We All are Europe - AESAEC


We All are Europe - AESAEC

We All We All are Europe

Participation of Older,

and other Active European Citizens

A Handbook Supporting Active European Citizenship by Conceiving,

Submitting and Managing EU Projects


A c t i v e E u r o p e a n

S e n i o r s f o r A c t i v e

E u r o p e a n C i t i z e n s h i p

The AESAEC project (Project No 141757-2008-LLP-AT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP) has been funded with support from the European

Commission, represented by the Education and Culture DG.

This publication reflects the views only of the author/project group, and neither the Commission nor the DG can be held

responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.



AESAEC Project Group


Proof-reading in English:

Layout and design:

Cover design:

Printed by:

Michael Schwaiger (Auxilium/AT)

Max Reisinger, Katrin Meister (ISSAK-VHS Graz/AT)

Steffen Hartje (Fritid & Samfund/DK)

Teresa Diaz Bello, Yolanda Mates (ASAEL/ES)

Patrizia Giorio, Bettina Bussi (CO & SO Network/IT)

Csilla Lázár (Soros Educational Center Foundation/RO)

Dušana Findeisen (The Slovenian 3 rd Age University/SI)

Irtysh Language Services (UK)

Michael Schwaiger

Anne Sprotofski

dieGrafikZone, www.dieGrafikZone.at

dieGrafikZone, www.dieGrafikZone.at

© 2010 by AESAEC Project Group, represented by Auxilium Pro Regionibus Europae in Rebus Culturalibus, Geidorfplatz

2, A-8010 Graz

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means

(including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the

publisher. For permission or more information please contact office@auxilium.co.at or any of the organisations

listed on the back of this publication.

ISBN 978-3-9502999-0-8



This handbook is a result of the project Active European Seniors for Active European Citizenship

(www.aesaec.eu) that has been supported by the European Commission through the Grundtvig Action

(dealing with general adult learning) of the Lifelong Learning Programme


The basic idea of this project was to link a target group with a target area and a target activity

which are usually not often linked to each other:

• our target group is senior citizens, aged around 60 year and over

• the target area is Active European Citizenship, in the sense of actively supporting the ideals

and values of the European Union and promoting knowledge of its policies, structures, citizens,

cultures etc. by feeling and understanding oneself as an active part of this process

• the target activity was European project management as a legal framework and as a source

of funding for such kind of activities.

The general aim of the project was to introduce the concept of European Citizenship to Europe’s

senior citizens and to make clear to them how they could personally benefit from active participation

with this concept. On the other hand, it is absolutely necessary for the European Union to involve

senior citizens more in its processes and concept development; only if the EU can manage to

be accepted and proactively supported by this extremely large group of citizens, with all its life

experience and knowhow, can a sustainable and positive development of a modern Europe at the

social, political, cultural, economic and ecological levels be expected. The EU programmes and

funds that we worked with in our project were understood as being one of the missing links between

the EU and its senior citizens as well as being perfect catalysts in bringing them closer to each other.

The main product of our project is a training course based on this handbook with two major parts:

• Part A contains three short chapters about pedagogic concepts and guidelines which might

be helpful when organising and implementing training courses for senior learners

• Part B has seven modules dealing with the European Union, the concept of Active European

Citizenship, the Senior Volunteering Programme, the Europe for Citizens Programme as

well as about how to design, structure, write, budget, submit and implement EU projects

under these programmes.

As said above, primarily our intention was to focus on senior citizens as learners, however during

the testing phases of this course, we realised that this handbook can be a very helpful source of

information and know-how for anybody interested in the EU, Active European Citizenship and EU

project management. So, please do consider that the content of this handbook is less age-oriented

as it was originally planned – which means it might be worth having a look at it regardless of the

date of birth stated in your passport.

We wish you an enjoyable, entertaining and sustainable learning experience.

The AESAEC project group



Part A: The Pedagogical Concept 11

I. The conceptual framework of the AESAEC educational programme

Dušana Findeisen (Slovenian 3 rd Age University, Ljubljana/SI)


I.1. Introduction 13

I.2. Towards understanding old age, senior citizens’ needs and issues and their

active role in the community


I.3. The changing society 15

I.4. Conclusion 18

II. Findings of the IANUS project and their relevance for the AESAEC E-

educational programme

Patrizia Giorio (FormAzione, CO&SO Network, Firenze/IT)

III. Authentic Location Learning, Multi-sensorial Learning and Learning by

Doing as innovative pedagogic elements of the AESAEC educational


Michael Schwaiger (Auxilium, Graz/AT)



III.1. Introduction 23

III.2. Authentic Location Learning 25

III.3. Multi-sensory Learning 26

III.4. Learning by doing 27

Part B: Learner’s Manual 29

Module 1 – The European Union and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

Dušana Findeisen (The Slovenian 3 rd Age University/SI)

Module 2 - The Concept of Active European Citizenship and its Relevance for

Senior Citizens

Steffen Hartje (Fritid&Samfund/DK)



2.1. Why is AEC important for senior citizens 45

2.2. The role of civil society in the development of AEC 47

2.3. Development of new communities in the EU 49

2.4. Reflection upon the opportunities for AEC involvement in the future 50


Module 3 - The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) and its relevance for

AEC and Senior Citizens

Teresa Diaz Bello/Yolanda Mates (ASAEL/ES)


3.1. The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) 53

3.2. Action 1 of the ECP and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens 55

3.3. Action 2 of the ECP and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens 58

3.4. Action 3 of the ECP and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens 59

3.5. Action 4 of the ECP and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens 60

3.6. Think Tank 62

Module 4 - The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors

(GIVE) and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

Csilla Lázár (Soros Educational Center Foundation/RO)


4.1. The Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) and Grundtvig in a nutshell 65

4.2. Volunteering as a form of Active Citizenship 69

4.3. Senior Volunteering Exchange Projects 74

4.4. GIVE - Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors 78

Module 5 - The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing II: Linguistic part

Max Reisinger/ Katrin Meister (VHS Graz/AT)/

Michael Schwaiger (Auxilium/AT)


5.1. General considerations concerning communication 84

5.2. Working with texts and writing an application 87

5.3. Advertising psychology meets application writing 92

Module 6 - The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the technical


Bettina Bussi/Patrizia Giorio (CO & SO Network/IT)


6.1. How to build a project group 97

6.2. The project plan 103

6.3. The evaluation plan 107

6.4. The dissemination plan 109

6.5. The Project budget 112


Module 7 - How to implement a project successfully

Michael Schwaiger (AUXILIUM/AT)


7.1. Considerations before starting with the project work 116

7.2. Project meetings and international visits 123

7.3. Monitoring and evaluation 130

7.4. Dissemination and valorisation 136

AESAEC - Glossary 141


Part A: Pedagogical Concept


The conceptual framework

I. The conceptual framework of the AESAEC educational programme

(Dušana Findeisen, Slovenian 3 rd Age University, Ljubljana/SI)

I.1. Introduction

The AESAEC project focuses on older people being full and active members of local, national and

European communities, despite the fact that people in later life are burdened by social stereotypes

about them and they tend to think that it is not up to them to intervene in community life. We

firmly believe that senior citizens should and will be involved in important decision making processes

that concern themselves and other generations in the community; we further believe that

lifelong learning is important in later life, having a strong impact on both the learner and the community.

Moreover, when learning, education and training take place within European projects devised

by senior citizens themselves the transformational impact becomes even stronger.

The AESAEC project includes the development of an educational and training programme for older

citizens enabling them:

to change their own, and to some extent also the social, outdated image of them being

not very active and not participating in the community in old age, freeing themselves from

their own stereotypes

to better understand their own needs and issues and the need for intergenerational bonds

(solidarity, co-existence and cooperation among generations)

to become familiar with European institutions and European policies related to older people’s

needs and issues

as a result of education and training senior citizens should be able to devise a European project

and apply for funding, and hopefully implement.

Any type and format of education for older people has its topic, of course. But any type and format

of education in later life is also, simultaneously, education for empowerment. Therefore trainers,

mentors and students engaged in educational programmes are concerned with achieving a better

understanding of what old age in contemporary European society can and should be.

There are different ways of how to increase awareness about major social changes and what impact

they have on the intergenerational relationship; awareness about older workers and their position,

flexibility and security, combating age barriers at work, the right to work and the right to receive a

pension, active ageing in the broader sense of the word, mandatory or compulsive retirement,

structured free time in later life, opportunities to cooperate with other generations, voluntary activities,

policies about old age and people in later life, style(s) of life in retirement and old age



Therefore, we thought the conceptual framework of the AESAEC training programme should include

not only knowledge about European institutions and policies concerning older people and knowledge

about how a project proposal is shaped. We thought that students in later life involved in preparing

a European project proposal should start by increasing knowledge about themselves and their position

in society and also learn more about how they can contribute towards changing society for the


I.2. Towards understanding old age, senior citizens’ needs and issues and their active role in

the community

In most Western European countries old age did not emerge as a political and social issue until the

1950s. After the Second World War, Europe was mainly interested in repairing the damage and looking

towards the future focussing on the younger generations, often forgetting about older people.

Older people were portrayed by social stereotypes as passive not interested in any kind of participation

in society. In the AESAEC project and training we are interested in the new European attitudes

towards older people and new European approaches towards participation of senior citizens in

community life and education associated with it. In addition we are interested in examples of good

practice in this field as a source of learning.


An active senior citizen who is ready to devise a European project proposal, prepare an application

and eventually implement the project, if the proposal is successful, should have knowledge about

the existing frame programmes and above all should be familiar with values and concepts concerning

older people, old age, the style of life of older people, pension schemes, active ageing and

other policies, the right to a pension and the right to work, the right to social security, flexible security,

etc. Moreover, he or she should also know about the European institutions and policies that

concern older people and their relationships with other generations as well as the most important

European non-governmental organisations dealing with the issues of older people. He or she should

be aware that older people are not all the same, as actually they are all different, much more different

than the members within the younger generations and therefore he or she should stand for

the right to be different in later life, to have his or her own style of life, to be differently treated

by policies, etc.. Not all older people are patients and their ageing is not necessarily pathological,

but rather normal, not all older people are poor, not all older people are helpless or functionally

illiterate. An active senior citizen should therefore stand up against the discourse of weakness and

dependence adopted in most policies, by the media, public statements and other texts about people

in later life. Moreover, not all older people are grandmothers and grandfathers, as they can

have different social roles. They can be workers, volunteers, learners, etc. They differ according to

the status they have in society. They have different needs if they are employed or not, if they are

volunteers or not, if they live alone or in a family, if they have a partner or not, if they have managed

to create a large or a small social network, if in their network younger people are included, if

this network is a source of emotional support and information, that is an open network, or if it is

The conceptual framework

closed one consisting mainly of family members. They differ if they have health concerns or not, if

they are men or women, if they are well educated or not. They differ because the course of their

life and their social roles have been very different. They have a different style of life. They differ

according to these and other criteria but they are least different because of their different ages.

Age may be an important factor with youngsters growing up, but not adults! It is time to free ourselves

from these views and stereotypes about older people. Consequently, policies concerning

older people are not free of these views and stereotypes and an older citizen devising a European

project proposal should be aware of them and should not repeat them while preparing a project

proposal. This does not seem to be an easy task, since stereotypes about old age are often consolidated

by older people themselves. Consolidating stereotypes does not help in creating a new image

of older people who are well engaged in community matters and contributing towards different

policies. Combating stereotypes can be an important task to be tackled by European projects concerning

older people. Such projects should be ambitious, conceptual, accompanied by intensive

public campaigning and possibly they should be intergenerational. Older people should not be applauded

just because they have reached the age of eighty or more, and shall we say, use computers

or because they try to live imitating younger people. They should be applauded for their contribution,

for having achieved something valuable for themselves and the community.

Government policies in many European countries concerning old age and ageing currently develop

mostly in three directions:

a permanent dialogue with those who have just retired and are aware of their own impending

old age and old age as it is today for those who have been retired for some time

development of services in close collaboration with families and their neighbourhood

creation of opportunities for older people to be, on an equal basis with other generations, a

part of the community.

Most problems arise within this last area. Why Because older people are predominately regarded as

being dependent and in need of help from others. Moreover European policies often develop in the

same way , with a great deal of consulting NGOs and individual senior citizens at different stages of

the period called between work retirement and old age.

I.3. The changing society

Senior citizens planning to engage in European projects are expected to have an in depth view of

the major social changes affecting all generations and the relationships between them. Enlightened

adaptation to these and other changes in society and within communities can be a topic and aim of

European projects. What are the major changes in society affecting all generations


a) Paid work: Unbalanced public finances reflect the disappearance from society of »paid work and

a regular monthly income« Today's forms of work, performed by the current middle generations,

differ from Keynesian times, when permanent, full-time employment was the norm; predominant

today are fixed-term jobs, part-time jobs, home-working, tele-working, the grey market economy,

alternating periods of employment, education and training and flexible security. We are facing a

transition from »a civilisation of work and stability « to a period of instability, temporarity and, for

many, also diminished prosperity and a sense of precariousness. The new types of employment

tend to affect the lives and work of older people and their participation in the community. Younger

people and older people are today much more concerned about what is happening in the community

since they are much more affected by the changes within it. It is time for them to be more

active within different communities, locally, nationally, European-wide or even globally.

Occasional paid or voluntary work performed by older people can result in new jobs for younger

people. Not every type of work can turn into a full time job. Initially an activity develops step by

step. Work can be then performed in the form of occasional activities and occasional paid work.

Such work is more easily taken on by older people, since they already have some regular income.

But occasional activities can later become full time jobs for younger people. Older people do not

“steal” jobs from younger people, since they take on different types of activities compared to

younger people. Having a permanent job is hardly a good solution for older people and what is

more, they do not want to be employed full-time. The third age has different characteristics to

those of the second age.

The social position of several groups comprising of members of younger generations is becoming

similar to that of older people. These groups contain young first-time job seekers, unemployed middle-aged

persons, the permanently unemployed older workers, people in between fixed-term contracts,

as well as persons who are unemployable due to their level of qualification and skills and are

pushed to the edge of society. In today's societies, looking for solutions for older people, therefore,

means also finding solutions for the above-mentioned groups that also exist within communities.

b) New technologies are not very accessible for all older people; if any members of the community

are denied access to modern technology, all generations and the whole community are affected. If

they are without access to information they cannot integrate into the community, they cannot keep

pace with progress, they cannot enter the e-economy, e-government, e-education, e-

communication, etc. and, thus, they are more and more dependent on the active working population.

Without older people having access to technology then communities are less integrative for

them. We wonder whether in our society dependence on employment can be reduced and a different

basis, more in tune with actual social developments, can be found.


The conceptual framework

c) The urgent need to preserve human and social capital that is being neglected: Older people are

possessors of non-tangible and invisible cultural heritage (experiential knowledge, skills, beliefs,

customs etc) that needs to be preserved, maintained and passed onto younger generations if its

continuity is to be ensured. The overlooked abilities and knowledge of older people form an important

part of human and social capital. Their activation and employment could improve the social

position of older people, and, in addition, lessen the burden of younger generations. Presently society

is wasting a considerable part of the human capital it possesses and could foster, which is a

disaster for the information society, based as it is on knowledge. Modern states and modern communities

can preserve and strengthen their vitality mostly through the human and social capital

that is available. Moreover the ageing society is being looked upon as a threat and, a failure but it

could be regarded as a success. A success for our civilisation, which it is.

A considerable number of older people with readily available and experientially validated knowledge

are now on hand for the benefit of the community. Moreover, we should not be so concerned

about the decreasing birth rate. On the contrary what we should be concerned about is the »quality»

of our children or grandchildren; about how to develop their sensibility, tolerance, resistance

to stress, ability to relate and respect others and their ability to build a community. We should focus

on their values, knowledge and cultural awareness to as indicators of their quality! Quality

seems here to be in overriding quantity. We may say so. The quality of our children will help communities

survive as well as the quality of older people!

An integrative community should take care and exploit for its advantage the knowledge and abilities

of its members, notwithstanding their age. The lack of infrastructural networks enabling older

people to become reintegrated into society, leads to their social exclusion and isolation. How can

older people create and maintain their social networks How can they obtain support: materials,

emotional support, information and knowledge How can they start dealing with community matters

and how from can they participate in the society What networks of public institutions and organised

structures are available to the elderly in today's Europe Are there real opportunities for them

to socialise, opportunities for goal- oriented, engaging free-time activities that bring about real

individual and social changes, opportunities for learning and for education, are there specialised job

centres for older citizens, specialised medical services, geriatric hospital wards, organisations

providing voluntary work and training for older people, cultural organisations for older people How

can older people re-enter society, or rather, how can we prevent older people from being excluded

How can they secure for themselves an equal position with that of other generations in society to be

able to live fulfilling lives in their later years a period of 20-30 or more years

d) Ageing society requires active old age – new ways for social integration: The ageing society has

brought about more interest in older people. Older people, like anybody else, can become reintegrated

into society only by being active. The experience of many retired people has shown that


they may be more successful when joining new social groups, by getting involved in new activities.

It is impossible to list all the activities senior citizens can participate in together with other people.

Given a bit of support and advice as well as adequate training / education, every individual can find

something he or she would enjoy doing. To discover what other people need and what they are willing

to accept, identify the things that may become a new challenge for him or her. The choices and

attractions of this period are always very personal. The time has finally come when one is allowed

to do what one is fond of and interested in. As an illustration, let us just mention a few possibilities:

one can learn how to play a musical instrument, take up performing, painting, exhibiting, researching,

translating, one can become involved with museums, work as an assistant custodian or tourist

guide, do voluntary work within an organisation, set up a club or society, take up calligraphy, design

websites, write for and read stories to nursery school children, co-operate in the design of the curriculum

for local community schools, take care of one's garden or perform gardening services for

others, give advice, provide learning and psychological help, instruct younger people and people of

one’s own age, make plans, design, become involved in politics, work with the media, establish a

company, write and publish books, or participate in community matters representing one’s peers

and all other generations. All activities should, however, have a clearly defined objective and operative

plan. For older people to have their position changed within communities and society it is

necessary however, to undertake such activities that are goal oriented and can bring about

change in their personal life and in society

I.4. Conclusion

People in later life relate to other generations and therefore should be more extensively engaged in

shaping the life of communities. Cooperation between generations and solidarity among generations

is possible only when senior citizens can and are allowed to age actively. Local, national and European

policies should therefore address people in later life as active people, people with potential

and as people with a variety of psycho-social needs. Senior citizens who are ready to engage in preparing

European project proposals concerning themselves and their peers as well as relationship

with other generations should take care to counter stereotypes which are contrary to the new image

of active and participating senior citizens. To this end senior citizens preparing a project proposal

need to have an improved understanding of European institutions and their policies relating to

old age, as well as knowledge about European NGO activities concerned with older people’s issues.

Adapting to social changes or preparing for their consequences affecting older people can be both a

topic and aim of European projects.


Durandal, J-Ph.V. (2003) : Le Pouvoir gris. Sociologie des groupes de pression de retraites. PUF. Paris.

Guillemard, A.-M. (1986): Le declin du social. PUF. Paris.

Erikson, E.H. et al (1989): Vital Involvement in old age. W.W. Norton & Company. New York.

Findeisen, D.: Educating the 45+ to understand and change their social position.


The conceptual framework

Kroehnert, S./Hosmann, I./Klimgholtz, R.(2008): Europe’s Demographic Future. Berlin Institute for Population and Development.

Rečnik, M.: Izobraževanje starejših odraslih, Education of the elderly. ACS, Ljubljana, 2000, str. 13-38

Roberts, K. (1981): Leisure. Longman. London.

Rojek, C. (2000): Leisure and Culture. Palgrave Macmillan. New York.

Shields, R. (1997): Flow, Space and Culture. No.1, Volume.1, pp. 1-9


II. Findings of the IANUS project and their relevance for the AESAEC

Educational Programme (Patrizia Giorio, FormAzione CO&SO Network, Firenze/IT)

The Grundtvig project IANUS – Standards for Intergenerational, Intercultural and IT-based Later

Learning (N°134057-LLP-1-2007-1-AT-GRUNDTVIG-GMP) has tried from 2007 to 2009 to identify and

analyse those factors which are likely to influence later learning activities throughout Europe in a

positive or negative way.

It is fact that at the European level the labour market crisis which has occurred in the few last years

has determined a revision and renewal of the Lisbon strategy to foster and support growth and job

creation by a range of structural reforms. In many countries there is limited public awareness of the

potential of older people and the necessity to increase their social activity and participation in national

life in order to improve their living conditions as rightful members of all EU countries as a

consequences themes such as Active Citizenship are becoming more and more important in our


Learning in later life is a relatively recent concept which is stipulated by European and national

bodies, pedagogues, experts in psychology and medicine, by vocational training institutes and nonprofit

organizations. However it is not well-known as a comprehensive approach in different public

spheres which targets at increasing the authority and the influence of older people and at the same

time diminishing existing stereotypes that the third age is generally characterised by poor health,

decreasing social activity and less interest in life.

That is why guidelines and training programmes with regard to EU educational policy are recommended

and are necessary to foster the dissemination of good practice examples. In order to further

develop the concept of later learning at the European level we report some key elements that

are important when later learners are the beneficiaries of training at different levels:

Bio-genetic and psychological factors:

- general accomplishment of human brain in connection with age

- life time of the human brain and brain re-growth

- memory and reproduction processes/interactive memory systems in the human brain

- physical and psychophysical problems

- emotional development

- gender aspects

Social psychological dimension:

- intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for learning at the age 50+

- internal and external learning barriers

- ability of later learners to view reality from a wider perspective as an effect of maturity

- establishing a psychological sense of community and a sense of “we”

- generate a social process of inclusion


Findings of the IANUS project

Structural dimension on national / regional / local levels:

- legal aspects and responsibilities

- traditions and approaches towards later learning

- existing networks and projects

Institutional dimension:

- course planning and organization

- ways of mixing intergenerational / intercultural learning groups

- marketing

- registration procedures

- communication strategies

- ability of trainers

- course settings

- testing settings and quality assurance.

Pedagogical dimension:

- quality recommendations concerning methods, didactics, training materials

- blended learning solutions

- usage of ICT learning environment

- trainer-learner relations

- learner-learner-relations

- advantages and challenges when working with groups heterogeneous in age and culture

- learning from older people

- types of educational guides to encourage cooperative learning amonst older people that

need to be considered

- lively trainer-learner and learner-learner interaction based on trust

- importance of mentoring

- suitability of learning contents for later learning

- assumptions about the individual learners’ prior knowledge

- adapting the language used in class to the target group of later learners

- gender aspects from the didactical perspective

- the effect and the importance of the size of groups on the learning process

EU adult education policy dimension:

- tools, instruments and concepts of the Commission’s adult education policy relevant/appropriate

to the target group

- suggestions to the Commission to modify existing tools, instruments and concepts, such as

EUROPASS, mobility programmes etc., and to increase their relevance for the target


- suggestions to the Commission to develop and introduce new tools, instruments and concepts

to react appropriately, and in time, to demands and needs of those responsible for


and/or interested in adult education, such as ministries, social partners, training organizations,

umbrella organizations of target group etc. to improve their support for later/intergenerational


Following tips and hints were developed as part of the IANUS guidelines to support the trainers in

order to overcome the factors stated above:

trainers must have knowledge of the heterogeneity of the group

respect for and focus on individuals

knowledge of different political, cultural and institutional approaches towards later learning

knowledge of the development of projects in the field of later learning

ability to support process-oriented learning and reciprocal learning (learning from each

other) with the shift of emphasis from teaching to learning through the development of

new and diverse didactic approaches, which enable participants to share their insights

and knowledge with one another

ability to adapt the learning contents to the needs of the heterogeneous target group of

later learners

ability to include different roles of female and male learners in the learning process and to

raise the people’s awareness of the development of gender roles in different societies

development of special skills in the sense of strengthening, especially women’s selfconfidence

in the learning-setting

co-responsibility with regard to group dynamics: support of

learner-learner relations based on trust

lively trainer-learner and

ability to develop individual goals to be achieved during the learning-process

ability to argue for cultural diversity and for the present-day reality of belonging to a European

cultural community

flexible learning programmes and seminars in terms of duration, content and venues

necessity and ability to encourage cross-disciplinary working

making the target group aware of the necessity and the benefits - in a cognitive, practical

and social nature - of learning in later life

fostering the understanding of older people as rightful members in all EU countries




Authentic Location Learning, Multi-sensorial Learning and Learning by Doing

III. Authentic Location Learning, Multi-sensorial Learning and Learning

by Doing as innovative pedagogic elements of the AESAEC educational

concept (Michael Schwaiger, Auxilium, Graz/AT)

III.1. Introduction

The AESAEC project group endeavoured, above all, to ensure that the pedagogical orientation of the

training contents as we well as their didactical implementation were in tune with the needs and

general framework of the target group, which is older people aged 60+. From this it should not be

deduced that these pedagogical and didactical arrangements are only valid specifically for older

people. It is more a case of dealing with core elements of educational theory, which have been

developed for other categories of learners and are of universal relevance. Their use is, however,

especially promising as educational concepts for older learners, as they help to maintain long-term

motivation to learn, to increase the prospect of sustainable learning success and to develop specifically

the learner’s ability to apply what they have learnt. They also allow the greater life experience

that older people have (in comparison to younger learners) to flow deliberately into the lesson.

In principle our pedagogical thinking is on the basis, that formal learning processes, in addition to

simply conveying knowledge and information, should above all have the aim of (further) developing

relevant core skills in the learner; in particular this includes the following:

cognitive skills (analytical thinking, logic, problem-solving, planning etc.)

affective skills (esteem, sympathy, identification etc)

methodical skills (knowledge about the use of methods and instruments etc.)

social skills (communication, conflict resolution, teamwork etc.)

Intercultural skills (knowledge about own / foreign cultures, acting in an intercultural context


conative skills (effort, engagement etc.)

The list of these core skills could be added to further, and the terms stated can be regarded to neither

be differentiated out nor do they sharply differ from each other. This list provides, however, a

basic insight of which central elements the project group paid particular attention to in the course

development. In this context it is important to understand that the project group saw the traditional

learning requirements – conveying, strengthening and reproducing knowledge and content –

as being insufficient by a long way. Much more the project group has over and above this endeavoured

to provide the learners with sufficient ability to act in a way, which has made it possible for

what has been learnt to be sustainable, original and autonomous in order – in the widest sense – to

meet needs and solve problems.


To attain this ability to act, the aforementioned comprehensive and multilayered subsets of skills

must be conveyed or activated. In conclusion the demands of the AESAEC course are no less than…

to bring the European Union, in terms of its relevance to older people, closer to learners,

in which a clearly defined objective is that the learner, at the end of the course, attaches

a higher degree of importance to the EU and has a deeper sense of being a European citizen

in comparison to when the course began.

to inform learners about the opportunities offered by EU funding programmes and their

contents with relevance to senior citizens, and together to analyse and assess their advantages

and disadvantages, chances and risks.

to motivate learners to actually apply for and implement an EU project about a topic that

can, to a high degree, be personally identified with.

to support the learners in order to independently design an EU project and, in cooperation

with international project partners, to submit an application.

to offer support to the learners for the successful and sustainable implementation of the

international cooperation project.

to integrate the learners into long-term and sustainable cooperation, networking activities

and European processes at the national and international levels.

In order to achieve these multilayered aims, or rather to address and convey the aforementioned

skills, the project group has, in its pedagogical concept, reached agreement on the use of a likewise

multilayered mix of methods and instruments. The central subject of this concept is the learner (or

group of learners), who represents the focal point of the learning process throughout the duration

of the whole course, and who either alone, or together with others, shapes, influence and steers.

The more active this role is applied and taken up the greater the likelihood that this course will

achieve its objectives that have been outlined above. This of course means that each individual

learner likewise carries a share of the responsibility for the successful outcome of the course, that

should not be underestimated; a fact that should above all be actively and consciously emphasised

to all participants at the beginning of the learning process.

As an example of the AESAEC training concept’s innovative character and high degree of relevance

to the target group (which is also confirmed by the Key Factor Collection) the following three

approaches are emphasised:


Authentic Location Learning, Multi-sensorial Learning and Learning by Doing

III.2. Authentic Location Learning

Learning at an authentic location is – as a deliberately applied methodology – still relatively new

amongst general educational concepts. It is true that in the school and university sectors during the

last few decades it has been forcibly encouraged. However as a rule its application has been limited

to certain subjects and activities (e.g. including visiting museums for history or politics teaching,

excursions for geography, visits abroad for learning foreign languages). The situation is somewhat

more positively structured in vocational training and further education, in which learning and practical

periods spent at places of work represent a traditionally fixed integrated component of career


In general adult education however, Authentic Location Learning – with a few exceptions – is not

widely applied at all, with the reasons for this varying considerably: they include participants having

limited time, the significant amount of organisation required by educational providers in terms of

preparation and implementation, the related high cost to course participants, the often low acceptance

level of this form of learning amongst learners and teaching staff, but also due to the lack of

interest shown by learning groups to spend time together outside of the educational establishment.

In the AESAEC training concept there is a distinct awareness that every available meaningful opportunity

should be used to leave the “usual” learning location (educational establishment or classroom),

to convey learning subject matter and learning objectives. At the same time formal as well

as informal learning activities can and should be moved to the following locations:

museums, libraries, exhibitions, cultural events

public discussions, seminars and lectures

national and EU public institutions that are of relevance and interest

other EU project groups, institutions or networks which may be relevant or of interest

production units working with professional texts, marketing of products, projects etc. (e.g.

newspapers, publishers, advertising agencies, project managers etc.)

possibly restaurants and public houses with European flair

internet (much of the learning content – e.g. programme information, application and reporting

forms etc. – are easily accessible via the internet, so the internet should be used

actively and intensively as a virtual learning location.)

These are just a few suggestions and ideas which have been taken into consideration by our training

course and which can be expanded or completed depending on demand and opportunities. In addition

it is important to ensure that Authentic Location Learning (as also with all other learning

forms) is not implemented as a L’art pour l’art, but instead is deliberately embedded in the pedagogical

concept and provides concrete learning results.


III.3. Multi-sensory Learning

Holistic learning is by no means a new approach in educational theory – just think of the principles

of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi or Maria Montessori. But ever since neurology first allowed us to understand

how the human brain processes information and the resulting thought processes, we know

that the absorption of information via the various sensory organs really does activate different functions

of the brain. These collect, analyse, interpret and further process information, which usually

flows into complex processes of memorising, thought and action.

