantity.”

To predetermine the illuminance level

best suited to the problem one turns

to the table “Selecting an Adaptation.”

(LD+A, August 1998).


Selecting an adaptation replaces

Luckiesh and Moss’ Visibility Meter

and Blackwell’s Visual Task Evaluator,

and provides information, not

only of contrast and acuity, but also

detailed answers to other problems

such as sensitivity, color, and the

IES Visibility Reference Function.

The table “Selecting and Adaptation”

presents detailed visual

characteristics at five different

adaptation levels. The first and last

apply primarily to exterior scenes,

the central three to interiors.

Adaptation is the automatic adjustment

of the eye to the brightness

and color of the visual field.

Be aware that in the selection of

an adaptation we have transferred

our attention from the external

scene to our visual sensation and

appraisal thereof. Visual sensations

are judged by comparison of a lightness,

brightness, or color of one

area with that of another area.

Photometric quantities are measured

in terms of candelas or lumens.

Adaptation has no such measured

base, but is, nonetheless, a fundamental

of vision.


Just as adaptation is a fundamental

of vision, reflectance is a

constant property of the physical

scene that remains unchanged as

the sun, sky, and all of the other

multitude of natural phenomena

moving through their daily, monthly,

and seasonal cycles. Steinmetz

refers to reflectance as the albedo

of a reflector; i.e., the ratio of

reflected light to impinging light, or

the “efficiency” of the reflector. Dr.

Corth expands the role of reflection:

“Color is the visual response to the

surface reflectivity. The characteristics

of the illumination are irrelevant

information to that purpose.”

As a measurement of the physical

scene reflectance can be related to

other photometric quantities:

p = π L/E

where p is reflectance; L, luminance;

and E, illuminance.

If color


in surface


it lies

in the


of the

architect or



Adaptation—Reflectance Design

By specifying the adaptation of

the visual system, the eye’s sensitivities

have been defined. By measuring

the average overall reflectance

of the field encompassed by

the eye, the essential determinations

required for the complete

interior design are in hand.

L a = E/π x p/(1-p)

where L a is luminance of adaptation;

E, illuminance required, overall,

to achieve the desired luminance;

and p, average reflectance.

When Adaptation-Reflectance is

the design method, the equations

embody average reflectance and

average illumination on all surfaces.

Later when area becomes a factor

in the equations, the areas will also

be total areas.

The adaptation level is the minimum

consistent with the total flux

and the average reflectance.

Regardless of the luminaires selected

and their placement, illumination

will never be uniform on all

surfaces. The adjustments are necessary

to ensure that the desired

adaptation level prevails on the task

or whatever wanted. Fudge factors,

maintenance, impaired vision, and

other special considerations must

wait another day.


1. Sampson, F.K. 1970. Contrast

Rendition in School Lighting. New

York: New York Educational


2. Riggs, L.A. 1971. Vision. New

York: McGraw Hill Encyclopedia.

3. Moon, P. 1936. Scientific

Basis of Illuminating Engineering.

New York: McGraw Hill.

4. Cobb, P.W. and Moss, F.K. 1928.

The four variables of the visual

threshold. New York: IES Trans (no. 23).

5. Luckiesh, M. and Moss, F.K.

1936. Prescribing light and lighting.

IESNA Conference.

6. Blackwell, H.R. 1952. Development

of procedures and instruments

for visual task evaluation.

Illuminating Engineering 65 (no. 4).

7. Worthy, J.A. 1989. Geometry

and amplitude of veiling reflections.

IESNA Conference Proceedings.

New York: IESNA.

8. Corth, R. 1985. The effect of

illuminant spectral composition on

the perception of surface colors.

Private communication.

9. Gibson, J.J. 1950. The

Perception of the Visual World.

New York: Houghton Mifflin.

12 LD+A/April 1999



New World Symphony

A team of Japanese lighting designers believed that just as a quiet dining

environment helps to ensure a pleasant meal or an office’s innovative interior

design can positively effect the work of its employees, then lighting could

enhance the sound quality of a symphony orchestra.

When the ambitious designers—Koichi Moto, Setuko Ando, Chiho Tanaka,

Hisakazu Fujita, and Tomokazu Ishikawa—were given the task of illuminating

the Sumida Symphony Hall in Tokyo, Japan, they decided that their primary

design goal would be to visualize sound. The Hall is located in Sumida, downtown

Tokyo, built with the aim of bringing classical music to the community.

It is currently the home of the New Japan Philharmonic.

The main concert hall, constructed in what the designers call “a shoe box

style” on a slightly slanted plane, is the major architectural element. The

concert hall seats 1800 and was designed to have multiple acoustic spaces

created by several dark wooden “screens,” or panels, installed along the

walls. The lighting designers’ first priority was to optimize this unique design

feature, as well as call attention to the hall’s space with sound as the

design’s unifying theme. After all, since light and sound share similar properties

and vocabulary (e.g., wave, intensity, frequency), why not merge the two

The idea of sound visualized was based on the designers’ ideas about

“wave lengths” and “oscillations.” Images of semicircle canals and musical

instruments, as well as reflected and refracted rays of light, were all used to

convey the designers’ intentions.

Indirect lighting is used to emphasize the grandeur of the main concert

hall; at the same time, it brings out the contrast between the walls and wood

screens. A 1.8 m high chandelier with fiber optic points is the concert hall’s

lighting centerpiece.

Extending the sound theme outside of the concert hall, musical notes are

patterned on the light receptors of chandeliers in the foyers and lobbies. The

glittering chandeliers add dazzle to the contemporary interior. The designers

made sure that the light sources for the chandeliers were located in remote

spots, out of view whenever possible.

The lighting designers of Sumida Symphony Hall have subtly brought

together two distinct and hard-to-define fields, light and sound, with flair and

meaning and united them in a space devoted to culture and community.

—Kevin Brady

14 LD+A/April 1999

Subterrenean Grace

Hideo Yasui, whose theories on lighting design have been profiled before

in LD+A (“Semi-Charmed Light,” February 1999), approached the design of

Dgrace, a fashion boutique in Tokyo, using his concept of “spacial light.”

Yasui believes lighting is a significant design element that should not

impose itself on a space, but merge with it under one unified concept.

Spacial light works to stress the color and form of a

space, while integrating itself within it.

Yasui wanted to create a bright, rich space for the

boutique, located on the basement floor of a department

store. For Dgrace, as is the case with many

department stores, design restrictions were numerous

and the budget was tight, making the installation

of new or additional ceiling lights impossible. Instead,

Yasui turned his attention to the boutique’s wall surfaces,

enveloping them with white light, making them

appear illuminated by natural light.

Polycarbonate, more often used on the exterior

surfaces of buildings, was used to decorate

Dgrace’s walls with a wallpaper-like effect. Yasui

conceived of the hollow polycarbonate as film that

wrapped the boutique. He then arranged fluorescent lighting to enhance

the walls’ film-like quality, turning the polycarbonate material into a light

source which gently encloses the entire space from its circumference.

The same material was used for the boutique’s shelves, thereby maintaining

the continuity of the design and the sense of unity. The polycarbonate,

along with transparent acrylic fittings, expand the visual depth of

the space, making it appear wider than it actually is. Having white light

illuminating and overlapping a white space highlights the clothing—the

reason for the boutique’s existence.

—Kevin Brady



16 LD+A/April 1999



Flags Unfurled

The tumultuous and dramatic political history of Mexico has produced a countless number of songs, slogans, and flags. The Hall

of Flags exhibit in Chapultepec Castle, home of the National Museum of History in Mexico City, pays homage to the latter.

The museum’s namesake in the indigenous language Nahuatl means, “hill of the grasshopper.” The castle, built on a hill in 1785,

was once the residence of a viceroy and, later, a military college. Currently the museum has 44 different exhibit areas showing the

various stages of Mexican history. The Hall of Flags is one of the museum’s most recent installations.

The government of Mexico City awarded the task of lighting the Hall to Gustavo Aviles of Control Luminico. Aside from providing

the recommended levels of illumination for the museum, one of Aviles’ primary objectives was to enhance the appearance of the

hall by gracing all of the surfaces with soft and dramatic direct and indirect lighting.

In the Hall’s passageway, a suspended luminaire with an indirect dimmable fluorescent lamp was installed, in balance with the

halogen 4-degree beam AR11. Despite a low illuminance level of under 50 lx, the colors of the Hall’s artifacts in the display cases

stand out well.

In one of the more prominent display cases, a 3500K T8 dimmable lamp washes the surface of the Sierra flag, which was used in

Mexico’s War of Independence from Spain (1821–1823), while halogens pinpoint the viewer’s focus to the gold medals and artifacts.

At the end of the hall, the “moon light” display case, holding the Flag of the San Blas Active Battalion (“Bandera del Batallón

Activo de San Blas”), is lit with 150 W metal halide fiber optics. The flag was carried by General Felipe Santiago Xicontencatl

during a famous battle against invading American

forces on September 13, 1847. The general, now a

Mexican national hero, died at the foot of Chapultepec

Hill that same day.

Aviles does justice to the history of his country,

illuminating the symbols of Mexico’s past so they can

viewed, at last, in a peaceful setting.

—Kevin Brady

18 LD+A/April 1999

San Francisco Treat

Overlooking the breathtaking Golden Gate Bridge and

the bay, the Westin St. Francis Hotel’s banquet facility

is sure to make a few dishes go cold as diners focus on

the view outside instead of what’s on their plates.

Redesigned and renamed Victor’s Palace, the 6500 ft 2

banquet facility sits on the top floor of this landmark hotel.

Robert Mapes, George Balle, and the late Craig Roeder

were the brains behind the new lighting design which is as

moving as the view outside the windows.

The designers’ challenge was in creating the most

spectacular banquet space in San Francisco under some

difficult conditions. Asbestos abatement costs required

an absolute minimum of ceiling perforation. Of 80 existing

downlights, 35 were removed; the rest were repainted

and relamped from 300 W to 100 W R40 floods.

New chandeliers were relamped with 60 W blue A19

lamps. All other lighting was completed from one perimeter track running along the 14 ft ceiling, accentuating

the art, drapes, and tables with 42 W 9 degree lamps. Additionally, the designers added a small preset dimming

system to accommodate time of day/night functions.

Electrical conditions of the banquet facility also had to be brought to current codes. In the end, the cost

of the project ran only $40,000 with a fixture cost of only $6.15/ft 2 . Wattage was reduced from 24,000 to

10,000 and with only 1.53 W/ft 2 .

The result is a more energy efficient and beautifully lit banquet facility, which is always booked months in

advance. Wonder if the view has anything to do with it

—Kevin Brady



Buenas Noches

When the architects Hampton/Rivoira renovated the Bank Boston

in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Ernesto Diz was called in to design the

old building’s new lighting system. His goal was to enhance an

already established building with a well-lit exterior, and provide a

lighting design that was energy-efficient and respectful of the

building’s old-style appearance.

Extensive projectors with 250 W halogen mercury lamps, placed in

two levels of the architectural molding, were used on the bank’s

facade. On the balcony, columns are lit by 150 W halogen mercury

lamps. Concealed 150 W sodium lamps provide backlighting to the

banisters, as well as light the balcony space’s arches. Also concealed

from passersby below, 36 W fluorescent luminaires light up the

terrace banister.

Again using extensive projectors, this time with 400 W sodium

lamps, Diz’s lighting washes the bank’s roof, while 150 W incandescent

halogens light the roof’s decorative globe.

Maintenance for the facade’s lighting is relatively simple, with

direct access to 70 percent of the luminaires. The remaining 30

percent is accessible by scaffold. All of the lamps used have a

12,000 hr life-span, with the exception of the incandescent halogens

which have a 2000 hr life.

Having been given carte blanche for his design, Diz provides the colorful

Argentine capital with another lighting treasure.

—Kevin Brady

20 LD+A/April 1999

Power Ads

The advertising dynamos at Ackerman McQueen Advertising come up

with many of their ideas sitting in a “conversation pit”—one of the many

unique features to their Colorado Springs offices. Rand Elliott, of Elliott +

Associates Architects of Oklahoma City, designed the ad agency’s lighting.

Elliott worked closely with Bill Yen, AIA, the project architect.

“The design is meant to put the client into a feeling that they’re inside

an idea,” explains Elliott; as if those inside the space are both watching

and taking part in the idea of what an advertising agency could and should


The sense of freedom necessary for coming up with new ideas for advertisements

is manifested throughout the office’s design. One example is that

employees carry cell phones or headsets, so as to not be physically bound

to anything and able to move about the offices as they wish, giving employees

a sense of freedom from physical constraints, such as a desk or chair.

Another essential goal for the designers was to create a memorable

link between the company and its location. They accomplished this by

greeting visitors at the entrance with a large mountain form, enhanced

by “shape lighting”—lighting which gives form and a three-dimensional

appearance to flat objects. The office’s link to its location is further

emphasized by a breathtaking view of Pike’s Peak from a large, half-circle

window in the conversation pit. Set near this window in the pit, sandwiching

two sofas, are glass tables. Fluorescents make the etched

glass tables glow. Since many ideas are discussed in this pit, the

design supports the agency’s belief that ideas sometimes come “out of

the blue.” Elliott’s design also associates the interior volume with the

majesty and power of the Rocky mountains outside,

through the use of cool shades of blue.

With high ceilings, the offices could have easily

appeared cavernous and dark, or too brightly lit.

Scrim and task lighting, balanced with daylighting

and track lighting, gives the office visual comfort

and avoids any extremities with the lighting. (The

building standards required that no more than 3

W/ft 2 be used.) Work areas integrate natural, task,

and accent lighting, with budget-conscious track

lighting doing much of the work. The lighting’s performance

and energy efficiency is enhanced by a

dimming system.

Dangling from the individual work stations are

shiny electrical/fiber/computer “icicles”—long silver

cord coverings stretching from the desks to the

ceiling. A video/audio control tower high above the

floor is the center for all lighting and video controls.

One of the office’s most conspicuous and attractive

features is a semi-transparent drape that separates the video conference

area from the rest of the office. The drape is meant to provide those

within it a sense of privacy, though the effect is more psychological since

outside employees can partially see through it and hear what is being said.

The goal of the lighting in this space was to allow for maximum flexibility

and maintenance. Having met these goals, Elliott transforms the space

into a presentation “stage.”

Due to an ambitious design plan, an office where ads and images are created

and packaged has become a visual showcase itself.

—Kevin Brady


22 LD+A/April 1999




Inside Job

Architects, engineers, and designers spend so much time working on projects

outside the office that it’s a rare treat when they get to design their own offices.

The lighting design for the new corporate office of Gresham Smith and

Partners—an architectural and engineering design firm in Nashville, TN—was

handed to Anthony J. Denami, LC, who has worked at GS&P for the past ten years.

The project turned out to be a lighting design bonanza for Denami.

Starting on the tenth floor lobby, visitors receive a warm visual welcome from

an illuminated wood wall and artwork highlighted with bi-directional dimmable

track-mounted MR16 luminaires. Set into the wall and visible behind a black desk

is the company’s name and backlit logo.

The office’s corridors feature company designed projects illuminated by

dimmable recessed track MR16 white fixtures. Throughout the office, projects

in progress are featured in display niches, highlighted by adjustable MR16 accent

lights. Circulation paths are lit with triple-tube PL fluorescent downlights, with

every other one on an emergency power setting for exit lighting.

The office’s large Nashville Conference Room has several lighting systems,

allowing for flexibility. A ceiling cove uses continuous staggered strip fluorescent

fixtures, gently washing the cove and bringing a sense of calm to the space.

Separately dimmable incandescent downlights were installed over the table and

along the perimeter. Corridor-matching recessed track-mounted MR16 fixtures

highlight project presentations along the wall. Other conference rooms in the

office feature compact fluorescent downlights mounted over the table and dimmable

incandescents which supply perimeter ambient lighting.

Two existing concrete floors were removed from the office space for a

stairway. Compact fluorescent fixtures light up the corridors and the catwalk

underneath. MR16s are mounted on energized stainless steel cables, illuminating

the stair risers from above. The wood wall along the stairs is caressed from below

by incandescent fixtures.

