SSDP - Appendix Karnali - Govinda Entwicklungshilfe e.V.

waisenkind.de

SSDP - Appendix Karnali - Govinda Entwicklungshilfe e.V.

Shangri-La association

Kathmandu/ Nepal (NGO)

Govinda Entwicklungshilfe e.V.

Aalen/Germany (INGO)

Shangrila Sustainable Development

Programs

Appendix I

Facts on Karnali Region/ Western Nepal

Karnali Zone

Nepal

"When the poorest receive credit, they become economic actors with power. Power to

improve not only their lives, but, in a widening circle of impact, the lives of their families,

their communities and their actions.”

Kofi Annan


Table of contents

1. The Development Scenario in Karnali ..................................................................... 3

1.1 Development status of Karnali at national level ..................................................... 4

1.1.1 Social life-Symbol of hardship ................................................................................ 5

1.1.2 Literacy status of Karnali ........................................................................................ 5

1.1.3 Health status in Karnali .......................................................................................... 6

1.1.4 Social development status of Karnali at national level............................................ 6

1.1.5 Economic life-Facing scarcity................................................................................. 7

1.1.6 Civil society and critical Mass................................................................................. 8

1.1.7 Geographical situation............................................................................................ 8

1.1.8 Religion, Language, Tradition and Ethnic groups................................................. 10

1.9 Population Characteristics....................................................................................... 11

2. Facts of Karnali District and Jumla ....................................................................... 13

2.1 Facts of Karnali Region ....................................................................................... 13

2.2. Facts of Jumla District…………………………………………………………………15

3. The target communities of the outreach program Patamara and Dillichour VDC... 16

3.1 Population............................................................................................................ 16

3.2 Location and Accessibility.................................................................................... 17

3.3 Ethnic and Linguistic Composition ....................................................................... 18

3.3.1 Ethnicity household .............................................................................................. 18

3.4 Summary information sheet (Baseline Study)...................................................... 19


1. The Development Scenario in Karnali

Karnali is known as a zone of Nepal at present. The hilly part of western Nepal was an

independent state till 1789.The state then was extended to the southeast and west of

than the present shape of Karnali Nepal unification process embodied it with in the

shape of Nepal present landscape.

During the post unification era the Karnali region was ruled through Jumla Gaunda.The

Birta and Gathi land distributed by the earlier local rules of the region then were

confiscated. Consequently, some people who were enjoying benefits during the earlier

rule lost many things and many of the inhabitants deserted it and migrated elsewhere

for food .It is estimated that the population of Jumla decreased by 40 percent after the

Gurkha conquest (Bishop, 1990)

Karnali lines with Tibet geographically to the north, is one of Nepal's 14 administrative

zones (anchal) which id comprised of Dolpa, Jumla, Kalikot, Humla, Mugu, and is the

home of 3, 09,084 people. It occupies about 15 percent of the total territory of the

kingdom of Nepal.i.e.21,351 square kilometers .Most of Karnali are unpopulated as 45

percent of its territory is located at an altitude above 45000 meter and 47 percent is

above 25oo meters.

Karnali is the only zone in Nepal that does not have a road link with rest of the country.

The people of Karnali either have to walk for weeks of have to use to airplane of

helicopter paying expensive fair. Air service is available in Dolpa, Jumla, Mugu and

Humla, but there so airport in Kalikot. There is no regular air service in Mugu district

though it boasts the construction of Talcha airport.


The zone only one percent arable land paradoxically,94 percent of the population is

mainly count on agriculture and the farm of the most of the places of the region depend

on Manson rain for farming.

The monsoon cycle of the zone is different from that of another part of the country due

to the peculiarity of the relief of land. The 4000 –meter high chyakhure-mabu mountain

in the southern part of the zone does not allow the rain bearing monsoon cloud to flow

northward. Consequently the northern part of zone gets lesser rainfall then the southern

part .Similarly the Api-saipal Mountain in the west of the zone acts as barrier for the

westerly winds thus causing little of no rain.