For educational theory the hypothesis is reinforced (and also repeatedly confirmed), that the more

successful learning is the more brain functions are activated, because…

the resulting linking of brain cells is greater

the storing of information and skills occurs more intensively

this information and these skills can be more easily retrieved or activated

On the basis of our sensory organs the following sensory learning forms can be expressed as a rough


auditory learning (hearing, listening, discussing, talking etc.)

visual / optical learning (reading, seeing, looking, observing etc.)

haptic / kinaesthetic learning (touching, creating, moving, playing etc.)

olfactory and gustatory learning (smelling, tasting)

It is indisputable that the first two learning forms are put into use most of the time, but also haptic

/ kinaesthetic learning is gaining in importance in many pedagogical areas. However, relatively little

consideration has been given in the wider educational context – apart from in a few areas of

vocational education – to the specific application of olfactory and gustatory learning. On the one

hand this has a certain justification, but on the other hand it should not be completely disregarded

with respect to the areas of sensitisation and association. Above all in terms of conveying intercultural

subject matter smells and tastes can perfectly well be specifically applied. Thus preparing

international dishes together as well as eating them together can offer a very fruitful learning ambience

with great memory potential (which in a similar form was tested very successfully in company

canteens as part of the EU project Europe at Work).

It is therefore a central element of the AESAEC training concept to understand learning also with

regard to the absorption of information and as complete a process as possible.


Authentic Location Learning, Multi-sensorial Learning and Learning by Doing

That is why methods and instruments are applied which correspond to the overall sensory attentiveness

potential of the learners and which actively use learning potential.

III.4. Learning by Doing

Also learning by doing is a relatively old term in educational theory, which in this form was first

introduced by the boy-scout founder Robert Baden-Powell, but on the other hand is based on older

models of action-orientated learning (like for example from John Dewey). The concept of applied

learning is regarded as being sufficiently well known, so that a comprehensive explanation of it

does not seem necessary here. It is necessary however to highlight that AESAEC must be seen in its

entirety, as an attempt to establish a sustainable Learning by doing concept. Thus the EU cofinanced

project AESAEC is just the starting point for a long-term process. Through the project the

course participants are sensitised and equipped so they can independently take part in EU projects,

in order to experience a more active sense of European citizenship, to contribute to the shaping of

European processes and to speak up for one’s own interests and needs. That the pedagogical concept

of the course extensively uses elements of Learning-by-doing is only too logical and consistent.

However the actual and long-term calculated effect of Learning-by-doing is felt, above all, towards

the end or after the AESAEC course, when the participants have conceived and submitted their project

proposals and in particular when these – in the case of a project being approved – can actually

be implemented. It is then that the participants, through active Learning by doing, are fully capable

to learn about the European Union, EU funding mechanisms, EU project management, interculturalism,

intercultural cooperation and problem-solving approaches. In addition they can further develop

themselves but also their surroundings – and as a final consequence – the European idea.


Andersson, Sven/Andersson, Ingrid (2005): Authentic Learning in Social-cultural Frameworks. Taylor & Francis.

Clark, Aldrich (2005): Learning by Doing: A Comprehensive Guide to Simulations, Computer Games, and Pedagogy in e-

Learning and Other Educational Experiences. Pfeifer.

Coffield F. et alii (2004): Learning styles in pedagogy in post-16 learning. A Systematic and Critical review. London. Learning

and Skills Review Centre.

Dörig, Roman (2003): Handlungsorientierter Unterricht - Ansätze, Kritik und Neuorientierung aus bildungstheoretischer,

curricularer und instruktionspsychologischer Perspektive. WiKu-Verlag.

Europe at Work (2007): Europe Cooks at Work. ( www.europe-at-work.eu)

Land Brandenburg/Ministerium für Bildung, Jugend und Sport (Hg.) (2005): Außerschulische Lernorte. LISUM.

Lawrence, Gordon D. (1997): Looking at Type and Learning Styles. Center for Applications of Psychological Type.

Lombardi, Marilyn (2007): Authentic Learning for the 21 st Century: An overview. EDUCAUSE.

Montessori, Maria (2009) [1919]: The Montessori Method. Wilder Publications.

Museum Nuremberg/Documentation Centre Nazi Party Rally Ground: Learning in Authentic Locations: The Education Forum.


Niederhauser. Rolf/Rhyn, Heinz (2004): Lernen außerhalb der Schule. Das Projekt MatI – Marktplatz für außerschulisches

Lernen. Haupt.

Reyher, Uwe (Hg.) (1998): Lernen außerhalb des Klassenzimmers. Außerschulische Lernorte mit Erfahrungsberichten und

praktischen Tipps. Oldenbourg Schulbuchverlag.

Schiffler, Ludger (1998): Learning by Doing im Fremdsprachenunterricht. Max Hueber.

Sliwka, Anne (2001): Das anglo-amerikanische Beispiel. Band 2. Weinheim

Vogt, Reinhold (2007): Gedächtnistraining in Frage & Antwort. Warum kreatives Denken besser ist als Pauken. Soft Skills

kompakt. Junfermann.


Part B: Learner’s Manual


Module 1 – The European Union and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

Module 1:

Dušana Findeisen (The Slovenian 3 rd Age University/SI)

The European Union and its Relevance for Senior


Unit 1

Unit in a nutshell


Did you say European Union Did you say older European citizens

Understanding the mission and functions of the European Union and its

integration processes

European institutions, their mission and how they relate to each other

Demographic ageing and the ageing society in Europe

Older citizens’ major issues and how they are being approached by European


Older citizens and who represents them at the European level

After this unit you will be able to:

understand the gradual shaping of the idea of European integration

say what the most important institutions and advisory bodies of the EU

are, what their missions and functions are and how they relate to each


understand how European and national legislation, dealing with senior

citizens’ issues, relate to each other

be aware of demographic changes, the ageing society and active ageing,

and how they interact with the major needs of older people

become familiar with the key NGOs and European networks representing

older people and what they are doing for you.

Older people’s satisfaction with life depends on how well they are integrated into society. (Theory

of activity in old age, 1972)

Warming up:

The European Union – What does it mean to you

What is your personal experience of the EU Do you personally

think it was a good idea to establish it in the first

place and do think it is good idea that your country is part

of it

Please take a few minutes to reflect upon these questions

and discuss your answers with others!

Listen / Read

1.1.1. Understanding the nature and role of the European Union and its integration processes

We would like to begin by saying that a significant number of European citizens, be they young,

middle aged or older, seem to have not quite a sufficient understanding of the mission and functions

of the European Union, its institutions, as well as an incomplete knowledge of the gradual

building of Europe. This might be due to the fact that the “EU is an enterprise that was launched by

closed circles and was constructed with little participation by European citizens” 1 and that “the

unification process indeed has until now been promoted mostly by the political elites” (Habermas,

1 Jacques Delors, Les Controverses du progrès, 26 June 2009, France Culture.


2009, 101). In spite of this, Europe is believed to be “a wonderfully successful and globally admired

project, though too often it is regarded merely as a project and rarely as an outcome” (Marcel

Gauchet, idem), although in fact the results and outcomes are many, just as the aims of the European

Union are manifold. It is with this understanding that this AESAEC manual is designed to

make readers, and particularly you, senior European citizens, familiar with how and what has been

achieved within EU, and what the results and outcomes have been, primarily in the areas that directly

concern you.

As planned, the EU has become a framework for numerous enriching cultural, social, economic and

other transactions among its member states. It established a common currency and it has provided

for common security. Nevertheless, it has also failed several times and in several ways. Thus,

Jacques Delors, Marcel Gauchet, Cohn Bendit and others are convinced that Europe has failed in

imposing itself as a political force and it has failed in imposing itself in the processes of globalisation.

Moreover, member states do not truly understand that “union is a force” and that union means

community, giving, as well as ensuring receiving. In order to receive member states should more

willingly give up a part of their power. 2

Nevertheless, in times of economic, financial, political and social crisis, the EU is believed to have a

new chance, that is, the chance to tackle, democratically, issues of common and global interest,

such as environmental issues, reversing the global trend of the market economy (Habermas, 2009,

p.105) and demographic changes. These issues cannot be tackled in isolation, but on the contrary,

they should become subject to large-scale public debate and real civil dialogue (Jacques Delors,

idem). Nowadays most European institutions and advisory bodies (European Commission, European

Parliament, European Economic and Social Council) act accordingly. “The development of a European

wide political public sphere - that is of a communicative network extending beyond the national

borders and specialising in the relevant questions - is of central importance to the emergence

of the European identity, says Habermas (2009, p.87). It is time for Europe and its institutions to

become an agora, a truly deliberative space, including the representatives of all its citizens. Members

of the AESAEC project firmly believe that older citizens should be more present in the shaping

of European policies and in the decision making processes pertaining to them and their cooperation

with other generations. The endeavours of the AESAEC project are consistent with Jaques Delors’

argument that in the future, “the European dynamics will be much more dependent on the contribution

of the European citizens than on the European institutions”. (Jacques Delors, idem). For this

purpose it is most important that European citizens, including senior citizens, increase their knowledge

about the European Union, its institutions and its achievements.

How theories of integration help us to understand the nature and the aims of the European Union.

Some prominent integration theories:

In 1920 federalists argued that European countries should form a natural entity and that they should

never again enter into an inter-European war. Altiero Spinelli declared that the nation states have

lost their raison d’etre...

Functionalists, like David Mitrany, rightly pointed out that international organisations are meant to

address priorities dictated by human needs and therefore such organisations should modify their

tasks and functions according to the needs of the moment. Such orientation is consistent with the

fact that the European Union has become so interested in old age, older people and older workers.

Ageing represents a large demographic change which requires changes in the relationships between

generations and also demands a different cultural model or organisation of ages. In addition to this,

new policies are needed.

The Transactionalist Theory, supported by Karl Deutsch, asserts that the sense of community among

states would depend on the establishment of a network for mutual transactions. Networks can be

seen everywhere. Framework programmes and structural funds are there to support networking,


2 German citizens were at one time against the Euro, but Helmut Kohl persuaded them that the Euro was good for everybody

in Europe, and consequently they accepted it.

Module 1 – The European Union and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

projects, etc. Have you ever heard of Leonardo da Vinci, Grundtvig, Erasmus, Comenius and other

programmes They offer frameworks within which European projects as well as transactions and

mutual cultural, social, economic and political exchange and mutual recognition are possible.

The Nonfictional Theory, developed by Ernst Haas and Jean Monet, involves common action leading

to a cohesive society. Robert Schumann said on 9 May 1950: “Europe will be built by concrete

achievements which create a de facto solidarity”.

Economic integration was intended to gradually build solidarity amongst the participating nations

and would in turn create a need for supranational institutional laws. Later on this would lead to the

need for an effective supranational structure. This theory makes us think of the “customary law”

that was often created spontaneously and applied in the development of towns. Laws were not imposed

on the inhabitants; rather they were a codification of the generally accepted ways of living

together in a town.

The integration processes step by step

If we wanted to give more sense to Europe, we should first ask ourselves what Europe has become

over the four stages of its integration: Customs Union, Common Market, Economic and Monetary

Union and Towards Political Union. In fact, in order to understand the European Union, we should

not forget its past. Europe was established under much different conditions than exist today; the

Europe of six member states in the early 1950s and the Europe of 27 member states in 2009 are two

completely different entities.

The construction of modern Europe began after the Second World War. In 1945 Winston Churchill

described Europe as “a breeding ground for pestilence and hate” and a year later, as a remedy to

this state, he proposed to “recreate the European family and to provide it with a structure within

which it can dwell in peace, safety and freedom.” Safety and freedom were the reasons why the EU

was created. The successful formula was the integration of the former antagonistic nation states

into a union of peacefully interacting and competing nations. In his famous appeal, Robert Schuman

recognised that only a lasting reconciliation with Germany could form the basis for a united Europe

and he pleaded that Europe should pardon Germany, though not forget what had taken place, which

at that time was a difficult thing to ask for.

The process of European integration has been ongoing since 1950

based on the construction method taught by Jean Monnet and

Robert Schuman; building Europe brick by brick, with each step

being taken after careful evaluation.

Jean Monnet contributed to the creation of the binding formula.

This formula consists of creating numerous links between the nation

states; common laws, policies and institutions, common European

method governing the member states’ economic activities that

then should influence the day to day lives of European citizens.

Robert Schumann

At the beginning the objective was for the EU to become a political

structure. However this intention has failed and instead of being a

strong political force Europe has became more interested in its

economic power. (Jacques Delores, Les Controversies du progrès,

26 th June, 2009, France Culture.)

To join the European Union, a state must fulfil certain economic and political conditions, called the

Copenhagen Criteria (after the Copenhagen Summit in June 1993). These state that a candidate

country must be a democracy, it should have a free market and should be willing to adopt the entire

body of laws that the European Union has already adopted. According to the Maastricht Treaty,

each current member state and the European Parliament must agree to any enlargement.


Important events, dates and facts

1950-52: Based on the so called Schuman Plan, the European Coal and Steel

Community (ECSC) was founded to ensure joint control over coal and

steel production, the two most important areas in the armaments industry.

One of the main reasons for its foundation was to prevent a country

preparing for a new war by having common control of these areas of production.

France, West Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands

were the founding members of this Community. In 1952 Italy joined and

the six countries all signed the Treaty of Paris (23 July 1952).

1957: With the Treaty of Rome, the ECSC developed into the European Economic Community (EEC),

providing Europe's first real common European market.

1973: The United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Denmark joined the EEC.

1980-1986: Greece (1980) as well as Spain and Portugal (both 1986) became new members.

1990: With the reunifciation of the two Germanies the former Deutsche Demokratische Republik

(DDR) / German Democratic Republic (GDR) also became part of the Community.

1993: By virtue of the Maastricht Treaty the EEC turned into the European Union and due to general

economic, political and social developments related to the end of Cold War tensions, some

EFTA (European Free Trade Association) states and even countries from the former COM-

ECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) also became interested in obtaining full EU

membership. The European Union then entered into a very dynamic period of enlargement,

more than doubling the number of its member states over the following 14 years. This

caused Hans-Dietrich Genscher, former German Foreign Minister, to say that “the nicest

achievement of the European Union is its enlargement”.

1995: The former EFTA countries Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the EU.

2004: Malta and the Republic of Cyprus (i.e. the southern, Greek part of the island), former COM-

ECON members, the Czech Repubic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, the former parts of the

Soviet Union Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and, last but not least, Slovenia, a Yugoslavian republic,

all became new member states.

2007: With the entry of Bulgaria and Romania the list of the 27 member states of the EU was completed.

However, the enlargement process of the European Union must not be seen as finished. Currently

official accession negotiations are in progress with Croatia, Macedonia and Turkey, and discussions

with other countries in the western Balkans may soon follow.

Treaties and Strategies

Treaties are the primary source of European law and they are also the legal basis for common policies.

All policies relating to older people are thus dependent on the treaties, these being instruments

of progressing European integration. Some of them you have already read about above, however

below is a summary of the most important treaties in the EU’s history:

The Treaty of Paris (1951) establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). Its main

objectives were to eliminate various barriers to trade and to guarantee peace and safety in



Module 1 – The European Union and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

Treaty of Rome (1957) establishing the European Economic Community (EEC).

The main aim of this treaty was the creation of a common market between

the member states. It introduced the free flow of capital and

workers between members.

The Treaty of Maastricht (1992) was a major step in the development of the

European Community. It created the European Union and led to the creation of the Euro. The

treaty created what is commonly referred to as the pillar structure of the European Union.

This concept of the Union divides it into the European Community (EC) pillar, the Common

Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) pillar, and the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) pillar. The

latter two pillars are intergovernmental policy areas, whereby the greater power lies with the

member states, whilst with the European Community pillar the Union's supranational

institutions — the European Commission, the European Parliament and the European Court of

Justice — hold most of the power. All three pillars combined together are called the European


The Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) meant a greater emphasis on citizenship and the rights of

individuals. It sought to achieve more democracy in the shape of increased powers for the

European Parliament, a new approach to issues of employment, a more integrated community

in terms of freedom of movement, security and justice, the beginnings of a cohesive

Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the reform of EU institutions in the run up to


The Treaty of Nice (2001) reformed the institutional structure of the European Union to withstand

eastward expansion. The Amsterdam Treaty was originally intended to have tackled this aim;

however it failed to do so at that time. There was doubt for a time whether the treaty would

be brought into force after its initial rejection by Irish voters in a June 2001 referendum. This

referendum result was reversed in a subsequent referendum held a little over a year later.

The Draft Constitutional Treaty (Rome 2004) was intended to establish a Constitution for Europe

and was signed by 53 senior political figures from the 25 EU member states. In most cases

heads of state designated plenipotentiaries to sign the treaty, however some presidents also

signed on behalf of countries which hold the status of a republic.

The Reform Treaty of Lisbon (2007). Changes included more qualified majority voting in the Council

of Ministers, increased involvement of the European Parliament in the legislative process

through extended co-decision making with the Council of Ministers, eliminating the pillar

system and the creation of a President of the European Council with a term of office of two

and half years and a High Representative for Foreign Affairs to present a united position on

EU policies. If ratified, the Treaty of Lisbon would also make the Union's human rights

charter, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally binding. 3

The Lisbon Strategy is, apart from the treaties, also a highly important concept in connection with

the objectives and aims of the AESAEC training course. Due to its importance it needs to be

considered by senior citizens, when preparing a European project proposal. The strategy was

set out by the European Council in Lisbon in 2000 and is also known as the Lisbon Agenda or

Lisbon Process. It is an action and development plan for the EU, important for all social

groups, older citizens included. Its aim is to make the EU "the most dynamic and competitive

knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010, capable of sustainable economic growth with

more and better jobs and greater social cohesion, and with respect for the environment".

Now, one year away from 2010, we know that this plan was much too ambitious to be fully

implemented successfully. However, it has produced some success and good results in the

fields of education and lifelong learning, in the general development of EU citizenship, in

economic growth and in job creation within the EU. In respect of the four pillars of the Lisbon

Strategy, the focus is now as follows:

• member states should strive to adopt measures to promote creativity and enterprise with

a view to making Europe the most creative environment in the world

3 During the development of this course book (November 2009), the Czech Republic, as the last of the 27 EU member states,

signed the Reform Treaty of Lisbon, which means the treaty will now come into force.


Europe’s economic and social development should centre upon its cultural heritage and


• investment in human resources and framework measures to ensure flexisecurity are of crucial

importance to Europe

• environmental policy should be highlighted as a key force driving innovation and economic


The fundamental objective of the European Union is the strengthening of economic and social cohesion.

The European Union is aiming at reducing the disparities between different regions. The Structural

Funds play a major role here, including the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and

the European Social Fund (ESF).

1.1.2. European institutions, their mission and how they relate to each other

The European Union has institutions which are not easily understood by the majority of EU citizens.

There is a division of responsibilities between the European and national levels, and thus division

itself is a political decision. The fact that European institutions have been granted the power to

take decisions, calls for “technical” solutions at the European level. Therefore we can assume that

these technical solutions are also political in nature. Nation states can regain some of their lost

regulatory power if they harmonise their taxation and economic policies, as well as social policies at

the European level. After taking this step they can again make decisions at the national level.”

(Habermas, 2009, pp. 83-84)

There are two truly European institutions concerned with Europe on a daily basis, the European

Commission and the European Parliament. But there are also other European institutions, such as

the Council of Ministers and the European Court of Justice.

European Commission (EC)

The European Commission is commonly referred to as the Commission. Each state, after having

acceded to the EU, has one of its nationals acting as a European Commissioner, which means at the

moment there are 27 commissioners. The President of the Commission is nominated by the Heads of

State or Government, and the nomination must be then approved by the European Parliament.

The Commission is the driving force behind European

integration. Its ability to act is important for the development

of common policies and thus for the integration

processes. The Commission defines common interest in

each policy and prepares amendments to proposals. The

Commission is also the guardian of the treaties and the

“acquis communautaire”, that is of all Community Legislation.

It ensures fulfilment of obligations by the

member states.

In the Draft Constitutional Treaty it is stated that the Commission shall ensure the application of

the Constitution (Moussis, 2008. pp. 40-43). The Commission is also the executive body and plays an

administrative role. In addition, the Commission has a representative role, representing the EU in

third countries. The European Commission regularly seeks the views of citizens and stakeholders

when it develops policy and legislation. It launches open consultations in the areas of employment,

social affairs and equal opportunities. Anyone interested in a complete overview of public consultations

launched by the European Commission can consult Your Voice in Europe

(www.europeanvoice.com) on the Commission’s website. Any European citizen or organisation can

participate in discussion forums on a wide range of issues on the Debate Europe platform


Module 1 – The European Union and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

(http://europa.eu/debateeurop). Older citizens preparing a project proposal can gain inspiration by

consulting this website.

The European Parliament

After the last enlargement in 2004, the number of seats in the European Parliament was increased

to 732. Of these 99 are allocated to Germany as the country with the largest population and five to

Malta as the smallest EU country. The MEPs are elected directly by the peoples of Europe. Senior

and other citizens can therefore approach them with their questions and appeals. The Parliament

exercises four functions: legislative, political, supervisory and budgetary.

The Parliament can give approval with regard to the concluding

of international agreements. It participates in the adoption of

Community Acts, and politically it represents more than 450 million

citizens. It monitors the Commission’s activity and is required

to agree to any major budgetary decisions.

The European Parliament also appoints an Ombudsman

(http://www.ombudsman.europa.eu/start.faces) empowered to

receive complaints from European citizens with respect to poor

administration and performance by the Community, and it leads

on the Intergroup on Ageing (www.age-platform.org), whose

activities are very relevant to older citizens.

The Council of Ministers

The Council of Ministers, or simply the Council, is

composed of a ministerial level representative from

each member state who is authorised to commit the

government of that member state. It is composed of

nine configurations which each focus on a number of

related areas. These include general affairs and external

relations, economic and financial affairs, and

health and social matters. Currently the Council’s

Presidency rotates every six months and thus each

member state has the opportunity to prove its efficiency

in promoting common policies.

The European Court of Justice (ECJ)

The Court of Justice (often called European Court of Justice) consists of one judge

per member state sitting in its chambers. The common rules adopted by the decision

making bodies may be interpreted differently from one country to another if

only national courts were to control decision-making. The main task of the Court

of Justice is to clarify ambiguous legal provisions. For example, recently Age Concern,

the largest British older people’s charity (www.ageconcern.org.uk) backed

the Heyday Case challenging the mandatory retirement age. This case has been

referred to the European Court of Justice for a preliminary ruling

Heyday and Age Concern are confident that the new rules breach the requirements of the European

Directive on Employment because they leave people over 65 without the right to choose to continue

working and enable employers to refuse to recruit anyone over the age of 65. More and more employers

are using the new regulations to force out people over 65‚ knowing that they cannot be ac-


cused of unlawful discrimination. Older citizens, preparing a European project proposal, could gain

inspiration by studying the different cases brought to court on the grounds of age discrimination.

The Economic and Social Committee (EESC)

The Economic and Social Committee (EESC) takes into account

the interests of various economic and social groups. Its members

are proposed by the member states’ governments and are appointed

for a term of four years by the Council .They divide into

the Employers’ Group (employers, bankers, federations etc.) the

Workers’ Group (trade unions etc.) and Various Interest Groups

(representatives of agriculture, small and medium sized enterprises,

the professions, consumer organisations, families, older

people etc.). The Committee must be consulted by the Council

and the Commission in certain areas.

The Committee of the Regions

The Importance of the regions and the role they play in the Governance

of the EU was recognised in the treaty establishing the European Community.

This Committee consists of representatives from regional and

local bodies. It must be consulted by the Council or the Commission on

matters like employment guidelines, legislation on social matters, the

environment, education, vocational training, culture, public health and

all other important matters such as cross-border cooperation.

Reflection / Discuss

You may have thought that what you already knew about Europe was quite enough. You may have

had some idea about how Europe has become integrated. Probably you had heard about some of the

treaties and strategies, but now you know to what extent and why they have become important

milestones in European Union history and also how they ultimately relate to older citizens.

Although based on the principles of the French Revolution – liberty, equality, fraternity – the European

Union is not a revolutionary enterprise but it is an intellectual enterprise as much as it is a

practical reality. Knowing a little bit more about the European Union, its principles, history, current

structural developments and mission, it is as important as understanding the identity and the

aims of your own country.

The European Union and your country are closely related and you are European citizens as much as

you are citizens of your own country. Within this framework it is barely conceivable to think that

European institutions are of no concern to European citizens, because they simply are! More than

70% of your national legislation comes from Europe, whether it concerns maximum working hours,

the food you eat, the air you breathe or the age when you can retire.

And do you know who decides all these issues It is not the anonymous bureaucrats in Brussels, but

increasingly it is the European Parliament that makes decisions, the men and women who you elect.

Together with your ministers, heads of state or government they take decisions affecting your everyday

life, whether you are young or old, producer or consumer, or living in the North, South, East

or West of the Community. Often we complain that Europe is distant from its citizens - but is it


Module 1 – The European Union and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

really Is it not much closer and more transparent than we all think, and does it not care very much

about issues relating to all European citizens, including issues affecting older ones

Please discuss these issues, including all relevant pros and cons, as well as your points of view before

and after this unit.

Listen / Read

1.1.3. Demographic changes and the ageing society

The ageing society is one of the major current demographic changes. The other changes are shrinking

populations, the ageing workforce and migration.

When we think about ageing, we think about it principally as individual ageing, not as demographic

ageing. Demographic ageing is a rather new phenomenon which first appeared in the second half of

the 20th Century. Despite the progress achieved in all areas, human life is not any longer than in

previous times, however the number of people over the age of 65 is increasing considerably and

deaths are outnumbering births. Ever more people reach an advanced old age and at the same time

the rate of fertility is reducing in some European regions due to a number of reasons, migration

being one of them. Population is ageing and our societies are ageing. We live in an ageing society.

Of course, on the one hand this is a threat, but it is also a huge change. Any kind of change requires

adaptation. This brings about the need to promote a cultural change in attitudes towards older people

and old age, a change in the position of older people in society and the need to modify policies

that determine the relationships between generations and that meet the needs of different generations.

The members of the AESAEC project group believe that enhancing intergenerational solidarity and

cooperation is key in reacting constructively to today’s rapidly evolving social and demographic

context. Changes in the age structure of our populations will have a significant impact on the dynamics

among generations, and intergenerational solidarity and cooperation will need to be reinvented

and sustained by appropriate policies. A more inclusive approach to people of all ages

therefore needs to be developed and actively promoted in all areas of social and economic policy.

More positive attitudes and expectations in respect of older citizens’ contributions need to be cultivated

and ageist assumptions must be challenged and not tolerated. People of all ages have a vital

role to play in contributing to society and their experience, knowledge and vitality are needed to

build a stronger Europe. It is essential to develop targeted and well coordinated policies which capitalise

on the strong potential of older people to contribute.

In the ageing society much greater participation by younger and older generations is needed. In

addition policies and strategies as well as action plans serving this end are needed. Moreover, European

projects can, especially when launched by senior citizens, highlight these issues and can propose

ways to achieve greater participation by all generations in society.

Major older people’s issues and how they are being approached by European policies

Older people’s needs and issues are addressed by different policies adopted on the basis of the

European Treaties. However progressive they may be, they are often governed by a significant

number of negative or positive stereotypes about older people. In our view this is mostly due to the

fact that older people are approached mostly in terms of their age and not in terms of their involvement,

potential, situation etc. What is important are their differences. The least important

seems to be their age!

However people in later life – according to some definitions this already begins at around the age of

45 - are a large group of extremely heterogeneous people. Consequently, an in-depth knowledge of

the diversity of older people, of their needs and potential is needed before setting a policy or even

a European project.


The issues of older people are connected to the way of life that society allows or enables older

people to have. Older people’s needs are social, emotional, cognitive and involve the need for sharing

values. Their needs are psycho-social, just as with all individuals regardless of their age. The

needs of older people should be met by policies.

The issues of older people also involve the numerous stereotypes about them and old age that are

to be found everywhere, such as with regard to policies, treatment by professionals and voluntary

working. Stereotypes do not only affect older people, as they also affect everyone dealing with

issues relating to older people, such as professionals, politicians, researchers etc. The best thing

would be to ban these stereotypes - which is an easy thing to say but a very difficult thing to


Older people’s needs should be taken into account by European projects and should be satisfied at

all levels within society; this includes at the level of their relationships with a partner, children, coworkers,

co-students, co-volunteers, at the local community level, at the level of the municipality,

at the regional level, at the state level and at the EU level. All levels are important when seeking to

act upon issues that concern older people. The issues of older people are related to their untapped

and unrecognised human capital (abilities, knowledge, skills), to the lack of social capital (not

enough institutions, associations, etc), to the insufficient support of active ageing, to integration

into society, to social protection, to eradicating poverty, to stimulating them volunteering and to

active citizenship.

The issues of older people are connected with the lack of justice and the inequality (discrimination)

faced by older people and retired people, be it legally, culturally, socially, economically or politically

based - with older people not being allowed or stimulated to take part in decision making

processes at all levels.

In order to identify the issues of older people, one must first identify sources in society that are

available to the generations in the middle, and secondly, a number of questions need to be asked:

do older people have equal access to work, culture, education, health, transport, housing, science

and active citizenship Do they have the right to go on working after their retirement without being

penalised Do older people have equal access to the media and do they appear in the media Are

there discounts offered to older people solely on the basis of their age, pushing them in the end to

appreciate being supported and slowly abandoning their right to play an equal role in public matters

The direction of local, national and EU policies regarding older people is often one that promotes

weakness and dependency and this should be changed! EU treaties and common policies as well as

numerous documents address older people’s issues. Senior citizens launching a European project

should be knowledgeable about the contents and the aims of the EU treaties and the common policies,

as well as about many of the documents that address older people’s issues in a direct or indirect


Employment and Discrimination

At the Amsterdam European Council heads of state or government of the member states accepted

Article 13 of the Amsterdam Treaty against discrimination - and promoting social inclusion - in all

its forms. This article is further related to the EU Race Directive, the EU Employment Equality Directive

and the Gender Equality Instruments - all these documents are related also to older people.

Discrimination can be visible or invisible. This issue is being tackled also by a number

of organisations supported by the European Commission. Visiting their web

pages older citizens can learn much about the subject and also about the related

policies and documents:

• AGE (The European Older People’s Platform): http://www.age-platform.org

• ENAR (European Network Against Racism): http://www.enar-eu.org


Module 1 – The European Union and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

• EDF (European Disability Forum): http://www.edf-feph.org

Additionally, social inclusion of vulnerable groups is being promoted at the European level by:

• Caritas Europa: http://www.caritas-europa.org/code/en/default.asp

• CECOP (European Confederation of Workers' Cooperatives, Social Cooperatives and Social

and Participative Enterprises): http://www.cecop.coop

• COFACE (Confederation of Family Organisations in the European Union):


• EAPN (European Anti Poverty Network): http://www.eapn.org

• EMN (European Microfinance Network): http://www.europeanmicrofinance.org/index2_en.php

• ESN (European Social Network): http://www.esn-eu.org

European Women's Lobby: http://www.womenlobby.org

Intergenerational solidarity

Technology can also help older people to carry out daily activities as well as to monitor health, create

social networks, learn and study. It can further increase their participation in society and augment

their safety. It enables older people to participate in the e-economy, e-government, e-

communication, and to benefit from e-health and e-learning. The use of technology can also facilitate

social inclusion, improve professional participation and quality of life and ultimately enhance

independent living. The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to help older

people and people with disabilities to continue to live at home is commonly known as Ambient Assisted

Living (AAL).

