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Mentoring is - Academic Affairs - University of California, San ...

Effective Mentoring

Department of Psychiatry Faculty Retreat

June 2009

Mitchell D. Feldman, MD, MPhil

Professor of Medicine

Director of Faculty Mentoring


Agenda

• What is mentoring

• Why does mentoring matter

• What are the personal rewards of being a mentor How do

you define success (“Story of M”)

• What are the challenges of being a mentor

• Tips for mentors

– Know thyself

– Practice active listening

– Promote self efficacy in your mentee -- teach them to “manage up”

– Help mentee move on when appropriate


What is Mentoring


What is Mentoring

Levinson DJ: “The Seasons of a Man’s Life”.

New York, Alfred A Knopf, 1978

• The mentoring relationship is “one of the

most complex and developmentally

important” in a persons life.

• The mentor will . . . “assist and facilitate the

realization of the dream.”


Mentoring is

“ A dynamic, reciprocal relationship in a

work environment between an advanced

career incumbent and a beginner aimed at

promoting the development of both.”

Healy, Educ Res. 1990; 19:17-21.


Mentor as Teacher

• Educate mentee

about research

content and methods

• Clinical/teaching skills

• How things work


Mentor as Teacher

“He knows what each plant in his garden needs to thrive:

this one a little more sun, this one more fertilizer; this is a

good metaphor for his mentoring [as] he takes the same

careful approach with ‘growing’ his fellows and takes

great joy in watching them bloom.”

“Often she would leave the latest, hottest paper on my

desk, with an enthusiastic note attached that not only

conveyed her own excitement about the field but also

piqued my interest.”


Mentor as Protector

• Mentor as Superhero

• Powerful Advocate

and Protector

• Advancement,

Promotion and

Recognition

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Mentor as Protector and Advocate

“ During the launching of my career, [he] was like

a Solid Rocket Booster, ensuring that I achieve

the lift and trajectory to make it into orbit. But

rather than dropping off at that point, he has

remained a constant feature, like Mission Control,

monitoring my progress.”

“Most importantly, (my mentor) has no intellectual

jealousy. She was always happy to see others

succeed, pushing them forward into the limelight

while standing back in the shadows herself.”

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Mentor as Role Model

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• A person considered

as a standard of

excellence to be

imitated (Wright, et al)


“ I have drawn upon my experiences as [her] mentee to

shape my mentoring style... I recall proudly smiling at

the many shared qualities that [her] “family tree” of

researchers has in common. As a branch in the tree, I

can trace my growth and support, and that of my

mentees to the main trunk of the tree, [my mentor].”


Mentor as Advisor

and Guide

• ‘a trusted counselor or

guide’

• Work-Life balance

• Self reflection and

value clarification


Mentor as Advisor

and Guide

“ We have spent countless hours… planning my

career, talking about family and how to live

meaningfully and find happiness and balance in

the workplace and home.”


Types of mentors

• Career Mentor: The career mentor is responsible for overall career guidance

and support for their mentee. Often affiliated with the Faculty Mentoring

Program, the career mentor may or may not also serve as the scholarly mentor

(see below). Scheduled meetings take place at least 2-3 times per year.

• Scholarly Mentor: Responsible for developing the creative and/or independent

research careers of their mentees. Unlike the career mentor, the scholarly

mentor must have expertise in the mentee’s area of scholarship and help

provide resources to support the mentees work. Scheduled meetings take place

1-2 times per month.

• Co-Mentor: Works with the mentee and scholarly mentor to provide specialized

content area or methodological expertise. Scheduled meetings every 1-3

months.

• Advisor: More limited role than a mentor. Provides guidance on an as-needed

basis generally around a specific issue. No expectation for ongoing contact.


Why Does Mentoring Matter


Systematic Review

Sambunjak et al. JAMA 2006;296:1103-15.

• Mentorship influenced:

– Personal development

– Career guidance

– Career choice

• Discipline selected

Academic vs. non-academic position

– Research productivity

– Retention and recruitment


Systematic Review

Sambunjak et al. JAMA 2006;296:1103-15.