Last, an open area for C.A.D.D. systems and other office work is lighted with threelamp

T8 fixtures with specular precision parabolic louvers designed to achieve the

luminance criteria described in IESNA’s RP-1.

—Kevin Brady

24 LD+A/April 1999

San Francisco Shines


San Francisco, famous for its steep

hills, unique architecture, the Golden

Gate Bridge, and signature cable cars,


1999. Aside from attending the usual,

exciting LIGHTFAIR events, participants

will be offered many opportunities to

take in this special, history-rich city.

LIGHTFAIR’s festivities begin on

Sunday, May 9, from 9:00 a.m. until

1:00 p.m., with “Architectural Wonders:

The History of San Francisco Through

Its Architecture,” a tour led by a former

Berkeley professor of Architecture

that will depart from the San Francisco

Marriott. The tour, at a cost of

only $22, will illustrate interesting

historical facts and folklore of some of

San Francisco’s architectural treasures.

Also on May 9, a walking tour

of Chinatown will take place from

noon to 3:30 p.m. For $52, visitors

can explore one of the most unique

districts of the city and home to one

of the largest Asian expatriate populations

in the world. Both tours are a

wonderful way to enjoy San Francisco

and begin LIGHTFAIR.

Throughout LIGHTFAIR’s run, award

winning lighting photography will be on

display, featuring recipients of the 1998

IIDA and IALD Awards. Admission is free.

On Tuesday, May 11 at 10:00 a.m.,






APRIL 1999


Calendar of Events

May 9, 1999

Regional Vice Presidents

San Francisco, CA

May 10, 1999

Board of Directors

San Francisco, CA

May 11–13, 1999


San Francisco, CA

Contact: Libby Morley

(888) 311-5452

June 13–15,1999

IESNA Southeast/South Central

Bi-Regional Conference

Embassy Suites Hotel

Charleston, SC

Contact: Ronnie Farrar

(704) 382-5417

August 9–11

IESNA Annual Conference

Sheraton New Orleans Hotel

New Orleans, LA

Contact: Valerie Landers

(212) 248-5000

the 10th Anniversary Ribbon Cutting

Ceremony will be held at the Moscone

Center’s Exhibit Hall entrance, attended

by representatives from the IESNA,

IALD, and AMC, Inc. Later on May 11,

the recipients of the 1999 $20,000

Nuckolls Funds Grant and the 1999

$5000 Edison Price Fellowship Grant

will be announced at The Nuckolls Fund

for Lighting Education Luncheon/

Seminar in the Moscone Center from

12:15 to 1:45 p.m.

That evening, the complimentary

10th Anniversary Cocktail Reception

will be held in the Moscone Center

Atrium and Exhibit Hall from 4:00 to

6:00 p.m. Welcoming remarks will be

made by world-renowned architect John

C. Portman, FAIA, along with IESNA

President, Jody Good and IALD

Chairman, Philip Gabriel. Enjoy complimentary

wine, beer, and hors d’oeuvres,

a cake cutting ceremony, and

musical entertainment.

The Cocktail Reception will be followed

by LIGHTFAIR’s Birthday Bash at

Bimbo’s 365 Club, located in scenic

North Beach. The bash will take place

from 8:00 to 11:00 p.m. and costs

$75. Complimentary hors d’oeuvres,

two drink tickets, and a cash bar will

be provided. Relax, have a few drinks,

dance the night away, and enjoy

LIGHTFAIR’s 10th birthday.

The San Francisco Bay Walk in

memory of Craig A. Roeder begins the

morning of Wednesday, May 12. Rise

at 7:00 a.m. and bring your walking

shoes (or rollerblades or bicycle) as

the walk travels from the Embarcadero

to Pier 39. After the walk, a

light, healthy breakfast will be served

at the San Francisco Marriott. For

more information, visit the website at

In the afternoon from 12:15 until

1:45 p.m., the NCQLP Lighting Certified

Luncheon will take place. For

$40, gain firsthand knowledge of

professional lighting certification

continued on following page

LD+A/April 1999 27


continued from previous page

exam and network with colleagues.

Dean McCauley, RPA, will discuss

“The Federal Interest in Lighting Certification.”

McCauley will point out

business opportunities for lighting

designers, along with issuing a national

charge, “What Uncle Sam Needs

from You.”

Then from 6:30 p.m. to midnight at

the newly renovated (and lit) San

Francisco War Memorial Opera House,

IALD’s 16th Annual Awards Presentation

and Dinner will take place. Cost

is $140 for IALD members, $175 for

non-members. A third of the ticket cost

will be donated to the IALD Education

Trust; a portion of the ticket also qualifies

as a charitable donation. After the

awards presentation, the IALD Education

Trust Benefit, sponsored by Philips

Lighting Company, will be held from

10:00 p.m. to midnight. The cost is

$50 for IALD members, $75 for nonmembers.

A portion of the ticket also

qualifies as a charitable deduction.

IESNA’s IIDA Luncheon Seminar

will be held in the Moscone Center on

May 13 from 12:15 to 1:45 p.m. Join

Don Newquist and Jim Zastovnik as

they provide the information you

need to enter your project in the

IESNA’s IIDA Program. At a cost of

$20, participants will have the opportunity

to interact with the IIDA

Committee and benefit from their

knowledge and experience. A box

lunch will be provided.

At the same time the IIDA Luncheon

Seminar takes place, the Lighting

Industry Resource Council Luncheon

will be held, also in the Moscone

Center, at a cost of $35. While you

lunch, learn more about the LIRC, an

IALD adjunct for manufacturers.

Discussion between presenters and the

audience will be encouraged on topics

such as specification integrity and

national lighting distribution.

Last, Friday May 14 from 9:00 a.m.

to 4:00 p.m. a Wine Country Tasting

Tour will be offered for $85. You will

tour the Pine Ridge Winery and

Viansa Winery and enjoy a picnic

continued on following page



The following companies

have elected to support the

Society as Sustaining Members

which allows the IESNA to fund programs

that benefit all segments

of the membership and pursue

new endeavors, including education

projects, lighting research, and

recommended practices.

The level of support is classified

by the amount of annual dues,

based on a company’s

annual lighting revenues:

Silver: $1,000 annual dues

Lighting revenues to $10 million

Gold: $2,500 annual dues

Lighting revenues to $50 million

Platinum: $5,000 annual dues

Lighting revenues to $200 million

Emerald: $10,000 annual dues

Lighting revenues to $500 million

Diamond: $15,000 annual dues

Lighting revenues over $500 million


Cooper Lighting

GE Lighting

Lithonia Lighting


Philips Lighting Co.


Holophane Corporation



Georgia Power Company


Lutron Electronics Co., Inc.

Venture Lighting Int’l


A.L.P. Lighting Components Co., Inc.

The Bodine Company

Detroit Edison

Duke Power Company

Duro-Test Corp.

Edison Price Lighting

Indy Lighting, Inc.

The Kirlin Company

Kurt Versen Co.

LexaLite International Corp.


Matsushita Electric Works Ltd.

Musco Corporation

Philips Mexicana SA de CV

Prudential Lighting Corp.

Robertson Worldwide

San Diego Gas & Electric


SPI Lighting Inc.

Thomas Lighting Outdoor Division

Visa Lighting




Alabama Power Co.

American Illuminetics Inc.

American Louver Co.

ANG Associates

Ardron-Mackie Limited

Associated Lighting

BJB Electric Corporation

Canlyte, Inc.

Cinergy PSI Energy

City of Calgary Electric System

City of San Francisco

Bureau of Light & Power

Con Edison Co. of New York

Con–Tech Lighting

Custom Lighting Services, LLC

Custom Lights, Inc.

Day Lite Maintenance Co.

Earth Protection Services

Energy Savings Inc.

Elf Atochem North America, Inc.

Enterprise Lighting Sales Corp.

Eye Lighting Industries

Fiberstars Inc.

Finelite Inc.

Focal Point LLC

H.A.Williams & Assoc.

H.E.Williams Inc.

High End Systems Inc.

Hinkley Lighting Inc.

Hubbell Lighting Inc.

Imexcom Light & Power Inc.

Kansas City Power & Light Co.

Kenall Manufacturing Co.

King Luminaire Co.

Kirby Risk Supply Company, Inc.

Ledalite Architectural Products

Lee Filters

Legion Lighting Co.

Lightron of Cornwall, Inc.

Linear Lighting

Litecontrol Corp.


LSI Lighting Systems, Inc.

LUXO Corporation

Multi Electric Manufacturing Inc.

Optical Research Associates

Optima Engineering PA

Paramount Industries, Inc.

PECO Energy

Peerless Lighting Corp.

Philips Electronics, Ltd.

Portland General Electric

Poulsen Lighting Inc.

Power Lighting Products Inc.


R.A. Manning Company

Ralph Smith Engineering

The Reflex Lighting Group, Inc.

Shaper Lighting

Sierra Pacific Power

Southern California Edison

Stage Front Lighting

Sterner Lighting Systems, Inc.

Strand Lighting Inc.

TIR Systems Ltd.

TU Electric

United Illuminating Co.


WAC Lighting Co.

West Philadelphia Electric

Wiko Ltd.

Winnepeg Hydro

Wisconsin Public Service Corp.

Zumtobel Staff Lighting Inc.

As of March 1999

28 LD+A/April 1999


continued from previous page

lunch and tasting at Le Mura, a

majestic garden building. The last

tour takes place at the estate of

Domaine Carneros Winery.

If wine isn’t your taste, then come

along with “See the Forest for the

Trees: Muir Woods, Sausalito, and

Lunch” from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

For $72, tour the coastal environment

of northern Marin County—one

of the few places in the world where

the 750 year-old giant Sequoia redwoods

still stand tall. After this

nature walk, you will journey to the

ocean-side village of Sausalito and

have lunch at Alta Mira, a Spanishstyle

villa with spectacular views of

the San Francisco skyline.

Both of Friday’s events will bring a

wonderful and relaxing close to


Members in the News

Cary S. Mendelsohn

has been elected

Chair of the

National Lighting Bureau,

a not-for-profit

lighting education

organization sponsored

by trade associations,


societies, industries, and agencies of

the federal government. Mendelsohn

has served on the NLB Executive

Committee since 1988, most recently

as Vice Chair. Mendelsohn runs his own

lighting management company, Chicagobased

Imperial Lighting Maintenance

Company, which he founded in 1973.

Debi Moen, marketing


specialist for High

End Systems, Inc.,

received the Award of

Excellence from the

Society of Technical


Austin Chapter. She was given the

award for her cover story on High End

System’s new lighting products that

appeared in Performance magazine’s

Equipment Manufacturers Directory,


Honored by AIA

Howard Brandston, FIES, President of H.M.

Brandston & Partners and adjunct professor of

Architecture at the LRC, has been named a 1999

recipient of Institute Honors for Collaborative

Achievement by the American Institute of

Architects. The honor is given by the AIA “to recognize

and encourage distinguished achievements”

by those who have had a significant influence

on the architectural profession.

AIA jurors called Brandston “a great collaborator

and a lighting design maestro who has

demonstrated a consistent sensitivity to the aesthetic design of more than

2500 projects.” Some of Brandston’s best known designs are the relighting

of the Statue of Liberty, the new lighting system for the Getty Museum

Period French Rooms, and the lighting master plans for Detroit’s Central

Business District, Battery Park City in Manhattan, and New York City’s

Central Park Zoo. Brandston served as the 1983–1984 IESNA President.

Brandston has also been involved extensively in education, most recently presenting

at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the Cooper Union Symposium,

and the Society of Graphic Designers. From 1995–1997, Brandston was a Public

Review participant in IESNA RP-3, Educational Facilities Lighting. Additionally, he

has authored numerous articles for LD+A and other publications, such as Interior

Design and Progressive Architecture. His work has appeared in many magazines,

including LD+A, Architecture, Architectural Record, and Interiors.

Review Information Available Online

In the February issue of LD+A, the submission of the revised IESNA recommended

practice on Roadway lighting, RP-8, to ANSI for public review was

announced (review dates February 15–April 14).

The revised standard provides three methods for designing continuous roadway

lighting systems: illuminance, luminance, and small target visibility (STV).

David Keith, Chair, IESNA Roadway Lighting Committee’s Fundamentals and

Education Sub-committee, has prepared educational information available online

at to help the user of the draft standard.

Connection to the online site may be also be made through IESNA’s website

at (click on “Events”). The online information includes software

that calculates the values for each of the methods, enabling comparisons of

each one’s performance.

published September 1998. A frequent

contributor to LD+A, Debi most recently

wrote about the LeAnn Rimes tour in

the September 1998 issue.

Dallas-based The

Lighting Alliance has

hired Jim Zastovnik

to their specification

sales team. Zastovnik,

who has over 12

years of lighting and

controls experience,

will assist designers,

engineers, and architects in the

Dallas area.

Mark Bolton has been named Area

Vice President, Northwest, for Cooper

Lighting. Also, Brian Deady has been

appointed Sales Manager, Industrial

for Cooper Lighting. Bolton and

Deady’s promotions are part of Cooper

Lighting’s restructuring efforts to

build closer relationships with business

partners and consumers.

Gordon Alexander of AMX Corporation

has been invited by the

International Communications Industries

Association Board of Governors

to become a faculty member of the

continued on following page

LD+A/April 1999 29

Members in the News

continued from previous page

ICIA Academy. Gordon, who has been

an instructor at ICIA Academy and for

a number of years at AMX University,

will teach Lighting and Control System

Design at the Academy’s School of

Design. AMX has also announced the

expansion of its AMX East sales office

into a complete support center for the

northeastern US region.

W.A.C. Lighting has appointed

Lumiplastic S.A. de C.V. as its new

sales agency in Mexico. Lumiplastic,

based in Monterrey, Mexico, will represent

W.A.C.’s line of track, recessed,

and rope lighting throughout Mexico.

Call for Members

The IESNA Landscape Lighting Committee Chair, Lloyd Reeder, is seeking

new members for the committee to help write a recommended practice on the

subject. If you are interested in working on this project, please contact Rita

Harold, at (212) 248-5000, x115, or email

The Committee is planning to meet during LIGHTFAIR in San Francisco on

Wednesday afternoon, May 12, 1999.