Active European Citizenship

Education for Active Citizenship is a lifelong process. One cannot become an active citizen “just like

that”, when one grows old. Policies are needed to support older people’s potential for volunteering

and to prevent discrimination on the grounds of age in this field. AGE publications on senior volunteering,

that might help you in preparing a European project proposal, are given on the AGE Leaflet

on Promoting Volunteering for Europe’s Seniors (http://www.age-platform.org).

1.1.4. Older citizens and who represents them at the European level

The institutional level

The issues of older citizens are being addressed through the endeavours of various European Institutions,

mainly by the European Commission and the European Parliament.

The European Commission (EC)

The EC seeks public opinion on the issues through promoting public debate, peer reviews, consultations,

thematic conferences etc, and prepares proposals in the field of social policy that concern

older citizens (employment, social security, volunteering etc.).

Intergroup on Ageing

This is a group within the European Parliament and unites MEPs from different committees and sectors

who are willing to discuss this particular issue. The Intergroup issues statements directed at the


European Council and other EU institutions. The Intergroup is convinced that social protection and

employment policies must be linked, that the EU has a key role to play in bringing about reform of

pension systems in order to ensure decent pensions for all, giving people a fair share of society’s

economic prosperity and not just preventing outright poverty. Countries need to provide secure,

universal and fully adequate first pillar pensions. It is also necessary to adopt reforms to allow and

encourage older people to keep working.

The NGO level

AGE (www.age-platform.org), the European Older People's Platform, is a European network of

around 150 organisations working on behalf of people aged 50+, which directly represent over 28

million older people in Europe. AGE aims to voice and promote the interests of the 150 million people

aged 50+ in the European Union and to raise awareness of the issues that concern them most.

AGE also aims to give a voice to older and retired people in EU policy debates through the active

participation of their representative organisations at EU, national, regional and local levels, so as to

input into EU policy development. AGE’s work focuses on a wide range of policy areas that impact

on older and retired people. These include issues of anti-discrimination, employment of older

workers and active ageing, social protection, pension reforms, social inclusion, health, research,

accessibility of public transport and of the built environment, lifelong learning and ICT.

There are other important NGO’s at this level, some of which specialise in the issues of older

people, and some of them that deal with relevant issues as a part of their particular field of

activity. Many also play an important international role in the field of research. Below is a selection

of some of the more important and relevant NGOs:

• Care (Christian Action Research & Education for Europe): http://www.careforeurope.org/

• CEV (European Volunteer Centre): http://www.cev.be/

• COFACE (Confédération des Organisations Familiales de l'Union Européenne):


• CCRE (Council of European Municipalities and Regions): http://www.ccre.org/

• EUROCADRES (Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff):


• Eurocarers (European Association Working for Carers): http://www.eurocarers.org/

• Euro Cities: http://www.eurocities.eu/main.php

• Euro Health Net: http://www.eurohealthnet.eu/

European Association for Population Studies: http://www.eaps.nl/

European Federation for Retirement Provision: http://www.efrp.org/

European Association of Service Providers for Persons with Disabilities:


• EURAG (European Federation of Older Persons): http://www.easpd.eu/

European University: http://www.euruni.edu/Scripts/Index.aspxidz=2

• FAFCE (Föderation der Katholischen Familienverbande in Europa):


• IPSE (Institut de la Protection Sociale Européenne) :


• Youth Forum Jeunesse : http://www.youthforum.org/

Since 2000 social policy has occupied a much more prominent place in the overall agenda of the EU.

After the adoption of the Lisbon Strategy by heads of state or government, a new goal was formulated

which stated that economic and social policies should go hand in hand. As a result an ambitious

social agenda was formulated, which sets out the social priorities - the Open Method of Coordination-

which promotes stronger co-operation and co-ordination between member states on different

social issues. This method applies to the areas of employment, social protection (pensions),

social inclusion and education.

There are currently a number of key demographic changes to consider, such as the shrinking total

European population, processes affecting migration and, above all, demographic ageing. When talking

about ageing we often have individual ageing in mind, and not the ageing of our societies and of

the population. The ageing of the population, or demographic ageing, is however an achievement


Module 1 – The European Union and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

of civilisation and should not be considered as a threat. The ageing society simply requires many

changes to the role of older people and to the roles of other generations, including many changes in

their mutual relationships. Above all, it requires the active participation of all citizens within the

member states of the European Union.

There are many issues with respect to older people:

working longer under better conditions

preparing for volunteering whilst still in paid employment

working as a volunteer on an individual basis or in an organised way within public institutions

and other organisations during retirement

having a different position within families

taking part in lifelong learning and education

participating in local communities

participating in taking decisions in municipality matters such as education, health, culture,

transport, social protection, alleviating poverty etc

All of these issues plus others are important to older people and not just matters such as pension

schemes and pension reforms that are reported so often.

Therefore understanding the European Union, as well as how and why it has been integrating, will

provide a better grasp of how its institutions and advisory bodies function for your benefit. Moreover,

you will then understand better which non-governmental organisations operate at the European

level for your benefit and how you, as senior citizens, can participate in shaping EU policies

concerning your own and other generations. Above all, you may develop an idea of how you can

contribute to the reality of the European Union. Together we can make Europe a better place to


Reflection / Discuss

Have you learnt anything new about the EU in this module, about opportunities for senior citizens or

yourself in the EU, or about options for your engagement within the concept of the EU Hopefully

yes – however, please reflect upon this module within group discussions. It is up to you which issues

you would like to focus on. Perhaps the following questions can give you a helping hand:

• To what extent is ageing likely to affect how our societies function

• If you wanted to tackle an older people’s issue, which institutions or organisations would

you contact, why and how

• How can we support generations in the middle to provide a link between all the generations

and how can we support all generations to co-operate with each other

• How can we preserve the cultural heritage of older people and pass it on to younger generations

• How can we support senior citizens to continue in employment for longer

• How can we help older people update their skills and make others more aware of what they

can contribute

Hints for additional activities supporting this module

• Spend some time on the websites indicated in this module and find out whether or not they

are of some interest to you.

• Try to find local / national offices representing the EU in your country / region – and arrange

a date to visit them.


• Find out who are the Members of the European Parliament (MEP) representing your region /

country – and make contact with them if you have any questions to ask them.

• Follow daily news on TV, radio, in newspapers etc. which contain more intensive reporting

about developments at the EU level, particularly in relation to issues concerning senior citizens

and / or Active European Citizenship.

References and other sources helpful for further information:

Balibar, E. (2003): We the People of Europe; reflections on transnational citizenship. Princeton: Princeton University


Church, Clive H./Phinnemor, David (2009): The Penguin Guide to the European Treaties: From Rome to Maastricht,

Amsterdam, Nice and Beyond. Penguin Reference Books.

Habermas, J. (2009): Europe The Faltering Project. Cambridge: Polity.

Intergenerational Solidarity for Cohesive and Sustainable Societes: outcomes of the Slovenian Presidency Conference

Brdo. Slovenia, 28-29. April 2008 .

Moussis, N. (2007): Guide to European Policies. 13 th edition. Rixensart. European Study Service Official Journal of the

European Communities.

http://ec.europa.eu (European Commission)

http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives (Eurobarometer)

http://ec.europa.eu/yourvoice (Commission’s website for citizens to express themselves)

http://eesc.europa.eu/index_en.asp (EESC - Economic and Social Committee)

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu (EUROSTAT – centre for European statistics Union Documents)

http://eurageurope.org/eurag/ (EURAG - European Federation of Older Persons)

http://europa.eu/documentation (European Union Documents)

www.age-platform.org/ (AGE - European Older People’s Platform)

www.careforeurope.org/ (Care - Christian Action Research & Education for Europe)

www.caritas-europa.org (Caritas Europa)

www.ccre.org/ (CCRE - Council of European Municipalities and Regions)

www.cecop.coop (CECOP - European Confederation of Workers' Cooperatives, Social Cooperatives and Social and Participative


www.cev.be/ (CEV - European Volunteer Centre)

www.coface-eu.org (COFACE - Confederation of Family Organisations in the European Union)

www.coface-eu.org/ (COFACE - Confédération des Organisations Familiales de l'Union Européenne)

www.consilium.europa.eu (Council of European Union)

www.eapn.org (EAPN - European Anti Poverty Network)

www.eaps.nl/(European Association for Population Studies)

www.easpd.eu/(European Association of Service Providers for Persons with Disabilities)

www.efrp.org/ (European Federation for Retirement Provision)

www.enar-eu.org (ENAR - European Network Against Racism)

www.esn-eu.org (ESN - European Social Network)

www.eurocadres.org/(EUROCADRES - Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff)

www.eurocarers.org/ (Eurocarers - European Association Working for Carers)

www.eurocities.eu/main.php (Euro Cities)

www.eurohealthnet.eu/ (Euro Health Net)

www.europarl.europa.eu/(European Parliament)

www.european-microfinance.org/index2_en.php (EMN - European Microfinance Network)

www.family-eu.org/cms/index.php (FAFCE - Föderation der Katholischen Familienverbande in Europa)


www.womenlobby.org (European Women's Lobby)

www.youthforum.org/(Forum of Young People in Europe)


Module 2 – The Concept of Active European Citizenship and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

Module 2:

Steffen Hartje (Fritid&Samfund/DK)

The Concept of Active European Citizenship and its

Relevance for Senior Citizens

Unit 1

Unit in a nutshell


Why is AEC important for senior citizens

Understanding the concept of Active European Citizenship (AEC) and its

relevance to senior citizens

Demonstrating the opportunities of AEC for elderly citizens

After this unit you will be able to:

understand why it was - and still is - important to develop the idea of


understand the rights and obligations upon which the concept of Active

Citizenship is established

apply the concept of AEC to daily life.

I am not an Athenian or a Greek, but a citizen of the world.


Warming up:

Please discuss freely about whether or not you have

ever heard about the concept of Active European Citizenship

and what citizenship in general and European

citizenship in particular mean to you.

Listen / Read

2.1.1. The idea of an active citizenship

The idea of an active citizenship is not new but can be traced back to ancient Greece, where the

philosopher Aristotle was the first to develop a theory about citizenship. In 500 to 400 before Christ,

as a result of Aristotle’s concept, citizenship was practiced by the city government in Athens, called

polis. Greek citizenship was primarily built on the obligations that each citizen had to the city government.

To be an active citizen, one who took part in political life, was considered to be a moral

duty. One was morally obliged to take an active part in common polis matters, if one was to be

respected as a citizen and a human being. The citizenship idea was thus closely linked to the individual

citizen’s rights and the duty to take an active part in the political community. Even though

citizenship was based more on the obligations towards the city government than on the rights of the

individual citizen, the obligations did not take the form of legal orders, but were considered as an

option to serve the community and to gain the resulting respect.

In the 1700s there was a redrafting of the citizenship concept. The beginning of industrialisation and

the spread of the market economy started to create large social changes. These changes were both

results as well as catalysts due to the enormous gap that existed between the traditional absolute

monarchies at the time and the new progressive sense of citizenship - which among other things

finally led to the French Revolution in 1789. At the philosophical level the period was marked by the

enlightenment philosophy that contributed to the development of new values such as freedom,

tolerance, pluralism, individual rights and also secularisation, which separated religion and poli-


tics. Following these basic ideas, the new nation states created during the 19th Century made it

possible to develop a real state of law and at the same time secure a state-free environment for the

citizen to act individually and collectively.

The idea of the independence of a state - also from the church - gained more and more credibility,

and the clarification of borders between countries meant that the citizens became more aware of

their affiliation to a nation and of the conditions that applied. As a holder of subjective rights they

enjoyed protection from the nation state as long as they obeyed the law.

2.1.2. Active European Citizenship (AEC)

The hasty development of globalisation, given the achievements made in information technology,

the global convergence of the financial markets and the growth in global production has led to nation

states losing more and more control over general production conditions and therefore they are

limited in their ability to maintain existing welfare levels.

The reduction in the importance of the nation state has an impact on our understanding of the concept

of citizenship, as since the era of industrialisation it has always been linked with an understanding

that it is the nation state that secures the rights that make it possible to practice active

citizenship. In line with the rapid pace of globalisation there is a demand that rights are no longer

just guaranteed within the nation you live in, but that they are also respected by people in other

nations. From being rights of citizenship won by fighting inside the context of a nation state, individual

rights are today also secured at the European and global levels. Typically social rights will be

secured by the nation state, the rights in relation to the internal market will be guaranteed by the

European Union and the UN will guarantee human rights. As a consequence of globalisation the idea

of active citizenship needs to be developed on three levels: the national, European and global levels.

The citizens of Europe must view themselves not only as British, German, and Italian etc. but

also as a European citizen and indeed as a citizen of the world.

The increasing globalisation of the world economy contributes to creating a global identity and responsibility.

Today we see a common responsibility within the area of ecology in terms of global

development. People’s awareness of the Earth’s limited resources and of the menace posed by an

uncontrolled development of the market economy threatening the fragile ecological balance is creating

a worldwide commitment to our planet. The development of European and global responsibility

at both the political and ordinary citizen level could be an important element in the development

of the idea of active citizenship.

A prerequisite for the development of AEC is that citizens in European countries have a certain mutual

sympathy and are interested in what takes place in other European countries, which may hopefully

lead to the development of a common European identity. Already today we see many communities

with an identity and self-knowledge that extends beyond the national context in which they

live. There are communities of people who network across frontiers using IT-technology; however

there is still a long way to go before a common European identity becomes a reality.

The contents of this part of the training course will focus on the participants’ attitude towards

other European countries, pointing out, for instance, which countries are, in their opinion, the most

popular and which, on the contrary, are not considered favourably.

Moreover, how can one become more engaged in what is going on in other EU countries

Reflection / Self-study / Discuss

Active European Citizenship is a rather complex concept to explain, especially because it is a hypothetical

construct, such as freedom, love or engagement, and there are no generally agreed definitions

concerning it. Finally, it is very much dependent on what a person has in mind when speaking

about AEC – and there is nothing wrong with that!


Module 2 – The Concept of Active European Citizenship and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

So what does Active European Citizenship mean to you Do you think that you are already an active

European citizen, and if yes, in what context Think of your own opportunities for becoming a

more active citizen. Is there anything that prevents you from being more active, such as physical,

mental, social or other conditions If there are any barriers, how can they be overcome

What role can elderly citizens play in the development of AEC at the local, national and European

levels What does the demographic trend with the increasing number of elderly people in Europe

indicate in relation to the development of AEC

Unit 2

Unit in a nutshell


The role of civil society in the development of AEC

Considerations concerning the relationship between the development of

civil society and the development of AEC

Introduction of a European dimension in voluntary work at the local level

After this unit you will be able to:

understand the connection between local voluntary work and the development

of AEC

improve voluntary work in your local area

organise voluntary work through proactive networking.

It is not always the same thing to be a good man and a good citizen.


Warming up:

Play music from other European countries - relax, listen and be inspired!

2.2.1. What is the definition of civil society

Listen / Read

“The civil society refers to the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes

and values. In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state, family and

market, though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family and market are often

complex, blurred and negotiated. Civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors

and institutional forms, varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and power”. (The London

School of Economics Centre for Civil Society's Working; http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/


Civil societies are populated by many different organisations, such as non-governmental organisations,

community groups, gender organisations, faith-based organisations, associations, trade unions,

self-help groups, social movements, coalitions, advocacy groups and many more.

2.2.2. Associations – a framework for voluntary work and citizenship

The most common form of organisation in civil society is the association, as it is an easy way of organising

voluntary work. Legal, administrative and organisational frameworks for creating an association

do vary from country to country, however on the whole it is a rather simple and inexpensive

procedure. For example in Denmark, one only needs to set some rules that ensure the association is

built on democratic principles, and that there will be a governing board elected from the association’s



Quite often it makes sense for citizens to organise voluntary work if they wish to influence the development

of the local community. An active citizenship is built on democratic communities, and

voluntary associations are way of fitting into such communities.

In Scandinavia there are many voluntary associations and, as in Denmark, even the smallest communities

have many different associations. There are voluntary sports associations, scouts associations,

night school associations, youth associations, senior associations etc. The associations are also important

for civil society and local democracy, as they make it possible for citizens to get in touch

with other citizens who undertake voluntary work and to communicate from one association to another.

These associations do also make it easier for local politicians to enter into dialogue with civil society.

For example in the Danish municipality of Varde, there is a very good continuous dialogue between

the local associations and the town council organised within the framework of voluntary development


In a voluntary association active in civil society, citizens can easily learn and understand participative

democracy and active citizenship, as there is little or no interference from the state, from the

market or from other interests in this sector of society.


Please discuss the following questions and issues:

What are the characteristics of civil society in your country and are there any examples of how voluntary

work is linked to local democracy

How can voluntary work be organised more innovatively, and think of a way in which the European

dimension can become a part of voluntary work at the local level

How can networking be used in voluntary work

Working in a group please discuss the following question and create some promising suggestions:

How could it be possible to involve more senior citizens in voluntary work and local democracy

(Please consider frameworks, preconditions, barriers, individual and public demands, needs and

interests etc.)


Module 2 – The Concept of Active European Citizenship and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

Unit 3

Unit in a nutshell


Development of new communities in the EU

Understanding how social networks contribute to strengthening European


After this unit you will be able to:

participate in social networks on the internet

approach new forms of tourism-based projects and networks.

If you treat people right they will treat you right - ninety percent of the time.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Warming up:

Social networking – what does this mean to you and how does it work Are

you a passionate social networker yourself

2.3.1. What is Social Networking and how does it work

Listen / Read

Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, such as small rural communities

or a neighbourhood. Traditionally social networking was based on “real” contacts and face-to-face

communication, however in recent years social networking happens more and more online via the

internet. The internet is filled with millions of individuals who are looking to meet other internet

users, to gather and share information or experiences about lots of different topics, from sport to

gardening to developing friendships etc.

In online social networking websites are commonly used and are called social

sites. Social sites function like an online community of internet users. The

online community members share a common interest such as an interest in

each other’s lives, hobbies, sports and many other subjects. When you access

a social networking website you can begin to socialise with the other members.

This socialisation may include reading the profile pages of other members

and possibly even contacting them.

Another benefit is that making friends includes intercultural skills and, most of

all, understanding. The internet gives citizens from all around the world access

to social networking sites. This means that although you live in Italy you could

develop an online friendship with someone in Denmark and learn something

about the daily life in this particular European country. Not only will you make

new friends, you might also learn a thing or two about new cultures or new languages.

Social networking involves grouping specific individuals or organisations together.

Some of the social networking sites have a focus on a particular interest

whilst others are more general. The websites without a main focus are often referred to as "traditional"

social networking websites and usually have open memberships. This means that anyone can

become a member.


2.3.2. Popular social networks

Facebook (www.facebook.com) is the most popular global social networking website that is operated

and privately owned. Users can add friends and send them messages. Many of the users of

Facebook will tell their friends about what they are doing every day, and friends have the opportunity

to comment on these messages.

Blog or weblog is a website mainly maintained by an individual with regular comments, descriptions

of events or other material. Many blogs function as a personal online diary; others provide commentary

on a particular subject. A typical blog combines text, images, links to other blogs, web pages

and other media materials related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive

format is an important part of many blogs.

Twitter (http://twitter.com) is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its

users to send and read messages known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts displayed on the

author's profile page and delivered to the author's subscribers who are known as followers. Senders

can restrict delivery to those in their circle of friends or, by default, allow open access.

In twitter there is a 140-character limit on message and it is sometimes described as the "SMS of the


Reflection / Discuss

Please look up some virtual networks and blogs on the internet. What is their basic idea and function

What skills do you think are necessary in order to participate in virtual networks How can they

be used for strengthening AEC and cohesion in Europe How can you personally benefit and what can

you learn from them

Unit 4

Unit in a nutshell


Reflection upon the opportunities for AEC involvement in the future

Designing visions regarding the European community and the future development

of AEC

After this unit you will be able to:

design and apply visions for improving AEC and voluntary work in the

Europe of the future.

Once you replace negative thoughts with positive ones, you'll start having positive results.

(Willie Nelson)

Warming up:

Agree on song you all would like to sing together – and sing it!

(This is an old tradition in Denmark of singing a song before meetings, seminars,

training etc. It does not harm anyone, and quite often it results in a very

good atmosphere)


Module 2 – The Concept of Active European Citizenship and its Relevance for Senior Citizens

Listen / Read

2.4.1. The Future Workshop (Shortened version)

The Future Workshop (FW) method is not new. It was created in the 1970s by Robert Jungk, a German

born Austrian writer and journalist, together with some colleagues. It has been used in many

countries over the last decades as an appropriate tool for people willing to develop visions for addressing

real-life problems. Originally it was developed as a method to support the political struggles

of community groups for improved representation of their interests to create a better future

worth living for.

Basically, the Future Workshop can be divided into five phases:

1. The preparatory phase, which involves deciding on the topic and making some practical arrangements

(preparation of flip charts, papers, markers etc.)

2. The critique phase, during which all the negative experiences related to the chosen topic are

brought into the open. In the critique phase the problem is critically and thoroughly discussed

and investigated. Brainstorming is the preferred creative technique, followed by clustering

and structuring the ideas, thoughts, comments etc. into some main sub-themes.

3. The fantasy phase, in which the participants come up with ideas in response to the problems,

by expressing their desires, fantasies and alternative views. In the fantasy phase the participants

try to create a utopia, to draw an exaggerated picture of the future. Brainstorming and

other creative techniques might be used. The participants should make a selection of the

most interesting notions and develop these into a visionary paper.

4. The implementation phase. The workshop concludes with the implementation phase, in which

the ideas from the previous phase have been seen with more realistic eyes. The ideas are

checked and evaluated with regard to their practicability and a plan of action is drawn up.

5. In the follow-up phase the FW ends with an agreement on the elaboration of a report that

collects all the results gained and presents a completed action plan.

2.4.2. The Visionary Workshop

The Visionary Workshop (VW) consists of the Fantasy Phase and the Implementation Phase of the

Future Workshop. The problem with the FW in relation to training courses is that it can take too

long to go through all five phases. We therefore suggest focussing only on the FW’s most important

phases which are the Fantasy Phase and the Implementation Phase of the workshop; together they

are often called the Visionary Workshop.

1. The Fantasy Phase

Warming up: Before the participants start with their work it is advised to get them into a creative

mood, e.g. they could listen to some music of their choice, they could play some games or

they could use story telling as source of inspiration. Once everyone feels relaxed and comfortable

the actual working part of the Fantasy Phase can begin.

The work begins: In the Fantasy Phase the participants try to create positive pictures of the future

in relation to the subject which the future workshop is addressing, by questioning themselves:

How do we wish the future to be if it is not restricted by laws, economics, resources

etc The participants should suggest solutions, whilst ignoring these restrictions, such as: How

should life be for elderly people if the state has sufficient money to care for all citizens who

are not in the labour market How would it be to live in a society in which there is no discrimination

of older people How would the EU be if older citizens had much greater power

The participants have 10-15 minutes by themselves during which they should try to answer these

questions and create suggestions about how the future could be. When they have finished the

work, they should write their suggestions as headlines on a blackboard or flipchart. When all

have written their headlines each participant should explain what their suggestion refers to.

Very important: During this process there must not be any discussions!

After the presentation of the headlines the next key question is: Which headlines cover the


same subject In the following process, the number of headlines will be reduced by clustering

them into umbrella terms or areas. When this is completed the participants should list the headlines

in order of priority for working with during the next phase of the workshop. The key question

then to be answered is: Which are the most promising headlines for further development

An easy way to do this is for participants to vote with each participant having one or more

votes, as appropriate. As a result of the vote the participants now have some common visions

for the future, upon which they agree, visions that they will try to implement in the next phase

of the workshop!

2. The Implementation Phase

In the Implementation Phase the visions are confronted with reality, and the most important

question to be answered is: Which one of them is mostly likely to become a reality in the near

future In the Implementation Phase the participants can involve experts to help them and it

also might be necessary to gain further information through research, e.g. using the internet,

which can enrich the discussions. After the visions from the Fantasy Phase have been confronted

with reality, there will only be a few visions remaining which seem to have the potential to be

implemented in society in the near future – however some of the rest of them might still be useful

as a goal for the group. The Implementation Phase will end with an action plan which will be

elaborated upon. The action plan will describe what needs to be done by whom and when as a

concrete follow-up to the workshop.


Select a topic of your choice and test whether or not the Visionary Workshop is an appropriate tool

for a group with limited time to create promising visions! One hint: select topics which are close to

your own life, interests and expertise – perhaps even in connection with the application that is

planned to be submitted at the end of this course!

References and other sources helpful for further information

Hartje, Steffen (2007): The idea of an active citizenship. (www.learnship.eu)

Marshall, T.H./Bottomore (1991): Citizenship and Social. Pluto Classic. USA.

Jungk, Robert/Mullert, Norbert (1970): Future workshops: How to Create Desirable Futures, Institute for Social Inventions.

Social Networking in Plain English: A short explanation of social networking websites and why they are popular. This video

comes in an unbranded "presentation quality" version that can be licensed for use in the workplace.










Module 3 – The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

Module 3:

Teresa Diaz Bello/Yolanda Mates (ASAEL/ES)

The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) and its

relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

Unit 1

Unit in a nutshell


The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP)

Exploitation of the ECP, its priorities, features and structure

Information concerning the funder and operator of the ECP

Reflecting best practice elements of a good project and the procedures

for submitting project applications

After this unit you will be able to:

value the ECP programme

give a basic overview of the ECP

estimate its potential for the general public

define a good project concept with main key factors

You get a passport, you can vote, you are entitled to the protection of the state.

(Toolkit on European Citizenship)

Warming up:

According to the content learnt so far, has your approach towards the EU

and / or the concept of Active European Citizenship changed

If so, how and why

3.1.1. Structure of the Europe for Citizens Programme

Listen / Read

In order to achieve its objectives the Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP)

proposes four actions, divided into different measures.

Action 1 – Active Citizens for Europe: This action is directed specifically at activities involving citizens.

These activities fall into two types as follows:

- Town twinning

Direct exchanges between European citizens through their participation in town twinning

activities encourage networking and cooperation between twinned towns to create real

links between citizens of different European member states.

- Citizens projects and support measures

Within this measure a variety of projects of a transnational and cross-sectoral nature, directly

involving citizens can be supported.

Action 2 – Active Civil Society in Europe: This action is aimed at civil society organisations and think

tanks, which can receive either structural support on the basis of their work programme or support

for transnational projects, the so called action grant. This action is composed of three sets of



- Structural support for European public policy research organisations (think-tanks)

This measure is designed to strengthen the institutional capacity of European public policy

research organisations (think tanks).

- Structural support for civil society organisations at the European level

This measure provides civil society organisations, which operate with a European dimension,

with the capacity and stability to develop their activities at the European level.

- Support for projects initiated by civil society organisations

The aim of this measure is to support cooperation through concrete projects by civil society

organisations from different participating countries.

Action 3 – Together for Europe: This action focuses on deepening the concept of active European

citizenship and at promoting its understanding all over Europe, thereby contributing to bringing

Europe closer to its citizens, through three sets of measures:

- High-visibility events

This measure will support events organised by the Commission, where appropriate in cooperation

with the member states or other relevant partners, which help to increase citizens’

sense of belonging to the same community and their commitment to the European project.

- Studies

In order to gain a better understanding of active citizenship at the European level the

Commission carries out studies, surveys and opinion polls.

- Information and dissemination tools

Comprehensive information on the various activities of the Programme, on other European

actions related to citizenship and on other relevant initiatives, will be provided through different

dissemination tools.

Action 4 – Active European Remembrance: This action aims at preserving the main sites and archives

associated with deportations and at commemorating the victims of Nazism and Stalinism, as a

means of moving on from the past and building the future.

3.1.2. Who operates the ECP

The European Commission: The European Commission is ultimately responsible for the smooth running

of the ECP. It manages the budget and sets priorities, targets and criteria for the programme

on an ongoing basis, following consultation with the Programme Committee. Furthermore, it guides

and monitors the general implementation, follow-up and evaluation of the programme at the European

level. The European Commission relies on an Executive Agency to carry this out.

The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA):

The EACEA was established in 2005 and is responsible for the implementation of most of the actions

of the Europe for Citizens Programme. It is responsible for the management of the complete life

cycle of these projects. The EACEA also oversees the Europe for Citizens Points (PEC) whereby

member states are responsible for ensuring targeted, effective grass-roots dissemination of practical

information on the programme implementation. A list of PECs can be found on the EACEA website


The member states and other participating countries: The EU member states are also involved in

the implementation of the ECP, in particular through the Programme Committee, to which they

appoint representatives. And, of course, they also host the PECs to inform their citizens first-hand

about the programme. Last but not least municipalities, councils, associations, NGOs etc. are also

involved at the national level in the development and orientation of the EPC.


Module 3 – The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

3.1.3. Elements of a good project idea

Of course this question cannot be answered in a simple way, however here are some hints and recommendations

(please also see Modules 5 - 7):

have an interesting, innovative and viable idea

pay attention to the objectives of the programme, to its priority themes, to the horizontal features

and to the concept of this measure

prepare a clear and detailed presentation of a meeting’s programme

explain what will happen during the project, what the role of the participants will be and what

the sustainable results of your project will be

ensure that the programme provides an active role for the participants

explain how the local community is involved in the project, e.g. during the preparation phase, in

connection with project meetings or in connection with possible follow-up activities

explain what kinds of publicity and other public exposure the project will receive.


Please find out where your national PEC is and make contact with its staff via email, telephone or

by visiting it in person. Ask questions regarding what you wish to know about the ECP and do not

forget to inform the PEC about the AESAEC project. Arrange a date when the entire group of learners

can visit the PEC in person.

Unit 2

Unit in a nutshell


Action 1 of the ECP and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

In-depth view of Action 1 (Active Citizens for Europe) and its relevance

for senior citizens

After this unit you will be able to:

evaluate Action 1 of the ECP according to its potential for being applied

to for projects addressing topics relevant to senior citizens.

We have made Europe, but, how do we make Europeans

(Toolkit on European Citizenship)

Warming up:

Please discuss following questions:

Are you familiar with the concept of town twinning Is your home town

or village twinned with a town or village in another European country

If so, have you ever been involved in any of the activities

In your opinion do you think that town twinning actions are of any

value or are they just a waste of time Why Why not

3.2.1. Action 1 – Active Citizens for Europe

Listen / Read

This action is divided in three measures:

1. Town Twinning: this measure consists of benefiting from the links established at the local

level between twinned municipalities for fostering exchanges and cooperation.


2. Citizens Projects and Support measures which provide support for citizens projects which

are aimed at assisting Europeans from different countries to come together around common

issue and promote the exchange of good practice and to help pool experience.