• Impact on research productivity and

success

– Association between having a mentor and:

• Completing a thesis

• Completing a research project

• Number of publications

• Likelihood of obtaining a grant

– Lack of a mentor associated with inability to

complete a project or obtain a grant


• What are the personal rewards of being a mentor

How do you define success

• What are the challenges of being a mentor

• “Story of M”

Agenda


Pre-Workshop Survey

• What do you find most rewarding about

serving as a mentor/mentee

• “Growth”

– “Watching my mentee grow”

– “Observing the growth . . .”

– “Facilitating personal growth . . .”


Pre-Workshop Survey

• What do you find most frustrating about

serving as a mentor/mentee

• “Time”

– “Too little time, too much to talk about”

– “lack of time . . .”

• “Nothing”

• “Passive mentee”; “Compliant but

uninterested mentee”


Dyad Mismatch

Values

Work style

Personality

Mentor Role

Conflicts

Role demands of a

direct supervisor may

conflict with the role

demands of a mentor

Lack of mentor

expertise

Interpersonal and/or

technical

incompetence

Negative

Mentoring

Experiences

Manipulative

Behavior

Inappropriate

delegation

Credit taking

General

Dysfunctionality

Bad attitude

Personal problems

Distancing Behavior

Neglect (most

common negative

behavior)

Eby 2000


Case Discussions


Tips for Mentors

• Know thyself

• Practice active listening

• Promote self efficacy in your mentee

– Teach them to “manage up”

– Promote use of IDP

• Help mentee move on when appropriate


Mentoring Skills Model

MENTEE

SPECIFIC

SKILLS

Learning

Quickly

Showing

Initiative

Following

Through

SHARED CORE SKILLS

Acquiring

Mentors

Managing

the

Relationship

Self Reflection

EI

Identifying Goals

& Current Reality

Building Trust

Encouraging

Sense of Humor

Active Listening

Inspiring

Providing

Corrective

Feedback

Instructing/

Developing

Capabilities

Encourage

/ Manage

Risks

Opening

Doors

MENTOR

SPECIFIC

SKILLS


Know Thyself: Emotional Intelligence

and the Mentoring Relationship

• Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to feel,

understand, articulate, and effectively apply the power of

emotions as a source of human energy.

• Emotional Intelligence develops through

– self-awareness

– acceptance and understanding of the diversity of

human experience and motivation

– the ability to communicate across the gaps of

interpersonal and intercultural differences.


Emotional Intelligence and the

Mentoring Relationship

• Know your own and your mentees strengths and weaknesses —

personal and academic

• Put yourself in your mentee’s shoes — what motivates, excites,

interests, concerns them

• Learn to be comfortable having mixed feelings about your mentee,

and dealing with complex situations with appreciation for “shades

of gray”

• Become adept at recognizing and interpreting problems your

mentee is having with you or others due to differences of

personality and/or cultural background

• Create a relationship with your mentee that both of you find

satisfying, productive and inspiring

• Understand enough of your mentee’s cultural background to

engage and challenge them appropriately


High

Support and Challenge on Mentee

Development

(Daloz, 1999)

Retreat

Growth

Challenge

Stasis

Confirmation

Low

Support

High


“The single biggest problem in

communication is the illusion that it

has taken place”

George Bernard Shaw


Active Listening Exercises

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• “Talking Over”

• “What’s bugging you”


Listen to:

– Encourage communication

– Understand, clarify

– Gain new information, knowledge

– Find strengths to affirm

– Understand feelings as well as content

– Gain trust, credibility

– Show empathy

– Develop rapport

– Discern what the speaker needs/wants


Promote Mentee Self Efficacy

• “The mentee is not an empty vessel

receiving the mentor’s advice and

wisdom but, rather, an active

participant, shaping the relationship.”

Zerzan et al. 2009


Teach Mentees to “Manage Up”

• “Managing up” -- the mentee takes

ownership of and directs the relationship,

letting the mentor know what he or she

needs . . . Managing up makes it easier for

a mentor to help a mentee, which makes

the relationship more satisfying and

successful for both.”

Zerzan et al. 2009


1. Getting Ready:

Nine Step Strategy for Mentees

1. Clarify your governing values

2. Prioritize your values

3. Identify your strengths

4. Make choices: where do you want to be 10 years from

now (consistent with values)

5. How will you get there (1, 3, 5 year goals)

6. What skills or tasks do you need to achieve your one

year goals

7. Write a learning contract for each task.

8. Involve your mentor.

9. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for 3 and 5 year goals.