New Members

Membership Committee

Chair Patricia Hunt announced

that the IESNA gained 3

Sustaining Members and 86

members (M), associate members,

and student members in



Clark Engineers SW Inc., Phoenix,


Light Factors, San Diego, CA

Schubert Advanced Lighting

Technologies, Peterborough, ON


Canadian Region

Mike Budge , NEDCO, Ottawa, ON

Harry Friedrich (M), Schubert

Advanced Lighting Technologies,

Peterborough, ON

Laurie Swan, Philips Lighting,

Scarborough, ON

East Central Region

Craig Avant (M), Design Build

Concepts, Inc., Virginia Beach,


David Brown (M), Penn Lighting

Assoc., Philadelphia, PA

Aaron Buster, Lutron Electronics,

Whitehall, PA

Carl Canatella (M), Henry Adams,

Inc., Baltimore, MD

William J. Di Bui (M), Rumsey

Electric Co., Conshohocken, PA

Susan M. Fox, Lutron Electronics

Co., Inc., Coopersburg, PA

Jimmy Gold, Lightolier, Columbia,


Gentry Harrington, Lutron

Electronics, Coopersburg, PA

Jim Lilley, Federated Lighting,

Upper Marlboro, MD

Tracey Merritt (M), Endecon, Inc.,

Wilmington, DE

Thomas Myers (M), Lutron

Electronics Inc., Coopersburg, PA

Denise Palmer, Schaedler Bros.,

Inc., Harrisburg, PA

Jake Pauls, Jake Pauls Consulting

Services, Silver Spring, MD

Elisabeth Pelham, The Breckstone

Group, Inc., Wilmington, DE

Wendl Penn, Lightolier/Genlyte,

Montgomery Village, MD

Donna Sink, AOL-B Architects,

Philadelphia, PA

Alfred W. Zaher (M), Dann Dorfman

Herrell & Skillma, Philadelphia,


Pennsylvania State University

John Peterson

Great Lakes Region

Richard Doppes (M), Power

Engineering Technology, Inc.,

Cincinnati, OH

Patrick Hickey, Donald J. Hickey &

Associates, Farmington, MI

Wally Lukasik (M), Wesco

Distribution Inc., Cheeto Waga,


Intermountain Region

Charles La Fontaine (M), Clark

Engineers SW Inc., Phoenix, AZ

Jerry Gains, Voss Lighting,

Albuquerque, NM

E. Dwayne Tatalovich, Tatalovich &

Associates, Inc., Phoenix, AZ

Arizona State University

Carli A. Hart

Midwest Region

Nicholas T. DiMercurio (M), Clark,

Richardson & Biskup, Kansas

City, MO

Mike Furney (M), Clark, Richardson

& Biskup, Kansas City, MO

Paula Parke, Transystems Corp.,

Shawnee, KS

Matt Stuckey, GE Lighting, Wichita,


Kansas State University

Danna Lethbridge, Jeremy Sharp

North Central Region

Samantha M. Falbe, Schuler &

Shook, Inc., Chicago, IL

Ann Grooms, Schuler & Shook, Inc.,

Chicago, IL

George Jue (M), Cooper Lighting,

Elk Grove Village, IL

Russ Miller, LSI Industries,

McCordsville, IN

Kathleen A. Romfoe, Phoenix

Products Company, Inc.,

Milwaukee, WI

Dan Walsh, Phoenix Products

Company, Inc., Milwaukee, WI

Northeastern Region

Greg Aery, AERY Lighting, Yonkers,


Jennifer Brons, Lighting Research

Center, Watervliet, NY

Mark Gold, Enterprise Lighting

Sales, New York, NY

Jean Jacques (M), Continental

Lighting Systems, Inc., New

York, NY

Anthony Jannetti, Town of

Brookhaven, Shirley, NY

Jeff LaPar (M), Carrier Corporation,

Syracuse, NY

Denene Smerdon, Philips Lighting

Company, Somerset, NJ

Thomas D. Tarantino (M), Advanced

Technology Sales Inc.,

Perrineville, NJ

John Van Derlofske (M), Lighting

Research Center, Watervliet, NY

Rensselear Polytechnic Institute

C. Brooke Carter

Pacific Northwest Region

Maurice Mikytyshyn, City of

Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan,


South Central Region

Ric Landers, MagneTek Inc.,

Nashville, TN

Rob Turner, JH&H Ltd., Jackson,


University of Alabama

Panan Yotakhong

Southeastern Region

Jerry A. Dabkowski (M),

Greenhorne & O’Mara, Inc.,

Tampa, FL

James E. Fleagle (M), Greenhorne

& O’Mara, Inc., Tampa, FL

Devin Grandis, Advanced Power

Technologies, Inc., Pompano

Beach, FL

Jennifer Jones (M), Advance

Transformer Co., Norcross, GA

William Raygor, Cleveland Electric

Co., Atlanta, GA

Fala Shafeei (M), Largent

Consulting Engineers, Chapel

Hill, NC

William L. Teeter (M), Wright-Teeter

Engineering Group, Charlotte, NC

South Pacific Coast Region

Dave Chamberlain (M), AAA

Construction & Electrical,

Roseville, CA

John R. Freese (M), Light Factors,

San Diego, CA

Sharhram Salehi (M), Salehi &

Salehi Engineering, San Diego,


Sharmarjoorie Solomon, Pacific

Electrical Sales Agency, Kaplei,


Southwestern Region

Michael Font (M), American Light,

Houston, TX

Patricia Rizzo, Sparksfly Ent. Inc.,

Lubbock, TX

Texas A&M University

Veronica Brown, Kristen Carrell,

Lauren Deck, Josh Mullin, Chris

Reynolds, Thomas Schaffer,

Colin Stanley, Katherine

Stempien, Stephanie Toone,

Jessica Ward, Philip Zoch

University of Texas at Austin

Mary Buzbee, Maya Kwan, Patricia



Arlindo Marques Filho, Plank

Eletrodom Ind. Com. Ltd., Brazil

Naqui Maurice Nashed, El Nour Co.

for Import & Agencies, Egypt

Andres Otero, Architechnika, San

Juan, Puerto Rico

Rafael Pagan (M), RG Engineering,

Inc., Santurce, Puerto Rico

Franco Pagliarini (M), Aeralite, Italy

Cho Seung-Yun, Hykor International

Co., Ltd., South Korea

30 LD+A/April 1999




Wallace G. Eley

and David J. Young created

a unique luminaire suggestive of

the office they were lighting.

Satellite dishes become a

part of the architecture

at the Bell Expressvu Inc.

Broadcasting Center in

North York, Ontario.

The lighting design for

the Bell Expressvu Inc.

call center incorporates a

variety of satellite dishes.

(opposite) The ballasts for

the large dishes are remote

to reduce noise and

maintenance time.

(right) The satellite dishes

were given a silver finish

to blend with

the architecture.



How can satellite dishes with perforations act as lighting reflectors

This was the challenge we faced when appointed to work

with architect Julian Jacobs on the design for a direct-to-home

satellite TV company, the Bell Expressvu Inc. Broadcasting Center,

located in North York, Ontario, Canada. The design received a 1998

IIDA Edwin F. Guth Memorial Award of Excellence on behalf of the

whole lighting design team.

Inspired by Bell Expressvu’s avant garde corporate culture and by

President Michael Neuman, it was Jacobs’ idea to use satellite dishes as

luminaires. However, it

was immediately apparent

that this would not be easy,

since the satellite dishes

are perforated and allow

light to pass through them.

In addition, time was limited

as this project was

designed and built in less

than 140 days. Such were

the challenges facing the

Crossey Engineering Ltd.

(CEL) team, which

worked with Jacobs.

Call centers generally

experience high turnover

of phone operators due to

the stressful nature of the

work. To counter this, the

purpose of the entire facility—not

just the lighting—is

to honor the person

in the midst of high

technology. Key to this formula

is the lighting that

stimulates and energizes

and is reminiscent of daylight,

24 hours a day.

The concept of using the

large obsolete and smaller

current satellite dishes as

luminaires was tied in with

the concept of ever-changing

technology. Choosing

obsolete large satellite dishes

as chandelier lighting

fixtures in large open

spaces, and the more current

oval satellite dishes as

wall sconces and wall standards,

shows the recycling of the old and the inclusion of the

new into a high-tech continuum. “Their unusual usage also

brings a surreal quality to the Call Center,” commented Jacobs.

CEL, led by David Young, Senior Designer, instigated the

thought process on the lighting’s task-oriented design mandate.

It required lighting that complemented Bell Expressvu Inc.’s

function and architectural design. Inside, the building structure

was exposed and the floors were stained concrete. There are

minimal finishes.

The lighting needed to be suitable for both VDT and reading

tasks. There was to be a full layout in the Call Center, as well

as wall sconces like pizza dishes developed for the corridor

leading to the open plan cafe, and control room at the center of

the facility.

A tight budget and scanty time line dictated the design solutions.

Satellite dishes as luminaires were supplemented in the

Call Center, cafe, and open office area by direct downlight fluorescent

tubelights. The tubes were fitted with straight blade

white louvers to minimize the direct glare. Both sources have

some glare control available within the fixtures, and are capable

of exhibiting similar color rendering properties, which

allows them to be used together.

But our biggest concern was the efficiency of the satellite

dishes, since they were not originally designed to act as light

fixtures. The testing time, required to determine how the

perforated satellite dishes could operate as lighting reflectors,

was reduced to a minimum. Yet coverage losses could

only be resolved after mocking up and carrying out extensive

tests to determine if the concept would work. CEL therefore

suggested mocking up the fixtures.

Jacobs quickly arranged for the satellite dishes to be sent to

a custom lighting manufacturer, Nelson & Garrett in Toronto,

with whom the team had previous experience. There they suspended

a large satellite dish from the shop ceiling along with a

metal halide luminaire.

Jacobs, myself, and other team members reviewed the

appearance and effect of the mock-up. We decided to have the

dish painted silver to blend in with the architectural colors and

to improve reflective quality. We also determined the mounting

height and location of the light source below the dish. The

400 W metal halide lamp was housed in a bowl fixture. During

the mock-up, light meter readings were taken, which reassured

CEL that the dish would perform as expected. The

mounting height of the dish luminaires was also decided at

this mock-up meeting.

The small dish luminaires were also mocked-up and discussed.

Nelson & Garrett went on to produce shop drawings

of the dish luminaires, which were reviewed by the design and

construction teams including Vanbots, the construction managers.

CEL’s recommendations for installations were then


We were responsible for reviewing the installation made by

the electrical contractor, Guild Electric. As the large satellite

dishes were to be used in the Call Center and open office, we

drew up a layout that included supplemental fluorescent tubelights

that ran in between the dishes.

The layout was given to another CEL team member, Bill

Hirons, who transferred the layout to a lighting program. The

32 LD+A/April 1999

LD+A/April 1999 33

(right, top) A wall mounted 2 ft diameter dish is illuminated by a

90 W PAR38 lamp. The small dish transmits packages of light along the corridor.

(right, bottom) The 10 ft ceiling luminaire is lighted by a

400 W coated metal halide lamp.

printouts indicated that the levels were consistent with those of a modern

office. The results showed 30–35 fc maintained. This was of some concern,

so we indicated to the interior designer, Gail Weininger of Julian

Jacobs Architects, that the furniture system specified must have task lighting

included. This would allow employees to bring the lighting levels up

to 50 fc, when required.

Issues of noise sensitivity are of concern in call centers, which can be

office work stations. Mounting these ballasts on the structure

above may have caused noise. Plus, they would be difficult to

maintain. So ballasts were located in an adjacent room.

During the installation, Young observed that, at certain

angles, the lamp image was visible within the large luminaires.

He instructed Guild Electric that the bowl must be lifted higher.

In doing this, the bowl also provided a cut-off angle to the

light and confined the direct beams of light to the dish itself,

and not to the space above. The lamp has the smallest maximum

overall length in this lumen package.

A 400 W coated metal halide lamp illuminates the 10 ft dish,

while a 90 W PAR38 lamp illuminates the wall-mounted, 2 ftdiameter

dish from its focal point. The small dish is used to

transmit packages of light along the corridor where actual lighting

levels were less critical there than those in the Call Center

or in the open office.

In the Call Center, the large dishes are used along with louvered

fluorescent tube luminaires to provide an average of 30 fc

at desk level. Task lights in the modular furniture are switched

locally to raise levels to 50 fc where required. In order to minimize

the feature above the fixture, the uplight was minimized

by making the tubelights downlight only.

The Call Center’s lighting concept was carried over to the

cafe. The seating area adjacent to the cafe is illuminated by a

large skylight during daylight hours. In the evening, the

small dishes are supplemented by borrowed light from the

adjacent spaces.

The extension of the connecting corridors borrows light

from the Call Center and cafe. The design used energy efficient

technology which minimized lamp quantities, thereby reducing


Commenting on the effect the lighting design has had on its

business, Bell Expressvu President and CEO Michael Neuman

remarked, “The lighting has created a fun, yet effective, design

attribute in our building, which has a positive impact on everyone

passing through, and on employee morale in particular.”

The designers: Julian Jacobs is

Senior Partner of Julian Jacobs

Architects of Toronto, Canada.

Founded in 1979, this Governor

General’s Award-winning firm is

regarded as one of the most creative

in Canada. With associate

offices in strategic centers across

the Americas, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, its theater of

operations is global. The company’s expertise includes

most building types, urban design, planning, interior

design, and research. He has been an IESNA member

since 1997.

Wallace G. Eley, P. Eng., is President of Crossey

Engineering Ltd. of Toronto, Canada, where he has

worked for 23 years.

David J. Young is a Senior Project Manager with Crossey Engineering Ltd.,

which has provided lighting consulting on many theater, casino, pharmaceutical,

library, municipal, university, school, hospital, and office complex commissions

in Canada and the United States.

noisy places. Jacobs therefore decided to spray an

acoustic-absorbing material onto the underside of

the structure above the Call Center.

Remote ballasts also were a design element that

we considered. If the ballasts were located within

the bowl-shaped housing suspended below the

dish, the dish could then act as a reflector to the

sound, aiming down into the Call Center and open

(left, top)The seating area adjacent to the cafe is illuminated

by a large skylight during the day. At night, small dishes are

supplemented by borrowed light from nearby spaces.

(left, bottom) In the Call Centre, the large dishes are used

along with louvered fluorescent tube luminaires to

provide an average of 30 fc at desk level.

34 LD+A/April 1999


Located in west Paris, the A14 tunnel passes under the

commercial area of “La Defense” and connects Paris to

the A14 and A86 highways. Opened in December, 1996,

it stretches for 5 km and consists of two separate westbound

and eastbound tubes.

In 1994, lighting designer Vladimir Lyszczynski was contacted

by the EPAD (Etablissement Public d’Amenagement de

La Defense), a state body in charge of the layout and refurbishing

of the “La Defense” area in Paris. The EPAD was afraid that

in a 5 km tunnel, drivers would become bored or phobic and

thus more accident prone. They wanted to make the ride

through the tunnel more pleasant. Lyszczynski prepared a

small brief for the EPAD, concluding that the tunnel project

could not be done by a lighting designer alone, but for a multitalented

team comprising an urban developer, a colorist, and a

lighting designer, among others.

In 1995 a small competition between three teams took place,

after which the ROUX-ALBA agency was awarded the project.

At EPAD’s urging, ROUX-ALBA added Lyszczynski to the

design team. The rest of the team was composed of architect

and urban development specialist Dominique Alba, assisted by

Christophe Choblet, and graphic designer Jérome Reysat.

The objectives were to design color schemes to paint the tunnel,

implement color and light treatment for the security niches

and the safety exits, and provide special lighting effects independent

of the sodium fixtures chosen to light the tunnel.

One of the main challenges facing the team was the extremely

narrow space between the lanes of traffic and the walls, as

well as the low ceiling height. Also, the fixtures had to be

placed in sites where directional signposts, security niches, and

safety exits would not be obscured. Also, the fixtures could not

be too close to the tunnel’s entrance or exit.

Some of the tunnel’s features are: each kilometer point

inside the tunnel is marked with a special signal; a special

effect symbolizes the point at which the tunnel passes under

local government headquarters; and a special effect symbolizes

the point at which the tunnel passes under the Grande

Arche de la Défense. A design requirement was that the lighting

equipment last at least ten years and operate independently

of normal tunnel lighting.

La Grande Arche

The driver passes through an arch of light 115 m long symbolizing

the “Grande Arche” located above the tunnel. This

arch of light changes color so that the driver is confronted by a

different image each time he or she passes through. For

instance, the driver will see a blue archway in the morning, a

green one in the evening, and a yellow one the next morning.

The technique used in the arch is the additive synthesis of

the basic primary colors—red, green, and blue—produced by

three colored light sources. In theory, all colors of the spectrum

can be created with this system. However, about 15 colors

can be produced in practice (a fourth, white source would

have to be added in order to produce more hues). The change

in color is obtained by controlling the intensity of each of the

three light sources. For instance, if the red and green sources

are switched on at a certain level, a yellow tone results; while

a mix of blue light at a high level and green and red light at a

lower level will give a light blue tone.

Vladimir Lyszcynski and Dominique Alba add color

and psychedelic pizzazz to a Paris highway.

36 LD+A/April 1999

(opposite and above) Drivers through the A14 Tunnel are treated to a

varied spectrum of color during their journey. A total of 250 different

scenes were created through the use of fluorescent tubes

encased in colored filters.

In all, 250 different scenes were created. The programming

of the scenes was done on location before opening the tunnel

to traffic. The time line was entered separately. Each scene

mixes a pattern with one or multiple colors of light and lasts 5

minutes. Two types of scene changes can be implemented: random

or a fixed path through the 250 scenes. A computer controls

the sequence of scenes over a 24-hour period. The change

from one scene to another is made at a slow pace over a period

of minutes so that it is not perceptible by the drivers.