Ad 1. Town Twinning

Town twinning is a reality in Europe today as a significant number of municipalities are linked to

each other through town twinning agreements. Town twinning encourages exchanges of experiences

on a variety of issues of European interest, and it provides unique opportunities to learn about the

daily lives of citizens in other European countries. The Town Twinning measure is subdivided into

two sub-measures:

Citizens meetings, the objectives of which are defined as:

- a commitment to European integration

- active participation

- building up friendship

- intercultural dialogue.

Networks of twinned towns, whose objective are (in addition to 1.1.):

- networking among municipalities on issues of common interest appears to be an important

means for enabling informed discussions and exchange of good practice. Twinning is

a strong link that binds municipalities; therefore, the potential of the networks created

by a series of town twinning links should be used for developing thematic and long-lasting

cooperation between towns. Activities should have a defined target group for which the

selected theme is particularly relevant and involve community members active in the

subject area (experts, local associations, citizens and citizens groups directly affected by

the theme etc.).

Ad 2 Citizens projects and support measures

Citizens meetings: a major challenge of the European Union today is to bridge the gap between

the European citizens and the European institutions. This measure aims at exploring innovative

methodologies and approaches to encourage the active participation of citizens

at the European level and to stimulate dialogue between European citizens and European


Support measures: this function is a tool to develop the quality of projects submitted within

Action 1. It also supports the exchange of experiences, expertise and good practice.

Exercise / Reflection / Research Discuss

Visit the official website of the Europe for Citizens Programme

(http://ec.europa.eu/citizenship/index_en.html), look up an appropriate language version (it is

available in English, German and French) and find the Programme Guide in your national language.

There you can find detailed information about the programme in general as well as about Action 1.

Please form 4 groups, and split the 4 measures between these groups; each group should now insert

the missing information concerning the measure it is has been allocated in the wanted table below.

Present the results to each other and discuss what advantages and disadvantages are generally connected

to the different frameworks of the measures when applying for and implementing a project

(such as being eligible in the first place, the effort needed to apply for a project, the demands of

implementing a project, amount of grant money received etc.)

Do also discuss which of the measures you think are more suitable for submitting a project application

in order to increase the participation of senior citizens in the Europe for Citizens Programme


Module 3 – The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens


Europe for Citizens Programme –

Action 1: Active Citizens for Europe












Target groups

and eligible organisations

Eligible countries

Min. and Max.

Number of


Role of


Min. and max.

duration of action

Documents to

be used for application

Deadline(s) for


Regulations for


Grant regulations

Payment procedures




Unit 3

Unit in a nutshell


Action 2 of the ECP and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

In-depth view of Action 2 (Active Civil Society in Europe) and its relevance

for senior citizens

After this unit you will be able to:

evaluate Action 2 of the ECP according to its potential for being applied

to for projects addressing topics relevant to senior citizens.

Citizenship is the peaceful struggle though a public sphere which is dialogical.

(Toolkit on European Citizenship)

Warming up:

Explain briefly what these concepts mean to you:

- think tanks

- civil society organisations.

3.3.1. Action 2 – Active Civil Society in Europe

Listen / Read

This action supports civil society organisations and think tanks as a tool for specific links among

European citizens and the European Union. It is divided into three measures:

1. Structural support for European policy research organisations (think tanks)

2. Structural support for civil society organisations at the European level

3. Support for projects initiated by civil society organisations

Ad Measure 1 and 2: In order to provide think tanks and civil society organisations at the European

level with the necessary capacity and stability for extending and structuring their activities, structural

support is available to European policy research organisations in the form of an operating grant

to cover part of their running costs.

Ad Measure 3: Support for projects initiated by civil society organisations.

Project should take one of the following forms:

- Event projects: seminars, colloquia, workshops, debates, hearings, meetings, training activities,

socio-cultural activities.

- Projects with tangible products: publications, websites, TV/radio broadcasts, production of

audio-visual material, opinion polls, studies, analysis, production of education and training

materials, application of new information technologies.

Structure of the projects:

- action

- debate

- reflection

- networking.

Exercise / Reflection / Research / Discuss

Please have a look again at the ECP programme guide and collect information and data concerning

all issues that are relevant to know about if one wishes to apply for a project. Therefore, please use


Module 3 – The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

again the above wanted table and adapt it yourself to the content and structure of Action 2. Do

discuss again the advantages and disadvantages of the individual measures and their specific potential

for project applications submitted by and for senior citizens.


Unit in a nutshell


Action 3 of the ECP and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

In-depth view of Action 3 (Together for Europe) and its relevance for

senior citizens

After this unit you will be able to:

evaluate Action 3 of the ECP according to its potential for being applied

to for projects addressing topics relevant to senior citizens.

Citizenship is not just a certain status, defined by a set of rights and responsibilities. It

is also an identity, an expression of one’s membership of a political community.

(Will Kymlicka)

Warming up:

In groups of 3-4 persons reflect and answer the next question:

According to your opinion what topic could be celebrated by a

high profile event in 2010

3.4.1. Action 3 – Together for Europe

Listen / Read

This action aims at deepening the concept of Active European Citizenship and promoting its understanding

all over Europe, thereby contributing to bringing “Europe closer to its citizens”, through

three sets of measures:

1. high profile events

2. studies

3. information and dissemination tools.

Ad Measure 1:

High profile events should be substantial in scale and scope, striking a chord with the peoples of

Europe, helping them to increase their sense of belonging to the same community, making them

aware of the history, achievements and values of the European Union, involving them in intercultural

dialogue and contributing to the development of their European Identity.

Ad Measure 2:

In order to obtain a better understanding of active citizenship at the European level the Commission

will carry out studies, surveys and opinion polls.

Ad Measure 3:

Places the focus on citizens and the variety of initiatives in the area of active citizenship, on comprehensive

information about the various activities of the programme, on other European actions

related to citizenship and on other relevant initiatives provided through an internet portal or by

other means.


It is important to know that this action will be initiated and carried out only by the European Commission,

and therefore it is not planned to select projects under the measure described below.


Exercise / Reflection / Research / Discuss

Try to identify projects, activities, events etc. initiated by the European Commission under this

Action 3 of the ECP. Evaluate them according to the level at which they address your interests, demands

and needs Would you have spent money on them too Why Why not

Unit 5

Unit in a nutshell


Action 4 of the ECP and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

In-depth view of Action 4 (Active European Remembrance) and its relevance

for senior citizens

After this unit you will be able to:

evaluate Action 4 of the ECP according to its potential for being applied

to for projects addressing topics relevant to senior citizens.

“To them I will give within my temple and its walls a memorial and a name better than sons

or daughters; I will give them an everlasting name that will not be cut off.” (Isaiah 56;5)

Warming up:

According to your opinion what does active remembrance mean

Have you organised or attended an Active European Remembrance

event If so, what was it about

3.5.1. Action 4 – Active European Remembrance

Listen / Read

The European Union is built on fundamental values such as freedom, democracy and respect for

human rights. In order to fully appreciate their meaning it is necessary to remember the breaches

of those principles caused by Nazism and Stalinism in Europe. It is particularly important to do so

now, as the witnesses are gradually disappearing. An awareness of the full dimensions and tragic

consequences of the Second World War will thereby be maintained, particularly through the involvement

of younger generations of Europeans.

By their activities citizens will engage in a reflection on the origins of the European Union, on the

history of European integration, which has preserved peace among its members, and finally on today’s

Europe, thereby moving beyond the past and building the future. This action will therefore

play an important role in nourishing the broad reflection on the future of Europe and in promoting

active European citizenship.

The following projects will be funded:

- Projects linked to the preservation of the main sites and memorials

associated with the mass deportations, the former concentration

camps and other large-scale martyrdom and extermination sites of

Nazism, as well as the archives documenting these events, and for

keeping alive the memory of the victims, as well as the memory of

those who, under extreme conditions, rescued people from the



Module 3 – The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

- Projects linked to the commemoration of the victims of mass exterminations

and mass deportations associated with Stalinism, as

well as the preservation of the memorials and archives documenting

these events.

Projects can take one of the following forms:

- Event projects: conferences, seminars, colloquia, workshops, meetings, training activities,

socio-cultural activities etc.

- Projects with tangible products: publications, websites, TV/radio broadcasts, production of

audio-visual material, opinion polls, studies, analysis, production of education and training

materials, application of new information technologies etc.


All projects must correspond to at least one of the following features and are encouraged to combine

several of them. Please have a look at the ECP guide and find out what needs to be understood

under these features:





Finally, please discuss the following questions in connection with Action 4 of the ECP:

- What kind of project topics dealing with the country you are living in at the moment could

fit into this action

- Are you a time witness yourself who could enrich an Action 4 project with your own life experience

- The Active European Remembrance action seems to be perfect for the participation and engagement

of senior citizens. Do you agree with this statement What are the challenges and

what are the risks of this action according to your opinion

- This action somehow seems to link the atrocities of World War Two and of the Nazi and the

Stalin regimes with the birth of the modern Europe, which finally developed into the European

Union as we know it today. Do you agree with this fundamental idea or not


Unit 3.6.

Unit in a nutshell


Think Tank

Introduction to an evaluation tool in order to reflect about the ECP and

its potential for senior citizens

After this unit you will be able to:

evaluate the ECP according to its potential for being applied to for projects

addressing topics relevant to senior citizens ´

express profound recommendations about how to make the ECP more

attractive to senior citizens.

3.6.1. Check list for project ideas in the ECP

As a very basic method of orientation to help decide whether or not you should continue with planning

to apply for EU funding under the ECP, please consider the following criteria:

1) Under which action/measure

do you

wish to submit a project


2) What is the basic idea

of your project

(please describe briefly)

3) Do what degree does

your idea meet the requirements

of the …

4) Is the promoter an eligible organisation/body

5) Is/are the partner organisation(s)


6) Do you have the potential (knowhow,

time, manpower, funds etc.) to

write and submit an application

7) Is it realistic to submit a proposal

before the application deadline

8) Do you have the potential (knowhow,

time, manpower, funds etc.) to

implement a project in case it is


9) Do you have the financial means to

pre-finance some of the project activities

and to finance expenses not

covered by the funding (if there are

any) as your own contribution

10) Are you aware of all accompanying

activities in connection with an EU

project (such as evaluation and particularly

public relation activities)

11) Does your idea have a high degree

of potential for sustainability and will

there be an (added) value also after

the project has ended

12) Now, after answering all of these

questions, are you still willing to continue

with the development of your

project idea

Evaluation and checklist for project ideas under the ECP

Action 1

Action 2

Measure: _________________________________________________

Action 3

Action 4










Not at all

programme’s objectives

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

thematic priorities

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

horizontal features

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

motivation/interest of your organisation

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

motivation/interest of your partner organisation 10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 - 0

Yes No Comments, plans, suggestions, considerations etc.


Module 3 – The Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP) and its relevance for AEC and Senior Citizens

3.6.2. Check list for project ideas in the ECP

Now that you know about the ECP in detail, what do you think about its orientation and potential,

and its challenges and risks Please use the table below to express your opinion, considerations,

recommendations etc.:

A) Which action do you

think is most appropriate

to promote the idea

of Europe and of Active

European Citizenship in


Action 1

Action 2

Action 3

Action 4


Evaluation of the ECP

Not at all

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

Comments, plans, suggestions, considerations


B) Which action do you

think is most appropriate

for senior citizens

to actively participate


Action 1

Action 2

Action 3

Action 4


Not at all

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

10 – 9 – 8 – 7- 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 – 0

Comments, plans, suggestions, considerations


C) What do you think are

the strengths of the


D) What kind of


do you have if you apply

for a project under the


(assuming the project

receives funding)

E) What do you think are

the weaknesses of the


F) What kinds of

risks/threats are there

if you apply for a project

under the ECP

(assuming the project

receives funding)

G) What should be done

to make the ECP more

attractive for senior

citizens to participate

in more actively


Please make contact with your national contact point for the EPC and arrange a meeting. Either

invite a representative to your training course or visit the office in your country with the whole

learner group. Present and discuss the results of this evaluation, and focus in particular on areas

and possible activities of the EPC that could be improved to make it more attractive to senior citizens

to participate in.

Hints for additional activities supporting the module implementation

• Please have a thorough look at the programme’s website for detailed information and including

the programme’s guide (http://ec.europa.eu/citizenship/index_en.html).

• Make contact with your national office or info centre for the ECP and arrange a meeting; do

also consider contacting an official office for the promotion of the EU at a local or regional

level and discuss issues of interest to you with them.

• Do also use other opportunities to leave the classroom or to bring in persons from outside

your learning group as often as possible, e.g. visit activities and events organised by the ECP

or visit/invite people/organisations that already have experience of implementing a project

under this programme etc.

• In particular, when working on Action 4 you could consider your group holding a minute’s silence

in remembrance of the victims of the Holocaust and other victims of the Nazi and Stalin


• If possible visit a site of historic remembrance, a museum or documentation centre etc.

dealing with remembrance as described in Action 4.

References and other sources helpful for further information

Barberm N. (2002): Citizenship, Nationalism and the European Union. 27. European Law Review 241.

Centre for Civil Society/London School of Economics (01/03/2004): What is civil society

(http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/what_is_civil_society.htm. Retrieved on 2006-10-30)

Counsil of Europe: The European Convention on Human Rights (1950) and its Five Protocols (1952-1966).

GD for Education and Culture (2009): Europe for Citizens Program 2007-2013. Program Guide. Version valid as of 1 st January


Toolkit on European Citizenship. (http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture16.html)

WIENER, A. (1998): European Citizenship Practice. Building Institutions of a Non-State. Boulder (CO): Westview Press.

WINTER J.A/D.M CURTIN/KELLERMANN, A.E./ WITTE, B.D. (Eds.) (1996): WEILER, J.H.H.: European Citizenship and Human

Right. pp 57-86. The Hague, Boston, London: Kluwer Law International.













Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)

Csilla Lázár (Soros Educational Center Foundation/RO)

Module 4:

The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe

for Seniors (GIVE) and its relevance for AEC and

Senior Citizens

Unit 4.1.

Unit in a nutshell


The Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) and Grundtvig in a nutshell

Raising awareness about the European Commission’s lifelong learning


Familiarising learners with the Lifelong Learning Programme, its subprogrammes,

their aims, target groups and objectives

After this unit you will be able to:

understand the main ideas of the European Commission’s lifelong learning


differentiate between several funds and programmes through which the

European Commission promotes lifelong learning for different target

groups (including senior citizens)

be aware of mobility opportunities for various target groups (including

senior citizens).

It’s never too late to learn!

Warming up:

My personal experience about lifelong learning:

Please think about the following questions, and then discuss them with your colleagues:

What does lifelong learning mean in my personal life

Does the proverb in the motto above fit into my life

What did you learn and when

Directly after you were born: _____________________________

at age three: ___________________________________________

at seven: ____________________________________________

at fifteen: __________________________________________

in your twenties: _______________________________________

in your thirties: ________________________________________

in your forties: _______________________________________

in your fifties: __________________________________________

last year/month/week: __________________________________

Learning from each other

Senior learners at the Soros Educational Center

in Miercurea-Ciuc/Csíkszereda (RO)

Listen / Read

4.1.1. Lifelong learning then and now

Look at the paintings below by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, or choose pictures by painters of other

genres, and try to figure out what types of abilities and skills were necessary in daily life during the

times depicted:


The Hay Harvest (Pieter Brueghel the Elder¸ Lobkowicz Palace at Prague Castle)

Netherlandish Proverbs (Pieter Brueghel the Elder¸ Gemäldegalerie Berlin)

What main skills and abilities – in social as well as in professional life – were necessary a few

hundred years ago

How much are these skills and abilities still needed today

How do you think lifelong learning differed in Brueghel’s time from what it is in today


Now watch following film about the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Commission:


Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)

What do you think are the most important skills and abilities that are necessary to transform the

EU into “a leading economy in the global knowledge based society”

Is it realistic for an appropriate number of EU citizens to acquire these skills and abilities in the

near future What needs to be done to achieve this aim

Exercise / Reflection / Discuss

Find information in your national language about the European Commission’s lifelong learning policy

and the Lifelong Learning programme. Use all sources and media available and make a list of the

useful contact details and websites!

4.1.2. The EC’s Lifelong Learning components and main target area

The European Commission named the sub-programmes of its Lifelong Learning programme after

great thinkers and scientists in European history, namely Comenius, Grundtvig, Erasmus and

Leonardo da Vinci. Can you match the pictures below with these names What do you know

about their lives and work Look up there biographies, e.g. on the internet using Wikipedia and

make short presentations about them to your training group.

Based on the information you found about the lives and work of Comenius, Grundtvig, Leonardo and

Erasmus, and using information from the web resources you collected in a previous section, try to

match the following target groups to the relevant LLP sub-progammes (check the correct answers at the

end of module):

Comenius Grundtvig Leonardo Erasmus

A) pre-primary to upper secondary school children, teachers and other staff

B) students, teachers, researchers involved in higher education

C) vocational school learners and teachers

D) learners above the age of 20 and educational staff involved in formal, non-formal and

informal adult education.

Why do you think European strategists chose these names to represent the Lifelong Learning subprogrammes


4.1.3. Grundtvig for adult education

It’s never too late to learn – the existence of this proverb in most languages illustrates that learning

has never been conceived as an exclusive undertaking for young people. The European Commission

supports continuing and after-school education via the sub-programme called Grundtvig.

Look at the information brochures about the Grundtvig programme or visit a website in your national

language and try to find answers to the following questions (check the correct answers at the end of


How many components does the Grundtvig programme currently have

How many of these are aimed at supporting individual mobility

According to the Lifelong Learning Programme Guide 2009, the Grundtvig sub-programme “addresses

the teaching and learning needs relating to all forms of adult learning which are not of a

predominantly vocational nature, as well as the institutions and organisations providing or facilitating

any form of such learning opportunities for adults – whether of a formal, non-formal or informal

nature – including those involved in the initial and in-service training of staff.”

Do you know any local / regional / national organisations that would / could be eligible for the

Grundtvig programme

Do you know any individuals who could apply for a Grundtvig mobility grant

4.1.4. Grundtvig case studies

Exercise / Self-study / Discuss

Read about some projects undertaken by institutions and individuals within various Grundtvig actions.

Try to match each case study to the names of the Grundtvig actions you learned about in the

previous section (check the correct answers at the end of module):

A) A group of 10 people from different European countries participated in a one week long

workshop in Romania, where they studied traditional handicrafts (wool processing, weaving

and feltmaking) and folk art. During the one week workshop they received an insight

into the history of traditional Transylvanian handicrafts, the use of handmade objects in

traditional peasant society, the role of handicrafts in modern societies as well as handicrafts

as a way of artistic self-expression. The costs of the workshop were partly covered

under the ________________ Grundtvig action of the LLP.

B) Four people from Hungary and four from Denmark, all aged above 50, have been volunteering

in each other’s countries working with non-profit disabled children’s institutions.

Their home organisations applied for a ________________ Grundtvig grant to support this

volunteering exchange.

C) Anna Kovac, trainer at the School for Inclusive Education in Prague, participated in a

five-day training course in Spain entitled Education and tackling drop-out and disaffection

in schools. She was supported by the European Commission under the ________________

Grundtvig action.

D) European Computer Network – Opening the internet up for the elderly (EuCoNet) is a

project in which partners from six different European countries (DE, IT, CZ, ES, SK, and

the UK) developed learning and teaching methods for senior citizens and exchanged existing

approaches like peer-learning and intergenerational learning. The project was supported

under the ________________ Grundtvig action.


Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)

Unit 4.2.

Unit in a nutshell


Volunteering as a form of Active Citizenship

Definition and discussion of forms and principles of volunteering

Presentation of volunteering opportunities for senior citizens

After this unit you will be able to:

define more clearly what volunteering can be

identify organisations that work with volunteers at the local, national

and European levels

identify what the most important aspects of a volunteering project are.

The highest reward for man's toil is not what he gets for it, but what he becomes by it.

(John Ruskin)

Warming up:

My idea of volunteering:

Is it usual for people in your community to volunteer

What are the most popular forms of volunteering

Have you ever volunteered

Thinking about these questions, write down two sentences

starting with “Volunteering is…”

Compare your sentences with those of your colleagues.


This file is licenced under the

Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0

Licence. In short: you are free to share and

make derivative works of the file under the

conditions that you appropriately attribute it,

and that you distribute it only under a licence

identical to this one.

4.2.1. Official approach towards volunteering

Listen / Read

The United Nations Volunteers Report, prepared for the UN General Assembly Special Session on

Social Development, Geneva, in February 2001, defines volunteering as follows:

There are three key defining characteristics of volunteering. Firstly the activity should not be undertaken

primarily for financial reward, although the reimbursement of expenses and some token

payment may be allowed.

Secondly the activity should be undertaken voluntarily, according to an individual’s own free-will


Thirdly the activity should be of benefit to someone other than the volunteer, or to society at large,

although it is recognised that volunteering brings significant benefit to the volunteer as well.


How much does your opinion differ from what this official definition states

4.2.2. Types of volunteering

Please undertake some brief “research” within your group concerning which kind of volunteer activities

are represented the most by answering the following questions:

Do you currently actively participate in or do voluntary work for one or more of the following types

of organisations

- Environmental protection or animal rights organisation

- Political party or organisation

- Leisure association for the elderly


- Trade union

- Charitable or social aid organisation

- Religious or church organisation

- Education, arts, music or cultural organisation

- Consumer organisation

- An organisation for the defence of elderly rights

- An organisation defending the interest of patients and / or disabled

- Business or professional organisation

- International organisation

- Other interest groups for specific causes

- None of these

- Don’t know

The above question has been taken from a piece of research on social reality in the EU (European

Commission’s Special Eurobarometer on Social Reality published in 2007). According to this report,

8 out of 10 EU citizens consider helping others or voluntary work as an important aspect of life, but

most Europeans (64%) do not actively participate or do any voluntary work, at least not with any of

the organisations listed in the questionnaire. The European average conceals large differences between

the results of the different member states.

Look at the chart below and compare your group’s results with the official results at the EU and

national levels. Are your group results similar to or different from the results presented in the report

What could be the reason for any differences

Tab. 1. Do you currently actively participate in or do voluntary work for

one or more of the following types of organisations

A sport club or club for outdoor activities

Education, arts, music or cultural association

Religious or church organisation

A charity orgnisation or social aid organisation

A trade union

A leisure association for the elderly

Other interest groups for specific causes

Political party or organisation

An environmental protection, animal rights

organisation, etc.

An international organisation

A business or professional organisation

Organisation defending the interest of patients

and/or disabled

An organisation for the defence of elderly rights

A consumer organisation

None of these (Spontaneous)

Don't know

















Tab. 2. Extent of active participation or voluntary work in the EU
























































Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)


Where can I volunteer

Look at the list in the table below of types of organisations. Can you give examples of such local /

regional / national or European organisations Use the internet and / or other available sources to

search for such organisations. In small groups make a list of them.

Area of activities

Name of


Level of activity


Where located

Environmental protection or

animal rights organisation, etc.

Political party or organisation

Other interest groups for specific


Leisure association for the elderly

Trade union

Charitable or social aid organisation

Religious or church organisation

Education, arts, music or cultural


Consumer organisation

An organisation for the defence

of elderly rights

An organisation defending the

interest of patients and/or disabled

Business or professional organisation



Other organisations


Compare your list with the findings of the other groups.

Which of these organisations have you joined as a volunteer Which could you join

Why did you join Why would you join Why not

Learn about volunteer work in practice!

Invite a volunteer worker from a local organisation to visit your group or visit his / her organisation

yourselves. Speak about his / her and your own experiences with volunteer work as well as how

volunteer work and the AESAEC training programme could be linked with each other.

The following questions might help you to start off a conversation:

Why did you decide to work as a volunteer

How did you choose the organisation you are working for

What are the personal benefits of your volunteering and what are the benefits to your organisation

What are the most difficult / challenging aspects of your work and how do you prepare for your

activities in general

How do you make use of what you have learnt during volunteering

Have you or has your organisation ever participated in an EU funded project in connection with

your volunteer work

How would you recommend volunteering to the course participants

Self-study exercise

Below you can read a report about a successful volunteering project (adapted from Davide di Pietro

(2006): STILL ACTIVE! Handbook for Volunteers). Firstly please read the description of the project

and afterwards discuss the following aspects:

How do you think the volunteers benefited from the project

How do you think the host organsiation has benefited from the project

How do you think the project was prepared


PROJECT HOST: Tiszta Forrás Alapítvány, Budapest, Hungary

PROFILE AND CONTEXT OF THE WORK: Volunteer work in a homeless shelter. The

shelter has two different areas: one area is for homeless people, who visit during the

day and receive food, take a shower and wash their clothes. A second is a residential

area where only men live and can cook for themselves. These men are officially registered

and regularly go to work. Once a week the shelter holds a Bible study and a

meeting for people addicted to alcohol.

ACTIVITIES OF THE VISITING SENIOR VOLUNTEER: A volunteer may help in the daily

housework, can help in the office or in the kitchen. Depending on language skills, he

can be of great help in communicating with the homeless people, sharing time with

them and listening to their problems.

NUMBER OF WEEKS: 2 - 4 weeks


No qualifications are necessary, but openness and the willingness to be confronted by

serious problems. Since 2002 the organisation has worked with foreign volunteers aged

18-25 years from Germany and other EU countries, however the ability to express

oneself in the Hungarian language is desirable (minimum level: 1).


Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)

Now read the final report written by a volunteer and see how the project turned out to

be successful in practice. Which were the key elements for the success of the project


Antonio, Italian volunteer


I already had some previous experience in Rome. I did voluntary work in a

community house for abandoned children. I can’t speak Hungarian and my

English is quite basic. Upon my arrival I felt immediately in tune with the

employees of the organisation. Only one of the employees spoke a little English,

and she was essential for the success of my stay there. My task was to

support those responsible for buying and distributing food and other basic

items. It was also the best place to have contact with the reality of homelessness.

From the start the co-operation has been constructive and friendly

despite the language difficulties. We used sign language most of the time

and their kindness, spontaneity and care did the rest. I was well housed,

staying in a guesthouse with English breakfast near the centre in Budapest

(an interesting and very beautiful city). During the daily activities I had

lunch with the organisation’s volunteers. I felt at home because I had all

that I needed during the day and the people who I met there treated me in a

friendly way. I felt fully satisfied with the visit.


First of all I am very happy to have had this experience. Even if I had stayed

there for a shorter period I think that the benefit of this experience for

spirit and mind would still have been higher than originally expected. I tried

to live this experience in the best way from the start. For example, one day

I attended a mass (ecumenical rite) for homeless people. During it a woman

burst out crying as she told us her experience. This memory will be stamped

on my mind for ever as well as the silence and the expression of the other

people attending the mass. Doing voluntary work in one’s own country is

natural but to go and help people in other countries is something that perhaps

everyone should do. I believe it is necessary to be determined, resolute

and conscious of what somebody wants to give.


I consider that this experience should be encountered on an individual basis

to stimulate a spirit of integration. Two weeks is too short a time if someone

does not have an open mind. English is essential, but it is also necessary

to be interested, motivated, friendly and curious.

4.2.3. Thinking of possible volunteering projects

Volunteering projects vary according to factors such as local needs and the volunteer’s interests and

motivation. In small groups discuss the following topics:

Could the project described above be implemented in your country Why Why not

Is the topic of the project relevant / of high priority in your country Why Why not

Can you think of other volunteering project topics that could be relevant to the local needs of

your community

Compare your group’s ideas with those of other groups and save your project ideas to be discussed

further in the following units of this module.


Unit 4.3.

Unit in a nutshell


Senior Volunteering Exchange Projects

Goals of senior volunteering exchange programmes

Opportunities and risks of senior volunteering exchange programmes

Participants in a senior volunteering exchange project and their roles

Generating senior volunteering exchange project ideas

After this unit you will be able to:

understand the goal of senior volunteer exchange programmes

understand the benefits of international volunteering

understand the intercultural aspects of international volunteering

be acquainted with the components of a senior volunteering project

know the main tasks that a volunteering project involves

be familiar with some of the risks and opportunities that international

volunteering presents

identify projects that would meet your motivation and interest

The world is a book, and those who do not travel read only one page.

(St. Augustine)

Warming up:

Friendship after war:

The start of structured volunteering endeavours goes

back to the beginning of the Twentieth Century. On

the UNESCO’s website the following event is described:

In 1920 the first international voluntary work camp

was organised in Esnes, a village near Verdun

(France), an area ravaged by horrible battle that

took some one million lives during the war. An initiative

of the International Fellowship of Reconciliation,

the camp helped rebuild farms and other

physical infrastructure, and, significantly, included

volunteers who had been enemy soldiers in the

Great War.

(From work camps to virtual aid, by Arthur Gillette,

former Secretary General of the Coordinating Committee

for International Voluntary Service)

Search the internet to find more information about

this first volunteering camp, and then discuss the following:

What do you think was the underlying message of

this action

Why do you think German volunteers joined the


How do you think local people appreciated the

work of the volunteers

Workcamp in Esnes near Verdun, 1920.

An early example of international volunteering.


Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)

4.3.1. Participants in international volunteering

Listen / Read

International volunteering means – besides solidarity and help - people from different nationalities,

backgrounds and lifestyles working closely to achieve a common goal. Volunteering abroad is an

intercultural - and in the case of senior volunteers – an intergenerational experience, where not

only the volunteer is introduced to another culture, but also the host organisation learns new perspectives

from the foreign volunteer.

Basically, an international senior volunteering project has three main participants / parties:

I. A Hosting Organisation

II. A Sending Organisation

III. The Senior Volunteer(s)

Look at the following list of tasks, which is a jumbled up list of the three parties’ responsibilities

(adapted from di Pietro (2006): STILL ACTIVE! A training course for senior volunteers). Discuss these

tasks within your group and decide which task is expected to be performed by which of the above

listed participants / parties (check the correct answers at the end of module).

N° Task

Participant /

party responsible


1 Send sufficient and clear information to sending organisation and volunteers

2 Keep motivated during the exchange programme

3 Recruit and prepare volunteers

4 Follow all the agreements set out at the pre-departure stage

5 Respect the local culture of the host organisation


Look for information on the host country and organisation and share it with the



Arrange the programme including practicalities such as meals, accommodation and


8 Transportation from the meeting point (airport or train station) to the project site


Welcoming and first orientation for volunteers: introduce the volunteer to the

project and to all the members, volunteers and staff of the hosting organisation


Pooling of previous volunteers and asking them to inform the new volunteers about

their volunteering experience


Take care of the volunteer during and after the project, ensuring contacts with the

hosting organisation while the volunteer is in the project

12 Be responsible for their own belongings and for themselves

13 Keep and respect different roles within the hosting organisation and the project


Introduce the local culture, customs, laws, traditions, beliefs and norms to the


15 Be involved in the local community

16 Evaluate the project (write evaluation reports)

17 Be responsible for volunteers sent

18 Identification of a tutor or a contact person for the volunteers

19 Coordinating daily work of the volunteers

20 Provide information about arrival date and time of the volunteer

21 Help new volunteers after returning to the home country

22 Self-manage their free time

23 Provide emergency contact persons for families of volunteers

24 Coordinating daily work for the volunteers

25 Organising extra activities, e.g. leisure activities, or giving information about

opportunities and activities in the area


Practicing a senior volunteering exchange action through role-play


Please split yourselves into two groups and imagine that Group A represents the board of a hosting

organisation and Group B a group of senior volunteers. In order to be prepared for the different

roles involved please read carefully the following profile and set-up:

Group A:

You are the board of a non-profit organisation that represents older people in a German city.