The main source of waster in many parts of Karnali is snow. Airplanes could not land in

simikot for 42 days due to the snow at that time. (Bishop, 1990)

At the national level, comparative development indicator places the district of Karnali at

the lowest rank in development process. The following tables is evident to this fact,

which shows the districts of Karnali are below then 66 th position among 75 district of

country.

1.1 Development status of Karnali at national level

Indicator

Position of the district in comparison with other district of

Nepal

Dolpa Jumla Kalikot Mugu Humla

Development 67 69 70 74 75

Land under Irrigation in

Percentage

24.56 7.4 NA 5.5 3.47

Climate and topography of Karnali is not very much suitable for agriculture. Karnali,

while the plough with iron blade is used in other part of country .The plough with

wooden blade was in vogue in Greece and the Middle East five thousand years ago.

(Bishop, 1990)


1.1.1 Social life-Symbol of hardship

This is one of the most excluded and marginalized zones in Nepal, which as very low

socio-economic status, poverty, hunger, famine, diseases and exploitations have

stained it in various ways.

The zone is one of most under privileged places in Nepal in tem of socio-economic

development of the 75 districts; Mugu district has the lowest literacy in Nepal. Only 27

percent people are literate in the district, where as the literacy rate of women is much

disappointing as only nine percent of the women are literate. (ISRSC, 2002)

1.1.2 Literacy status of Karnali

Indicator

Position of the district in comparison with other district of

Nepal

Dolpa Jumla Kalikot Mugu Humla

Male 19.61 16.7 16.98 9,19 11.19

Female 49.21 46.9 53 45.13 40.66

Total average 34.66 32 37.5 27.79 26.2

Source: ISRSC.2002

Caste discrimination is very rampant in Karnali, with new civil code coming in force in

1963, cast based discrimination was outlawed in Nepal. At a time when political and

economic reforms were ushered in other part of the country, caste discrimination was

practiced extremely in Karnali. According to Bishop (1990), the so-called upper caste

people applied untouchables to retain their economic and social status.

The tradition of MIT or making friendship and social respect among castes gradually

eroded. The so-called upper caste people warned the people of the Bhotiya caste that

they would terminate business relation with the latter if they din not follow the Hindu

social practices of untouchables.

Though present law prescribes untouchbility as social practice punishable, cast- based

discrimination is one of the social evils dominating the life in Karnali.


1.1.3 Health status in Karnali

There is death of basic health facilities in Karnali. Dolpa, Mugu and Kalikot district do

not have even a hospital under operation. The situation of the hospital in Humla districts

is very pathetic. People of Karnali zone are facing problem posed even by the diseases

that can other wise be checked through simple prevention measures.

The experience of two doctors who worked in Jumla and Dolpa districts at different

time's shows that health in the region has not witnessed improvement since long.

An enthusiastic doctor prasana Chandra Gautam worked in the Jumla hospital during

the late 1960s. According to Dr. Gautam, dysentery, diarrhea, worm and other parasites

were the main causes of the death of children. Cough and diphtheria were also

responsible for child mortality. So was malnutrition, similarly, respiratory problem was

another health hazard of the people. Injuries sustained through falling from trees, steep

places and wounds caused by cutting and fire burn were also other health problems of

major challenge. Ninety percent of the people were suffered from deficiency of iodine

(Bishop, 1990)

Another Doctor purusotam Sedhain worked in Dolpa in 2003.In his opinion, people of

Dolpa suffered from the problem of eyes and stomatch. Pneumonia was another

corrosive problem of the people of Dolpa. Thyroid was endemic due to deficiency of

iodine ,miscarriage and malnutrition are found in upper, middle and the lower belt of the

district respectively.

Many people were suffering from tuberculosis, migration being very high and there was

a big danger of contacting HIV/AIDS due to the tradition of having sex with more then

one partner.

1.1.4 Social development status of Karnali at national level

Indicator

Position in Social development.

Dolpa Jumla Kalikot Mugu Humla

Socio-Economic 71 65 63 72 73

Women empowerment 70 69 56 73 75

Children Illiteracy 68 (40.14) 73 (46.6) 70 (42.73) 71(46.6) 75 (51.57)

(Percentage)

Food production-

(per person in calorie)

2004 2781 1445 1018 1127

Health 75 48 69 66 71

Source: ISRSC.2002

Social development indicators also place Karnali in a very lower position if compared

with other district of Nepal. Table 3 indicates its status of social developments.