Tunnel Effect

To create the desired graphic effect, fluorescent tubes coated

with gel filters were used as light sources. The colored light produced

by the three tubes illuminates a frosted glass pane on

which the colors blend. The succession of these lighted panes

fixed on the ceiling and walls at a 45 degree angle facing the

oncoming traffic recreates a colored arch.

The idea was to try and use a standard tunnel fixture as a

base. This way, all security specifications would be covered at a

lower cost than that of having to design a specific fixture. The

difficulty, though, was in blending the colors evenly.

Tests were done with frosted glass replacing the usual clear

LD+A/April 1999 37

glass mounted on a standard FV3 (IP65)

Comatelec fixture. The frosted coating and

the control of lighting intensity prevents any

glare that could distract drivers.

The desired blend of colors was achieved

with the tubes mounted ±20 cm away from

the glass. The fixture was then fitted with

three 58 W fluorescent tubes, each with an

independent 0–10 V controlled ballast. The

tubes all have a neutral color temperature of

4000K. Each tube in the fixture has a different

gel coating of red, green, and blue. For

maintenance purposes (quick change), each

fixture is plugged into a 220 V socket for

power and into a 0–10 V socket for color

control. The ballasts were controllable in

0–10 V from 3 to 100 percent.

In all, 216 fixtures were used forming 24

lines of nine fixtures (two on the right and

left wall, five for the ceiling). Each row was

spaced 5 m apart. In each line, the nine tubes

of the same color light up simultaneously.

Thus, there are three 0–10 V lines per row

and 72 controls for the whole arch.

The change in the color intensity from 3

to 100 percent enables each row in the arch

to have a different color. For example, if only

the red tubes in the 24 rows are fed, the arch

appears red, while if the red and green tubes

are switched at 100 percent and 60 percent,

respectively, then a yellow tone results.

Seeing Red, White, and Blue

On the wall of the tunnel a red, white, and

blue French flag symbolizes the local government

headquarters. It is boxed in dark

blue lining like a “jewel.”

The necessary fixtures had to have round

glass in order to diffuse light in all directions.

The fixtures also had to have some

kind of diffusion to attenuate the glare of

the tubes. The designers were lucky to find

an existing product that had these characteristics,

as well as tunnel grade safety specifications—the

MY2 (IP67) Comatelec fixture

also used in the “chunnel” tunnel linking

France and England.

Forming this flag of light are 78 standard fixtures, each containing

two 58 W 4000K fluorescent tubes. Of these fixtures,

26 have a red gel coating, 26 have a blue coating, and the last

26 have no coating. The surrounding dark blue lighting is

formed by 233 single-tube 58 W 4000K standard tunnel fixtures

with a dark blue gel coating.

To balance light glare, the ballasts are controlled 30–100 percent

to balance light output between the three colors. The levels

are set manually. In each fixture, each of the two tubes has

a different power supply, reducing the light output at certain

times by half if required.

The lighting for the security niches is placed at a high level

to reinforce the feeling of safety. Backlit by fluorescent tubes,

vertical lexan stripes mark the safety exits green and safety

niches red.

Last, there are nine kilometer points in the two tubes of the

tunnel. Each kilometer point is marked by a rose-colored light

stripe in the form of a half portico resting on a vertical yellow

band. The thread of light is formed by 36 W 4000K single-tube

fixtures with a rose gel coating mounted in a continuous row.

These fixtures are of the same type as those lighting the perimeter

of the flag. The number of fixtures varies between 8 and 14

depending on the width of the tunnel at the kilometer marker.

Rear View

Due to the intensity of traffic, it is difficult to close the tunnel

for maintenance and repairs, which has become a greater

problem than originally anticipated. In the narrowest parts of

the tunnel, the exhaust fumes from vehicles cover everything

with a black sooty film, particularly the graphic inscriptions at

the kilometer points and the yellow strips on the tunnel’s sides.

Only the lighting effects have remained clearly visible.

The designers feel that the tunnel is a great success, though

if a similar type of lighting project were done elsewhere, it

would be better to conceive it before the tunnel was built. This

way, the necessary space could be reserved in the concrete walls

and ceilings to place and maintain the equipment without having

to close the tunnel.

The designers: Vladimir

Lyszczynski began his design

work for the cinema as an assistant

director. Beginning 20 years

ago, Lyszczynski designed the

lighting for several theater projects

and fashion shows. He has

designed lighting for the Mont

Sant Michel abbey under the patronage of UNESCO, the Porcelain Museum of

Mehun Sur Yevres, the Costume Museum at Wesserling, and the Cherbourg

War Museum. Lyszczynski has a French Baccalaureate from the University of

Berkeley, where he studied for 2 years.

Dominique Alba began her work with the architect Jean Nouvel in 1982. In

1986, Alba and architect Philippe Roux opened ROUX-ALBA, an architecture

and urban planning firm. Aside from working in France, Alba has developed

projects in Rotterdam, Prague, and Budapest.

(top) The security areas in the tunnel are at a high

light level to reinforce the feeling of safety. Vertical

lexan stripes backlighted by fluorescent tubes mark

the safety exits green and the safety niches red.

(middle) One of the nine kilometer markers within

the tunnel. The thread of light is formed by 36 W

4000K single tube fixtures with a rose gel coating

mounted in a continues row.

(bottom) The French flag consists of 78 fixtures—26

in red, 26 in blue, and 26 without any coating. All

fixtures contain two 58 W 4000K fluorescent tubes.

38 LD+A/April 1999

The worlds of art and architecture were set on their

respective ears when architect Frank O. Gehry’s Guggenheim

Museum Bilbao was opened in October 1997.

Bilbao is a large industrial city on the northern coast of

Spain, also known as the Basque region, where the majority

of Spain’s Basque population live. The museum is the keystone

of a decade-old urban development plan initiated by

the city’s civic leaders. In addition to the museum, Bilbao has

been graced by new bridges, a new subway, and a new performing

arts center.

Many articles have been written about the Guggenheim

Museum Bilbao describing Gehry’s masterpiece. However,

relatively little has been revealed or published about the lighting

of this outstanding building. So what is the lighting sys-

ish hardware), not obtrusive or overpowering, and flexible

enough to be applied throughout the galleries. Wherever possible,

he also envisioned the use of natural lighting to enhance

the artwork and the experience of the museum’s visitors.

Gehry is a genius in manipulating form and natural light.

The artificial lighting reinforces the near-living forms, and the

two combine to produce a glowing and seductively luminous

environment. There is always a sense of adjacent vertical and

horizontal space around the corner waiting to draw one in.

The clever undulation of form and infused natural light creates

the feeling of an endless spatial precipice without the

“doldrums” lighting environments that often cause fatigue in



Paul A. Zaferiou and

Enrique A. Rojas cross the

Atlantic to contribute their

lighting design expertise

to Frank Gehry’s monumental

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.

tem for what the architect Philip Johnson calls “the greatest

building of our times”

Paul Zaferiou, Principal-in-Charge, and Enrique Rojas,

Senior Associate of Lam Partners Inc. in Cambridge,

Massachusetts were brought on board by Gehry as the museum’s

lighting designers. “The task that Tom Krens, the

Guggenheim Museum’s director, and the Basque government

set before Frank Gehry,” explains Paul Zaferiou, “was to design

a spectacular international museum of modern art that would

become the centerpiece of the Basque administration’s $1.5 billion

commitment for the urban cultural redevelopment of

Bilbao.” In other words, Gehry’s mission was to “put Bilbao on

the world map.”

Gehry’s Genius

As Gehry’s vision for the new museum began to take shape,

his goal for lighting was to create a design that would be compatible

with the building form (as opposed to displaying styl-

The monumental Guggenheim Museum Bilbao uses a wealth of natural

light supplemented by artificial fixtures. Architect Frank Gehry

mandated that the lighting must be compatible with the building form.

40 LD+A/April 1999

LD+A/April 1999 41

museums of past eras.

The spatial organization of the 300,000 ft 2 structure is

composed of groups of distinctly shaped galleries that Gehry

swirled around a central atrium and froze before colliding

with one another. The catalytic space is the 50 m high atrium—a

kindred gesture to the Guggenheim’s now symbolic

rotunda in New York.

The galleries range in size and shapes, from rectilinear conventional

forms to curvilinear walls. At other times they seem

like spaces within spaces, sometimes separated by partial height

walls that act like visual funnels. Ceiling heights range from 4.5

to 20 m, arranged in flat, sloped, or curving planes, at times

interrupted by rectilinear skylights with organic shaped wells or

structural beams. Each space has its own unique spatial quality

and character, so much so that the gallery designers nicknamed

them “Nemo,” “Zorro,” “the Boot,” “the Boat,” and so on.

Outsiders on the Inside

“As an outsider it was intriguing to observe the Bilbao studio

designers prepare for a design review,” Enrique Rojas said of his

experience working with Gehry’s studio. “They scurried

around to pull together the assortment of large scale models to

an assemblage approximately 6 x 12 ft in size. Crude as the

forms seemed, they fit beautifully. Minutes before the design

session, the team gathered in almost orchestra form and waited

for the conductor to descend from the upper floor.

“Gehry moved pieces here and there, studied the shapes and

one got the distinct sense that he used every square inch of that

building to express his ideas. Everyone listened with absolute

silence and attention.”

Without the use of the large scale “work models” of the

gallery spaces, it would have been almost impossible to imagine

the geometry and luminous qualities of each gallery. The

designers explored numerous ideas for providing indirect and

object lighting placement—from movable light-columns to

Gehry loves sunlight but precious artwork

doesn’t. To minimize light damage to certain

types of artwork, the museum established

a maximum combined illumination level

of 20 fc incident on the art surface.

pendant horizontal ladders and to

“pick-up sticks” suspended from

concealed motorized lowering

devices and catwalks.

To study the placement of object

(i.e., art) lighting, the designers used a

series of vertical cross section diagrams

to help establish strategic fixture

locations (set at the intersection

between 30 degrees from nadir and

1.57 m above floor level) to light the

art walls and possible sculpture or

temporary wall-mounted exhibits. To

keep their sense of scale in these large

and colossal spaces, which were

drawn in metric scale, Zaferiou and

Rojas often sketched in people and

possible sculptural art pieces. During one of his visits in Bilbao,

Zaferiou was shocked to see Claes Oldenburg’s Swiss Knife

exhibited in the Boat Gallery, “just as we had amusingly shown

it in our lighting study sketches three years before the opening.”

Let the Sun Shine In!

Frank Gehry loves sunlight and the Guggenheim’s conservation

staff fears it, and with good cause. To minimize ultraviolet

and infrared radiation damage to certain types of sensitive artwork,

the museum established a maximum combined illumination

level of 20 fc (215 lx) incident on the art surface, with a

2:1 uniformity ratio on the display walls.

Lam Partners Inc.’s capability in understanding and predicting

daylight illumination levels and direct sunlight path travel

in the exhibition spaces was an important part of the lighting

analysis process. Given the large-scale gallery study models

produced by Gehry’s office, physical model testing was the best

way to study and measure the amount and effects of daylight

and sun path entering the art display areas.

The designers were thankful for Gehry’s models, since there

is no substitute method available for observing daylighting

design in a building, especially in structures of the museum’s

complexity. A case in point was the visual information that the

models relayed to the designers. During daylight testing they

noticed that in the large high spaces with skylights, the ceiling

went dark during strong daylight conditions. Working with

accurate physical models, Zaferiou and Rojas detected the need

to add indirect ambient light to balance the brightness ratios

between the skylight wells and adjacent ceiling planes.

To help quantify and measure the natural lighting, the

designers used the firm’s proprietary software program called

SunScan (developed by Robert Osten, Principal) to test the

architect’s study models. The program reads information

measured through light sensors that are placed in the models

and normalizes the data for the latitude in Bilbao, Spain (or

anywhere on the globe).

To record the sunlight paths, a special rotating table was

designed that calibrates the sun’s geometry between the test site

and the project site. A miniature video camera was installed in

the models to record the daily sun path in each gallery for different

times of the year at typical Summer, Winter, and

Equinox daylight conditions. The invaluable information

recorded in the videos was enhanced with dubbed in music

and visual graphics to label hours of the day and seasonal conditions

at a local television studio and then presented to the

museum’s staff for evaluation.

This Guggenheim Museum has more daylight fenestration

than most museums, but through the use of carefully selected

glazing materials (made up high daylight-low UV-transmission

glass, frit glass sandwiched with UV absorbing interlayer) and

motorized shades the light levels are maintained according to

the museum’s criteria.

Lighting a Modern Masterpiece

The lighting design for this uniquely modern building is

responsive to the complex nature and power of the major volumes

and interstitial crevices, which seem to multiply at every

turn and junction. “Without our constant coordination with

the design team and review of the work models it would have

been impossible to layout our design in two-dimensional format,”

explains Rojas. The design team’s intent was to create

spaces which evoked the “artist-in-residence” idea, and the

lighting design would contribute to this goal.

Unlike American lighting designers, Europeans seem to

design with higher levels of glare tolerance and use fluorescent

and metal halide sources in addition to incandescent sources.

Given the high ceilings in the museum, the selection of

European lamps was limiting. After researching light sources

and fixture manufacturers in the European market, and considering

special 220 V electrical power characteristics in Spain,

it became clear that the fixtures for the

galleries would be custom designed.

“The building design presented

physical and conceptual lighting challenges,”

says Zaferiou. The physical

challenges had to deal with complex

geometry of unusually tall ceilings

and curving walls. The conceptual

challenge was driven by Gehry’s goal

to create a flexible lighting system that

did not “scar” the ceiling with permanent

lines of recessed track lighting

and that would be relatively easy to

maintain. Gehry instructed the lighting

designers to “create a bag of lighting

tricks,” and informed them that

he “would not be opposed to using a

In the galleries, a family of lamps was

needed that had a range of wattages

and beamspreads to properly illuminate

the artwork in these diverse spaces.

non-traditional system of lighting, as long as it was not too visible

and not an aesthetic imposition in the building.”

The designers worked with the architect’s highly creative

staff to further develop a unique power-point and power-bar

system that Gehry first conceived for the Weisman Museum in

Minneapolis, MN. Special recessed, structural outlet boxes

with split-wired receptacles occur in a regular 2 m 2 pattern on

all the gallery ceilings, and are regarded as power-points. An

individual object light fixture can be directly attached to these

points on special clamping bars (power-bars) with built-in

receptacles, which can be secured to hold between two and six

fixtures, depending on the length of the power-bar. The bars

can rotate 360 degrees on the power-points, which then offers

more mounting position flexibility than a conventional track

system. A fixture can be located almost anywhere on a gallery

ceiling. In some of the taller galleries, power-points are also

installed on the upper wall surfaces and in light wells for additional

aiming flexibility.

The special power-bar clamping system proved to be a cost

effective alternative to custom curved track, and it is not limited

to any fixture manufacturer. Retractable magnetic covers

painted to match the ceiling conceal the power-points that are

not in use and therefore minimize visual clutter and the scarring

of the ceiling plane.

The Details

In the galleries which have ceiling heights beyond reach by

motorized lifts, it was ultimately decided to provide 11 m high

catwalks in order to suspend the object lights, ambient wall

washers and uplights, and the work lights, and to facilitate

maintenance access without disturbing the art.

Since dimming for light reduction is not desirable in museum

lighting due to color temperature shift, a family of lamps

with a range of wattages and beamspreads was necessary to

illuminate artwork in these diverse spaces. The generous range

42 LD+A/April 1999

LD+A/April 1999 43

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is the keystone of a decade of

urban development that includes a new subway, bridges, and

performing arts center. As seen from the outside, it’s not hard to see why

Philip Johnson called the museum ‘the greatest building of our time.’

of choices available in U.S. 120 and 12 V lamps provided the

flexibility that was needed. In addition, the advantage of selecting

from numerous lamp choices for lighting specific art conditions

minimizes the use of light blocking screens and therefore

conserves energy. Three lamp types were selected to meet

the demanding criteria and custom fixtures were then

designed to take full advantage of each lamp’s characteristics.