You collaborate with experts, service organisations and self-help groups, and the organisation

also runs a day-care centre for older people. You have been contacted by a French organisation

that has similar aims and they propose sending to you a small group of retired people (including

an electrician, a nurse, a housewife and a carpenter) to volunteer with your organisation for a

period of three weeks.

Discuss the following topics:

Would you be challenged in thinking about this opportunity

What would you expect from this volunteering project

What information would you ask the French organisation to provide before you make a


How would you prepare for the project

Group B.

You are a group of retired French volunteers (among you there is an electrician, a nurse, a

housewife and a carpenter). You are members of a French organisation that represents the rights

of older people. You would like to improve your organisation and also your German language

skills. Some of you studied German at school and have been a few times to Germany and Austria

for short visits. The board of your organisation plans a volunteer exchange with a German older

people’s organisation. You are thinking about applying to be involved.

Discuss the following topics:

What would you expect from this volunteering project

What would you ask from the prospective host organisation

How would you prepare for the project

After each person has defined and formulated his / her expectations, needs and fears in connection

with this senior volunteering exchange action, please “meet” each other to exchange approaches

and information and to agree on a basic framework about how the action can be prepared and implemented


Read / Discuss

4.3.2. Opportunities and risks of international volunteering

Read the first part of an Italian volunteer’s testimonial (adapted from di Pietro, (2006): Still active.

A training course for senior volunteers) about her international volunteering experience in an organic

agriculture co-operative. The volunteer should have been involved in the different activities

of the co-operative, such as promotion, production and distribution of the products.

Report of Italian volunteer (part 1)


I could tell enjoyable anecdotes, about my trip, my luggage and the transhipment

of an over 60, as I was immediately called upon to prove that I belong

to those “Active citizens who still have physical energy”. However I’d

rather describe myself as a clumsy and a bit provincial woman, a sort of a

“grandmother with a big suitcase”.

In my bag, indeed, I had a bit of everything: a small moka machine “Bialetti”,

some organic coffee, some food as a present for my hosts, some

“Navelli” saffron and other nonsense stuff to compensate for the terrible


PUTERS! What will they do with me What will I do with them

Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)

Discuss the possible risks of a senior volunteering project, e.g. lack of communication, intolerance,

lack of clear tasks, isolation of the volunteer etc.

How do you think this specific experience continued

Now please read the second part of the report before answering the questions below:

Report of Italian volunteer (part 2)

My selfish will was to improve my little knowledge of French. I don’t think I

achieved this aim although I do think that I have somehow succeeded in giving

and receiving good and positive feelings and experiences.

My ten year experience as an events manager allowed me to find and suggest

some ways of improving the commercial aspect of the produce and the communication,

in order to reach a wider audience and to help develop the

hosting organisation.

As I had previously been told about the situation I was entering into, I had

done some research in the Rome area, collecting material from organic factories

and organisations, which turned out to be useful and interesting for

my French hosts.

Personally I am happy to have been involved in this kind of agricultural activity,

which was something completely new to me. Therefore I actively participated

and finally rediscovered the pleasure of simple things, which give

you the real taste of life, and give the feeling that you are still useful and

interested in others.

It may sound strange, but I felt such a pleasure in staying in the countryside

all day long, picking beans, pumpkins and apples, and helping to prepare and

deliver the baskets of produce.

I even dare to say that my experience was definitely positive for me and for

the hosting community. I’ve been officially invited to the inauguration of an

old factory that, on my advice, should become a sort of agrotourism and organic

cultural centre to host courses, meetings etc… (my proposal was presented

to the town council and accepted instead of their project, which only

included the restoration of the building and the setting up of the organisation’s

offices). I am proud of this. I’m in contact with them, and I always

send material which I consider useful to them.


In order to complete a successful volunteering visit are volunteers required to have specific

skills What do you consider is more important: professional skills, social skills, intercultural

skills or any other skills

Are language skills vitally important for an international volunteer How can one overcome the

language barrier, before and during the volunteering visit

Could a local volunteer achieve the same goals within a project as an exchange volunteer If

not, what would be different and what are the benefits / disadvantages

Joining an international volunteering project yourself:

If you were to join an international volunteering project, what kind of project would you like to

be involved in

A) social: care for disadvantaged people, activities for disabled children, teaching skills to difficult

unemployed youngsters etc.

B) environmental: cleaning beaches or parks, restoring sites of particular historical interest,

helping in facilitating educational activities etc.

C) cultural: helping in the organisation of festivals or cultural events, helping cultural organisations

in their daily administration and in the organisation of campaigns, supporting intercultural

education projects etc.

D) Others: ____________________________________________________________________

Which European country would you like to go to, and why


What kind of activities would you like to do there (Do not only think of activities that are just

related to your qualifications, but also those that relate to your hobbies or activities you have

never tried but have always wanted to do)

Unit 4.4.

Unit in a nutshell


GIVE - Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors

Understanding the objectives and structure of the GIVE programme

Knowing about the application process and the structure of the application


Generation of promising project ideas

After this unit you will be able to:

understand the European dimension and European added value of senior

volunteering projects

understand the goals, structure and application procedure for GIVE projects

complete the relevant parts of the GIVE application form

produce eligible and appropriate project ideas to apply for European

funding under the GIVE programme.

We learn by example and by direct experience because there are real limits to the adequacy of

verbal instruction. (Malcolm Gladwell)

Warming up:

In the previous unit you have read about various volunteering

projects. Starting from the idea of “learning by experience”,

what do you think:

Do the volunteering projects presented contribute to the

enhancement of Active European Citizenship amongst the

participants If yes, how - if not, why not

What do volunteers learn from this volunteering experience

Help, learn, travel!

Listen / Read / Exercise

4.4.1. The “GIVE” action under the Lifelong Learning Programme

According to the European Commission “volunteering is increasingly recognised as a very valuable

informal learning experience for people of all ages.” (Guide to the Lifelong Learning Programme)

Therefore since 2009 the European Commission supports senior volunteering projects under the

Grundtvig component of the Lifelong Learning Programme. This specific programme is called the

Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE) and it is managed by National Agencies in all

countries participating in the Lifelong Learning Programme. On the European Commission’s website

you will find links to all National Agencies involved in the Lifelong Learning Programme:


Please visit the website of your National Agency and access the National Call for Proposals under

the Lifelong Learning Programme. Look up all the available information about senior volunteering

projects and GIVE, consult the printed guides and information materials distributed by the trainers

and then answer the following questions by matching the questions in Table A with the answers in

Table B:


Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)






Table A

What are the main objectives of the EC

projects supporting senior volunteering

Who can participate in a “GIVE” project

(what is the criteria for individuals –

volunteers - to participate)

How many organisations need apply together

for the same project What will be

their role

How many volunteers can take part in a

“GIVE” project

How long should the volunteering period


6 Where are applications sent F


How much funding can a project receive

from the EC and what kind a costs will

this money cover







Table B

Individual adults participating in a GIVE project as volunteers

must be aged 50 or above and be either nationals of:

- a country participating in the LLP, or

- other countries, provided that they are either permanent

residents or registered as stateless persons holding refugee

status in a country which participates in the programme.

- to enable senior citizens to volunteer in another European

country for any kind of non-profit activity, as a form of informal

(and mutual) learning activity;

- to create lasting cooperation between the host and sending

organisations around a specific topic or target group, as a result

of the exchange of volunteers;

- to enable the local communities involved in the exchange of

volunteers to draw on the potential of senior citizens as a

source of knowledge, skills and experience.

An application must be sent to the relevant National Agency of

the applicant.

The volunteering activity in another country is carried out in one

continuous period of 3-8 weeks.

Each organisation will be expected to send 2-6 volunteers and to

host 2-6 volunteers during the grant period.

Funding for Senior Volunteering Projects is provided in the form

of a lump-sum grant to each of the two organisations participating

in the project concerned. It is designed to help cover both

the travel and subsistence costs of the volunteers and the costs

incurred by the organisations involved in the project.

The GIVE project partnership must consist of two organisations,

each located in different countries, participating in the LLP, and

at least one of must be an EU member state.

In the last phase of the previous unit you discussed about joining an international volunteering project.

Based on the guidelines of the GIVE programme, about which you just heard, please discuss

the following:

Do you think your project idea would be eligible for funding under the GIVE programme

What kind of improvements still need to be made to your idea (E.g. finding a transnational

partner, to agree on a specific work programme for incoming volunteers etc.; please do also

look at the closing exercise in 4.2.3.).

In case you decide to apply for a GIVE project, Modules 5 and 6 will help you to design and write a

good proposal, and Module 7 will provide you with hints and tips for implementing the project successfully.

Read / Write / Discuss

4.4.2. Becoming familiar with the application form and process

If you wish to meet the challenge of participating in a GIVE project, then applications need to be

sent to the National Agencies of the sending and hosting organisations. For this purpose there is a

specifically designed application form available which has the following basic structure:

1. Submission data (who to send the application to and by when)

2. Coordinator (presentation of one of the two partners, that is the one that assumes the coordination

of the project)

3. Partner (presentation of the other partner organisation)

4. Declaration of honour

5. Description of the proposed budget

6. Project management, work programme, key activities

7. Requested funding


Think of the senior volunteering project ideas that you have outlined in the previous section of this

unit, and discuss what should be written in the following sections of the application. Then insert key

words or key sentences into the tables provided below. (In this context, please consider thoroughly

what you learnt about the risks and opportunities involved with international senior volunteering


A) Communication and cooperation (section 5.5. of the application form)

B) How will the activities match the volunteer’s profiles and interests

(section 5.7.4 of the application form)

Linguistic difficulties foreseen (section 5.9.2 of the application form)

C) What impacts and benefits do you expect the project activities to have on volunteers

(section 5.10.1 of the application form)

D) Impact and benefits resulting from the European nature of the project

(section 5.10.4 of the application form)


Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)

Read / Discuss

The GIVE quiz

True or false Individually complete the quiz below then discuss your results with the whole group.

(check the correct answers at the end of module)

True False

Are the following statements “True” or “False”

☺ ☹

a GIVE supports volunteering activities by seniors in their own countries.

Volunteering is undertaken of a person’s own free-will, choice and motivation, and


is without concern for financial gain.

c Volunteers replace professional, paid employees.

d Projects should involve two organisations from two different countries.

e The GIVE programme is open to adult citizens aged 50 or above.

Activities in which the volunteers will be involved can be profit making activities.



The funding from the EC is a contribution towards the travel and subsistence costs

of the volunteers and organisational costs of the sending and receiving organisations.

Hints for additional activities supporting the module implementation

• Spend some time on the websites indicated in this module and find out whether or not they

are of some interest to you.

• Make contact with your National Agency for the LLP, in particular the person(s) responsible

for the GIVE programme, and arrange a meeting.

• Do also use other opportunities to leave the classroom or to bring in persons from outside

your learning group as often as possible, e.g. visit NGOs, speak with organisations / persons

that have already experienced LLP, GIVE programme and / or volunteering work and / or intercultural

co-operation, visit locations where volunteering work is happening successfully


• This unit includes many activities which ask for the active as well as creative participation

of learners in training – please make sure these activities are implemented.

• Introduce different media and events, such as films, theatre, concerts, performances, exhibitions

etc., to deal with some of the more generic topics of this module, e.g. social engagement

and responsibility, intercultural exchange and learning, changes and risks of intercultural

co-operation etc. Please make sure that the all learners participate in and benefit

from such informal learning activities.

• Follow daily news on TV, radio, in newspapers etc. more intensively when they focus on social

engagement, volunteering work, intercultural co-operation in this field as well as EU

programmes. Share what you have heard and read about these issues with the whole project

group and turn this news into a valuable learning experience.

Correct answers to questions asked in this module

4.1.2 Pictures from left to right: Leonardo da Vinci; John Amos Comenius; Desiderius

Erasmus of Rotterdam; Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig

4.1.2 Programmes: a = Comenius; b = Erasmus; c = Leonardo da Vinci; d = Grundtvig

4.1.3. In 2009, Grundtvig has 10 components, 6 of them dedicated to mobility of staff and


4.1.4. Case studies: 1 = Grundtvig Workshop; 2 = Grundtvig Senior Volunteering Project; 3

= Grundtvig In-Service Training for Adult Education Staff; 4 = Grundtvig multilateral


4.3.1. Tasks for actors:


the Hosting Organisation’s tasks: 1, 7, 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 24, 25

the Sending Organisation’s tasks: 3, 6, 10, 11, 17, 20, 23

the Senior Volunteer’s tasks: 2, 4, 5, 12, 13, 15, 21, 22

4.4.1 Answers: 1-b; 2-a; 3-g; 4-e; 5-d; 6-c; 7-f

4.4.2. True – false: a-false, b-true, c-false, d-true, e-true, f-false, g-true

References and other sources helpful for further information

(2007): Europe for Lifelong Learning; Brussels: Unit Coordination of Lifelong Learning programmes. (Leaflet available in 21


(2007): European Social Reality. Report/Special Eurobarometer 273. European Commission.


(2007): Grundtvig. Success Stories/ Europe creates opportunities. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European

Communities (Brochure available in 21 languages).

(2008): Grundtvig - Adult education. Mobility creates opportunities/ European success stories. Luxembourg: Office for Official

Publications of the European Communities. (Brochure available in De, En, Fr and Sl languages)

(2009): Lifelong learning programme. Creativity and Innovation/Success stories. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications

of the European Communities (Brochure available in Cs, De, En, Fr languages, no paper version available)

Application form for Senior Volunteering projects (available from the national agencies)

Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) - Guide 2009 – FICHES for each sub-programme


Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) Guide 2009 (part 1 and 2)

(http://ec.europa.eu/education/llp/doc/call09/part1_en.pdf )

(http://ec.europa.eu/education/llp/doc/call09/part2_en.pdf )

Lombardi, Erika/Pietro, Davide di (2006): Travelling abroad/International Volunteering Service Proposal for Senior Citizens;

Rome: Lunaria (http://www.seven-network.eu/site/files/04%20Handbook%20en.pdf)

Mazzeo, Arianna/Bertinelli, Alessandra (2005): Survey of best practices and training methodologies to involve senior volunteers

in civil society organisations’ activities and projects: the cases of Italy and Austria.


Pietro, Davide di (2006): STILL ACTIVE! A guidebook for the Organizations of the Civil Society Interested in Hosting Senior

Volunteers; Rome: Lunaria (http://www.seven-network.eu/site/files/6.Guidebook%20for%20organisation%20English.pdf;

available in De, It, En, Fr)

Pietro, Davide di (2006): STILL ACTIVE! Handbook for volunteers; Rome: Lunaria (http://www.sevennetwork.eu/site/files/10.Handbook_for_volunteers_english.pdf)

Pietro, Davide di (2006): STILL ACTIVE! Training course for senior volunteers; Rome: Lunaria (http://www.sevennetwork.eu/site/files/14.training_course_Eng.pdf;

available in De, En, Fr and It)


(Lifelong Learning Programme)


(Wikipedia / free encyclopaedia)


(National Agency for Austria)


(National Agency for Denmark)


(National Agency for Italy)


(National Agency for Romania)


(National Agency for Slovenia)


(National Agency for Spain)


(Catalogue of all the publications of the EC on the Lifelong Learning Programme)


(EU project and network for senior volunteer exchange projects)


(The European Commission’s public opinion analyses homepage)


(Civil Service International - A world-wide peace movement)


Module 4 – The Grundtvig Initiative on Volunteering in Europe for Seniors (GIVE)


(European federation for Older people – have been involved in volunteering projects)


(Alliance of European Voluntary Service Organisations)


(European Volunteer Centre)


(List of National Agencies’ websites)


(the Grundtvig programme of the EC’s official website)


(The GIVE sub-programme of the EC’s official website)


(GIVE partner organisation finder)


(Materials, handbooks, templates that can be used in the process of a senior volunteering exchange/GIVE project)


(Location of a previous senior volunteering project)

Dirty Pretty Things. Film by Stephen Frears (GB; 2002)

East is East. Film by Damien O’Donnell (GB; 1999).

Monsoon Wedding. Film by Mira Nair (USA/IND/FR; 2001)


Max Reisinger / Katrin Meister (VHS Graz/AT) /Michael Schwaiger (Auxilium/AT)

Module 5:

Unit 5.1.

Unit in a nutshell

The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing II:

Linguistic part

General considerations concerning communication

Participants become acquainted with the different levels and areas of


Consideration of the difference between verbal and non-verbal communication

Understanding essential features of intercultural communication


After this unit you will be able to:

understand why sometimes misunderstandings between two communication

partners can occur and what they should pay attention to in order to

avoid these

be aware of non-verbal signs, with regard to others as well as to oneself.

If there is any one secret of success, it lies in the ability to get the other person's point of view

and see things from that person's angle as well as from your own. (Henry Ford)

Warming up:

Two old friends, Mr. Red and Mr. Blue, meet after not having heard from each other for some months:

Mr. Blue: Hi, how are you

Mr. Red: Great – I was on vacation for the last two weeks; it was prefect:

Mr. Blue: Oh, how I envy you – I can imagine exactly how it was:

What can we deduct from this story, particularly in connection with an EU project proposal

5.1.1. Means of communication

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

Communication consists of an exchange of many individual messages. These messages are conveyed

from one person (the sender) to another person (the receiver). A message must not necessarily consist

of words and language. We can also communicate when we do not speak:


Module 5 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing II: Linguistic Part


(mimicking, gestures,



(all forms that are

expressed with the help

of words)



(flow of words, speed of

speech, length of



(clothing, smell,

external characteristics)

A person can express himself / herself non-verbally as well as verbally. Verbal signals must first be

learnt in order to understand them and to be able to use them. This takes place in the first years of

life. Our environment determines not only the accent and tone of our speech, but also the content

which we connect with individual words. Thus when a mother in Sweden asks her child to think of a

large animal the child would very likely think of a reindeer whereas a child in Africa might have an

elephant in mind.

However, our messages are not only be transported by different means, they can also include different

information, background knowledge etc.

Some linguists say that each message consists of up to four different aspects, which are:

• the direct message, in which I pass on information

• the self-disclosure message gives information about what is happening with me and what I

want to be made known about me

• the appeal states what I want of the other person

• the indirect message, with which the sender conveys the relationship to the receiver

For example, a person says to another person: “Can you lend me 20 Euros please”

The direct message reads: I would like to borrow 20 Euros.

The self-disclosure message says: I urgently need 20 Euros and I do not have them myself.

The indirect message conveys: We have a close relationship and I would not borrow money from

just any person.

The appeal means: I would very much appreciate to be lent 20 Euros.

Of course, it not always easy to differentiate between these four messages. However, usually the

sender gives a message with these four aspects, which the receiver picks up. It can happen that the

receiver does not pick up all four aspects of the message at the same level of intensity as that intended

by the sender. It can also occur that the receiver does not understand or wrongly interprets

one, more or even all aspects of the message – this is also called a misunderstanding!

Persons, due to their life experience, apply their own ideas in a communication situation. Remember

the short story above: Although the good friends both speak about a holiday they have a totally


different concept in mind. So, from one point of view, communication is therefore nothing more

than the exchange of subjective ideas – and one can only hope that this works!

5.1.2. Intercultural communication

When people communicate with each other and behave towards each other they are always being

influenced by their own background. We all have a tendency to expect that the behaviour of foreigners

corresponds with the rules of our own culture – however, it not always does. Quite often

communication fails because we simply do not know which concepts exist in different cultures and

how they are communicated.

The following simple examples prove this:

to tap on the head

• In Italy, France and Germany this sign means, when looking at the other person, how stupid

are you!

• In England and Spain the same gesture relates to oneself and means Wow, I am clever!

The OK – gesture in which the thumb and index finger form a circle

• In America this gesture says everything is ok!

• In Japan, as the gesture reminds one of a coin, it means so, now we can discuss finance!

• In Southern France the gesture represents a nil and means worthless.

• In many parts of Latin America, parts of Europe and Russia this gesture is extremely vulgar,

being understood as a sexual gesture and is very insulting.

With the index finger to beckon someone

• This gesture is used in Europe and America to hail a person to come to oneself.

• In Asia this gesture is used however only for dogs and prostitutes. The polite form is by repeatedly

fanning with the right hand to signal “come here!”

Discuss / Exercise

However, although they might be important for successful information transfer, when we write an

application we must forego non-verbal signs. What are the advantages and also disadvantages when

we are limited to verbal language List some points below.



















Please do also watch the film about the topic of non-verbal communication on YouTube

(www.youtube.com/watchv=RX3eBScTQNQ). This clip shows how different the same idea can be

expressed in various countries with the aid of gestures. Are there any interesting gestures in your

country Talk about them.


Module 5 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing II: Linguistic Part

Unit 5.2.

Unit in a nutshell


Working with texts and writing an application

Learning how to write in order to appeal to the feelings of the reader,

and above all which feelings should be addressed when writing an application

Becoming acquainted with the characteristics of different types of texts

and formal criteria relevant for the application.

After this unit you will be able to:

define formal and content-based criteria of an application and differentiate

it from other types of text

appeal to the feelings of the project’s evaluator

The limitations of language are the limitations of the world. (Ludwig Wittgenstein)

Warming up:











I _____________________



For each letter choose a word beginning with that letter which is relevant to the topic “European

Union.” Form two groups, each writing a speech, whereby one group defends the values and activities

of the European Union and the second group argues against. It is important that the words you

chose in the above exercise are included in the speech.

Give the speeches and decide which arguments you would follow!

5.2.1. The power of words

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

Whoever works with text does not have any pictures at his disposal, which means that pictures must

be formed through language. The writer must arouse ideas and pictures so that we can see, hear,

smell, taste and feel what has been written.

The writer of a text can awaken vivid memories in us and even trigger physical reactions. Just think

of a freshly baked chocolate cake. Can you smell it Does your saliva start to flow Or imagine that

you are sucking a juicy, large and very sour lemon. Can you feel the cavity of your mouth, how the

corners of your mouth contract. Our feelings are linked to our imagination. For example if I portray

a hungry child crying bitterly then it provokes our sympathy, whereas a child depicted as smiling

causes us to show affection – without us actively needing to do anything.

It is the power of the imagination, which can be incorporated into our whole body!

This issue might also be important when writing a proposal, because evaluators are also human beings.

In addition to consciously following the quality criteria, they will also evaluate your project

unknowingly following their emotions and feelings.

Bearing this consideration in mind, which of the evaluator’s feelings do you think you should appeal

to when writing an application And which ones are best not to appeal to


Feelings which should be appealed to:









Feelings which should not be appealed to:









Now think about your speeches and which feelings they addressed

Positive feelings









Negative feelings









5.2.2. Different occasions – different texts

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

When we transfer information to others verbally we choose different types of texts, depending on

the situation, occasion, context, the receiver etc. What types of texts can you think of

For example three types of text are fairy tale, poem and application. Each has its own characteristics.

Please decide, with the aid of the so called differential diagram below, to what extent the

characteristics listed below apply to these types of texts (indicate them with a cross in different


Fairy Tale



Structured O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O Unstructured

Subjective perspective O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O Objective perspective

real O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O fictitious

Research is necessary

before starting to


O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O

Research is not necessary

before starting to write

Technical terminology O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O No technical terminology

Set in future O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O Relates to the past

Place and time are

Place and time are not

O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O - O




Module 5 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing II: Linguistic Part

5.2.3. Writing an application seen from a linguistic point of view

Applications are specific types of text and therefore they should follow precise criteria and indicators.

It is a special skill to put complex information into writing and to persuade a totally unknown

person - very likely from a totally different country and with a totally different cultural background

– by means of a text to give you money for something he / she has perhaps never heard of before in

his / her life.

Be aware that not everybody is gifted with the ability to write successful proposals, and even if

somebody is very good at writing poems or diaries, it does not necessarily mean that the same person

is good at putting project ideas down on paper.

However, it is very difficult to give recommendations about how to write a good proposal, because

everyone (also every evaluator) will probably have their own preferences and ideas – nevertheless,

we try to give you some (not only linguistic) hints for you to consider before starting to write an


Successful proposal writing always starts with a thorough read through of the application

details! One of the most common mistakes made is not going through all the details of the

call and the application in the first place, in order to get an idea of what kind of projects

the EC wants to be submitted (in terms of target groups, objectives, aims, duration, activities

etc.)! Always follow these indicators and requirements – regardless of what you personally

think concerning the requirements of an ideal project.

Before you start writing make a basic plan of your project idea including all important activities,

results, outputs etc. and try to structure them in rough – use this plan as a guideline

and check it regularly!

For a more detailed development try to work top-down instead of bottom-up. Start from

the general frameworks and requirements of the programme and plan downwards to detailed

activities and outcomes – this way you are making sure your project is always on solid


Usually you can submit your project in several languages (always in one of EN, DE or FR, and

quite often also in any of the other official EU languages). If you choose a language other

than your mother tongue you should really have excellent skills in that foreign language –

otherwise you really are on thin ice!

Do some basic research to get a better idea about your chosen topic and also to get a feeling

for the circumstances associated with it in other counties or at the EU level – this is crucially

important to the EU!

Be authentic in whatever you are writing, which means write about things you understand

yourself – experienced evaluators will find out very easily if you do have a good grasp of

what you are writing about.

Do not assume that your project idea and its frameworks are understood easily by others

just because you understand them – be aware that outside your region, country, culture,

field of profession etc. and without any pre-knowledge, it might be extremely difficult to

follow your descriptions and arguments.

Write in clear and if possible short and understandable sentences – remember that an

evaluator may read through hundreds of pages a day and therefore to make his / her task

easier describe your main ideas clearly and concisely. (By the way, nowadays electronic application

forms are quite often used which have character limitations for each section!)


However, at the same time you need to describe and explain a complex topic, involving

several partners and using a multi-level project process. This does all require a certain

amount of space – so do not be too brief either! Such catch 22 situations are not unusual

when writing a project application!

Do not be afraid to use technical / professional terms as they underline your expertise,

which is quite important too. However, do not overdo it and make sure the reader knows

what is meant by them.

For the same reason also try to structure your text properly, e.g. you can make your key

messages clear by underlining, -) listing or writing in bold.

Also redundancies are recommended but you will be in trouble if you push too hard. It is

fine to remind the evaluator from time to time what the main ideas and outputs of your

project are but he / she must not get the impression that you have run out of ideas and are

simply repeating things previously stated in the application.

The application must be of the highest possible linguistic quality (grammar, orthography,

expression etc.); regardless of fairness, it gives a poor impression if you are not able to

write your application properly. Of course, an evaluator should not judge this aspect; however

he / she may unknowingly become negatively influenced if it is poorly written.

Further to what was said before, it makes sense for somebody with a high level of language

skills and who has not yet been involved in the proposal writing to check through the application

and improve the linguistic level – thus you have quality control over the linguistic

quality as well as over the content and structure.

Try to entertain the evaluator as best you can, meaning to make him / her interested in

reading the proposal, to feel the spirit of the project group and to connect with your undertaking.

After going through your proposal, the evaluator should have the feeling of having

heard something new or even having learnt something new, and that your proposal is worth

spending money on. This is a very important point for your project’s summary, which is usually

on one of the first few pages of a proposal.

Try to be definite about your planned activities, and do not put them into questions, e.g.

we will do…, we will organise … and not: we might do …, very likely it will be organised …).

If you are not convinced of what will happen in your project how should the evaluator be

However, do also try to be as objective as possible when explaining your project and the

problems / circumstances relating to why the project is necessary. The evaluator must not

think that you are the only person who thinks positively about your project but that there is

a general need for it. Therefore, persuade with expressions like As commonly known … or

With regards to recent studies … instead of I am strongly convinced that … or We think it

would be the best that … Of course your opinion and expertise also count in the evaluator’s

eyes, but do try to underline them by using publications, bulletins, studies, media releases


Make sure you always indicate the most relevant information concerning your proposal (particularly

in the summary); usually you simply need to follow the most important question

words (also called W words), which are:







Module 5 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing II: Linguistic Part

How long

How much (concerning the budget)

Start the application writing as early as possible; so that you do not run out of time and that

you have some time left for proof-reading and evaluation before submission. However, due

to some mystic law of nature, almost no applications are finished before the day of submission!

What else do you think could be important Please add recommendations and hints:






Basically there is not too much difference between writing proposals and writing newspaper articles.

Both should be written professionally and be linguistically correct. They should inform about

certain circumstances and key areas in an engaging way but without affecting too much. They

should be structured and provide a good overview, and quite often both have to deal with space

limitations. The only major difference is that the proposal tends to be about the future whereas an

article would normally relate to the past.

In any case people writing newspaper articles are professionals and should have highly developed

language skills. Therefore, visit the editorial office of a local newspaper and discuss this issue with

a professional editor; if necessary - the following questions may help you:

1) What is the most difficult challenge in terms of formulating text in your profession

2) In your opinion what differentiates a good text from a not so good text

3) What should one without fail pay attention to when writing a text

4) Can one learn to write good texts

5) When you must write about a topic, which you are not particularly interested in, how are you still

able to produce a good piece of text

6) To what extent do you take into account potential intercultural interferences (misunderstandings

caused by differences in cultural backgrounds) when writing your texts

7) How relevant are topics concerning the European Union for your work

8) Would you write an article about our project Can we support you anyhow

9) Other questions:


Unit 5.3.

Unit in a nutshell


Advertising psychology meets application writing

Considering some basic elements of advertising psychology

Becoming acquainted with the interrelation between advertising and an


After this unit you will be able to:

consider some psychological elements of advertising when writing an application

identify which motives are important for an EU application and which are


differentiate between topics which are in and those which are out in the

EU project application world.

The bait must be tasty for the fish and not for the angler. (Advertising saying)

Warming up:

One of the most common concepts attempting to explain

the structure that man’s behavior follows is Maslow’s Pyramid,

named after the famous American psychologist. It

was always controversially discussed and today it seems to

be somewhat out of date - nevertheless have a close look

at the diagram on the left and discuss whether or not you

can draw helpful conclusions from it.

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

5.3.1. Basic considerations and their link to application writing

Why do we buy And why do we opt for product A and not for B, or for idea X and not for Z

These psychological decision making components are also relevant during the writing of an application,

as they sell our product (the application) to a potential customer (the European Commission or

rather the evaluator), with the aim of it being preferred above other products (other applications).