1.1.5 Economic life-Facing scarcity

Karnali traditionally dependent on agriculture, livestock and small household industries

is unable to develop its factories in the modern day lines, and it could not well organize

market strategies and foster businesses.

Though private sector has established itself as a district and independent entity and is

active in other regions, it has not been able to bring a positive outcome in the economy

of karnali. Amidst the old fashioned production technique and contemporary life style,

the private sector has been unable to perform its role in karnali, especially due to poor

transport facilities deprivation of soil fertility, energy and modern technology. Another

perceptible problem is connected with its severe alpine climate condition. Agriculture,

Livestock. Wool and Herbal products are a notable natural income generation resources

that could bring striking impact to the economy of karnali. However, this business is not

managed effectively, distributed judiciously-organized, stored, or processed and

marketed efficiently. Even the traditional domestic industries and craftsmanship such as

making earthen pots, woolen blankets, bamboo baskets and locally made papers are on

a miserable decline due to various reason, the foremost being the moist insurgency

among others at this moment. The engagement of the private sector could bring about a

positive impact on the economy of this region.

There is a very minimum impact on the economy of karnali form the small traditional

cottage industries, business and the newly emerging tourism sector. An abundant

tourism potential is bestowed to karnali by nature, nevertheless, it has not been able to

exploit to the full benefits.

In the main time there has still been presence of a visionary and potential leadership

from any quarters to visualize and promote karnali politically, economically and socially.

The term "Autonomy" has become a catchword for political leaders as well as other to

motivate the residents but no one has come up so for to give a logical framework of

autonomous development and its strategic road map for the prosperity of Karnali.


1.1.6 Civil society and critical Mass

There is no environment for creating common public opinion at the civil society level in

karnali due to the lack of awareness, inadequate educational opportunity, lack of

environment for social interaction, deficiency of civil organizations and professional or

intellectual's groups. That is why civil society is not well organized or virtually active.

The civil society done, through some social organization are working effectively in

defending the difference between the general masses and the parties engaged in

conflict.

The already limited civil organizations suffer inadequate resources, clear thought and

purpose. The region has not been able to establish its position as a distinguished place

as anticipated by the people nor could itfulfil their expectations due to the predominance

of bed politics and selfish leadership. Instead, it has come along the lines of modern-say

politics and plethora of complex problems.

As the scale of organizations working for the people as NGOs and professionals is

limited, civil society is incapable of working in the form of an effective pressure group to

lobby against semi government and the local bodies to provide services to the people.

The problem which could have been resolved at their level could not be identified due to

the required. Lack of pressure groups, inability to evolve a common thinking pattern

through debates and discussions, inability to discriminate such problem to the press and

publicity and an inability to work with the government in partnership in development

works –form the nexus of the major problem at the civil society level.

1.1.7 Geographical situation

Jumla district situated in south part of Karnali zone where as beautiful valley, highly

mountain, plane area, forest Tal/pond, rivers fertile land. In world map this district

situated in 28'58'' to 29' 30'' north akachach and 81'28'' to 82'18 east desnater. The see

level 7000 feet to 21077 feet height is Jumla district.

The boarder and neighboring district as east in Dolpa west in Kalikot, north in Mugu and

South in Jajarkot district are situated. The total territory of Jumla district is 2531 square

kilometers which as fourth position among the five district of Karnali zone.

In north part of district steep hilly areas and very cold so people are south/east face

plane area and near in river side lived.


Climate

In Jumla district different climates variance of geographical condition High Mountain

and river side, plane area so that in different place different type of climate in district. In

the high mountain area there were cold climate and middle hilly area there were warm

and in winter very cold .In the river side and plane area there were too hot and winter

too cold. As per the geographical structure there are three type of (Cold, dry and warm)

climate we found in Jumla.