For galleries with lower ceilings, a small fixture was developed

for the PAR36 12 V lamp or the 111 mm aluminum

reflector lamp. These lamps offer excellent color rendition in a

good assortment of beamspreads.

The workhorse in the tall galleries is GE’s Q250 W, 120 V

halogen PAR38 lamp with extra long lamp life. A special fixture

with a 220–120 V transformer was developed to accommodate

this unique lamp. The same fixture is used for object lighting

in the galleries with medium height ceilings.

For the tallest spaces another fixture was developed for the

12 V PAR56 lamp. This capped filament lamp is superior to the

European line voltage version because it has excellent beam

control, lower glare, and a good choice of wattages and beamspreads.

A prime design consideration of this fixture’s clamping

system was the requirement to install the heavy objects by slipping

the clamps over the power-bars without fixture rotation.

Therein is the need for the square cross-sectional shapes of

power-bar and the clamps.

In the central atrium, the same PAR56 fixture delivers the

powerful, narrow beam intensity necessary to highlight art

sculpture and architectural features while providing exceptional

glare control. To balance the brightness of the skylight wells,

uplights are installed to illuminate the flowing white plaster

curves of the upper atrium. Metal halide and quartz uplights

are concealed on top of the tower elements and clamped onto

the upper level catwalks and structural nodes.

All three fixtures were designed with independent, lockable

rotation of the lamp and lens accessory assembly without altering

focusing or aiming alignment—an essential feature to

reduce maintenance time and maintain aesthetic integrity.

They also employ a coiled cord and plug, special clamp, and

safety cable for attachment to the power-bars.

Icing on the Cake

ERCO Lighting, a well-known European manufacturing

company, was ultimately selected to manufacture the 3000+

custom-made object luminaires. After exhaustive reviews of

shop drawings and several rounds of prototypes, full-size partial-Gallery

mockups were constructed near the architects’

office in Los Angeles. Approval for production on the customfixtures

was then released.

To round out the bag of lighting tricks, custom simple

shaped quartz wallwashers and

indirect pendants were developed

and manufactured by

Odelux, a Spanish manufacturer,

and used in the Galleries to

provide a soft, 2:1 uniform

wash of ambient light on the art

walls. All the special fixtures

satisfy functional, programmatic

needs with a neutral appearance

that does not compete

with the sculptural lines of the

galleries, just as Gehry envisioned them.

As a measure to conserve energy and lamp life, the entire

building lighting, motorized shades, and emergency system is

computer controlled by three linked Lutron 6000 series dimming

control systems.

Gehry does not prefer direct illumination on the exterior

facades of his buildings. In this museum the exception is the

uplighting of the Spanish limestone wall behind the polished

stainless steel letters of the main entry sign.

The building’s internal lighting emanates through the glazed

canyons and crevices of the outer envelope. The warm glow of

light is inter-reflected between the titanium, white plaster, and

Spanish limestone cladding. As night sets in, the museum redefines

itself with every changing cloud and hue in the sunset sky

and becomes another elegant expression of this international

landmark on the banks of the Nervion River.

On the east end of the building Gehry incorporated a tower

which is solely a sculptural element. After experimenting with

20–25 models, he settled on an open steelwork structure clad

with Spanish limestone. The stone cladding is bolted to the

steel structure arranged in a pattern with small slits between

the panels rather than mortar joints. This detail creates glimmers

of light that is visible both day and night. High wattage

metal halide fixtures are mounted on the structure of the tower

and provide internal direct and indirect illumination.

The success of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao can be measured

by the pilgrimage of art aficionados to the once little

known city in the Basque region. Today the the Guggenheim

Museum, the city of Bilbao, and Frank Gehry are household

names. Gehry achieved his mission “on time and on budget,”

and in so doing he also created marvelous spaces filled with

glowing and living light that provide a memorable experience

to the visitors who make the journey there.

For the designers at Lam Partners, Inc. it was a once in a lifetime

opportunity to participate in the making of this architectural


The designers: Enrique A. Rojas,

Senior Associate at Lam Partners

Inc., has 25 years of experience in

architecture, interior design, and

lighting design for commercial,

institutional, hospitality and

urban projects of various uses and

scope. As project manager of the

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Rojas was recently presented with the 1997 GE

Edison “Award of Excellence” for lighting of the museum. Most recently Rojas

was presented with the IIDA Edwin F. Guth Memorial Award of Excellence for

lighting design of the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts in Vancouver, B.C.

Paul A. Zaferiou is a Principal at Lam Partners Inc. In his 14 years of lighting

consulting experience with Lam Partners Inc., he has managed scores of projects

representing a wide range of types and geographic locations. His professional

experience is complemented by his teaching and authoring of articles on

architectural lighting design. As Principal-in-Charge of the Guggenheim

Museum Bilbao project, Paul was recently presented with the 1997 GE Edison

“Award of Excellence” for lighting of the museum.

For the tall galleries, a special fixture

was developed to accommodate the

GE Q250 W, 120 V halogen PAR38

lamp with extra long life.

The filament capped 12 V PAR56

lamp used in the tallest spaces was

superior to the European line voltage

version due to its excellent beam

control, lower glare, and variety

of wattages and beam spreads.

44 LD+A/April 1999






Satoshi Uchihara, Shiho Fujii, and Hiroki Yagi

provide nighttime ambience to the 600-year old

Golden Pavilion in Kyoto, Japan.

(above) The approach to the

Golden Pavilion is divided into

three spaces that represent expectancy,

purification, and tranquillity.

(opposite) The Golden Pavilion itself

consists of a variety of lighting schemes,

each emphasizing a different element

of the structure and its surroundings.

Kinkakuji, the Temple of the Golden Pavilion, is one of Japan’s most famous and

impressive buildings. It has a history reaching back some 600 years, and became

a World Heritage site in 1994. Aside from the ancient splendor of its architecture,

the gardens in its spacious precincts are considered an important national site of scenic

beauty, enjoyed by more than 5 million visitors from around the world every year. The

designers came to know afresh the cultural significance of this temple through the five

years they spent working on it, from the conception of this project to its completion.

Two concepts were key to the design of Kinkakuji’s scenic lighting. The first was the

production of a scene centered on the temple building which would bring out the

46 LD+A/April 1999

(below) By highlighting the water, the designers hoped to embody the

profundity of the gold leaf that covers the temple. The Golden Pavilion

shines when lit from any angle.

grandeur of the Golden Pavilion. The second was, within the

lighting plan covering the whole area of the temple precincts,

to create a particular space in the path approaching the temple

buildings which would spiritually uplift and purify.

The production of the scene with the Golden Pavilion at its

center consists of three elements. The first uses outside lighting

to create the impression that the building is covered in gold

leaf—a perfect reflective material which gives off a bright glare

in direct light—and that it is its own source of the light. The

second scene gives the gold leaf a more symbolic expression by

having the ripples on the surface of the lake in front of the temple

projected over the entire building; the ripples along with

the light reflected from the water embody the profundity of the

gold leaf, reflecting the movement around it. The third scene

involves a complete reversal, taking all light away from the

golden pavilion to leave only a silhouette.

Beneath the final surface finish of the gold leaf, there are over

60 coats of Japanese lacquer; Kinkakuji’s gold leaf in fact conceals

a jet-black building. Imagining this hidden jet-black

shape, the designers succeeded in highlighting the silhouette of

the building by lighting the mountains behind it. Creating a jetblack

Golden Pavilion from a golden building that shines when

lit from any angle was one of the most difficult challenges. In

becoming a silhouette, the building’s appearance changed dramatically

from its usual gorgeous, glowing surface; the Golden

Pavilion sublimes from a material into a spiritual presence.

Particular attention was paid to the approach to Kinkakuji,

which was divided into three spaces designed to represent the

themes of expectancy, purification, and tranquility. The designers

expressed these three themes through careful control of the

shape, brightness, and light quality of lamps placed at ground

level, which are an updated version of traditional Japanese


The lighting equipment used for the first scene centered on

Kinkakuji is, for the exterior, 16 500 W narrow-beam halogens,

14 150 W wide-beam halogens, and 8 12 V 250 W ultra-narrow

beam spotlights, arranged so that light levels are the same

at each corner of the eaves. Great care was taken to ensure that

the spotlights in the gardens are not visible during the daytime.

The gold leaf construction has the same reflective properties

as a mirror, and numerous adjustments to the angle of illumination

were necessary to create the illusion that the gold was

glowing from within. For the second scene, where the surface

water is lit, a moving spotlight with a 1200 W short-arc metal

where installation, safety, and disturbance to daytime viewing

was closely monitored.

The Golden Pavilion project was brought to fruition thanks

to the many people involved who were kind enough to understand

the designers’ theme of “preservation and renewal.”

Additionally, they are sincerely grateful to all those from overseas

who have come to know about this project through having

received a 1998 IIDA Paul Waterbury Award of Excellence

for Outdoor Lighting for their work.

The designers: Satoshi Uchihara

graduated from Tama Art University’s

Design program. From

1982–1992 he worked with

Motoko Ishii Lighting Design

Inc. In 1993 he established

Uchihara Creative Lighting

Design, Inc., which has worked

on the lighting design for several temples in the Kyoto

area, as well as museums.

Shiho Fujii, a graduate of Osaka University of Arts’ Stage

Art program, had worked with Uchihara Creative

Lighting Design since 1995.

Hiroki Yagi, a graduate of Tokyo Zokei University’s Fine

Art program, has worked with Uchihara Creative

Lighting Design, Inc., since 1996. From 1989 to 1994 he

worked at Motoko Ishii Lighting Design, Inc.

halide lamp was used. Again, precise and careful adjustments

to the angle of illumination and control were necessary. For the

third scene of the jet-black silhouette, 34 500 W wide-beam, 16

500 W narrow-beam, and 10 1 kW wide-beam halogen lamps

were used to illuminate the mountains behind the temple.

Minute repeated adjustments were needed to ensure that all

light illuminated the mountains and that none of it lit the golden

pavilion. These three scenes rotate every three minutes

under a computer-controlled system.

This world of light that the designers created never disturbs

the solemnity of 600 years of history, and, moreover, seeks to

bring about a new grandeur to the temple. The designers

believe that one of their biggest successes is the use of over 500

custom made outdoor fixtures—bamboo from the Kyoto

foothills was used for lamp housings at ground level, and a special

type of Japanese paper sanded with acrylic resin was used

for the lamp covers. The positions of the outdoor lamps were

painstakingly checked one-by-one.

Since 1994, the designers have worked on six temples in

Kyoto, including Kinkakuji: Kiyomizudera, Jyubuzan Kodajii

and Higashiyama Jishoji (1994), Uji Byodo-In (1995), and Sho-

Ren-Nin Temple (1996). All of these temples are national treasures

and important cultural properties which have been designated

World Heritage sites. The temples’ special status meant

the designers had to work in a tightly controlled environment

(above, top) The approach to the Gold Pavilion represents ‘purification.’

(above, bottom) The final approach to the temple represents ‘tranquillity.’

Great care was taken to ensure that the spotlights in the

gardens were not visible during the day.

48 LD+A/April 1999







Paul Gregory, Sarah Gibson,

Barbara Bouyea, Emlyn Altman, Stan Walerczyk,

Brooks Sheifer, and Kristen Richards give us

a sneak peek at their seminars at LIGHTFAIR

INTERNATIONAL 1999 in San Francisco next month.

As it celebrates its tenth year,


heads to San Francisco for 1999.

This is the third year that LD+A

has sponsored a track of seminars

to be presented at LIGHT-

FAIR; we are proud to be able to

bring attendees the presentations

comprising the Energy & Technology


LD+A is also pleased to be the

only lighting publication to give

attendees a preview of what they can expect from the numerous seminars conducted at LIGHTFAIR.

Each year the seminars become more and more varied and this year is no different.

This year LD+A is including five seminar previews in this section. There is also an Essay by Invitation

on page 4 by Stan Walerczyk and Brooks Sheiffer based on their LIGHTFAIR seminar, “Fluorescent vs.

HID: 10 Rounds in the High Bay Arena.” This promises to be a very controversial session to be sure!

Paul Gregory will discuss what’s been successful and what hasn’t in recent restaurant lighting projects in

his seminar, “Restaurant Lighting.” He’ll give attendees a highly informative and entertaining overview of

new approaches and trends in restaurant projects from around the world.

Emlyn Altman provides a nice overview of her seminar “Lite Bytes: Lighting for the 21st Century—-

Lighting Software Review,” which gives designers the inside track on the various lighting design software

packages on the market.

Kristen Richards, News Editor for Interiors Magazine, is going to let attendees to her seminar in on the

secrets of getting projects published in the design press. Her seminar, ”Getting Ink,” will give you all the

details you need to know on how to approach magazine editors.

Sarah Gibson had an exciting project featured in the December 1998 LD+A on her lighting work for an

exclusive home in Acapulco, Mexico. In her seminar, “Residential Lighting Design,” she will give participants

tips on how to create projects that clients will love to call home.

Barbara Bouyea is quickly becoming LIGHTFAIR’s very own Oprah as she hosts her second annual

“Light Channel.” Structured like a TV talk show, Barbara hosts a panel of electrical contractors to discuss

the details of budgeting for the lighting design process. Last year’s “episode” was sold out, so be sure to

get your tickets early!

I would like to give a special thanks to all of the contributors for allowing us a special advance look at

their innovative and exciting presentations. Also, kudos to the LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL

Conference Advisory Committee. They have assembled an eclectic and exciting program that promises to

be the best LIGHTFAIR yet.

Mark A. Newman


50 LD+A/April 1999



You may think of PR as a realm separate

from marketing and inhabited

by steely professionals. Well, yes

and no. By simply learning a few simple

guidelines and a few crucial precepts,

you can gain a whole new perspective.

This insight can serve you twofold; it

can make you an effective creator of

your own publicity, or a more perceptive

client of your own public relations firm.

When used wisely, publicity can

make a profound difference in your

marketing success. It holds credibility

advertising can’t buy. It provides coverage

and many human interest

elements that ads seldom

can. And it’s free for all who

know how to get it.

If publicity is so important to

your business, shouldn’t you

learn how to optimize your own

opportunities Explore the angles

that make your projects

newsworthy. Discover surefire

tactics to make the press

your resource.

In my seminar, “Getting

Ink,” you can get an insider’s

view of what is fit to print and

why from a seasoned editor.

From executives of

firms with PR professionals

to those who conduct their

own publicity, this seminar

will add a new dimension to

your effectiveness in building

your client base.

Sighting the Target

We open with a discussion to

identify the players—-you, your

firm, the press, and existing and

potential clients. Here, we determine

the advantages and disadvantages

of in-house and out-sourced PR


Your story is as necessary to the media as it is beneficial to

you. What projects, issues, new hires, or human interest

events make news What angles will appeal to what audience,

publications, and broadcasters How can you target for




You know you’re good at what you do so why not let

everybody else know Interiors Magazine’s Kristen

Richards presents an interactive seminar that provides

an insider’s view on how you can showcase your talent.

Wednesday, May 12th,1999, 2:00–3:30 p.m.

On the Mark

There are simple steps you can

take to ensure your envelope

catches editors’ attention.

Editors have a lot of

releases, articles,

photography, magazines,

and a million

other things on

their desks. You

need to know what

to do to catch an

editor’s eye in the 15

seconds your release

has to make

an impression.

It is important to

know what mistakes

can lose points and

key relationships

with media contacts.

Careless errors,

crude copies, incomplete


and lack of visuals

could all raise the ire

of an editor and keep

your project in the

dark. If an editor sees

the perfect graphic, you

could have yourself a

cover story!

Editors are warm-blooded, too. Personalize to create the connection

that pays off in the future. You will see the simple steps

and procedures you need to take to make all the difference in

an editor’s perception of you and your firm. If there is a simple

oversight that could possibly alienate an editor, you need to

know it!

52 LD+A/April 1999


Nuts & Bolts

During the course of this interactive

seminar, you will take part in actual exercises

in analyzing good and not-so-good

releases to gain understanding

of an editor’s perspective.

Once you have the knowledge

and the know-how,

the process will suddenly

seem simple.