Therefore, it might be worth thinking about this once or twice before deciding upon your project


Motivation and incentives: Although the reasons and drivers for human behaviour is an extremely

complex field and far away from being researched in depth, one can very generally say that man

acts (= either doing something or not doing something – from a psychological point of view, both are

acting!) because of one or more internal motives meets one or more external incentives – together

they result in the level of motivation to act.

If we want to estimate whether somebody’s level of motivation to act, e.g. of an evaluator to approve

or not approve a project application, is high or low, we need to consider that the following

basic rules can be drawn up:

• the lower the motive is developed, the higher the incentive must be

• the higher the motive is developed, the lower the incentive can be

For example, when a person has satisfied his / her thirst then a drink must appear very appetising

for the person to want to drink it. However, when someone is really thirsty, then the he / she will

drink almost anything without needing much convincing. Generally, the following basic motives are

considered to determine human behaviour:


Module 5 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing II: Linguistic Part

fear wish for love belonging to a group autonomy moral feelings security faith

eroticism individuality performance confidence traditions freedom vitality

As this set of motives is valid for human behaviour it should also be relevant to the behaviour of

evaluators in terms of selecting or not selecting your proposal for funding. What do you think Does

this view make sense If yes, which of the motives listed above relate to an evaluator and should be

addressed when writing a proposal

more relevant








less relevant








As stated above, motives are only one side of the coin. The other side are incentives, which in this

case would be your project, its objectives, activities and aims, target groups etc.

One of the most important elements in this context is the general topic of your project. Of course,

the importance of topics can differ from country to country (what is a problem in one country might

not even exist in another, and what people from one culture would like to discuss might be stigmatised

and frowned upon by others). However, you should make sure that your project’s topic, objectives

and aims are in line with the general idea of the EU and its contemporary developments at the

political, economic and social levels - therefore, it is important to be aware of them!

In the table below you will find some topics listed. Which of them do you think are most likely to

receive funding from the EC If you are not sure, try to find out on the internet, in publications or

contact local info points.


Successful migration

People with disabilities

European citizenship

Liberalisation of drug use

New EU member states

Senior citizens

Cultural unity

Preference to particular countries or groups of people

The demographic development of society

Linguistic unity

Consideration to fringe groups in society

Mobility and exchange between EU citizens

Preservation of cultural stereotypes

Equality of status for all persons

Promotion of xenophobia


Retaining different models and systems of education

Creation of a unified Euro zone

Smoke-free Europe


Further enlargement of the Union








Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

5.3.2. Some other helpful perspectives when writing a proposal

Whether we are writing a job application, going to an interview or applying for a project - these are

all forms of advertising. Either we are advertising ourselves, a product, an idea or a project. Therefore

it makes sense to learn from the professionals. Of course, it takes more than just considering a

few key ideas to become a good advertising expert. However, the following three thoughts may help

you when planning and writing an application.

Determination of target group

One must know the selected target group for a certain product or idea also when advertising oneself.

Important factors determining the behaviour of a target group are gender, age, income level,

social level, background, local environment, needs, profession, lifestyle, education, hobbies etc.

When applying for a project, your target group is the EC and its evaluators, because it is mainly

they who recommend that a project receives funding. These evaluators are usually not employed by

the EC, but are subcontracted experts from all over Europe and anyone can apply for such a job

(see http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/about/call_experts/call_experts_2007_en.php). This means that

you never know who will evaluate your proposal; you neither know his / her nationality and cultural

background, nor his / her gender or age and you also do not know if this person is an expert in the

specific area of your project’s topic. So, there are two questions, one can deduce from these circumstances:

A) If it is not possible to foresee any of the factors mentioned above – are there any other indicators

which are very likely to be given Which ones do you think and why

B) How do you think these circumstances can influence the way you structure and write your


Uniqueness and distinctiveness of a project idea

Connect a product, an idea or yourself with a characteristic, which makes it / you unique. This

characteristic could represent something special or something typical in a person, a region or a subject.

In the advertising world this is called the USP – Unique Selling Proposition. Of course, to claim

a USP for oneself is not easy at all, but it is often attempted. Just think of the many hair shampoos

which are all basically just for washing hair, but with much effort and imagination each of them

tries hard to be unique and distinguishable from others through its own characteristics: Is it aimed

at dandruff, greasy hair or fine hair It can be differentiated from others in the way it makes hair

appear, the way it lathers up and its smell.

So if it is possible for hair shampoos to be unique and distinguishable then it should be possible for

your project to be so too. Therefore, be innovative or creative (or both!) when a) planning and b)

describing your project. Do always consider that there are many other projects also wanting to be

funded. Make sure what your USP is in comparison to all the others – What makes your project special

Why will the EU or society be better off if your project is funded What is the added value of

your project

Can you think of concrete examples for such a USP when planning / writing a project

Authenticity of partnership

When trying to be unique and distinguishable never forget to remain authentic. It could be that you

have a great innovative project idea with an excellent USP e.g. how to overcome the over-fishing of

the European seas by introducing ecologically sensitive open-sea fishing methods - but if you are an

Austrian promoter and your partnerships consist of organisations from the Czech Republic, Hungary,


Module 5 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing II: Linguistic Part

Slovakia and Switzerland, you might have trouble demonstrating the appropriate know-how and

experience in this field.

Of course, this might not always be fair to the product (Why should Austrians not have clever ideas

about tackling the over-fishing of the seas), but authenticity and brand are important selling factors.

Or would you by pizza from Greece, vodka from Spain, tea from Austria or wine from Latvia

Therefore, be aware that your partnership, its experience, its fields of expertise, its cultural background

and your project in general should always demonstrate a high degree of authenticity in

terms of the project topic.


The Culture and Tourism Department for your town is awarding, in connection with its 700 th anniversary,

a grant of 20,000 Euros to the most innovative project of the year on the topic of: How can

I support my town with its European identity

Of course, you are interested in applying for this award on behalf of your organisation and you develop

a draft project outline using the template below. Before starting with your work, please split

into 6 groups with each group selecting one of the following identities, which also should be defined

more in detail.

a) a brewery b) a prison c) a hospital

d) a religious group e) an elementary school f) a sports club

Project Title

Description of organisation

(min. 500 characters)

Objectives and aims

(min. 500 characters)

Target group(s)

(min. 500 characters)

Results and outcomes

(min. 500 characters)

Usage of fund

(min. 500 characters)

Why should your project be funded

(min. 500 characters)

Each group then presents its project outline to everyone. Discuss each of them and decide together

who should receive the grant! To reach a clear result, we suggest that each group can award 5, 3


and 1 points to 3 of the other projects (but not to their own one!). The project with the most points

is the winner!

Hints for additional activities supporting the module implementation

• Use opportunities to leave the classroom or to bring in persons from outside your learning

group as often as possible, e.g. visit the editor’s office of your local newspaper or meet professional

advertising managers etc.

• Do not forget to work and learn as creatively and actively as possible and use any relevant

and reasonable types of media.

References and other sources helpful for further information

111 Kurz-Rezepte für den Deutsch-Unterricht (DaF)(2006). 1.Aufl., S.78f. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett.

Birkenbihl, Vera F. (1995): Signale des Körpers/Körpersprache verstehen und Körpersprache einsetzen; S. 197, 204 ; Augsburg;

Weltbild Verlag.

De Saint-Exupéry, Antoine (1950): Der kleine Prinz. Zürich: Die Arche.

Desmond, Morris (1996): Das Tier Mensch. S.16, 36. München: Wilhelm Heyne Verlag.

Die Bibel. Das Buch Genesis (1986): Klagenfurt: Österreichisches Katholisches Bibelwerk.

Gesteland, Richard R. (1999): Global Business Behavior/Erfolgreiches Verhalten und Verhandeln im internationalen Geschäft.

S. 59; 79-82; Zürich: Orell Füssli Verlag.

Greisinger, Manfred (1999): Ihr ICH als unverwechselbare Marke. Entwickeln Sie sich zu ihrem persönlichen PR-Manage! S.23,

59. Wien/Waldviertel; Edition Stoareich.

Karmasin, Helene (1998): Produkte als Botschaften. 2.Aufl., S. 60, 61, 64-79. Wien: Ueberreuter Verlag.

Linden, Peter (1996): Besser schreiben/Wie Wörter wirken. Publiziert in der Journalisten- Werkstatt. S. 12, 13. Hsg. vom

MediumMagazin und dem Österreichischen Journalist Salzburg: Johann Oberauer GmbH.

Linden, Peter (1997): Besser schreiben/Wie Texte wirken. Publiziert in der Journalisten- Werkstatt. S.2; 4-5; 9-1. hsg. vom

MediumMagazin und dem Österreichischen Journalist. Salzburg: Johann Oberauer GmbH.

Löhr, Jörg (2004): Lebe deine Stärken! Wie du schaffst, was du willst. 2.Aufl., S. 162-164. Econ Verlag.

Marx, Karl (1969): Das Kapital. 3. Aufl., Augsburg, Ullstein Verlag.

Simmons, Annette (2002): Story Faktor/Mit guten Geschichten Menschen gewinnen. S. 113-115. Stuttgart/München: Deutsche

Verlags-Anstalt GmbH.

Sturtz, Peter/Wend, Petra (2004): Geschäftsbriefe schnell und sicher formulieren S.13-19. Rudolf Haufe Verlag

Toscani, Oliviero (1997): Die Werbung ist ein lächelndes Aas. S. 9-12, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag.

Trout, Jack (2003): Differenzieren oder Verlieren. So grenzen Sie sich vom Wettbewerb ab und gewinnen den Kampf um die

Kunden. S.90-93; 111-115; 135-137; 141-143; München: REDLINE Wirtschaft.

Tselikas I, Elektra (1999): Dramapädagogik im Sprachunterricht. S.81. Orell Füssli Verlag.

Walleczek, Sasha (2008): Die Walleczek Methode/Das Kochbuch. S.46, Wien: Ueberreuter Verlag.

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akronym http://www.rp6/durchfuehrung/antragstellung/tipsantragstellung



http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/about/call_experts/call_experts_2007_en.php (EACEA’s calls for experts)











www.youtube.com/watchv=RX3eBScTQNQ (film clip about “body language”)


Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part

Module 6:

Bettina Bussi/Patrizia Giorio (CO & SO Network/IT)

The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the

technical part 4

Unit 6.1.

Unit in a nutshell


How to build a project group

Profiling of the perfect project partner

Profiling of the perfect project group

Finding suitable partners and avoiding false friends

Communicating with partners during the application period

After this unit you will be able to:

find new partners using existing different sources, such as websites, databases,

events, networks etc.

manage communications with partners in a variety of ways (“traditional”

and very new ones)

build a balanced partnership with a good mix of expertise

share the responsibility of the project implementation with your partners.

Building Europe and developing common European solutions to common European problems means

co-operating with people, organisations and institutions in other member states, learning from

each other and together developing new activities, practices and systems.

(European Commission’s Guide on Transnationality)

Warming up:

My personal experience about lifelong learning:

Which countries are eligible for the

Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) and for

the Europe for Citizens Programme (ECP)


= the member states of the EU

= European countries

= Candidate countries

Listen / Read

6.1.1. Finding appropriate partners for an EU project

Working transnationally can be a very rewarding experience but it does depend upon establishing

clear goals, strong partnerships and good management structures. Transnational working requires

time, dedication and resources to develop it effectively. Choosing the right partners will determine

the success of a project!

You know this already from

other partner decisions …

… however, you should be also aware

that the average divorce rate in

Europe is about 48%!

4 Relevant information and useful instruments can also be found in Module 7.


Although a project partnership is not for ever but just for one or two years, do nevertheless take

your time to design, select and build the best possible partnership to avoid future problems and a

project that resembles a “War of the Roses”!

How to build the

perfect project team!

Guidelines and Checklists

A) Selection of partner organisation

with respect to its …

… skills and abilities in relation

to the project topic

Criteria, considerations, frameworks etc.

Deduction / decision for partner selection

… capabilities, capacity and


… commitment, motivation and


… resources and finances

… stability and track record

… designated contact people

within partner organisations

… other factors:

B) Design of partner group

according to …

… total numbers of partners


Criteria, considerations, frameworks etc.

Deduction / decision for partner selection

… mixture of expertise

… sizes and types of organisations

… geographical scope and EU


… partners that have close

links to beneficiaries

… partners you have worked

with before or who have been


… other factors:


Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part

C) Finding new project partners

by …

… using existing institutional

links, such as networking bodies,

partnerships or work contacts


Opportunities, changes, risks, threats etc.

Deduction / decision for partner search

… taking advantage of local


… using European support organisations

… logging onto European partner

search databases

… attending partner-finding

events organised by your own

national agency

… using other projects

… other methods:

D) Key success factors for

cooperation in transnational

project groups such as ….

… building up an atmosphere of

trust, understanding and respect

Opportunities, changes, risks, threats etc.

Deduction / decision for partner search

… developing a sense of shared

values and common goals and


… defining and agreeing as a

group the roles, responsibilities,

timescales and expected outputs

… fully involving all partners in

all project steps and processes

(as far as is reasonable)

… implementing a reliable

system of communication (using

all available and suitable media

and tools)

… treasuring transparency as a

fundamental value in longdistance


… other factor:

… other factor:


Exercise / Reflection / Research / Discussion

In case you have already decided to apply for a specific project under one of the EU programmes

please use tables A) and B) above for shaping and designing the partnership you need to implement

the project.

To find appropriate partners please follow the recommendations in table C) and check the following

databases to gauge their usefulness:






According to the Survival Kit, developed as part of the Socrates programme, “activities that help in

building a team” are

- getting to know each other as people

- getting to know each other as professionals

- getting to know the specific skills of each partner

- getting to know the motives of the participants

wishing to work in the project

- getting to know the motives of each institution

wishing to work in the project

- giving the team a name

- defining the main concepts and aims of the project

- setting the evaluation criteria and methods

- working with motivated and committed individuals

and institutions

- clearly defining roles and responsibilities

- agreeing how to address conflict situations

- sharing the ownership of the project

- agreeing on basic rules for teamwork

- reflecting on the work and progress of the team

- using a suitable communication system

- employing variable working methods at the meetings

- recognising and sharing individual expertise

- encouraging reserved members

- celebrating milestones

- dedicating enough time to social events

- preventing isolation - through politics, age, economic

circumstances, abilities relevant to the project, linguistic


- guiding and leading – showing sensitivity towards the

feelings of others

Please discuss whether or not you agree or disagree with this list Is anything missing Is it possible,

or even advisable, to rank these recommendations

6.1.2. Cultural and language issues

Listen / Read / Exercise

Developing trust, knowledge and understanding within a group of transnational partners is essential

for effective working. However, with cultural differences, geographical distances and language barriers

this is one of the greatest challenges.

The understanding of cultural differences, i.e. ways of doing business, levels of formality etc., together

with having an open mind and a willingness to try different approaches is essential when

building an effective transnational partnership. Depending on the countries involved, cultural differences

can include distinctions at many levels, such as:

- legal and financial systems

- religious beliefs

- holiday times and public holidays

- levels of formality.

What other kind of cultural differences could influence your project’s implementation Do you have

your own experiences in connection with this


Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part

Other critical issues in this context are the selection of an appropriate language and decent communications

structures. It is essential to resolve issues relating to language and communication

between the various partners at an early stage. Your partners will need to ensure that they possess

adequate language skills and agree a working language. There also needs to be good communication

and contact between the transnational partners. This may include informal networking as well as

more formal means of communication.

Nevertheless, even if you consider all of these issues there is no guarantee that you will avoid having

some rough times with your project partners, as the following case study from the Craft Into

Technology – Technology Into Craft project (UK/00/B/F/PP/129_106) highlights:

The Project Manager, June J., learnt a great deal from the problems she encountered with the

partnership itself. She not only had to devote much of her time to solving the various problems

but was also concerned that these issues might have easily led to major difficulties with the

project’s outcomes and budget.

In this project it was discovered that Partner 1 was unable to complete the work it had agreed

to carry out. The contact person at Partner 2 kept changing, which had consequences for the

achievement of its aims. Partner 3 was unable to access the funding because of internal difficulties

with its accountant and Partner 8 left the project before it started.

Following discussions with the UK National Agency, the following solutions were found:

after detailed discussions with the other partners Partner 1 was asked to leave the project

and the contract was terminated. The partner’s work and budget were re-allocated

between the remaining partners.

with Partner 2 continuous efforts were made to establish and maintain contact with each

new contact person, as their details became available. June informed each new person of

the project’s aims and their organisation’s role, and sought to keep them up-to-date with

the project and the work still to be carried out.

June wrote formally to Partner 3’s accountant and through her perseverance the funding

was eventually released to the partner.

a replacement partner was found for Partner 8 and approved by the rest of the partnership.

June’s recommendations to others are to:

carefully check out prospective partners

have a contingency plan

carefully word partnership agreements

ensure that partners understand and agree to their role.



What can you learn from this case study to help your own project plans

Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part

Unit 6.2.

Unit in a nutshell


The project plan

Understanding its function and necessity

Introduction of best practice instruments and methods

Discussion of the key criteria for a good project plan

Use of a project plan as a proactive management instrument

After this unit you will be able to:

develop a common management framework including project milestones

and partner roles

define a workplan that is coherent and consistent with the rest of the

project application

define a clear and realistic timescale for the whole duration of the project.

The majority of project disasters are well planned way ahead

(Jerry Maiden, NASA)

Warming up:

Where are we

Although this diagram might not be in your

mother tongue, try to figure out what it is

about and what it says.

6.2.1. How to develop a project plan

Listen / Read

As each project is a complex and unique process comprehensive and thorough planning is crucial in

order to work towards the aims in an effective way. Before drafting the application it is useful to

start scheduling activities and make a schematic and visual presentation of the project. The following

elements and steps should be considered:

Step 1: Project content

Define the project aims, objectives, outcomes, products and quality indicators, following …

the Project Cycle Management (PCM) (see above)

the Logical Framework Approach (LFA), which helps you to build a logical framework

that support partners to discuss and think through all of the implications

Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timebound objectives (= SMART)

Define monitoring and evaluation strategies (see below)

Step 2: Planning the organisation of the project

Divide the project into phases and structure the main activities; break the project down into

distinct phases, such as:

start up phase: recruiting the project team for partnership


ealisation phase: transnational activities are an integral part of the overall aims

of the project and are not just fringe activities

co-ordination phase: monitoring, dissemination, evaluation, financial

management and reporting

finalisation phase: the partners consider their next steps or exit strategy

for the project

State which partners will be involved and who has responsibility for the delivery of specific


Link the workplan and its tasks to a timetable

estimate how much time will be involved and set a deadline for completion

plan for the whole duration of the project

make sure timescales are realistic

Devise a coherent workplan: in a well defined workplan all the activities, results and deadlines

must be clearly described and scheduled

Step 3: Financial and administrative planning

Lastly, task scheduling should integrate the costs data for each task: planning costs and resources,

designing contractual arrangements, devising reporting systems and procedures (see

Unit 5).

Listen / Read / Exercise

One of the greatest challenges in connection with designing a project plan is the necessity to define

a problem, a desirable solution and a solution finding process in the first place. The method described

below, adapted from a business development approach, may be of some help to you.

The Problem and Objective Assessment

By this method, problem solving should be made easier by reformulating problems into objectives. Therefore, the problem

assessment identifies and organises problems which you can then work with. The objective assessment identifies and organises

objectives in direct relation to the problems. In this approach, objectives are desired future situations, not activities.

An activity will use verbs such as to improve, reduce, construct and so on. However, an objective is a description of what it

will be like once something has been improved, reduced, constructed etc. When formulating an objective it is often simply

a matter of turning the problem statement around, or imagining a completely new situation as the example below shows.

Preparation and implementation work:

1. Each participant involved receives two set of coloured cards: some yellow cards on which the problems should be

indicated and some green ones for formulating the objectives (important: do not write activities but describe


2. Arrange an appropriate timescale for formulating problems and objectives.

3. After this work is finished, all yellow and green cards are put into two columns on a poster or pin board, leaving

space for a middle column (see Stage 1 below; important: yellow problem cards and green objective cards dealing

with the same issues should always be placed opposite each other).

4. Once all the problem cards are covered by at least one objective card, try to assess the hierarchy of the problems

(which is the largest problem of all) as well as the hierarchy of objectives (which objective is most desired / important

to be achieved) dealing with each problem.

5. Now you should have a ranking on the left hand side beginning with the largest problem, and a ranking on the

right hand side beginning with the most desired objective replacing a problem. Perhaps there are some gaps

within the hierarchy of problems as well as within the hierarchy of objectives. In this case you may need to reorganise

your hierarchies or even to define problems as well as objectives in more detail (however, it is essential

that you do not lose sight of the original problem).

6. After you have agreed on a set of appropriately ranked problems and objectives, try to fill in the middle column

with actions that can overcome the problems and achieve the objectives. These activities, which are most likely

to change the largest problem into the best objective, might be the basis for your project plan! (see Stage 2 below)

NOTE: This is a free-flowing exercise which can be re-started at any stage of the process; each person involved can write

any objective for any problem. There is no limit to the numbers of cards that can be written.


Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part

Stage 1


Lack of senior citizens

participating in AEC


Senior citizens fully engaged in

volunteer work

Senior citizens take over responsibility traditionally

covered by professionals/younger


Senior citizens actively involved in

decision making processes concerning


Too few senior citizens

actively involved in EU


Percentage of EU projects dealing

with senior citizens issues reflect

roughly their demographic force

Senior citizens are fully aware of EU funding


Senior citizens are equally represented in EU

project groups

Senior citizens are involved in decision

making processes when creating new funds

and programmes

Stage 2

Problems Actions Objectives

Lack of senior citizens

participating in AEC

• Introduce AEC better to seniors

• Adapt volunteer work structures

to better suit the needs

and demands of seniors

• Prepare senior citizens better for

volunteer work by increasing

training programmes for them

• Involve more seniors in management/

at board level

• Etc.

Senior citizens fully engaged in

volunteer work

Senior citizens take over responsibility traditionally

covered by professionals/younger


Senior citizens actively involved in

decision making processes concerning


Too few senior citizens

actively involved in EU


• Develop training course to

increase project management

skills of seniors

• Increase promotional activities

concerning EU programmes

specific to this target group

• establish more programmes

particularly dedicated to the

needs and demands of senior


Allow senior citizens better

access to decision making processes

and committees

• Etc.

Percentage of EU projects dealing

with senior citizens issues reflect

roughly their demographic force

Senior citizens are fully aware of EU funding


Senior citizens are equally represented in EU

project groups

Senior citizens are involved in decision

making processes when creating new funds

and programmes


Listen / Read / Exercise

6.2.2. How to define monitoring strategies

Project management must keep track of how the project is progressing in terms of expenditure,

resource usage, implementation of activities, delivery of results, risk management etc. This is

achieved through monitoring, which is the systematic and continuous collection, analysis and use of

management information to support effective decision-making.

Monitoring the project activities as well as the administrative and financial areas is important in

terms of being able to demonstrate that your project has achieved the aims and objectives stated in

the application.

Monitoring is an internal management responsibility, although it may be complemented by external

monitoring inputs. These external monitoring inputs can be useful in providing objective verification

of results, additional technical advice and a big-picture view for management.

Therefore, it is crucial for a successful project implementation to:

choose the appropriate levels of monitoring according to the type of project

work out the information needed to be collected during the project

share the relevant rules with all the partners so that everyone has the right information

The Logical Framework

When designing a project plan, the Logical Framework may be a useful tool for you. It is structured as follows:

objectives indicators evidence assumptions








2 9

10 6


3 11 12 5








The following sequences should be respected in order to use the logical framework appropriately:

1. The objectives column is filled in first by working from the top to the bottom of the blue boxes 1-3

2. The assumptions column is filled in second by working from the bottom (!) to the top filling in the green boxes 4

(preconditions), 5 and 6. The relation between the objectives and the assumptions estimates the level of risk.

The assumptions column includes internal and external factors (partly outside your control) that affect your success

and tests them against the logic of the objectives.

3. Next, follow the indicators and evidence columns to establish the basis for measuring the effectiveness and clarity

of the objectives. Therefore, fill in red box 7 and yellow box 8, then red boxes 9 and 10 followed by yellow

boxes 11 and 12 – please keep to this order.

4. Finally, fill in the activity row (pink boxes 13-16) by keeping in mind that the objectives, and not the activities,

should lead the project. The activities must not be seen as the result of a project but as way to achieve the results,

which are the objectives.

Use this instrument when designing your project plan and discuss in a group about the strengths and

weaknesses of the project plan too. Can you formulate any recommendations for improvement


Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part

Unit 6.3.

Unit in a nutshell


The evaluation plan

Understanding the function and necessity of evaluation

Introduction of best practice instruments and methods

Discussion of key criteria for good project evaluation

Understanding levels, perspectives and stakeholders of evaluation

After this unit you will be able to:

understand the purposes of evaluation

distinguish between internal and external evaluation

distinguish between quantitative and qualitative indicators

develop an effective evaluation strategy for your project.

In God we trust. All others must bring data. (Robert Hayden)

Warming up:

Our life is determined by evaluation processes and instruments much more

than we think. Sometimes they are more standardised and official, e.g.

exams at schools, taking a driving test, or applying for a passport etc., and

sometimes they are based more on very personal factors and have unofficial

character, such as when we evaluate a person as being more or less loveable,

when we choose our holiday destination or meals in restaurants etc.

Can you think of some more examples of evaluation in daily life Is evaluation

necessary to give us a clear picture of the world – and is it able to do


6.3.1. Character and purposes of evaluation

Listen / Read / Research / Discuss

For most project coordinators the process of evaluating a European project begins as they construct

their application for funding and make their bid to the European Commission. However, for many

projects the real implementation of an evaluation strategy will begin with the first project meeting.

Measuring the impact of a project is not easy; it is much more straightforward to measure the outputs,

such as publications, courses, websites etc.

Work already carried out on the evaluation of projects indicates that the most productive form of

evaluation is one which involves all the project partners, begins with the project itself and is a result

of debate and agreement within the partnership. Above all, evaluation is a process that must

not be left to the final stages of the project! Nevertheless one must understand that successful project

evaluation requires a lot of experience, know-how, skills and, last but not least, hard work. As

a start to this topic please try to define and clarify the following key elements dealing with evaluation:

What kind of methods and instruments of

evaluation do you know

Do you have experiences with them Do you

know about their advantages and disadvantages

What kind of quantitative and qualitative

indicators in connection with project

evaluation can you think of

Internal and external evaluation – what

could these be and how do they differ from

each other


Please identify and formulate as many methods, indicators, evaluators and milestones for the three

main areas of project evaluation: output/results – process/workflow - dissemination/implementation

Areas and issues of evaluation





quantitative qualitative internal external


Learning materials

Training activities

Project Outputs




Awareness strategy


seminars, workshops




Project meetings

Work phases

Process and workflow

Time/crisis management

Information flow and


Organisation work

for training, conferences,



Cooperation between


Cooperation with the

European Commission



Relevance of


Dissemination and impact

Acceptance of

products by target


Quantity and Quality

of dissemination


Post-project scenarios,

e.g. Intellectual

Property Rights

Potential of sustainability

and sustainable

use of products


seminars, workshops





Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part

Due to the importance of continuous project monitoring and evaluation the following key principles

should be undertaken by the partners from the beginning:

Agree as a group how you will monitor and evaluate your project and how your monitoring

mechanism should function!

Be clear what you mean by evaluation and promote its benefits. Some partners may not be

very familiar with evaluation activities and could view them with suspicion!

Make sure that everybody involved understands that evaluation and monitoring are essential

to identify whether or not the project is still on track at any stage of its lifetime. This also

helps to analyse where problem areas in the project are, and the process should be the basis

for taking decisions about how to continue with the future implementation of the project.

Be clear from the outset what information you require from the partners, in what format

and by when!

Unit 6.4.

Unit in a nutshell


The dissemination plan

Understanding the function and necessity of dissemination

Introduction of best practice instruments and methods

Discussion of key criteria for good project dissemination

Understanding levels, perspectives and stakeholders of dissemination

After this unit you will be able to:

develop a comprehensive dissemination strategy from the outset of the

project until its end

define the target audience for dissemination activities

define how to sustain the project’s results after the end of the project.

No man is an Island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the Continent, a part of the main; if

a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less. (John Donne)

Warming up:

What do you think the tangible and intangible outputs of an

EU project could be

Why do you think the European Commission places great emphasis

on the importance of the dissemination activities

6.4.1. Purpose of dissemination and exploitation activities

Listen / Read

The results generated, the lessons learned and the experience gained by each project team should

be made available to the widest possible audience.

The primary means of making this happen are the twin activities of dissemination and exploitation,

also known together as valorisation. Their key objective is to maximise the impact of project results

by optimising their value, strengthening their impact, transferring them to different contexts, integrating

them in a sustainable way and using them actively in systems and practices at the local,

regional, national and European levels.


The different categories of results may require different approaches for dissemination and exploitation.

For example, tangible results, such as products, may be easily demonstrated by actual items,

graphical representations and samples, whereas intangible results, such as experiences, may require

alternative methods to demonstrate them, perhaps by using survey results, interview analysis

or accreditation programmes.

Generally, there are many different formal and informal possibilities as well as a huge variety of

methods and tools available to disseminate EU projects, such as events, workshops, seminars and


Specific websites for dissemination 5 ; you can create posters, brochures, leaflets, logos, websites,

newsletters, films and other promotional materials; you can (and should) use mass media (TV, radio,

newspapers, magazines etc.) … there are no limits. However, whichever way you go, please

never forget to indicate that your project is funded by the EC and do always indicate the project

number and the logo of the particular EU Programme.

The main general aim of EC project policy is for project outcomes and results to be used in a sustainable

way. However, it does not mean that the products can be used for free purely because

their development was funded by the EC. You are entitled to register your Intellectual Property

Rights (IPR) if you choose to do so. Finally, your project products can have varying levels of status,

such as full copyright, “some rights reserved” copyright but also in public domain (no rights reserved).

However, this is a complex issue, and it might be worth consulting experts to be better

informed about it.

Last but not least, it needs to be underlined that having a strong and tailor-made dissemination and

exploitation plan implemented from the very beginning of a project is a key priority and will be

very intensively evaluated during the approval process of your project application. Therefore, it is

recommended to consider very carefully at which stage of the project you can disseminate or exploit

what to whom and how.

The table below, based on a list from the 2007 LLP Project Handbook introducing possible project

objectives, may help you in structuring your areas of activities, the objectives of dissemination, the

choice of methods and instruments and your potential target groups.


Methods, tools and means of


Target groups of dissemination

Time/duration/frequency of


reports and comparative


innovative education

and training modules

new curricula and


guidance material for

new approaches and


online education and

training material (elearning)

conferences and cultural


seminars, debates

and symposia


5 Such as the database for Leonardo da Vinci projects ADAM (www.adam-europe.eu) or the non-profit association European

Network for Transfer an Exploitation of EU Project Results (E.N.T.E.R.) www.enter-network.eu.

Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part


increased knowledge

of the participants

within a certain field

or topic

Methods, tools and means of


Target groups of dissemination

Time/duration/frequency of


cooperation processes

and methodologies

managerial lessons

learned and knowhow

exchange of ideas

and good practice


experience gained by

the project partners

in the management

and undertaking of

transnational partnerships

experience gained by

individuals, e.g. from

mobility periods

exchange of experience

and best practice

through the establishment

of networks

Methods, tools and means of


Target groups of dissemination

Time/duration/frequency of


Policy lessons

drawn from the overall

experience of projects

within a programme

or from individual

projects that

are particularly innovative

or effective

feedback to inform

policy making e.g. in

the Lifelong Learning

field within the

Commission and

within member states

Methods, tools and means of


Target groups of dissemination

Time/duration/frequency of


EU Cooperation

new or extended

European partnerships

transnational sharing

of experience and

best practice

cross-cultural dialogue

and cooperation

new dialogue and

partnerships between

EU and non-EU countries

Methods, tools and means of


Target groups of dissemination

Time/duration/frequency of



Unit 6.5.

Unit in a nutshell


The Project budget

Definition of headings, categories and lump sum budgets

Understanding how to link a budget to a project plan and partner activities

Learning how to properly cost a project

Distinguishing between dynamic and static budgets

After this unit you will be able to:

distinguish between headings, categories and lump sum budgets

link the budget to the project plan and the partner activities

properly cost a project

A budget is just a method of worrying before you spend money, as well as afterwards. (Unknown)

Warming up:

In every project meeting we talk about financial issues. In actual fact we

devote about half of our time to these questions. But still our partners regularly

ask for clarification or for more information about eligible costs, payments,

reporting etc. (Coordinator of a Comenius project)

How do you think one can avoid such inconvenient and disruptive situations

Listen / Read

6.5.1. Budgetary framework and planning

Depending on the programme or action you are applying to, you need to calculate an estimated

budget by using frameworks and forms provided by the EC. Budgeting methods can vary from one

programme to another; however there are basically two different concepts of budgets:

- line item budget: this budget contains estimated details of all planned expenses and revenues,

classified by different headings such as staff, travel and subsistence, equipment, subcontracting

or other costs. When submitting a proposal you need to provide the EC with a

detailed financial plan with all individual data for expenses (usually, including costs for

every single working day of each partner organisation, each page that will be translated,

each journey to be made etc.).

Such a budget usually requires much experience and effort in its calculation as well as in its


- lump sum budget: In this case, the budget is calculated by defined lump sums paid on the

basis of the usage of defined items, e.g. a certain sum for each kilometre travelled or for

each working day spent at a project event etc.

Since lump sum budgets are not broken down into detailed items of expenditure, less effort

and experience is needed for their calculation and administration.

However, please be aware that both budgets are understood by the EC as being estimations.

Final payments will only be made on the basis of real expenses or items actually used in

connection with the project implementation.


Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part

Research / Discuss

Calculating budgets is always a tricky issue when preparing a project application, and there are

always two major challenges connected with this issue: a) the calculation of the budget and b) the

administration of the budget (accounting, declaration of costs, payments etc.).

The good news is that the application documents usually provide you with – more or less - detailed

instructions as well as with a calculation tool (a word or an excel file), both of which can be

downloaded from the websites of the various programmes!

Now, please look up the websites of the following programmes and try to find all relevant documents

and information in connection with budgeting.

a) LLP/Grundtvig/Multilateral project

b) ECP/Active Citizens for Europe/Measure 1.1. Town Twinning project

Compare both sets of financial frameworks and budget calculation instruments and discuss the advantages

and disadvantages as well as the opportunities and risks in connection with calculating and

administrating them!

Grundtvig/Multilateral Project

Active Citizens for Europe/Town Twinning







After working through these documents you may have found technical expressions and terms which

you are not fully familiar with. However, since a good knowledge of relevant terminology is critical

when working with EU funds, please try to explain the following expressions (if necessary, please

feel free to use any kind of assistance!):


eligible / non-eligible costs


direct / indirect costs

(how to deal with) revenues

(exempt from) Value Added Tax (VAT)

(percentage of) co-funding

(percentage of) self-contribution / own


Ceilings for daily rates

Regulation of (party) pre-financing


Final payment

Other: ______________________________



Hints for additional activities supporting the module implementation

• Plan a cooking session during which several dishes from different EU countries are prepared

by the whole learner group. Understand this task as mainly being a project management

challenge, which you should tackle by applying knowledge and skills you have just acquired

in this module. 6 Therefore,

• agree on quantitative and qualitative frameworks (when, where, and what to be cooked Is

there a financial limit Should anybody be invited etc.)

• define activities and split them between participants

• agree on a timescale and budget plan

• do not forget evaluation and perhaps even dissemination activities

• have fun and – bon appétit!

• Again, use opportunities to leave the classroom, e.g. visit an EU project group whilst it is

working, or bring in persons from outside your learning group as often as possible, such as

experienced project managers, representatives from EU programme offices or info points

from your region etc.

• Do not forget to work and learn as creatively and actively as possible and use any relevant

and reasonable types of media.

References and other sources helpful for further information

Bienzle, Holger (Ed.) (2002): A Survival Kit for European Project Management. Advice for Coordinators of Centralised Socrates

Projects. 2nd edition: Wien. Büro für Europäische Bildungskooperation/SOKRATES.

Development DG (2004): Project Cycle Management Guidelines. Volume 1. pp. 158. Brussels.

Directorate General Education and Culture (2009): Grundtvig Senior Volunteering projects – Tips and resources for a good

project pp. 11-12. Brussels.

Directorate-General for Education and Culture the EU's 5-stage plan for dissemination and exploitation. Brussels.

Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities (2005): EQUAL Guide on Transnational Cooperation

2004-2008; European Communities.

ECOTEC Research & Consulting Ltd, LLP UK National Agency (2007): Learning Together - How to work effectively with partners

and get the best out of your European project. Birmingham.

Forum on Partnerships and Local Governance (2006): Successful Partnerships - A Guide. OECD LEED Editor.

Leonardo UK National Agency (2003): Transnational Partnership Guidance Note for Leonardo da Vinci Projects. London.

Sida - Methods Development Unit (2003): The Logical Framework Approach. Edita Sverige.

The GB Equal Support Unit (2006): Transnationality – a guide for Development Partnerships. Birmingham.

The GB EQUAL SUPPORT UNIT: A Project Cycle Management and Logical Framework Toolkit. London.



(partner search database at EU and global levels for EU/international projects)


(Commission’s Directorate-general for Education and Culture)



(methodological guides)


(PLOTEUS - Portal on Learning Opportunities throughout the European Space)


(easy-to-use database to find partners in other European countries to assist in the implementation of GRUNDTVIG)


(network of more than 280 UK-based voluntary organisations working in international development and education development)

6 In case you are short of recipes, you might find some inspiration from “European Cooks at Work”, a cook-book, developed

by another EU project, for international cooking in canteens; the recipes are from Austria, Denmark, Spain, France, Romania,

the Netherlands, Malta and the UK; they are easy to prepare and tasty! (please see the downloads section at



Module 6 – The Art of Successful Project Proposal Writing I: the Technical Part


(European Network for Transfer and Exploitation of EU Project Results – E.N.T.E.R.)


(EU project website dealing with workers within companies and the EU)


(list of European partner search databases)




(UK National Agency's Partner Search Database (PSD) for the LLP)


(management training and consultancy bureau in the Netherlands)


(training and consultancy company in Belgium)




Michael Schwaiger (AUXILIUM/AT)

Module 7: How to implement a Project Successfully

Unit 7.1.

Unit in a nutshell


Considerations before starting with the project work

Main considerations in the initial phase of a project

Understanding contractual structures and their impact on project management


Definition of stakeholders involved in an EU funded project

Unwritten laws and rules in EU project management

Check-list of requirements when starting an EU project

After this unit you will be able to:

devise an appropriate management style according to your contractual


adjust your project management style to satisfy the expectations of all

stakeholders involved in your project

identify and agree on a set of quality standards relevant to successful

project management

ensure that the most important preconditions and quality standards are

fulfilled from the initial project phase.

The first 90% of the project takes 90% of the time. The last 10% takes the other 90%. (Unknown)

Warming up:

A never-ending discussion in international project management

is about the general management style: Should a

project be led by one partner (the promoter or coordinator)being

more or less self-contained or should a project

be managed by the whole partnership, mainly based on

democratic decision making

What are the advantages and disadvantages of each style

Which key factors could influence the decision on choosing

the style What do you think would be best How would

you like to manage a project

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

7.1.1. Project management styles and target group orientated arrangements

The questions asked above look rather simply to answer - but this is not the case. Project management

is a very complex issue, proceeding at many different levels at the same time, changing its

character and focus depending on the point of view of the person observing the project, and being

pocketed by many different stakeholders, representing different interests and demands. Last but

not least, project management is very much culturally and socially determined! The Finnish writer

Hannu Raittila composed a very nice novel called Canal Grande, in which a group of Finnish engineers

travel to Venice to support Italian colleagues in building water-barriers to prevent Venice

from becoming permanently flooded. The two totally different ways of approaching this task in applied

project management causes an intensive culture clash, which is not only the basis for a very

amusing story but it is also a very profound observation of misunderstandings, interferences and


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

confusion caused by different perspectives, approaches, focus points and methods of resolutions

determined by cultural and social backgrounds.

However, this does not only happen in fictional stories but also happens in daily life. As a short exercise

please imagine the following situation: you are the manager of a top-class hotel with 20 bedrooms

in your hometown and a group of guests has booked the whole hotel for a weekend. For Saturday

your guests have asked you to organise an “entertaining afternoon” in town including a “surprise

dinner”. None of your guests have ever been to your town; however money seems not to be

much of a problem. Their only precondition is that they want to be actively involved in the preparation

work as well as in the implementation of the afternoon’s activities.

Please design a programme starting at 13.00 pm for your guests by using the following format:

Time Activities How to involve guests Dos and don’ts

Before you start, select one of the “groups of guests” listed below and create as tailor-made a programme

as possible:

• School pupils (aged 8-10) who won this trip as the 1 st prize in the national reading competition

sponsored by your National Ministry of Education.

• A group of Jewish emigrants who left your town some 60 years ago and this visit is the first

time they have ever returned since then.

• A group of German youngsters who must undergo an anti-drinking programme.

• A group of Spanish nuns from the Order of the Holy Trinity.

• A transnational project group of senior learners from 10 different EU countries working on

Active European Citizenship.

Did you get the feeling that the profile, image and related stereotypes of each target group determined

the planning of the programme

When implementing this exercise in other EU countries would this lead to different results (apart

from the different sightseeing attractions in each town) What can you deduct from this exercise in

relation to your project management plans


7.1.2. Stakeholders of an EU project

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

One of the secrets of successful project management is the art of satisfying as many stakeholders as

possible to the highest possible degree. The difficulty is in identifying all relevant stakeholders involved

during the project’s lifetime, in identifying their interests and demands in relation to each

others and finding a way of satisfying them properly.

Some of the stakeholders are easier to be identified, others are more difficult. Also their interests

and demands are not always easy to distinguish. As an exercise, please think about the AESAEC project,

during which this training course was developed. Who do you think its stakeholders are What

are their interests and how could they be satisfied

Stakeholders of EU projects, using the example of the AESAEC project:








Should you already have your own project or project idea, explain who the stakeholders of your

project are and how their interests and demands can be satisfied

Listen / Read / Discuss

7.1.3. Contractual relations and their possible impact on the project management

Some of the main stakeholders in EU projects are even connected to each other by contractual relations.

Usually, this includes the funding body (European Commission, EACEA, National Agencies

etc.), the promoter or beneficiary (lead partner) and the project partner(s). At least the relationship

between the funding body and the promoter is always regulated by standardised contracts issued

by the EC and there is little to discuss about them. Also the partner(s) and promoter can be

linked to each other by more or less standardised written agreements. In general, there are three


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

different kinds of contractual relationships that these parties can have with each other and the one

opted for may also influence the style of the project management 7 :

1. The Sandwich Structure

Promoter, P 1

P 2 P 3 … P n

The EC stands in a contractual relationship only

with the project’s promoter (Partner 1) and only

between these two parties are all responsibilities,

rights and duties concerning the overall

project implementation settled.

The same contractual relationship exists between

the promoter and all other project partners

(P2, P3 …), containing each partner’s rights

and duties in the project. Important is that there

is no contractual relationship between the EC

and the individual project partners.

Examples: multilateral and network project in

the Lifelong Learning Programme.

2. The Primus inter pares Structure

Promoter, P 1 P 2 P 3 … P n

The EC stands in a direct contractual relationship

with all organisations involved in the

project (promoter and partners), and each organisation’s

tasks, rights and duties are directly

settled with the EC (mostly represented by different

national agencies). In this structure, the

promoter may, in most cases, also lead the

project but it is not linked with the partners by

a contractual agreement.

Examples: Grundtvig and Leonardo Learning


3. The One for All Structure

Promoter, P 1

P 2 P 3 … P n

Here the EC stands again in a contractual relationship

with only the project’s promoter but

the promoter is not necessarily related with the

project partners by a contract. The promoter is

only responsible to the EC for ensuring that the

project is implemented successfully and according

to the programme’s regulations. How

partners contribute to the project, how the

budget is shared in detail or what happens

when troubles occur between the project group

partners etc. is officially not put into writing

(but could be a matter for individual negotiations

and arrangements).

Examples: Leonardo Mobility Projects, Town


7 There is no official terminology for the structures introduced above; all names used here are creations by the author and

are therefore not commonly known.



How do you think these structures can influence project management approaches, particularly from

the promoter’s point of view How do rights, duties, responsibilities, risks etc. change Can these

structures influence the management styles Why

The following table may be useful to help discuss this difficult issue:

Level of …

… responsibility the promoter has

towards the EC

… responsibility the promoter has

towards the partners

… pressure the EU can put directly on

the promoter

… pressure the EU can put directly on

the partners

… pressure the promoter can put

directly on the partners

… opportunities for partners to protect

their own interests towards the





1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7

Primus inter




1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7

One for all



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7



1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 - 7

7.1.4. Hints and preconditions before starting a project

Listen / Read / Discuss

Although some main project management frameworks (legal responsibilities, financial procedures,

administration and documentation of expenses etc.) are settled by written contracts, their influence

on a successful project implementation must not be overestimated.

Quite often, unwritten laws and regulations are the real determiners of successful communication,

information flow, development work, social interaction and good partnership. Many of them are

based on so called soft skills, social and intercultural awareness and intelligence, experience or

personal dispositions, which are difficult to acquire intentionally. However we would like to take

this opportunity to give you some general hints and to raise some basic considerations before you

start your project work.

Make sure you know all the relevant legal frameworks and regulations (contractual settings,

budget, financial procedures, reporting etc.) of the programme that is funding the project –

the EC as well as your partners will expect and appreciate your knowledge of these issues!

Make early contact with your personal project officer (who is responsible for your project

from the funder’s side) in order to introduce yourself and to discuss relevant issues about your project.

Do not be afraid, as usually these persons are very kind and helpful and their main interest is

to ensure a successful and uncomplicated project implementation. Since you are both pulling on the

same end of the rope you should work as a team.

Establish an efficient and reliable technical communication structure within your partnership

(by email, telephone, skype, project group meetings etc.). All partners should have access to

these instruments and should be able to use them! Please consider also the strengths and weaknesses

of each of these instruments – and try to control them proactively (e.g. emails are great to


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

spread information quickly to many people at the same time but in order to solve problems or misunderstanding

a personal phone call might be the better choice).

Of course, the social side of your communication system is also of great importance and

therefore partners should treat each other with respect and trust – this applies, above all, to the

promoter! Although it is neither possible nor reasonable to base all activities within a project on

democratic decision making processes, extensive cooperation and agreement within a partnership is

indispensable. In case one prefers patronising behaviour, speaking with a commanding tone and

showing little willingness for teamwork, then it would be better not to start an EU project in the

first place!

Do respect cultural, national, social, ethical, religious, historical and individual demands

and diversity and be sensitive towards hot topics in this context. Nowadays, these management

traps seem to decrease because of a generally more open and interculturally aware European society.

Nevertheless, think twice before pampering vegans with tons of meat for dinner, before explaining

to guests from Bilbao or Belfast how best to deal with separatist movements and before

asking people from Scandinavia if it really makes sense to elect so many women into parliament.

Do also make sure that all partners – at least the main contact persons – speak the agreed

project language (often English, but it could be any other language you choose) to an appropriate

level! Be aware that it is extremely difficult to manage a project if this precondition is not met (and

it can also be very expensive!)!

Be aware that the content part of your project (product development, organisation of

mobility activities etc.) is only one side of your project. Dissemination and evaluation activities

must be considered too. There is no other way than to handle them simultaneously – be prepared

for this!

Without doubt the project manager is one of the key players within a project group.

Therefore such a position should be occupied by a carefully selected person, who possesses appropriate

project management skills, intercultural and social intelligence, methodological knowledge,

IT skills, flexibility and mobility, basic understanding of budgeting and administration, a general

idea about the project’s content, appropriate (foreign) language skills, the ability to write good

reports etc. If it is not possible to find one single person with this profile, tasks and responsibilities

can also be split between two or more persons in leading roles.

During the project hundreds if not thousands of pages, documents, pieces of information,

invoices, pictures etc. may pile up on your desk. It is critically important to keep a structured overview

of all these materials, as they keep the project going and they are the basis of all reports to

the EC. Therefore, make sure from the beginning that you use an efficient and easy to use documentation

and filing system covering electronic as well as hard copy documents.

Open up your project to the public from the beginning! Try to set up a network of national

and / or transnational experts and stakeholders who are interested in your project and who might

be able to support you in the one or another way (such as sourcing additional money, accessing information,

target groups, know-how, other networks etc.). Involve them in your project activities as

much as possible – you will see that it will be for the benefit of all!



Ready – GO!

Checklist for the project start!

Not fulflled

In progress


All relevant programme regulations and rules are known.

All partners are informed about the approval of the application; they have confirmed

being a partner in this project and have nominated a contact person.

An appropriate project language was agreed and no major language barriers are expected.

You have made contact with your project officer and you are willing to cooperate

with him/her properly throughout the project’s lifetime.

The contractual procedure between the promoter and the EC has been successfully

finalised or is in the process of being completed.

The contractual procedure between the promoter and the partner(s) has been successfully

finalised or is in the process of being completed.

The project is managed by a person who has the appropriate abilities, skills and

know-how to carry out this task successfully.

An efficient and reliable communication structure is already set up and partners are

able to contact each other.

The partnership is aware of the content of the project (objectives, aims, target

groups etc.).

The partnership is aware of the management set up of the project (workplan,

budget, reporting and documentation etc.).

The partnership is aware of the project’s dissemination and evaluation strategy.

There are no indications that the initial tasks of the project cannot be implemented

as expected.

An effective and easily operated filing system is set up (electronically and for documents

in hard copy).

There is a basic willingness to open the project up to as many interested people,

organisations, bodies, stakeholders etc. as possible.

There is a potential post-project-life-time scenario (sustainability) in existence.

Most of the partners are still convinced that doing this project is a brilliant idea!





Before starting with your project you should check the above aspects to be on the safe side! You

can be quite confident if most of the lights are GREEN (great, if all of them - but at least more than

the half!) and none of them are RED! In this case: Ready GO! - and have fun with your project!


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

Unit 7.2.

Unit in a nutshell


Project meetings and international visits

Understanding the spirit and main purposes of transnational project


Consideration of key elements and workflow when preparing and implementing

a meeting

Instruments and tools for meeting preparation and implementation

After this unit you will be able to:

successfully plan, design and implement a transnational project meeting

or longer transnational visits

decide which instruments and tools are needed for these purposes

use transnational project meetings as a powerful strategic instrument of

modern EU project management

Coming together is a beginning - Keeping together is progress - Working together is success

(Henry Ford)

Warming up:

Visit www.bpb.de/fsd/europapuzzle/puzzle_flash1.html, where you can put

together the EU country by country. If you wish, hold a contest in small

groups, to see who is the quickest and needs less attempts. Please also discuss

with which countries you would like to do a project and why.

7.2.1. The project meetings – hints and practical arrangements

Listen / Read / Discuss

One of the greatest challenges in EU project management is the burden of long distance relationships

between partners. Knowing how difficult it sometimes is to cooperate with the person next

door in your organisation, you can imagine what might happen if all of your partners sit hundreds of

kilometres away from you. Of course, there are also times when you see the partners (mainly project

meetings, bi-lateral visits), and it is extremely important to make as much use of these opportunities

as possible for management issues. Therefore, they should be treated, prepared and implemented

with great accuracy and care!

Planning and implementing a project meeting or a bilateral visit is a project in itself, following the

same regulations and workflow. Speaking philosophically, from some angles project management

can be rather similar to doing a jigsaw: there are a number of individual pieces which make little

sense at the beginning but finally – when put together correctly - you will have a completed picture.

In our case the picture is a project meeting, and the pieces are the following key elements:

Fixing the meeting date

Dates for meetings and visits should be fixed as early as possible (half a year in advance is quite

standard) and never changed once they are fixed! Note - finding an appropriate date might be more

difficult than it sounds, when considering the schedules of all the partners, national holidays of all

the countries involved, the timescale of the project etc.

Choice of country / hosting organisation

Usually, the first meeting takes place in the promoter’s country and partners will then take turns in

organising the subsequent meetings. If you have more countries than meetings it might be delicate

to decide where to meet and where not to. However you decide, making sure that the meeting venues

make sense according to the project’s topic, that they reflect Europe’s cultural diversity and


geographic dimension and that they do not overburden the hosting organisations with work. Since

this issue needs to be fixed at the time of writing the application, discuss it openly and frankly with

your partners in advance.

Set clear objectives for the meeting

You should know why the meeting is needed (apart from “the project plan says so”) and what its

objectives and intended aims are. You should have a clear picture about what should be different

after the meeting than beforehand - socially, financially, with regards to content and development


Participants and other persons involved

Of course, the project partners are the most important participants at the project meeting, however

to make a meeting into a successful meeting it may be useful or even necessary to involve

others experts, stakeholders, the media etc. too.

Duration of meeting

The secret is to define relevant factors such as working time, time for rest or social activities,

travelling time, available resources (money, hotel rooms, venues etc.) and to put them into an

appropriate timeframe. Nowadays the average transnational project meetings last approximately

1½ to 2 full working days (not including travelling time).

Social activities

Nevertheless, do not underestimate the power of social activities (meals taken as a group, visits to

cultural or social events, city tours etc.), and, therefore, provide appropriate time for them. These

activities are perfect team building catalysers, as they allow participants to relax a little, and, last

but not least, they are great opportunities for learning more about the countries, cultures and citizens

of Europe.

Meeting venue

Suitable locations and venues (hotels, seminar rooms, restaurants etc.) should be used for the

meeting as it is important to create a pleasant and creative working atmosphere and to ensure the

smooth accomplishment of all the activities. The challenge is to make the partners happy without

exceeding the meeting’s budget. Nevertheless, do always consider the need for relevant technical

and other equipment (PCs, internet access, copiers, projector, flip charts, moderation cases etc.).

Language of communication

In case not all participants have sufficient knowledge of the meeting’s language you will need to

overcome this barrier by some means. For example, you could do the interpreting yourself, which is

cheap and easy to organise but is also exhausting and may tie up resources needed for other tasks.

It is more convenient to engage professional interpreters – as long as the high cost of this can be

covered somehow.

Special arrangements and needs

It may be that some of your guests have particular needs or wishes that require additional preparation

so that they feel comfortable at the meeting. This could include things such as a transfer service

to / from the airport or train station, the provision of vegetarian / vegan food, requests to visit

specific local events, organisation of a babysitter etc. To avoid surprises and disappointments you

should ask the partners well in advance whether or not they require any special arrangements

(please see form below).

Fixing the responsibilities and communication flow

By now you already know that organising a transnational project meeting means first of all a lot of

preparation work before the guests have even arrived. Therefore, make sure that tasks and responsibilities

are clearly distributed within the project group and that communication works well between

all parties involved – particularly between the promoter and the hosting partner.

Development and distribution of agenda

It goes without saying that the agenda is a key element of any meeting. In accordance with the

agenda participants will make their own travel arrangements, make preparations in line with the


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

contents of the meeting, and it will set out the timeframe for all of the meeting’s activities. Since

the agenda is so important a specific section below is dedicated to this issue.

Distribution and collection of other relevant information and documents

Do not forget to distribute all of the relevant documents, information and data for the meeting

preparation in good time before the meeting. Just as important is the collection and analysis of all

partner data and communication in connection with the meeting (number and name of participants,

their specific needs etc.). It is recommended to use standardised forms for the meeting registration

(see below).

Chair at meetings

Usually, one or at the most two persons lead the meeting. He / she should have appropriate (foreign)

languages skills as well as a basic ability to moderate a meeting, i.e. how to present, collect,

structure and evaluate information / data, how to keep a group working together in a relaxed atmosphere


Cultural diversity, dress code and the formal addressing of persons

Cultural diversity is always a major issue in project management and this includes when planning a

meeting. Although national and cultural stereotypes are proven by the one or another representative

from time to time, one will be surprised how few interferences in EU project management are

culturally determined (indeed overall there are very few, and they mainly seem to have their roots

in personal dispositions rather than due to the country a person is from).

Nevertheless, one should thoroughly consider whether or not cultural diversity could interfere with

arrangements for project meetings so that you can be well prepared in advance, e.g. when fixing an

“acceptable time for dinner” you might receive a timeframe ranging from 18.00 to 22.00, depending

on whether you ask a Scandinavian or a Spaniard. In actual fact 19.30 to 20.30 are quite common

times for such dinners!

Also, appropriate clothing is always an interesting question when attending a project meeting. Basically,

there are no formal rules and everyone can dress as he / she wishes and feels most comfortable.

Therefore it is difficult to give any recommendations. Usually, meetings in the North of Europe

seem to be less formal than in the South, but you can never be quite sure about this. A stronger

indicator might be the occasion of a meeting - a public conference may require different clothing

than a sight-seeing tour.

Another area of thin ice is Europe’s conversation rules about when and how to use a polite form of

addressing people properly. Due to the importance of English in EU project management, members

of project groups usually address each other by their forenames and no titles or official names are

used, which really eases communication within a group. But do not take this for granted and agree

on such informal behaviour as a project group.

List of attendance

In order to record who was present at the meeting, who was excused and who was absent without

giving a valid reason, a list of attendees should be prepared and signed by all participants for each

working day (see below).


Whilst the agenda is sets out the plan for a meeting, the minutes are the summarised record of the

discussions, decisions and activities that take place during it, fulfilling two requirements. Firstly

minutes disburden the meeting participants from needing to take their own minutes, and guaranteeing

that all partners have the same outcomes and conclusions in writing as the basis for further activities.

Secondly the minutes should be structured, focused on the essential and circulated to partners

not too long after the meeting (for an example see below).


As with all other important parts of your project, meetings should also be subject to evaluation.

Since you have the unique opportunity to speak to all partners face to face and to observe the project

group during its work, interviews and observation may be an appropriate means of evaluation.


However of course, the use of written questionnaires can also produce valuable results (for details

see next chapter).

7.2.2. Templates for successful project meeting implementation


Below you will find the form which was used for the registration of the kick-off meeting in the AE-

SAEC project, and on the following page you will find an example of an attendance list. Please have

a close look at both documents to see whether or not they are appropriate for collecting all of the

data and information that is needed Do you have additional suggestions concerning content and /

or design Please feel free to develop your own formats!



Registration form for 1 st transnational meeting in Austria

9 th – 11 th November 2008

Name of participating organisation:

Name(s) of participant(s):

Telephone number(s) of participant(s):

E-mail address(es) of participant(s):

Date and approx. time of arrival:

(please note that we meet on Sun,

9 th Nov at Graz airport between 4pm-


Date of departure:

(a shuttle bus will bring you back to

the airport on Tue, 11 th Nov not later

than 4 pm)

If you have any special needs,

wishes etc. please indicate:

(e.g. dietary requirements, smoker

room at hotel etc.)

Means of travel:

(please tick appropriate) aeroplane train car other:


Please return this form to office@auxilium.co.at by

19 th September 2008 at the latest (earlier would be welcomed!)



Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

Attendance List for Project Meeting

Day 1


Meeting in:


Dates (from-to)

Participant’s Name Organisation Remarks (if any) Signature



Please find below extremely shorted versions of the actual agenda and minutes from the AESAEC’s

kick-off meeting. Have close look at them and discuss their elements and structure. Do they correspond

to each other In your opinion how could they be improved

AESAEC - Kick-off meeting

10 th November 2008 / Graz / Kukmirn (AT)

Hotel Nagler, A-7543 Kukmirn, Tel+Fax: +43-3328-32xxx; www.nagler.cc


MON, 10 th November

Time Activity Partner(s) involved

09:00 Official opening of the project Auxilium / AT

09:05 Getting known to each other - presentation and

introduction of all partners (max. 5mins per


09:45 AESAEC in a nutshell – main aspects and expected


11:00 Coffee break

11:15 Workshops (in pairs) about partners’ interests

and expectations on the project

All partners

Auxilium and all partners

All partners

12:00 Presentation of workshop results all partners

13:00 Lunch

14:00 Contractual, financial and administrative issues

(contracts, payments, reporting etc.)

15:00 Dissemination, valorisation and impact strategy

(valorisation plan, potential and opportunities for


15:30 Evaluation and quality assurance strategy

(evaluation plan, comments and suggestions of

partners, communication strategy etc.)

16:00 Next project steps and developments, and discussion

of open questions

(responsibilities, tasks, deadlines, next meeting



and all partners


and all partners


and all partners


and all partners

17:00 Evaluation of project meeting All partners

18:00 Official closing of the meeting All partners

20:00 Dinner for all participants All partners


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully


AESAEC – Kick-off meeting

10 th November 2008 / Graz / Kukmirn (AT)

AT / Auxilium

AT / VHS Graz

DK / Fritid &



Mr. Michael Schwaiger

Mr. Georg Müllner

Ms. Christina Pusswald

Mr. Max Reisinger

Mr. Steffen Hartje

Mr. Carlos Franco

Ms. Marta Munoz

IT / Obbiettivo Formazione

RO / SEC Soros

SI / 3rd Age


Ms. Patrizia Giorio

Ms. Arianna Neri

Ms. Csilla Lázár

Mr. Gusztav Balazs

Ms. Dušana Findeisen

Ms. Alenka Hebar

Monday, 10 th November

Official Opening & Partner Presentations

Following the official opening of the project by Michael Schwaiger/Auxilium, all project partners presented their


AESAEC in a Nutshell

Michael Schwaiger/Auxilium presented the main aspects of the AESAEC project :

• Training concept: The training concept focuses on authentic location learning, multi sensorial learning and learning

by doing

• Training course: The core materials will be available in writing – a booklet will be produced

• Pilot trainings: The pilot trainings will be conducted with courses of 5 learners aged 60+; according to the application,

4 real life

proposals will be submitted to the ECP; since we are 7 partners a submission of 7 proposals will be encouraged.