In the district maximum temperature 30'c'c' and minimum temperature is -12c'c'. In

poush and Magha (Dec, Jan and Feb) are very cold and Jesth, Aasada (June, July) are

too hot temperature in district. Maximum snow fall is 47.6 c.m. in (054/055) and

minimum snow fall is 2.7c.m (055/056) in Jumla. Due to the high mountain rain fall is

very low, the maximum rainfall is 851.8 mm and minimum rainfall is 666.6mm in the

district.

River and Tal/Pond

The main rivers are Tila, Jawa and Hima is in district. In the rivers side areas there were

fertile land for food production. The Tila River is long and important river in the district.

In the Tila right and left side there were fertile land and number of population were lived.

At the same the river water maximum use for drinking, irrigation, water ghatta in the

district.

In Jumla district there were number of natural beautiful Pond / Tal. Pond/Tal as follows

Bisnu Tal, Sankha Tal, Hudake Tak, Jogini Tal, Thakur jiu Tal, Gidi Tal is famous in

district. Above Tal and Pond are Length is more then 5000 meter to2500 meter and 100

meter to 1500 meter are breath.

Natural vegetation

Jumla district is popular for natural vegetation. Geographical condition and wind

differences there were different type of vegetation in the district. It is more then 12000 ft

above heavy snow fall and cold climate there were few trees only get polesize/seddling

type tree in that place. There were many type of medician/hurbles are get , which as

panchaaule, jatamasi, katuki, padamchal, jevenbutti/yarsagumba are major

medician/hurbles in district.

In med level hilly area there were special forest are there the main trees as Salla,

Dhupi, Gurash, Bhojpatra, Khasru, Okhar etc. At the same various type of animal also

get in the mid hilly area which as follows kasturi, Jharal, Ghoral, Beer, Badel, and birds

are Danfe, Kalij, Munal, Chayakhura, Baj, Maluwa, Phakaras, and Laduwa.


1.1.8 Religion, Language, Tradition and Ethnic groups

Jatjati (cast groups)

Chhetri cast are majority in district and other cast are Barman, Thakuri, Kami, Damai,

Sarki, cast are in habited in district. A little/few majority Newar, Gurung, Thkali are also

in district. In Brahmin cast there were Devkota, Neupane, Chaulagain, Timilsina,

Pyakurel, Gautam, Sharma, Acharaya, and Regmi and in Chhetri also Kathayat, Mahat,

Rawal, Bista, Rokkaya, Budha, Mahatara, Budha and Shahi, Malla, Bam, Khada, Singh

are major in Thakuri cast in district.

Language

Nepali language is major language in district but it is slide different to spake from other

part of land. This place is origin place of Nepal Language so that here is spake/used

Jharo and original /Thet sentence. So the in local language used in community and

local village


Dress/Cloth and ornament

People of Jumla ware traditional cloth and ornament. Special boys used Bhoto, Katho,

and Girls are used Long Bhoto and marriage female wear Ghagri, Phariya Pachiyori

and Choli. At the same Male are wear Daura, Susuwal and, Kot, Cap.

Women used Silver Bala, Silver Paisa mala, Doladi, Kalli, Tilahari, Phuli, Bulaki and

Churapota ornaments. Old male person used ornament in ear and used local made

cloth. Some Buddhist family dress is slide different then other community.

Religious tradition

Here numbers of people are Hindu and some are Buddhist. In Hindu culture celebration

activities it is some different from other part of country. In Jumla pray god as Barha Bhai

mantto and nau durga Bhawani. The main god ship is Mantto in Jumla. Religious

tradition is stresses for kulpuja.

The main celebrating festival is Sarwan purnima, Kartik, Magha Baisk purnima. In

Purnima festival pray to Mantto god. At the same Krishna astami, Jatra, teej, Dasain,

Chaitra Dasain, Chaite Dasain, Tihar are also celebration in district. It is show that

typical and various cultural traditions in Jumla district.

1.9 Population Characteristics

Population of Jumla by age group and sex is presented in Table. Total population of

Jumla in1998 was 3681 of which 51.37% percent were male and 48.62% percent were

female in Jumla.