Among the things

you’ll learn in this seminar


• The correct format

to follow

• How to write a

catchy headline promoting

your firm

• How to get in

all the vital information

within the

first 25 words

• What materials and info to

include to catch an editor’s eye

You will also get the inside track as to

what exactly a PR firm does that differs

from what you or your own in-house

staff can do. To showcase your work,

your firm, and yourself, you need to create

a relationship with the most influential

publications in your field and it’s

easier than you think.

The best part about

“Getting Ink” is that

you create this working

workshop. You will

leave this seminar with

a greater sense of your

creativity and the tools to

put it to work. You will

have asked questions, met

other professionals who

share your concerns, and

even get a homework

assignment from an editor

looking for your news.

Your expertise has just



Circle 49 on Reader Service Card.




In his “Restaurant Lighting” seminar, Paul Gregory

provides the perfect recipe for a successful project

that will whet any restauranteur’s appetite.

Wednesday, May 12, 1999 8:30–9:30 a.m.

Nothing makes a restaurant successful

like the owner’s love of projects through an extensive slide pre-

Lighting,” will examine many restaurant

pasta. Or love of sushi. The owner’s sentation to determine what makes each

thoughts, ideas, wishes, and feelings project successful.

are the key to a successful restaurant. It Channeling an owner’s feelings about

is the lighting designer’s obligation to a restaurant into the atmosphere of the

find the ideas or feelings that makes the space is the first step to success. What

owner successful, and then project it should the atmosphere be Will it be

across the restaurant.

“fun” or “formal” or “circus-like,” as in

Seeing the owner as the key to a successful

project is central to Paul Lighting a restaurant is like creating a

the case of Le Cirque 2000 in New York

Gregory’s approach to restaurant lighting painting or composing a portrait. Each

design. Gregory’s seminar “Restaurant look or view in the restaurant should be

treated as a well-composed photograph,

with the viewer as the camera.

With One Look

Successful restaurant lighting design is

organized around three major elements:

the “first look” as the viewer enters the

space; the “transition” to many interesting

smaller views; and the “task,” or the

viewer’s ability to perform the task of the

space easily.

The first look is actually a series of first

impressions; the patron’s first look at the

space from the street, the first look upon

entering, the first look after turning a

corner into the main dining room. These

first “snapshots” invite people into the

space. A strong first impression of a

space is what the viewer will remember


As the viewer makes the transition

from the first look to the task, the journey

must be filled with interesting smaller

views. During the walk from the front

door to the table, the viewer’s eye might

be caught by a beautiful look at the bar

area, a sparkling wine display, or perhaps

a grand fireplace at the end of a long view

The challenge in lighting Le Cirque 2000 was to accent the surreal interior and enhance the existing architecture.

(left) The brightly lighted circus tent hides 24 MR16s. (right) The Gold Room Bar features two ellipses of dimmable colored neon supported by

four torcheres, each containing 11 different fixtures.

54 LD+A/April 1999



(left) In the Madison Room, the primary sources of ambient light are uplighting on the ornate ceiling and backlighting on the sandblasted glass panels.

(right) Table lighting is enhanced by fixtures attached to banquettes arching over seated patrons.

of the space.

The third important element in the

lighting design relates to the viewer’s

ability to perform the task of the space.

Can the menu be easily read Can two

people at a table see each other’s expressions

easily Do the faces look good

Does the food look good Lighting must

facilitate and enhance the task.

In particular, much care should be

taken with dining table lighting. On

some projects, dedicated downlight

accents on the center of each table serve

to avoid harsh or unpleasant shadows on

the faces of patrons by bouncing a warm

glow off the table. Light pink or amber

dichroic color filters also help to give the

light a softer and more pleasing effect.

Many layers of lighting ideas and

approaches help make a restaurant successful.

Restaurant tables could be

downlighted with individual sources

from overhead. Decorative chandeliers

and internally lit architectural elements

might be used to provide a warm, ambient

glow. Accent lighting on architectural

details or decor provides visual interest,

while a single primary image or feature

might be brightly lit to provide a

central focus. The key is that no single

approach alone can be successful. A well

thought-out system of lighting solutions

should be combined to create a stunning

visual picture.

Oh What A Circus!

In Le Cirque 2000, interior designer

Adam Tihany’s central image for the

restaurant was “a new Ferrari set in the

middle of a beautiful Italian Palazzo.”

The challenge: To accent the surreal interior

and enhance the existing architecture.

Paul Gregory and Adam Tihany’s

solution: “Use the new architectural elements

as light sources to create highlights

and a lovely ambient glow without

altering the existing architecture.” The

result: People look wonderful in Le

Cirque, just as a diamond looks wonderful

on black velvet. Faces seem to sparkle

and the combination of old and new

architectural elements creates the background

to show them off.

The use of architectural elements as

light sources is seen throughout the

restaurant, beginning with the striking

entrance area. The brightly lit circus tent

structure hides 24 MR16 fixtures, which

illuminate both the tent and the mosaic

vaults at the entry. This creates a stunning

first look upon entering the space.

The Gold Room Bar features four

torcheres made from stainless steel and

white fabric; the internal illumination

spreads a warm, ambient light throughout

the room. Eleven different fixtures

are hidden in each torchere, including

four hidden in the top of each flame,

adding a color accent at the top of the

room and projecting light up onto the

decorative ceiling. The torcheres support

two ellipses of dimmable colored neon.

Suspended above this structure, an internally

illuminated clock slowly moves

from one corner of the room to the

other—patrons eat and mingle “as time


There are five different effects involved

in the lighting of the bar itself. First, fiber

optic backlighting emanates from the

sandblasted glass panels from both the

bar front and the back bar wall area. The

use of crumpled gold foil behind the

glass gives sparkle and life to the front

glass at the base of the bar and the

patrons seated nearby. Next, the front

half of the glass bar top is uplighted with

LD+A/April 1999 55



MR11 lamps placed in the footrests. The

back half of the bar top is underlighted

by amber-gelled fluorescents, giving it a

warmer tone than the front half of the

bar top. This creates a nice delineating

line down the center of the glass bar top.

The light also punches through the glass


an owner’s


about a


into the


of the space

is the

first step

to success

the extraordinary mosaic and marble

ceiling; they are hidden within a custombuilt

box, hidden on the second floor


Le Cirque 2000 is truly a successful

marriage of landmark architecture and

innovative interior design, held together

by light.

The same basic design approaches are

implemented on other projects, with

results as stunningly unique as the owners

are different.

Missouri Loves Company

Another recent successful restaurant

opened recently in Kansas City: Lidia’s,

created by Lidia Bafgianich of Felidia’s in

New York, with architecture and interior

design by David Rockwell.

In Lidia’s, the same design principles

were employed, but in quite different

ways. Here, the challenge was to create

the comfortable atmosphere of an Italian

country home inside a Kansas City

freight house. The designers and archi-

internally lit by a cluster of torpedo

lamps, and externally accented by colored

MR16 track fixtures with snoots to

reduce glare. To simplify maintenance,

all lamps are 50 W MR16 spots. Spread

lenses are used if required.

Repeating pilasters along each side

wall are accented by two PAR30 bullets

from above and two PAR20 lamps integrated

within each base. Glowing art

glass sconces on the walls are lighted

from within. The hanging wine displays

are lighted by a single framing projector,

providing a crisp image of the bottles on

the scrim-like backing of the display.

Here the dining tables are lighted softly

by PAR38 downlights suspended from

the ceiling. The 120 W lamps are

dimmed below 50 percent, providing

increased lamp life and a warm glow.

Two-circuit track mounted to the sides of

roof trusses allows for flexibility while

providing multiple locations from which

to highlight architectural features, displays,

and art.

bar top in the two colors, creating a

beautiful mixture of theatrical uplight on

the faces of the patrons. The shelves at

the back bar are frontlit from above with

small halogen sources, adding dimension

and sparkle to the bottles and glassware.

In the Madison Room, the primary

sources of ambient light are uplighting

on the ornate ceiling and backlighting on

the sandblasted glass panels at the doorways

and throughout the room. The

clean and elegant aqua light complements

the gold detail in this room, which

is in turn accented by uplighting on the

marble columns.

Table lighting is enhanced by fixtures

attached to the banquettes, arching over

the seated patrons. The windows in this

room mandated that the lighting on the

ceiling and walls be bright during the

day to keep the ambient level up and the

contrast ratio acceptable.

The Great Hall best showcases the

contrast between the historic architecture

and the colorful, contemporary interior

design. Twenty pin spots highlight

Lidia’s in Kansas City has the feel of a comfortable Italian home. The blown glass chandeliers

add a strong colorful and visual charm and are internally lighted by a cluster of torpedo lamps and

externally accented by MR16 track fixtures.

tects worked together to highlight a

series of icons that conveyed Lidia’s passion

for Italian food, wine, and culture.

The first look as the viewer enters the

space is a dramatic one—-looking down

the length of the space at internally lighted

round “cask” wine displays at the end

wall. Blown glass “grappa bottle” chandeliers

are a strong and colorful visual

element as well. The chandeliers are

Accentuating these elements while

providing general warmth throughout

the space, a welcoming environment is

created for both patron and client.

Other restaurant projects which will

be discussed at the Restaurant Lighting

seminar include the Samba Grill at the

Mirage Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas,

and Ruby Foo’s Pan-Asian Restaurant

and Nobu Next Door in New York City.

56 LD+A/April 1999



As technology advances, design professionals

must be adept in using the latest tools.

Emlyn G. Altman provides insight into the

latest software design packages and how you can

pick the one right for you.

Monday, May 10. 1999 9:00am – 4:00pm

We will


the benefits


drawbacks of



models vs



ers are used from drafting construction

documents to creating photo-realistic

presentation images.

Yet how much do designers really

explore the potential of using computers

in lighting design Computers

enable designers to calculate lighting

levels quantitatively, “re-present”

designs qualitatively, repeat common

elements quickly and efficiently, and

help make modifications easier and less

time consuming.

The computer is a tool, much like the

pencil and, like pencils that have different

leads, sizes, and colors, there are

dozens of computer software applications

for lighting design alone. The challenge

is to find the right “lead” for the

job. “Lite-Bytes: Lighting Design for the

21st Century” will demonstrate how to

use the computer as an effective and efficient

design tool. With this tool, it is possible

to predict accurate results of lighting

designs—not just create an image of

how you want the space to look, but

rather how it will look. This doesn’t

mean that we give up our traditional

design tools; we supplement them with

another tool: the computer.

Think ahead

The most valuable suggestion I can

offer when using the computer as a

design tool is to think ahead. This simple

process allows you to consider

shortcuts and avoid having to redo

work which saves time and money in

the long run.

There are many important questions

to consider before purchasing software.

What type of system do you use

How well a lighting application

solves problems depends on the computer

one uses. Software applications

are limited by specific computer

requirements such as the operating system,

memory, processing speed, and

the graphics card on your computer. It

is important to understand what your

system can handle before purchasing

lighting design software.

Currently, most lighting design applications

run on PC platforms but Power

Mac users also have the opportunity to

use system emulation software to run

some Unix and PC applications.

Once you know that the software is

compatible with your computer, you

then need to know the minimum and


As the 21st Century approaches, new

developments in computer technologies

are influencing much of the

world around us. This is especially true

in the design profession where comput-

A greyscale rendering of a typical office space created with lighting design software (image created by

Stephen Bakin.)

LD+A/April 1999 57



It is possible to achieve photo-realistic images with photometrically correct lighting by using a

computer as a design tool. This video conferencing room was calculated with IES photometric data

using Lightscape (image created by Emlyn G. Altman).

optimum system requirements the lighting

software needs to function properly.

Although any software will function

with the minimum requirements of

RAM (Random Access Memory) and

processing speed, it will have noticeably

improved performance to go a step or

more above the minimum system


What type of work do you do

Choosing the software which best

fits the job is an important consideration

when using computer-aided

design. Often, it is not merely a matter

of choosing one software application,

since it’s difficult to find a single program

that perfectly fulfills all needs. As

a lighting designer who works on many

different types of projects, including

interior spaces and site lighting, I

sometimes use three or four different

lighting programs on a single project.

Which program I use depends on

which software best suits the type of

calculations I need to perform and the

end result I want. For instance, when

working on exterior site lighting layouts,

I use software whose strengths

include the ability to use exterior luminaire

photometrics, a solar calculator

and a geographic locator.

58 LD+A/April 1999

What results will your client


This is probably the most important

question to ask yourself before beginning

a lighting study. Answering it

before you undertake the design will

often save headaches later on. Know

your client, hear and address his or her


Designers need to consider how the

design should be presented for the client

to best understand the concept. Some

clients are confused by photo-realism.

(“Is the carpet really that blue”) Others

want numbers. Your task as a designer is

to design a lighting layout that you know

fulfills the client’s expectations and conveys

your ideas in a way that proves to

the client that your solution will work.

One of the greatest strengths a computer

can offer is that it can help “represent”

your design idea in different

ways for the client to visualize. Before

computers, the primary means to simulate

lighting designs were either to

create full-scale mock-ups of the space

or smaller, hand-held scale models.

Full-scale mockups add time and

money costs. Tangible models keep the

viewer on the outside looking into the

space instead of understanding what

the experience of standing in the space

would be like in reality. Depending on

the software, the computer not only

allows the viewer to “stand” inside the

space but it gives multiple ways to

interpret the same data.

What do you want to calculate

Identify the end product and start

from there. If you have ever seen a theatrical

stage set or went on a behindthe-scenes

tour of a movie studio,

you’ll notice they are only facades. Set

designers build only what the viewer

will see. Building more than that

requires more time, money, and effort

for something that is superfluous to the

understanding of the idea. The same is

true with lighting designs. If you’re not

going to see it, don’t construct it! That

way you have less work for yourself

and for the computer.

Think simply, yet creatively. A lighting

model does not need every little detail

described in order to give good results. It

is more time-efficient to start with a simple

massing model to achieve the generally

desired results, and then add more

details to the model as the design

demands them. In other words, even the

most complex design can have a simple

way to calculate the solution.

The reason to model only the essential

elements is because the amount of time

required to calculate the result is directly

affected by the size of the model itself.

The more information the computer has

to take into account, the larger the file

Composite of point-by-point numerical values

and iso-footcandle contours (image created by

Emlyn G. Altman).


size. Consequently, it takes the computer

longer to calculate the results.

Computers are like people—when

they get overloaded with work, they

break down (or crash). This results in

delays and possibly having to recreate

the model from scratch. It is important to

know the limitations of your computer

and the software before you start. It will

save you time and frustrations in the

long run.

The Workshop

Two major components comprise this

program. The first half (9 a.m. to 12

noon) is a general seminar elaborating

the issues mentioned here. The course

will focus on how to use the computer

effectively and efficiently as a design tool

and what features a designer should consider

before purchasing lighting software.

We will compare the benefits and

drawbacks of using massing models vs

photo-realistic models when using the

computer as a design tool. I will also


simply, yet


A lighting


does not

need every

little detail


in order

to give

good results.

show specific examples of projects where

the type of computer analysis was determined

by the needs of the project.

The second half (1 to 4 p.m.) is a

“mini-exhibition hall” format where

attendees can view demonstrations by

software companies of the hottest lighting

design software. It is a great opportunity

to try the software hands-on.

The participating companies (software)

at this workshop will be:

Columbia Lighting (LitePro); Cooper

Lighting (Luxicon 2.2); Discreet Logic

(Light* [formerly Lightscape]); Heschong

Mahone Group (SkyCalc); Lawrence

Berkeley Laboratory (Radiance);

Lighting Technologies (Lumen Micro,

Simply Indoor, Simply Outdoor, Simply

Roadway); Lithonia Lighting (Visual

2.0); LTB-Soft (Let There Be Light); and

LuxArt (Microlux98). A comprehensive

matrix listing features of these software

applications will be provided for all

attendees to this program.





When you go into a client’s home, there are

a lot of factors to consider. In her seminar

“Residential Lighting Design,” Sarah Gibson talks

about the differences between lighting someone’s home

and someone’s workplace and the importance

of the designer/client relationship.