(Pololi, 2006)


The Individual Development Plan (IDP)

• Self evaluate career success skills

and interests

Clinical

Creative/scholarly

Teaching/mentoring

Leadership/management

Interpersonal

• Values - personal and professional

• Short and Long term goals


Separation: Know when to

help mentees move on

Freud and Jung

10 year collaboration

ended in 1914 with

philosophical schism--

and with sexual

suspicions and

blackmail.


Faculty Mentoring Program

Core Components

• Director of Faculty Mentoring

Establish and oversee program

Develop training

Lead evaluation

Mentoring Facilitators

Responsible for setting up and overseeing

mentoring program in Dept/ORU/Division


Faculty Mentoring Program

Core Components

• One on One mentoring program

All junior/new faculty paired with senior

“career” mentor responsible for providing

career guidance and support.

Career Mentoring meetings should take

place at least 2-3x yearly; the mentee is

expected to send their mentor an updated

CV and Individual Development Plan prior

to each meeting.


Recognition of Mentoring:

Changing the Culture

• Advancement and Promotion

Mentoring Awards

“Lifetime Achievement in Mentoring”, Distinction in Mentoring Award;

“Who mentored you”


Mentor training is key


Rewards of mentoring

Challenges/negative aspects

Identify barriers to improvement

How will you overcome these

barriers


“Meaning is not something you stumble across, like

the answer to a riddle or the prize in a treasure hunt.

Meaning is something you build into your life. You

build it out of your own past, out of your affections

and loyalties . . . out of your own talent and

understanding, out of the things you believe in, out

of the things and people you love, out of the values

for which you are willing to sacrifice something.”

John Gardner


Questions/

Comments


The Art of Mentorship:

A Qualitative Analysis of the

Characteristics of Outstanding

Mentorship

Radhika A. Ramanan MD, MPH

Christine Cho, MD, MPH, Patricia Arean, PhD

Mitchell D. Feldman, MD, MPhil

Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, Psychiatry and

the Faculty Mentoring Program,

University of California, San Francisco

San Francisco, CA


Major Themes

• Admirable personal qualities

• Mentor as a career “shepherd”

• Longitudinal relationships

• Integration of personal and professional life

• Legacy of mentoring


Admirable personal qualities

• Mentors exhibit:

– Enthusiasm

– Humility

– Generosity

– Empathy

– Selflessness


Admirable qualities

“This act of selflessness, putting [me]

forward for such an opportunity, is one of

numerous examples of his character,

which is unfalteringly honest, humble,

insightful and inspiring.”


Mentor as a Career

Shepherd

• Mentor offers a vision

• Purposefully individualizes and tailors

support to each mentee

• Special attention to providing opportunities

for advancement


Career Shepherd

“He knows what each plant in his garden

needs to thrive: this one a little more sun,

this one more fertilizer; This is a good

metaphor for his mentoring [as] he takes

the same careful approach with ‘growing’

his fellows and takes great joy in

watching them bloom.”


Longitudinal Relationships

• Commitment can span decades

• Often extends past boundaries of

project, discipline or institution


Longitudinal Relationship

“ During the launching of my career, [he] was like a

Solid Rocket Booster, ensuring that I achieve the

lift and trajectory to make it into orbit. But rather

than dropping off at that point, he has remained

a constant feature, like Mission Control,

monitoring my progress.”


Integration of Personal and

Professional Life

• Support attention to personal life and

family

• Acknowledge the importance of work-life

balance


Integration of Personal and

Professional Life

“ We have spent countless hours… planning

my career, talking about family and how to

live meaningfully and find happiness and

balance in the workplace and home.”


Legacy of Mentoring

• Mentors leave a legacy through:

– Role modeling, direct teaching and creating

departmental policies that set global

expectations and standards for mentorship

• Techniques of mentoring are visible through

generations of mentors


Legacy of Mentoring

“ I have drawn upon my experiences as [her] mentee to

shape my mentoring style... I recall proudly smiling at

the many shared qualities that [her] “family tree” of

researchers has in common. As a branch in the tree, I

can trace my growth and support, and that of my

mentees to the main trunk of the tree, [my mentor].”

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