Population Distribution by Age Group Jumla District-1998

Age

Group

Population

Percentage

Male Female Total Male Female Total

0-4 Years 235 246 481 6.38(48.85) 6.68(51.14) 13.06(100)

5-9 Years 301 295 596 8.17(50.50) 8.01(49.49) 16.19(100)

10-14

Years

Above 14

Years

277 249 526 7.52(52.66) 6.76(47.33) 14.28(100)

1078 1000 2078 29.28(51.87) 27.16(48.12) 56.45(100)

Total 1891 1790 3681 100(51.37) 100(48.62) 100(100)

Source: National senses-1998


2. Facts of Karnali Region and Jumla

The following facts and statistics should give an compact overview on the life situation

of people in Karnali Region and specified in Jumla/ District.

2.1 Facts of Karnali Region


2.2. Facts of Jumla District

Geographical Situation

28'58'' North to 29'30''North Akachayansh

Geographical Structure

(1) High mountain area

(2)Hilly Areas

(3)Plane Land area

Height

From the see level 7000 ft (Nangama) to

21077 ft (Patarasi Himal) and District

head quarter height is 7600 ft.

Total Territory/Land

2, 53,100Hecter/2531 Square kilometer

District boarder

East in Dolpa district. West in Kalikot

district, North in Mugu district and South

Jajarkot district.

Climate

Cold, warm and dry

Tentative Annual rain fall

800m.m.

Temperature

Highest 30'C' in Jesth and Aasada)

Lowest -12'C' in Poush and Magha)

Snow fall - 46.06 c.m

Main Rivers

Tila River Hima River Jawa River

Total Population 86,666

Male : 44810-(51.70%)

Female: 41854-(48.30%)

Total household

15484 HH

Literacy rate

30% in total population

Density of Population

30.01each Square KM

Per Person income Rs.4834.00- Human development -1998

Average Age

Major Cast

Language

Occupation

Crops

47 year

Braman, Chhitra, Thakuri, Tamang,Newar,

Sarki, Kami, Damai

Jharo Nepali

Agriculture (90%Populatio depend on

agriculture)

Dhan, Gahu, Jau, Kodo, Chino, Makai,

Potato, Phapar, Simi


3. The target communities of the outreach program Patamara

and Dillichour VDC

Note: In the following four communities the outreach Program takes place in 2006 and

2007.For the new Shangrila sustainable development programm Patmara and Luma

gaon have been selected as target communities.

According to the DDC secretarial records and field observation of Patamara VDC is 3

hour and Dillichour VDC is four hour from district had quarter of Jumla. In Patamara

there were five village and gaun make one Village development committee (VDC). In

ward #1 and 2 is Patamara gaun and ward # 3 Godasini gaun ward # 4, 5, 6 is Rini

gaun, ward # 7, 8 Bata gaun and ward # 9 Urthu gaun. In Dillichour there were 5 village

and gaun make one village development committee.

In ward # 1, 2, 3 Lorpa gaun, ward # 4 Jamune gaun, ward # 5 Lamari, ward # 6 Tirkhu,

ward #7, 8, 9 is Luma gaun.

It is one hour working from Patamara gaun to Rini in Patamara VDC and 45 minutes

from Tirkhu to Luma gaun of Dillichour VDC.

3.1 Population

The Population of Patamara VDC was 2768 and in Dillichour VDC was 4016 in total

Population of two VDC was 6784 in two VDCs.

In total female are 1343 and male 1425 and total household was 508 in Patamara VDC

and at the same female 1922 and malewas2094 and total household was 654 in

Dillichour VDC. Almost house use roofing mud and stone and ground flour keep cattle

and upper flour stay family and keep food for food.

There were one Lower secondary school and three primary school in Patamara VDC.

One Secondary school and two primary school in Dillichour VDC.

The present study shows that Population of the study area is 3643 and total household

no is 594.The total Population household of Dillichour VDC area of Tirkhu gaun was

found to be 882 and 151 respectively of which female population 447(50.68%).The total

number of population and household of Dillichour VDC Lum gaun is 1376 and 211

respectively. The total population of female 651(47.31%).The total population of

Patamara VDC Rini gaun and Patamara gaun is 729 and 656 respectively of which the


population of female is 352 and 319 respectively. The total number of household of (Rini

and Patamara) is 116 and 116 respectively.