• The 2 nd Transnational Meeting 2 will be held in Zaragoza/ES from 25-26 th May, 2009.

• The project’s logo will be developed by SEC Soros, by 12 th December 2008.


Three groups were built and suggested to focus on following issues in the AESAEC Training Course:

The three groups presented the outcome of their workshops and suggested the following modules for the

AESAEC Training Course:

Group 1:

• Mobility, Interaction between EU institutions and EU associations for Senior Citizens and Town twinning

Group 2:

• Common features / differences between Senior Citizens in the EU, Elderly people in the future

Group 3:

• Focused on ICT, project management and soft skills for Senior Citizens.

Contractual, financial and administrative issues

Georg Müllner/Auxilium discussed the aspects in regard to the contractual, financial and administrative part of


• Financial reports must be signed and copies of invoices must be attached.

• Invoices for subcontracting costs must contain project name and number, name of subcontractor, amount to be

paid, service subcontracted, date and location of signature.

• Budget amendments can be made later in the project, but not at the project start

Quality Assurance and Evaluation Strategy

Michael Schwaiger/Auxilium discussed evaluation activities and the project work flow.

Dissemination, valorisation and impact strategy

In respect to the project, the following activities and products were discussed:

• ENTER (The AESAEC project has already been registered with the ENTER network.)

• Email Address Pool:

Please provide an email list of national and international expert organisations (min. 10 per partner)

by 15 th January 2009

• Newsletter

The 1 st issue of the AESAEC Newsletter will be published in January 2009.

AESAEC flyers:

The project partners agree to produce the AESAEC flyers no later than May 2009.

Any other business

• Evaluation of the Kick-Off Meeting and Project Phase 1 (questionnaire was given to partners during the meeting in

hard copy,

however it will be sent out on Wednesday in digital version. It needs to be returned to Auxilium by

21 st November 2008.

Official close of the meeting


Unit 7.3.

Unit in a nutshell


Monitoring and evaluation

Basic understanding of workflow circles in project management

Identification of objects, methods, instruments and stakeholders of


Reasons for and benefits derived from evaluation

Introduction of evaluation instruments

After this unit you will be able to:

identify and select relevant objects for evaluation

consider interests and needs of stakeholders and experts involved in

evaluation processes

design a draft evaluation plan

use selected instruments of project management evaluation.

There are no facts, only interpretations. (Friedrich Nitzsche)

Warming up

When speaking about monitoring and evaluation, one might think of complex

experimental set-ups in scientific processes. However, our daily life is full of

more or less intended, deliberate and professional evaluation processes. What

kinds of evaluation processes can you identify in your daily life and how do

you benefit from them

7.3.1. Project circle and objectives of evaluation

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise





On the left you see the PDCA circle introduced by William

Edwards Deming, an American pioneer in quality management.

It is one of the mostly used concepts to describe the

periodical development circle in project management. Please

find out yourself, by using additional sources, what the PDCA

circle is about in detail and discuss whether or not you agree

that development processes follow this structure.

Following the assumption of the PDCA concept, project management needs to continuously undergo

a wide range of evaluation processes, which help to improve the quality of its results and to guarantee

a general successfully project implementation. Therefore, evaluation is an integral and compulsory

element in most EU projects – and the EC rarely approves an application or a project report

without sufficient proof of an appropriate quality management system being implemented.

To establish an appropriate evaluation concept it is important to realise that there are many objectives

within a project that can be evaluated. The table below gives a rough overview (please note

that most objects cannot be allocated selectively, e.g. a project meeting could be listed in all four



Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

Objects of evaluation

organisation process outcomes impact

• planning and management

• composition of partnership

• commitment

• ownership

• co-ordination and management

• crisis and conflict management

• lessons learnt

• others

• workflow and time management

• working methods

• project meetings

• communication and information


• monitoring and evaluation

• dissemination

• lessons learnt

• others

• website

• manual learning materials

• conferences and public


• visits / mobility phases

• network development

• dissemination materials

(flyers, posters etc.)

• transfer of information and

best practice exchange

• official reports to EC

• lessons learnt

• national and transnational

feedback on project and

materials from relevant

target groups / end-users

• involvement and interest

of relevant stakeholders

and (political) decision


• sustainable use of project

outcomes after project


• set-up of sustainable networks

after project ended

• follow-up projects or other

forms of co-operation

• others

• Intellectual Property


• Commercialisation and

post-project scenarios

• others

Just as complex as the objectives of evaluation is also the variety of multilayer evaluation methods

and instruments. Ideally, in your evaluation concept, different methods and instruments should be

used for evaluating your project concerning several objectives and levels (always satisfying specific

needs and requirements.

7.3.2. Means and stakeholders of evaluation

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

Below you will find a short summary of some of the most important methods and instruments used

in project evaluation. Do you know all of them Do you have experience with some of them and do

you know anything about their strong and weak points. Which ones do you think are most appropriate

to evaluate the above indicated objectives and why










pilot /







s approval







A wide range of various objectives for project evaluation do also require a wide range of different

experts and stakeholders, involved and interested in the evaluation process. Can you think of other

experts and stakeholders in the evaluation process What do they evaluate and what are their interests

in the evaluation process

experts / stakeholders


What are they good at evaluating

What should they evaluate

What do they expect from the evaluation

What benefits do they receive


Target group

/ end users


political decision makers

external supporters of EU


External / internal evaluation




Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

7.3.3. Useful instruments of evaluation

Listen / Read / Discuss / Exercise

The following instruments should give you an example of how evaluation instruments might work

and how they can look like and function. Please feel free to copy or modify them and to use them

for your own purposes.

Evaluation of project phases: This document can help you to collect feedback from the partnership

concerning whether or not everybody was happy with recent developments in the project; additionally,

everybody can express his / her overall impressions, feelings and opinions concerning the project!


Project Phase from: __/__ to __/__

Name of organisation:_______________________



1.1. Please describe briefly the activities you have undertaken

in this project so far (Concerning dissemination

activities please see 1.3.)

1.2. Are there, in your opinion, deviations in the course

of these activities in relation to the proposal and /

or to your expectations

1.3. What dissemination activities have already been

implemented from your side

1.4. Do you think that there is a common feeling regarding

the aims of the project and where it is leading

1.5. How do you appreciate the quantity and quality of

communication between the meetings

1.6. How do you appreciate the quantity and quality of

the products developed so far

1.7. How do you feel about transparency in the project

and its processes

1.8. Do you see any threats and risks to the project so


1.9. Do you feel comfortable being part of the project

group Do you have the feeling that you can contribute

at all levels of the project and that you are

respected by all other project partners

1.10. If there is anything else you would like to comment

on or which you need to know to continue with

your project work please let us know!


Evaluation of project meetings: The evaluation of project meetings or mobility phases is a must in

each transnational project. The following tool might help you.

Project title:

Objective of evaluation:


Project meeting

Please give your opinion about the project meeting by following the scoring system below as well

as by providing the evaluator with some written comments!

☺☺ = very positive; ☺ = positive; = neither positive /nor negative ; ☹ = negative; ☹☹ = very negative;

NA= not applicable

Issues ☺☺ ☺ ☹ ☹☹ NA Comments:

Q1) Were you satisfied with the preparation work for this meeting

(E.g. quantity and quality of information flow before the meeting;

communication management from promoter and / or hotel etc.)

Q2) Were you satisfied with the seminar room

(E.g. location, equipment, size, table structure etc.)

Q3) Were you satisfied with the agenda for the meeting

(E.g. time structure, involvement of partners, appropriateness of

methods and issues etc.)

Q4) Were you satisfied with all information and materials you

received during the meeting concerning the content and

structure of the project (E.g. work, dissemination and evaluation

plans; aims and objectives of project etc.)

Q5) Were you satisfied with all information you received during

the meeting concerning the financial and administrative issues

of the project

(E.g. information about reporting system, contracts, payments, budgets


Q6) Were you satisfied with all information you received concerning

next project steps and are you aware what kind of contributions

will be expected from you

Q7) Were you satisfied with the working atmosphere during the

meeting (E.g. did everyone have an opportunity to contribute properly

and equally to this project meeting Was everyone’s opinion heard

and respected etc.)

Q8) Were you satisfied with the way the meeting was managed

(E.g. communication, moderation and social skills; time, crisis / conflict

management etc.)

Q9) Were you satisfied with the quantity and quality of the contributions

made by other partners at this meeting

Q10) Were you satisfied with the social activities and atmosphere

of this meeting

Q11) Do you think the meeting was generally successful Do you

think the project group was able to achieve relevant results

and to make some progress with its work

Q12) After your impressions and experiences at the kick-off

meeting and the starting phase, do you still think it was a

great idea to join this project

What do you expect to be positive:

Q13) Looking ahead to the next steps of the project, do you feel

the project will see positive or negative developments

(E.g. What kind of threats, risks as well as chances, opportunities etc.

do you see Is there anything to be done, changed, avoided etc. in order

for you to feel happier with this project)

What do you expect to be negative:

Q14) If there is anything else you would like to add or if there is a

relevant issue not mentioned in this questionnaire, please feel

free to tell us using this space:

Thank you very much for your effort!


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

Workflow monitoring instrument: The following evaluation grid may help you to keep a better overview of the workflow in

your project. At the end of the day this is the most critical task of a project manager! The instrument is easy to use. List on

the left hand side (pink) of the template all the tasks and expected results in chronological order, and gauge, by ticking off

or commenting on the right hand side (blue), whether or not they have been fulfilled in time and according to the frameworks

set by the proposal or partnership agreements.

Workflow Monitoring Instrument

Expected tasks /


Short description

(if appropriate)


Partners involved


(e.g. already started, in

process, completed, cancelled;

comments etc.)


Unit 7.4.

Unit in a nutshell


Dissemination and valorisation

Stakeholders, benefits and risks of dissemination and valorisation activities

Suitable dissemination methods and activities

Relevant elements of dissemination and valorisation concepts

Evaluation of dissemination and valorisation methods and activities according

to their customer orientations, cost-benefit ratio, sufficiency and


After this unit you will be able to:

identify relevant dissemination and valorisation methods and instruments

consider interests and needs of project stakeholders in your dissemination

and valorisation concept

design a draft dissemination plan

use an instrument to control the implementation of your dissemination


If I was down to my last dollar, I'd spend it on public relations. (Bill Gates)

Warming up:

Have you ever experienced any kind of dissemination activities in connection

with EU funds Please exchange your experiences within your group, and discuss

whether or not it makes sense to finance such dissemination activities.

7.4.1. Benefits and risks of dissemination activities


Dissemination is a major issue in EU project management and each project group is usually obliged

to provide the EC with a dissemination concept or at least prove the implementation of dissemination

activities, appropriate in quantity and quality. Please try to work out the interests and benefits

as well as the risks and threats that dissemination has for each party involved in an EU project:


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully

Dissemination activities

Interests and benefits


Dissemination activities

Risks and threats



Dissemination activities

Interests and benefits


Dissemination activities

Risks and threats

Target group

/ end users

Stakeholders, political decision


external supporters of EU



the general public



Dissemination planning and evaluation: The following grid may help you to consider as many dissemination

methods and means as possible. Be creative and think hard about your own potential

and opportunities (you may be surprised how large and manifold they are). Do also try to identify

benefits and chances as well as risks and threats of each dissemination activity, and try to share

responsibilities and activities within the partnership. Finally, you should be able to select those

activities which are most relevant and realistic to be implemented!

Methods and means of dissemination

What can and should we do Who can do


Emails, email groups

Meetings /round Tables

Press releases, articles

TV / radio

Project website



Printing of documents

(manuals, survey etc.)


Pilots / testing

Networking / lobbying

Organisation of workshops, conferences, public events

Presentation at workshops, conferences public events organised

by others

Dissemination platforms and networks

Sustainable implementation and usage

Professional public relation manager / expert

Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights for commercialisation

of project products

Other: ____________

Other: ____________


Module 7 – How to Implement a Project Successfully


Make up an EU project or take a real one (find one on the internet or take one you are considering

to apply for) and design a rough dissemination concept by filling in the above table. Try to keep

your considerations and assumptions as realistic as possible. When developing a dissemination concept

you should always consider the dissemination requirements and standards of the particular EU

fund you are applying to. Please look up the relevant documents, e.g. application form, call for

proposals, guideline for applicants etc., and analyse what is demanded concerning this issue.

Find an EU funded project in your country, if possible in your immediate area. Take a look at its

dissemination methods, instruments and efforts. Make contact with the organisation leading this

project and try to arrange a meeting at which you can become better informed about the project.

Do also ask the project manager about his / her experiences with dissemination and valorisation

activities and whether or not he / she is able to give you some recommendations and hints about

how to disseminate and valorise effectively.

Hints for additional activities supporting the module implementation

• Use opportunities to leave the classroom or to bring in persons from outside your learning

group as often as possible, e.g. experienced project managers, visit dissemination activities

of EU projects etc.

• Do not forget to work and learn as creatively and actively as possible and use any relevant

and reasonable types of media.

References and other sources helpful for further information

Adam, Tammy/Means, Jan/Spivey, Michael (2007): The Project Meeting Facilitator: Facilitation Skills to Make

the Most of Project Meetings. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

Bienzle, Holger (Ed.) (2001): A Survival Kit for European Project Management. Advice for Coordinators of Centralised Socrates

Projects. 2nd edition: For projects of selection round 1-3-2001 and later. Wien. Büro für Europäische Bildungskooperation/SOKRATES.

Browaeys, Marie-Joelle/Price, Roger (2008): Understanding Cross-Cultural Management. Harlow. Pearson Education Ltd.

Dussap, Anne/ Merry, Peter (2000/2008): Project Management. T-Kit N°3. Strasbourg. Council of Europe Publishing.

ECOTEC (2008): Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Dissemination and Exploitation Actions. A Final Report to DG Education and

Culture of the European Commission under the framework contract on evaluation and related services. ECOTEC. Birmingham.

European Platform for Dutch Education (2005): Grundtvig Learning Partnership Navigator. Your Guide to European Cooperation

in Adult Learning. The Hague/Alkmaar.

Lientz, Bennet P./Rea, Kathryn P. (2003): International Project Management. London. Academic Press.

Marr, Steve (2009): Effective Leadership of Meetings. (www.womentodaymagazine.com/career/goodmeeting)

Murphy, Own J. (2005): International Project Management. London. Thomson Learning.

Raittila, Hannu (2001): Canal Grande. Werner Söderström Osakeyhitö. Helsinki.

Tilkin, Guy/Biesen, Alden (2007): Self-evaluation of your Project. How are we doing How do we know What do we do next

Handout at Coordinators Meeting for Grundtvig1 projects organised by the EACEA in Brussels 2007.

www.adam-europe.eu (Dissemination platform for Leonardo da Vinci projects)


www.deming.org/ (The W. Edwards Deming Institute)

www.eacea.ec.europa.eu (Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency)

www.ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-programme/doc1208_en.htm (List of all Executive Agencies for the Lifelong

Learning Programme)

www.ecotec.com (British NA for the LLP)

www.enter-network.eu (European Network for Transfer and Exploitation of EU Project Results)

www.ezinearticles.com/Intercultural-Management&id=24218 (intercultural management articles)

www.ipma.ch (International Project Management Association)

www.pmi.org (Project Management Institute)

www.skype.com (Open / free internet communication / telephone source)

www.sokrates.at/download/survivalkit/inhalt (Survival kit for EU project management)

www.yourchildlearns.com/mappuzzle/europe-puzzle.html (EU puzzle)



AESAEC – Glossary

AESAEC - Glossary


Active ageing

Active citizenship

Active European Citizenship

Active European Remembrance

Adult education





Bottom-up process

Call for proposals


Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations that are formed using the initial

components in a phrase or name. These components may be individual

letters (as in UNO) or parts of words (as in Benelux).

The act and policy of retaining older workers in the labour market but also

relates to independency, well-being, personal growth and the integration

of older people into society.

An idea already introduced in ancient Greece about how citizens in a state

can participate actively in all kinds of community processes, such as at the

political and / or social level. Quite often this participation is based on

voluntary engagement for the good of the general public.

Adaptation of the ancient idea by the European Union to promote the

interaction and participation of all European citizens in constructing an

ever closer Europe, united in and enriched through its cultural diversity,

forging a European identity based on recognised common values, history

and culture.

Special action of the Europe for Citizens programme focussing on the

remembrance of the victims of Nazism and Stalinism in Europe in order to

maintain the awareness of the full dimensions and tragic consequences of

the Second World War.

This denotes all forms of non-vocational adult learning, whether of a formal,

non-formal or informal nature. An "adult" in the Grundtvig sense

refers to persons over 25 years of age as well as young people below that

age who are no longer receiving an initial education within the formal

school or higher education system of the participating eligible countries.

Person or organisation who / which applies for an EU-project or grant,

usually on behalf of a project group. In case of approval of the application,

the applicant becomes the beneficiary.

Mental connection of ideas, thoughts, plans etc, by which one builds upon


Refers to the truthfulness and credibility of origins, attributions,

commitments, sincerity, devotion and intentions.

Organisation, consortium or individual which / who directly receives an EU

grant and which / who is the official contractual partner of the funding

body. In an EU project group with two or more organisations this is usually

the promoter or lead partner, which is also responsible for the application,

the project implementation and the reporting of a project.

In political and social life a bottom-up approach means that the needs,

demands and wishes of the smallest unit (in this case the citizens) are the

starting point for decisions and processes, and by an upward direction they

influence the political or social life of a very large unit (such as a country

or the EU); opposite to a top-down approach.

A call for proposals represents the official start of an EU fund, usually released

by the European Commission or similar public bodies, requesting

applications; a call includes detailed information concerning the objectives,

aims, target groups, financial frameworks etc. of a fund and it also

introduces the application documents to the general public.

The state of being a citizen of a particular social, political or national



Civil Society




Council of the European Union


Cultural diversity





Eligibility period



European added value

Europe for Citizens programme

European Commission (EC)

Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organisations

and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed

to the state-held power structures (regardless of that state's political

system) and commercial institutions of the market. Civil society refers to

the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes

and values.

In linguistic terms the logical organisation of textual content.

In linguistic terms the grammatical structure of a language.


The Council of the European Union (Council of Ministers or just the

Council) is the principal decision-making institution of the EU. It is

composed of twenty-seven national ministers (one per state).

In project management this means the achievement of objectives and aims

through different and complementary actions carried out by different types

of organisations and / or stakeholders.

Cultural diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific

region or in the world as a whole. As well as the more obvious cultural

differences that exist between people (such as language, dress and traditions),

there are also significant variations in the way societies organise

themselves, in their shared conception of morality and values, and in the

ways they interact with their environment etc.

Public relation work in connection with a project and its developments /

results, with the general aim to inform and reach as many stakeholders,

key areas, organisations or citizens as possible. (see also exploitation,

impact, valorisation).

The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency is a public body

responsible for the operative implementation of various EU funds, such as

Europe for Citizens, the Lifelong Learning programme etc.

European Commission

Conditions that must be met in order to participate in an EU programme,

e.g. participating country, target group or sector of project, status of applicant

organisation etc.

This is the time period during which expenses can be incurred and paid for

by a grant.

Act of adopting new countries into the European Community and EU.

The Euro (€) is the official currency of 16 of the 27 member states of the

EU. The states, known collectively as the Eurozone, are Austria, Belgium,

Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,

Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.

Means the results of the synergy which emerges from European cooperation

and which constitutes a distinctive European dimension in addition to actions

and policies at the member state level.

EU Programme through which citizens have the opportunity to be

involved in transnational exchanges and cooperation activities, contributing

to developing a sense of belonging to common European ideals and

encouraging the process of European integration.

The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European

Communities) is the executive branch of the EU. The body is responsible

for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's

treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union.


AESAEC – Glossary

European Economic Community


European Parliament (EP)

European Union (EU)

EU Programme

EU Project





Formal education / learning

Future Workshop

GIVE - Grundtvig Initiative on

Volunteering in Europe for


Good practice

Grant agreement

International organisation existing from 1958 to 1993; precursor to the


The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution

of the EU. Together with the Council of the European Union it forms

the bicameral legislative branch of the EU's institutions and has been described

as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world. The Parliament

and the Council form the highest legislative body within the EU.

The EU is an economic and political union of 27 member states (stand

2009), located in Europe. Committed to regional integration, the EU was

established by the Treaty of Maastricht on 1 November 1993 upon the

foundations of the pre-existing European Economic Community.

EU fund specially dedicated to specific target areas, groups, activities etc.

Currently there are more than 450 different EU programmes in existence.

According to special regulations of eligibility and by following standardised

processes, organisations as well as individuals can apply for financial

support by submitting a proposal (EU project).

Activity funded by an EU Programme, usually on the basis of a submitted


Quality management by controlling, monitoring and an adjustment process

focussing on the appropriate development of project at all levels, e.g.

product development, co-operation of partners, time management, dissemination

activities etc; continuously applied at a high level, evaluation is

an essential precondition for any successful project implementation.

Sustainable use of and deriving benefits from the results of an EU project,

e.g. by implementing and using its products, changing policies and regulations

etc; this is the main aim of every project. (see also dissemination,

impact, valorisation).

Addresses the issue whether or not the project objectives and aims can

really be achieved.

A social and economic model which is a combination of the easy “hire and

fire” of workers and high social benefits – including paid education - for

the unemployed.

Education / learning which takes place in schools, universities or training

institutions and leads to a diploma or certificate. (see also informal education/learning

and non-formal education/learning).

The future workshop is a future technique developed by Robert Jungk,

Ruediger Lutz and Norbert R. Muellert in the 1970s. It enables a group of

people to develop new ideas or solutions for social problems. A future

workshop is particularly suitable for participants who have little experience

with processes of creative decision- making.

New initiative implemented from 2009 onwards by the European Commission

consisting of a scheme of grants to support senior volunteering projects

between local organisations in at least two countries participating in

the Lifelong Learning programme.

The most efficient (requiring the least amount of effort) and effective

(best results) way of accomplishing a task, based on repeatable procedures

that have proven themselves over time for large numbers of people.

Contractualisation of the grant award, setting out the terms and conditions

and the financial rules that apply; the agreement is signed by the beneficiary

of a project as well as by the funding body.




Hosting organisation

Human Rights


Informal education / learning


Intellectual Property Rights



Legal representative

Lifelong learning (LLL)

Lifelong Learning

Programme (LLP)

Long distance relationship

Sub-programme of the Lifelong Learning programme, focusing on all

forms of general learning (in contrast to vocational, school or university


The Holocaust is the term generally used to describe the genocide of millions

of Jews during World War Two, a programme of systematic statesponsored

extermination by Nazi Germany, under Adolf Hitler, its allies and


Organisation receiving a volunteer, guest, visitor etc. during an exchange

or mobility action / project; responsible for general preparation work,

accommodation and work / placement related needs. (see also sending


“Basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled." Examples of

rights and freedoms which have come to be commonly thought of as human

rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and liberty,

freedom of expression, and equality before the law; and economic, social

and cultural rights, including the right to participate in culture, the right to

food, the right to work, and the right to education. The Human Rights are

stated in the non-binding Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

from 1948.

The effect of the project on its wider environment and its contribution to

the wider sector objectives summarised in the project’s overall aims, and

on the achievement of the overarching policy objectives of the EC. (see

also dissemination, exploitation, valorisation).

Can be found everywhere, e.g. in families, in the workplace, in NGOs, in

theatre groups, or can also refer to individual activities at home, like reading

a book, surfing the internet etc. Although totally unstructured important

skills and know-how can be acquired through informal learning. (see

also formal education/learning and non-formal education/learning).

New way of doing something. It may refer to incremental and emergent or

radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes or

organisation. In many EU programmes a certain level of innovation is a

basic precondition for a proposal to be funded.

Bundle of exclusive rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and


Denotes the relationship between two or more cultures. The term indicates

that there are differences between cultures but also that there are nevertheless

opportunities for exchange between cultures.

Used to describe the handling of a team, such as an international project

group; although based on participation of all project partners, usually

there is one team leader in each group, mainly the promoter or coordinator.

Person legally authorised to enter into legal and financial commitments on

behalf of the organisation to which he / she belongs.

Lifelong, voluntary and self-motivated pursuit of knowledge and skills for

either personal or professional reasons. As such, it not only enhances social

inclusion, active citizenship and personal development, but also

competitiveness and employability. LLL is a basic concept of the EU’s

education policy and is therefore promoted by a specific Lifelong

Learning Programme.

EU Programme dedicated to all areas, forms, activities, organisations and

individuals dealing with any kind of learning (see also formal learning,

Grundtvig, informal learning, Lifelong learning, non-formal learning).

Paraphrase for a transnational group cooperating in a project although


AESAEC – Glossary

mostly operating from their home counties.

Lump sum

Member States of the EU




Multiplier effect

National Agency

National Agency



Non-Governmental Organisations


Non-formal education / learning


communication (NVC)

Participative Democracy

Grant based on a pre-defined flat rate amount calculated on the basis of

different indicators, e.g. number of persons involved or days spent in connection

with an EU project.

One of the 27 sovereign states that have acceded to the EU, currently

composed of twenty republics, six kingdoms and one grand duchy.

Within the framework of project management a milestone is the end of a

stage that marks the completion of a work package or phase, typically

marked by a high level event such as the completion of a deliverable item,

the publication of a document, a transnational meeting or a public conference.

Spending a period of time during an EU project in another Member

State in order to undertake study, work experience, other learning or

teaching activity, or related administrative activity.

Successful guidance and steering of an EU project by continuous

evaluation of all relevant levels and objects; to gain best possible results

the monitoring should be carried out by experts not directly involved in the

project implementation, i.e. external experts.

Replication by other people or organisations of a project's approaches,

methods and services, particularly where the potential exists for their

onward transfer to a further group of people or organisations.

Official bodies set up at the national level (in each of the eligible countries)

responsible for the coordination and implementation of a variety of

EU programmes on behalf of the EU and / or the EACEA.

The National Agencies are official bodies located in each of the countries

responsible for the management of certain parts of the EU's programmes in

the fields of education, culture and audiovisual at the national level.

Formal, semi-formal and informal connection of natural (individuals) or

legal (organisations) persons that share values, interests, activities etc.

Activities to build up and maintain networks and / or to cooperate with


Term that has become widely accepted as referring to a legally

constituted, non-governmental organisation created by natural or legal

persons with no participation or representation in its operation by any

government. In many jurisdictions these types of organisations are defined

as "civil society organisations" or are referred to by other names. The

number of NGOs operating internationally is estimated to be around


Includes optional, often semi-structured education / learning within study

circles, projects or discussion groups advancing at their own pace, with no

formal examination and recognition at the end. (see also formal education/learning

and informal education/learning).

Usually understood as the process of communication through sending and

receiving wordless messages. NVC can be communicated through gesture

and touch, by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye

contact. (see also verbal communication).

Sometimes also called "direct democracy”; a process emphasising the

broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political

systems. Representative democracy tends to limit citizen-participation

to voting, leaving actual governance to politicians. Participatory democracy

strives to create opportunities for all members of a political group to

make meaningful contributions to decision-making and seeks to broaden

the range of people who have access to such opportunities.



Project coordinator

Project management

Project outcomes

Project partner


Quality management



Individuals and / or organisations who / which benefit from an EU project

by usage of its outcomes and results.

Usually the co-ordinator and the beneficiary of a project is one and the

same; in some programmes it is possible to have a beneficiary and a coordinator,

which provides management and administrative support to the


Handling of a process or an activity achieving a certain aim or result by

following a described procedure (work plan); usually this process starts long

before the funded period of an EU project with the writing of the application,

recruitment of a project group and drawing up contracts, and also

lasts beyond the funded period with reporting and finalising administrative

issues. This process also includes several levels, such as product development,

evaluation and dissemination.

Results of an EU project which should show effects on the project group,

stakeholders, target groups or the general public; such outcomes can

include published products, awareness raising, training, conferences, created

networks etc.

Person or organisation who / which is member of a project group but is not

the beneficiary.



In pedagogical terms it is the repetition of content or information in order

to increase its sustainable transfer to learners / target groups.

In EU project management terms, the appropriateness of objectives and

aims to the real problems, needs and priorities of the target groups that

the project is supposed to address and to the physical and policy environment

within which it operates.

Sending organisation

Organisation sending a volunteer, guest, visitor etc. during an exchange or

mobility action / project; responsible for selection of participants, preparation

of the mobility and cooperation with the hosting organisation.


Social cohesion






Free internet communication / telephone source (www.skype.com)

Social cohesion is a term used in social policy, sociology and political

science to describe the bonds or "glue" that bring people together in

society, particularly in the context of cultural diversity.

In this setting, and in a very broad sense, a person or organisation with a

legitimate and / or obvious interest in a given situation, action or EU

project etc, e.g. political decision makers, target groups, end users,

funders, media etc.

Different words (or sometimes phrases) with identical or very similar


In linguistics this term is used to refer directly to the rules and principles

that govern the sentence structure of any language.

A joint action by two or more people, in which each person contributes

with different skills and expresses his or her individual interests and

opinions to support the unity and efficiency of the group in order to

achieve common goals.

Indicates a distinct cohesive expression in written language. Texts require

to be presented through a script. Various cultures use different alphabets.


AESAEC – Glossary

Think tanks



Verbal communication


Usually an organisation or group that conducts research and engages in

advocacy in areas such as social policy, political strategy, economy, science

or technology issues etc. In this context it also refers to a group of people

creating project ideas to improve the situation in the above mentioned


Originally a French term, the concept of valorisation is now widely accepted

within the EU project management community as the process of

dissemination and exploitation of projects outcomes with a view to

optimising their value, enhancing their impact and integrating them into

training systems and practices at the local / national level as well as at the

European level.

Veganism is a diet and lifestyle that seeks to exclude the use of animals for

food, clothing or any other purpose.

Communication based on the usage of written or spoken words. (see also

non-verbal communication).

All forms of voluntary activity, whether formal or informal. It is undertaken

of a person's own free-will, choice and motivation, and is without concern

for financial gain. It benefits the individual volunteer, communities and

society as a whole. It is also a vehicle for individuals and associations to

address human, social or environmental needs and concerns, and is often

carried out in support of a non-profit organisation or community-based

initiative. Thus voluntary activities add value to society, but do not replace

professional, paid employees.


We All are Europe

The members of the AESAEC project group are responsible for the content:

Austria, www.auxilium.co.at

Denmark, www.fritid-samfund.dk

Austria, www.vhsstmk.at


Spain, www.asael.es




Romania, www.sec.ro




Italy, www.formazionenet.eu

Slovenia, www.univerza3.si


The AESAEC project (Project No 1417572008LLPATGRUNDTVIGGMP) has been funded with support

from the European Commission, represented by the Education and Culture DG.

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