Thursday, May 13, 1999 8:30–10:00 a.m

In my five years as a lighting designer, design as well as a few special details, a

I have primarily worked on high-end spectacular result can leave the client

custom residential projects. I have had overjoyed and proud.

my share of commercial projects, but I have a tendency to become

residential projects have a completely wrapped up in the lives of my residential

clients, especially with the new

different flavor. The nature of residential

projects can be more fuzzy, touchyfeely,

and soft with regard to presenta-

time frame. Because the client is emo-

construction projects because of the

tion and concept.

tionally involved in the project, he or

The design process can be lengthy and she is generally very concerned about

fraught with revisions. Nevertheless, the every item that is part and parcel to this

result can produce such dramatic and new environment you are helping to

emotive responses that the fuzziness and create. This allows the opportunity to

the frustration just melt away. In the end, develop trust and camaraderie with the

through sound relationships, solid end user—something that is rarely

available in commercial projects.

Of course, every project is different and

so are the clients. Some clients will be

very private and some will be very open

to share their lives with you. Finding the

balance and understanding your residential

clients’ needs is what makes or breaks

a good residential project.

Working to create sound relationships

with other players helps the project

along as well. Communication is the

name of the game in all construction

projects regardless of project type. The



will be

very private

and some

will be

very open

to share

their lives

with you.

final product is only as good as the documents

represent. Having a sound concept

that is well communicated, both

graphically and verbally, is half the battle.

The other half is making sure that

the concept is understood and properly

built by the various trades people

involved. The only way to ensure quality

is to be available to the contractor,

electrician, and other installers that

impact your design.

Regardless of the relationships developed,

the lighting design is the actual

tool that can enhance the beauty and

functionality of the residence. Residences

are dynamic environments, just

60 LD+A/April 1999

Highlighting structural elements within a room

can bring added warmth to a client’s home.



like the people who inhabit them. To

echo this multi-tasked environment the

lighting must also be multi-functional.

The best way to accommodate this is to

“layer” the lighting. A combination of

applications—downlights, wall washing,

coves, decorative fixtures—should

be utilized.

Architectural features provide wonderful

opportunities for lighting applications

as well. Identifying a shape or a

geometric form with light gives depth

and dimension to the space that otherwise

would have been flat.

Control systems are THE way to provide

an even greater depth to the home.

Control systems these days have become

intensely sophisticated, and it is the residential

client who has been clamoring

for this sophistication. Certainly, the

level and type of control should be commensurate

with the comfort level of the

client. Perhaps the user requires simple

wallbox dimmers as opposed to a computer-driven

whole house dimming/control

system. Whichever version suits the

client best, it is paramount that the lighting

designer be an integral part of the

process to select, design, and program

these systems.

As in many cases, the lighting is the

Layers of lighting are useful to match

the moods of the individuals who will be

inhabiting these personal spaces.

last issue to be resolved on the drafting

board, especially in residential projects.

Residential clients deserve more

than this.

In “Residential Lighting Design,” we

will examine the various relationships

and the process of design necessary to a

residential project. Applications will be

highlighted by slides of project examples

and field anecdotes.

After this seminar, I propose that you,

the conscientious lighting designer, will

take hold of the responsibility to develop

an exceptional design that will serve the

project well, as well as excite your client.

At the Villa in Acapulco, Mexico, all the stops

were pulled out to make this home away from

home a memorable experience for the client and

his family. Custom made lanterns (top) and an

imported entry pagoda (bottom) made this

home an unforgettable project.

62 LD+A/April 1999



Barbara Bouyea will once again host a panel

of electrical contractors in a lively talk show format

to candidly discuss the ins and outs of budgeting

when it comes to lighting.

Wednesday, May 12, 1999 2:00–3:30 p.m.

Since last year’s edition of “Light for deducting fixtures from the project

Channel” was such a success, we’ve Are you really charging extra for hanging

decided to do it again at LIGHTFAIR that decorative fixture Why wasn’t that


included in the original proposal if it was

The featured panel of contractors will on the drawings How can lighting consultants

be sure their clients are getting a

be asked to bid two to three projects with

various lighting and dimming components.

We will review the initial bids of

fair number

the three electrical firms to discuss how

the bids were calculated and compare

different features of each firm’s bids. This The better

year the bids will not only be on the

screen but distributed as handouts. the audience,

Those participating in the sold-out

crowd last year asked some great and the better

pointed questions. In fact, two of our

electrical contractors were so responsive

the panel,

and enjoyable, we have asked them for a

so come to

repeat performance (Harry Grace of

Current Electric and Jerry Wade of Wade participate.

Electric). Our third contractor to join the

panel this year will be David Grifty of We expect this

LERA Electric. These gentlemen will

provide our audience with perspectives to again

from knowledgeable firms that are small

to large in size, union versus non-union, be a

and all three have residential and commercial



After the review of initial proposals,


we will discuss cost saving measures

when the proposals are too high for the

client’s budget. (I’m sure none of us have

ever had this experience!)

When lighting consultants provide the

This is always the exciting part of the contractor with detailed plans, specifications

for lighting and dimming, and cut

discussions and questions: labor vs.

equipment! Is it really less labor to install sheets of fixture types, we expect our

a residential grade fixture vs. an architectural

grade fixture Is a small, localized often, the estimator only counts open-

client to receive a thorough bid. All too

dimming system really more expensive ings and gives counts to his distributor

to install than wall box dimmers when along with schedules and never really

they are wired in the same manner Why realizes what he will be installing until

are we not receiving 100 percent credit the job begins. Should the contractor

and distributor provide alternates to the

owner without including the consultant

in the loop How can this be avoided

Better relationships and communication

between the consultant and the electrical

contractor so they work as a team can

really be effective.

It is wonderful to have a working relationship

with an electrical contractor

who realizes your expectations and

understands how your schedules and

plans coordinate, and how the consultant

expects certain details to be coordinated

and installed. A contractor who

realizes that we want accuracy on the

dimensions, want him available at the

job site on our construction visits, and

want and expect his crew to be involved

at the final focus and adjustment of the

lights is a valuable find indeed!

At the end of a project, costs have

increased and budgets have typically

been exceeded, so not having any surprise

electrical costs helps in giving the

end user a more positive electrical experience.

Let’s discuss having focus and adjustment

built in as a line item on the contractor’s

proposal. Let’s discuss not having

decorative fixtures as extras but

included in that initial proposal.

This year hopefully we will have “mic

runners” (short for “microphone runners”)

stationed throughout the audience

to allow for quicker questions and allowing

everyone to hear the initial questions

without repeat.

This seminar is for you. Come with

questions, horror stories, ideas, but most

of all a great attitude for obtaining knowledge

in an atmosphere that should be fun

and lively!

The three electrical contractors are

talkative, honest about how they price,

will give straight answers (that we may

love or hate), but at least we will hear the

truth! The better the audience, the better

the panel, so come to participate. We

expect this to again be a sold-out seminar.

Our goal is for those participating in

this year’s talk show to leave feeling they

made a good choice by attending

because they obtained great information

for future use. Most importantly, we

want the attendees to have fun and look

forward to attending again next year!

See you at Light Channel!

LD+A/April 1999 63




In 1989 a new trade show took the lighting industry by storm.

Editor Mark A. Newman delves into the past to see how


the lighting world’s pre-eminent event.


San Francisco May 10–13, it will celebrate its

tenth year as the largest architectural and commercial

lighting trade show in North America with the

largest architectural and commercial lighting conference

program in the world. LIGHTFAIR is a by-product of the

ever-evolving lighting industry—a renowned event that fills

a much-needed niche. The event is co-owned by the IESNA,

The International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD),

and Atlanta-based trade show management company, AMC,

Inc. AMC is responsible for producing and managing the

event every year.

LIGHTFAIR provides a unique opportunity that brings

lighting professionals together to view their industry on

national and international levels, according to IESNA

President Jody Good. “It lets designers and specifiers compare

notes in a unique venue and also get a chance to see the

latest and greatest product innovations,” he said.

LIGHTFAIR has definitely come a long

way in a short time. Many who

were there when the

event was in the

planning stages

still find it hard to

believe it’s only been

10 years. “Not only

am I surprised, but it

doesn’t feel like a

decade,” Gary Steffy

said. Steffy was IALD

President when LIGHT-

FAIR was launched and

was integral in its formation.

“It’s wonderful that the

show has remained fresh and

robust after all these years.”

A Bright Idea in Atlanta

In 1989, AMC was trying to

launch a regional lighting

show called Southern Lights.

The original plan was to

have a fairly small trade

show with only 60 to 80

booths in the hopes of

attracting 2000 to 3000

specifiers from throughout

the southeast.

AMC’s Libby Morley

and Susan McCart

were in the process

of organizing Southern

Lights when

Lithonia’s Steve

Spiers told them to contact

the IESNA. In subsequent

meetings with IESNA Executive Vice President

William Hanley, it was noted that IESNA could not offer its

resources since Southern Lights would be in competition

with Lighting World International which the IESNA was

then co-sponsoring.

However, both associations envisioned a trade show that

would benefit the lighting industry.

“We needed to go into newer, fresher territory,” Steffy

said. “With LIGHTFAIR we created a lighting show that

would be driven by the lighting industry rather than the

trade show industry.”

The IESNA and the IALD invited a number of trade

show organizers to discuss the viability of creating an

industry-friendly show. Among those companies, AMC

The very first LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL brochure (left) and the

most recent (above).

LD+A/April 1999 65

was more than happy to oblige and helped organize a trade

show with international appeal.


Let There be LIGHTFAIR...

The first LIGHTFAIR took place April 10–12, 1990 at the

New York Hilton. It was the first small step for the event. The

premise behind LIGHTFAIR was to develop a lighting trade

show created by the lighting industry for the lighting industry.

“LIGHTFAIR is like a breath of fresh air,” Good said. “The

transition to LIGHTFAIR was virtually seamless.” According

to Good, LIGHTFAIR is “more focused on education and on

a commercial and technical perspective.”

LIGHTFAIR is unique because the professional organizations

who sponsor it are also the owners, according to IALD

Chairman Philip Gabriel. “While many professions have

conferences and many industries have trade shows, the lighting

industry has both in LIGHTFAIR,” Gabriel said. “And

since the IESNA and the IALD are part owners, it gives the

event much more prestige than other industry shows.”

To make LIGHTFAIR more beneficial to the industry it

served, two advisory boards were put into place—-the

Conference Advisory Board and the Exhibitor Advisory

Board. The Exhibitor Advisory Board identified the appropriate

format to showcase new products and address the

needs of manufacturers. The Conference Advisory Board was

charged with developing an educational program to explore

issues that affect lighting professionals and others in the

lighting industry.

In 1996 the New Product Showcase Advisory Committee

joined the other two committees. The committee was

created once it became obvious that the New Product

Showcase was going to be a permanent part of LIGHT-

FAIR. In 1998 a jury of lighting professionals was added to

help select the best new products.

Manufacturers were delighted at being included in

LIGHTFAIR’s planning stages. One manufacturer’s rep stated

in 1990 that if exhibitors have a say in molding LIGHTFAIR’s

direction, then the results will be of greater commercial success

to them. Another manufacturer applauded the Exhibitor

Advisory Committee stating that it provided a voice manufacturers

never had at other trade shows.

The original plan was to hold LIGHTFAIR every other year

on a grand, international scale in New York. During the alternating

years, the show would be held on the west coast or in

the mid-west. In even-numbered years it was held in New

York and alternated with Chicago and San Francisco.


between New York, Las Vegas, and San Francisco.

Off and Running

The March 1991 LIGHTFAIR in Chicago attracted over

8000 attendees, over 140 exhibitors, and featured more than

20 seminars and workshops. That same month, LIGHTFAIR

had already sold 52 percent of its exhibitor space at the Jacob

Javits Convention Center for the 1992 event, representing

over 100 companies.

After only three years, it appeared that LIGHTFAIR INTER-

LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL provides attendees with a

plethora of activities ranging from checking out the latest technological

developments to networking with past and potential business

associates and friends. (top) From the 1995 event in Chicago at

McCormick Place, OSRAM SYLVANIA’s booth draws plenty of attention.

(middle) GE’s booth at the 1996 LIGHTFAIR in San Francisco

was a launching pad for many new products.

(bottom) Registration is in full swing at the 1996 event.

66 LD+A/April 1999

NATIONAL had surpassed its competition by shrewdly listening

to the lighting industry’s needs. Don Thomas, 1990-

1991 IESNA President, attributed the show’s success to the

commitment of both the IESNA and the IALD to an industry

that continues to evolve both technically and artistically. “We

not only track trends, we initiate them,” he said in April

1991. “That concept is the LIGHTFAIR concept.”

Apparently, this concept is one that manufacturers who

exhibit at LIGHTFAIR also embrace. “Prescolite•Moldcast

finds the quantity—and especially the quality—of floor traffic

very good indeed,” Don Emmons, president of Prescolite•Moldcast,

said about the 1998 event. “We were able to

successfully launch new products and generate hundreds of

worthwhile leads for post-show follow-up.”

Gaining Momentum

With LIGHTFAIR 1991 in Chicago, the IESNA and the

IALD were official, on-the-record event co-sponsors.

Attendance was up from 6700 in 1990 to 7200 in 1991.

LIGHTFAIR 1992 in New York saw attendance numbers

hit the five-digit mark for the first time with 11,000 attendees

and 255 exhibitors, almost double the number from

the previous year.

The event really hit its stride in San Francisco in 1993

by hosting many more attendees than anticipated; 9500

lighting professionals came from every state and 38 foreign

countries. The educational seminars continued to

gain momentum with the largest number of seminar tickets

sold to that date and five sessions sold out completely.

The most popular session was “The Truth About

Electronic Ballasts” which had 468 attendees.

The 1993 New Product Showcase had 800 people on

hand. This was the first year Craig Roeder served as a co-presenter.

No doubt Roeder’s unforgettable presentation style

kept attendees “coming back for more” in subsequent years.

He would continue to be a co-presenter for the Showcase

until the 1997 event. Roeder was awarded a Certificate of

Appreciation for his five years of dedication to the New

Product Showcase in 1998, just prior to his untimely death

that June. The Roeder Award has been established in his

honor for 1999.

When LIGHTFAIR migrated back east to New York in

1994, attendance continued to soar at 12,000. This was also

the first year that the Best Booth Awards were presented to

exhibiting manufacturers. Also that year, LD+A sponsored

the Product Demonstration Pavilion in the Javits Center

Exhibit Hall.

LIGHTFAIR 1994 also saw seminar tracks sponsored by

industry publications. The publications received more exposure

than in previous years via speaker introductions, publicity

in event marketing promotions, on-site signage, and publication

distribution at seminars. Publications that have sponsored

seminar tracks include LD+A, Lighting Dimensions, Energy

User News, Visual Merchandising & Store Design, Architectural

Record Lighting, and Architectural Lighting, among others.

In 1995 LIGHTFAIR was back in the Windy City at

McCormick Place. Three specialized pavilions were set up

on the exhibition floor and were dedicated to Decorative

Lighting, International Lighting, and Lighting Components

and Accessories. This new plan was a hit with exhibitors

who liked the idea of grouping and promoting similar products

together and was a departure from the traditional “boutique”

style of merchandising.

The 1995 event also saw the debut of the Litecontrol Fun

Run to benefit the Nuckolls Fund for Lighting Education. The

Nuckolls Fund was named after Jim Nuckolls, one of the first

practicing architectural lighting designers in the U.S. The fund

supports college-level lighting programs that inspire students

with an understanding of light in architecture. Currently, the

Fun Run takes place at the IESNA Annual Conference.

LIGHTFAIR 1996 in San Francisco was the first year

that the event was hailed as the “world’s largest architectural

and commercial lighting conference program,”

according to AMC’s Renee Gable, Conference Director.

“This was also the first year of the Pre-Show Conference

which consisted of four workshops taking place prior to

the opening of the trade show and conference program.