The average household size in this area is found 6.13.The average Population of the

target community 910 of which economically active population (age groups 16-60

Years) is found to be 254 male and 249 female respectively.

Source: SOH baseline reports-2006

Population by age groups

# of HHs

Population by age groups


Urthu is central point of four communities of two VDCs. Lum and Tirkhu gaun of

Dillichour VDC situated on northern part of Tila River. Rini and Patamara gaun situated

on North West part of Patamara stream. All communities surrounded by beautiful green

hilly forest and Paster land. Patamara VDC joined with headquarters VDC of Chandan

Nath, but 3 hour walked and cross the high hilly area.

3.3 Ethnic and Linguistic Composition

Only one ethnic group was found in the study areas. In Sherpa cast total 28 (4.71)

household we found (Sherpa-3, Tamang-5, Lama-5, Sherpa/Rokkya-1, Sherpa/Gara-1,

Sherpa/BK-1 and Sherpa/Kami-4). It has been observed that the majority of the people

of the Chhetri communities live in joint family.

In Sherpa ethnic groups the most widely spoken Sherpa language. The other language

widely spoken is Khas Nepali. Most of the community spoken is Khas Nepali language.

3.3.1 Ethnicity household


3.4 Summary information sheet (Baseline Study)

Variables

Demography

Total population

Male

Female

Total Household

Ethnic composition of HHs.

Chhetri

Sherpa

Dalit(Kami, Damai)

Total

Adult literacy (16 years ,

above)

Male literacy

Female literacy

Total literacy

School going < 15

Children

Boys

Girls

Tirkhu Lum Rini Patamara Total

No % No % No % No % No %

882

435

447

151

115

28

8

151

78

15

93

79

46

125

24.21

49.31

50.68

17.12

76.15

8.54

5.29

-

35.94

6.55

20.85

38.72

21.90

3019

1376

725

651

211

151

-

60

211

124

15

139

167

74

214

37.77

52.6

47.31

35.52

71.56

-

28.43

-

35.42

4.23

19.74

45.50

25.17

32.37

729

377

352

116

116

-

-

116

100

40

140

89

71

169

20.01

51.71

48.28

19.52

100

-

-

-

50.25

20.83

35.80

52.35

44.93

51.52

656

337

319

116

116

-

-

116

91

11

102

87

45

132

18.00

51.37

48.62

19.52

100

-

-

-

41.93

5.67

24.81

76.31

40.90

58.92

Total

HH drinking water coverage

Total number of Taps 2 1.32 9 4.28 3 2.58 4 3.44 16 2.69

3643

1874

1769

594

498

28

68

594

393

81

474

422

236

658

100

51.44

48.55

100

83.83

4.71

11.44

-

43.52

8.35

24.28

45.96

30.56

40.44

Sanitation

Household with pit latrines 27 17.88 48 22.74 58 50.00 40 34.48 173 29.12

Smoke less stove 122 80.79 131 62.38 87 75.00 94 81.03 434 73.06

Family Planning

Males

Females

Total

43

-

43

28.47

-

28-47

84

-

84

40.00

-

40.00

72

-

72

62.06

-

62.06

89

-

89

76.72

-

76.72

288

-

288

48.48

-

48.48

Livestock holding

Buffalo

Cattle

Goat

Sheep

Horse

Chicken

Other

HHs Secondary Occupation

Small industry

Wage labor

Blacksmith iron work

Office service

Business

Other

Total

11

321

414

267

88

109

-

-

61

-

3

28

-

92

-

40.39

-

1.98

18.54

-

60.92

41

945

732

793

96

205

25

-

95

16

9

12

-

132

Source: (SOH/SCBIDP-baseline survey-2006)

-

45.02

7.58

4.26

7.94

-

87.41

5

457

790

666

13

92

-

5

54

-

13

2

-

74

4.31

46.55

-

11.20

1.72

-

63.79

-

155

1039

1195

23

43

15

2

47

-

10

39

-

98

1.72

40.51

-

8.62

33.62

-

84.48

57

1878

2975

2921

220

449

40

7

257

16

35

81

-

396

1.17

43.26

2.69

5.89

13.63

-

66.66

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