Opportunities abound for manufacturers to sponsor a variety of events

at LIGHTFAIR. (right) At LIGHTFAIR 1996 in San Francisco, Philips

Lighting sponsored the banners on the shuttle buses while also

promoting the use of their products at UnderWater World. (below) Just

a few of the 12,000 attendees registering at the 1995 Chicago event.

This allowed for more in-depth educational training.”

In 1997, LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL had the biggest

attendance record in its history—over 15,500 lighting professionals

made the trek to the Big Apple.

When the event debuted in Las Vegas the following year,

over 14,200 people attended, the largest number for the

event outside New York and 3000 more attendees than the

event’s previous alternating venue of Chicago. Over 394

lighting manufacturers exhibited in over 1000 booths. The

largest number of seminar tickets were sold in the history of

the event, with 12 sold out seminars. The official LIGHT-

FAIR website,, also debuted in 1998.

The New Product Showcase evolved by adding a jury of

four renowned lighting professionals to select awards. In

addition to the Best New Product of the Year Award, four

new awards were presented: the Technical Innovation

Award, Design Excellence Award, Energy Award, and

Category Innovator Awards.

San Francisco Treats

The 1999 event in San Francisco will also see some new

additions as LIGHTFAIR celebrates 10 years of lighting

industry excellence. The Image Awards will be presented to

exhibitors that demonstrate pre-event marketing excellence.

“We’re always looking for ways to increase the event’s

value to exhibitors,” AMC’s Libby Morley, LIGHTFAIR Show

Director, said. “The Image Awards will encourage exhibitors

to reap as many rewards as possible from LIGHTFAIR by

promoting the event more among the industry. After all, the

event has improved over the years because of suggestions

from the industry itself, and that’s not going to change.”

With 36 seminars and 4 workshops, this will be the biggest

conference program in the event’s history and 1999 will

mark the first year that the entire conference program will

have AIA, ASID, IIDA, and IESNA accreditation, according

to Gable. “This is great news for those professionals who

realize how important continuing education is in an industry

that depends on technology that is never static.” These

CEU credits can be used for LEU (Lighting Education Units)

credits for the NCQLP’s LC recertification credential.

“Camaraderie and networking are very significant aspects

of LIGHTFAIR, but for me education is the number one

attraction,” Steffy said. “LIGHTFAIR is the single largest

resource I have as a lighting designer to learn about the

newest technology and their applications. The knowledge I

gain at the educational seminars is immeasurable.”

Both the IALD and the IESNA will be holding events that

highlight their lighting design awards programs.

On Wednesday evening, the IALD will have its 16th

Annual Awards Presentation and Dinner at the San Francisco

War Memorial Opera House. The Opera House was recently

renovated with an entirely new lighting scheme that won a

1998 International Illumination Design Award (IIDA) Edwin

F. Guth Memorial Award of Excellence for its refurbished

auditorium and main chandelier (which was featured in the

April 1998 LD+A). Later that night, the Opera House will be

the site of the IALD Education Trust Benefit.

On Thursday afternoon at 12:15, LIGHTFAIR attendees

can learn about the IESNA’s IIDA program at the IESNA

International Illumination Design Awards Luncheon

Seminar at the Moscone Center. The seminar will be conducted

by Jim Zastovnik and IIDA Committee Chair Don

Newquist. This is an ideal opportunity to learn how to

enter a design project in this world-renowned design program,

currently in its 26th year. Not only are the top award

recipients featured in LD+A, but many of the Awards of

Merit find their way into the magazine as well.

The first seminar to kick off the educational conference is

the New Product Showcase and Awards Presentation on

Tuesday, May 11 at 8:00 a.m. New products commercially

introduced in the last year will be presented in a multi-media

format featuring slides, video presentations, and descriptions

of each product. The presentation will showcase new developments,

designs, engineering improvements, line expansions,

trends, applications, and more. Categories include

Architectural, Ballasts/Transformers, Commercial Interior,

Components, Controls, Decorative Interior, Exterior Prod-

68 LD+A/April 1999

ucts, Lamps, Specialty, Theatrical/Entertainment, and


“The New Product Showcase and Awards Presentation

continues to evolve with the addition of two new awards: the

Judges’ Citation Award and the Roeder Award,” Gable said.

“Manufacturers overwhelmingly agree that the New

Products Showcase—and LIGHTFAIR as a whole—provides

an ideal launching pad for new products.”

The Judges Citation Award recognizes product excellence

at the judges’ discretion. The Roeder Award recognizes a

product that exemplifies the dedication, commitment to

excellence, use of color, and outrageous sense of fun reminiscent

of the late Craig Roeder.

“Participation in LIGHTFAIR has been the catalyst to .hessamerica’s

overwhelming success in the architectural lighting

market,” said Terry O’Toole, Vice President and General

Manager of .hessamerica. “It provides an ideal venue for new

product introductions to a specific audience. No other show

has the impact or effectiveness of LIGHTFAIR.”

Happy Birthday LIGHTFAIR!

As LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL celebrates its tenth

year, there are several special events for attendees to take

part in while visiting San Francisco.

On Tuesday, May 11, the New Product Showcase takes

place at 8 a.m. Afterwards, the Exhibit Hall is officially

opened with a tenth anniversary ribbon cutting ceremony at

the Exhibit Hall Entrance at the Moscone Convention

Center. Attendees are invited to join representatives from the

IESNA, IALD, and AMC for this special milestone.

Tuesday afternoon, attendees and exhibitors are invited to

attend the 10th Anniversary Cocktail Reception at the

Moscone Center from 4 to 6 p.m. This is a thank you to all

those within the industry who have supported LIGHTFAIR

over the past decade. Welcoming speeches will be made by

Good, Gabriel, and world-renowned architect John C.

Portman. Complimentary wine, beer, and hors d’oeuvres will

accompany a cake-cutting ceremony with musical entertainment

and more.

Later that night attendees can attend LIGHTFAIR’s

Birthday Bash at Bimbo’s 365 Club. For only $75, attendees

can celebrate 10 years of lighting industry excellence in style.

Whether you have cocktails in the Continental Lounge, the

Flambeau Terrace, or dance the night away in the Main Show

Room, you will definitely want to be at this party. Located in

scenic North Beach, Bimbo’s 365 Club was called “one of the

most plush and dramatically lit dance music spaces in the

country” by The Chicago Tribune.

The Nuckolls Fund will benefit from a special event at

LIGHTFAIR in San Francisco with the addition of the San

Francisco Bay Walk sponsored by Belfer Lighting in memory

of Craig Roeder. His humorous and unique outlook always

made the New Products Showcase a very memorable presentation.

The walk starts at the San Francisco Marriott, continues

down to Market Street down to the Embarcadero, on to

Pier 39, and then back to the Marroitt where a light, healthy

breakfast will be served.

Headed for the Future

As the millennium approaches and a new era dawns,

LIGHTFAIR will no doubt continue to play a major role in

the lighting industry just as it does today.

“As businesses become more national and less regional,

manufacturers are finding it difficult to maintain a regional

presence and are forced into national prominence,” Good

said. “Specifiers and designers are working all over the world

and an opportunity like LIGHTFAIR allows effective growth

for both manufacturers and end users.”

LIGHTFAIR has been a phenomenon because of the

industry it serves and the IESNA/IALD sponsorship,

according to Morley. “When your name is on the door, you

really roll up your shirtsleeves,” she said. “To have IESNA

and IALD associated with the event is why LIGHTFAIR is

so successful. Their hands-on management has made the

event grow and thrive because they are steering the event

that serves their members.”

When the millennium arrives, LIGHTFAIR 2000 will be

back in New York City—the place where it all began.

Anticipation is already building among the lighting community.

“We’re very excited about next year in New York City

for the millennium,” IALD’s Gabriel said. “It gives us another

reason to party all over again.”

“We couldn’t have planned it better,” Morley said of

LIGHTFAIR 2000. “It’s a fitting and appropriate venue

because New York is our largest market and I can’t think of

a better place to kick off the second decade and the next century


When talk of LIGHTFAIR’s future takes place, two words

come to Hanley’s lips: bigger and better. “We want to make

LIGHTFAIR even bigger than it is, yet somehow keep the

‘small town’ atmosphere and community feeling,” he said.

“And we hope to make it better by enhancing the best that

LIGHTFAIR has to offer.”

When the 1999 LIGHTFAIR draws to a close, you may

have left your heart in San Francisco, but the camaraderie and

the education you’ll gain will stay with you for a lifetime.

LIGHTFAIR & LD+A: A Dynamic Duo

When LIGHTFAIR was still in its infancy, the February 1991 LD+A was almost

entirely devoted to LIGHTFAIR held in March at Chicago’s Merchandise Mart.

This issue set the stage for subsequent issues of LD+A.

Since then, every year LD+A has devoted a large portion of an issue

to LIGHTFAIR immediately prior to the event. For example, in this issue,

not only do we have this feature on the history of LIGHTFAIR, but we

also have five seminar preview articles, and an Essay by Invitation

by Stan Walerczyk and Brooks Sheiffer which discusses another

seminar topic.

Last year, to commemorate LIGHTFAIR’s Las Vegas debut,

LD+A not only devoted a large portion of the April issue to a preview,

but the May issue was

devoted to lighting in Las

Vegas. This was the first

time in the magazine’s 28

year history that a single

issue has been devoted

to a single city. There were actually

attendees who only decided to go to LIGHT-

FAIR once they received the May issue.

Look for an issue devoted to New York City next year to

mark LIGHTFAIR’s return to the Big Apple in 2000.

LD+A is the official directory for LIGHTFAIR INTERNA-

TIONAL and has been since 1993. For the third consecutive

year LD+A is also sponsoring a seminar track at

LIGHTFAIR. This year, LD+A is presenting the Energy

and Technology track.


70 LD+A/April 1999

Circle 100 on Reader Service Card.

Lumisource, Inc. has released its

“tower of light,” the Tatami torchiere.

Constructed of a pine wooden

frame and hand-woven reed

shade, the lamp emits a warm natural

glow. Available in two sizes, the

lamp measures 12 inches wide by

36 inches or 60 inches tall. It holds

one lamp up to 100 W.

Circle 99 on Reader Service Card.

Advance Transformer Co. introduces

a new magnetic ballast for

the operation of two 18 W and 26

W four-pin quad rapid start compact

fluorescent lamps. The ballasts fea-

ture a compact 8-1/2 inch can with

bottom-exit leads and studs for

junction box mounting. A white can

option with end leads is also available.

Also featured is a magnetic

lead circuit design, similar to that

used in ballasts for larger rapid start

lamps. The design provides constant

lamp current and ballast temperature.

Circle 97 on Reader Service Card.

Indecon, from Columbia Lighting,

is a new energy-efficient indirect

ceiling-pendant fluorescent luminaire

which acts to minimize glare

on VDT screens and in employee,

customer, or public spaces. The

luminaire’s housing is made of premium-grade

steel. One-, two-, and

three-lamp models are available.

The fluorescent tube is on onelamp

models. The middle tube on

three-lamp models is angled diagonally

to maintain consistent fixture

length. T8 linear fluorescent

tubes are standard and units are

wired for electronic and magnetic

action ballasts.

Circle 96 on Reader Service Card.

Lightolier’s new Discus compact

fluorescent can be mounted in a

wide range of configurations: wallmount;

up/down wall-mount horizontal;

as an hanging pendant (with

shade option); and as an overhead

surface mount (also with shade

option). A reflector shade is available

to direct light downward and to

add shielding.



Circle 95 on Reader Service Card.

Circle 98 on Reader Service Card.

Tivoli Industries Inc.’s Paravision is an integrated illuminated surveillance

system combining pendant-mounted overhead downlighting with hidden

surveillance cameras in a low-scaled, architecturally designed unit.

Nondichroic MR16 long-life halogens are employed in a straight or arced

aluminum light tube. Each point of light is housed in an adjustable, aimable

spherical mount. Units can incorporate one or multiple miniature high-resolution


Artemide Inc. releases Ariel, a

shade lamp created by designer

Ron Rezick. Ariel is constructed for

both residential and commercial

interiors, offering a table model in

two sizes and a floor model. It features

a heavy die-cast metal base

with a matte nickel plating finish.

The upper conical shade and the

lower complementing rings are in

solid white, plasticized paper material.

Light sources are standard A19

white lamps, 60 W for the small

table model and 100 W for the large

table and floor models.

LD+A/April 1999 71

efficient source for display downlighting,

spotlighting, as well as

cove, soffit, step, and strip lighting.

It uses a 250 W metal halide.

Optional built-in computerized controls

provide custom operating

effects. Motorized color wheels provide

up to eight color changes in

the illuminated fibers.

Circle 94 on Reader Service Card.

LumiSource Inc. introduces the

Egg (pictured), the Caterpillar,

and the Cocoon lamps, designed

by Chad Jacobs. The Cocoon and

Egg are set in a steel stand and

constructed of a thick, frosted

white glass. The Caterpillar is

made of styrene diffuser and is

encompassed by either clear or

green acrylic disks adjoined with

a steel frame.

Circle 92 on Reader Service Card.

Curly Torpedo, a flexible fixture

from Tech Lighting, features a 6–60

inch length hand-bendable stem,

which is narrow and holds it shape.

The aerodynamic head holds an

MR16 and may be accessorized

with several customized shades.

Curly Torpedo is available for lowvoltage

systems, or for monopoint

or three-head canopies.

Circle 91 on Reader Service Card.

The Model 601 fiber optic illuminator

from Fiberstars is an energy-

Circle 89 on Reader Service Card.

Christopher Poehlmann’s Donald

table lamp features post-consumer

acrylic shades in two colors:

white and parchment. Inspired

by Donald Deskey’s modern

designs, the hand-turned maple

wood base adds elegance to this

reading and accent lamp.

Circle 93 on Reader Service Card.

From Donovan Lighting, comes

the circular metal Metro 1800

Pendant of either spun aluminum

or brass. The bottom dish holds a

difusser of perforated metal or

prismatic polycarbonate. The

plastic diffuser may or may not be

tinted. An optional anti-glare

diffuser is suggested for lower

installations. This fixture is available

as a stem, cord, or cord track


Circle 90 on Reader Service Card.

Excelite, Inc.’s contemporary design fluorescent chandelier provides

indirect/direct lighting for large architectural spaces. The luminaires use

compact fluorescent lamps. The luminous diffusers/reflectors are available

in various shapes and materials to complement ceiling structure, in

48 and 60 inch sizes.

72 LD+A/April 1999

halogen minicandelabra lamps, diffused

by a white fused, seeded, and

slumped glass shade. Custom

glass colors are available.

Circle 88 on Reader Service Card.

The 450 W Uni-Form pulse start

system from Venture Lighting produces

50,000 lm—equal to 400

W high pressure sodium—with a

performance life of 20,000 hours.

The Uni-Form system includes

lamps with medium and mogul

bases and standard and reduced

jackets in 50–450 W.

Circle 87 on Reader Service Card.

LaserMedia Inc.’s StingRay laser

system produces a mono-chromatic,

green laser beam, requiring only

a 110/220 V power source with no

water cooling. The compact

StingRay series of laser systems

are available in 4.95, 50, 100, and

150 mW versions.

Circle 85 on Reader Service Card.

Neidhardt, Inc. announces its new

901S wall sconce. Meant for use in

bathrooms, vanities, or hallways,

the sconce is 6 x 18 x 4 inches in

size. The sconce contains two 60 W

Circle 84 on Reader Service Card.

Ruud Lighting introduces glarefree

security lighting, the Circular

Ceiling/Soffit Mount Security light

(CE2 Series). The compact CE2

Series unit measures 8.9 inches in

diameter by 8.6 inches deep and

carries a five-year warranty. The

luminaire includes a choice of 50

or 70 W metal halide, 35–70 W

high pressure sodium, or 13 W fluorescent


Circle 86 on Reader Service Card.

The Watt Stopper, Inc. announces a

new line of control products, IRC,

using a control-without-wires

design and offering many options

for customizing lighting and power

control in workstations, offices, and

buildings. The IRC family consists

of transmitters (TW-2, TW-6, and

TH-6), receivers (RM-1 and RM-2),

and a control module (CS-200).

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