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European Planning Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1999 243

RESEARCH BRIEFING

The Development of Planning Education and its

Relation to the Belated Start of Geography Teaching

in Greek Universities

LOIS IABRIANIDIS AND ALEX M. DEFFNER

ABSTRACT Planning and geography teaching in Greek Universities has until very recently been extremely

limited. Moreover, there were no planning and geography departments, which contrasted with the substantial

research in the field since 1960. The subject of space was insufficiently covered by a number of courses offered

unsystematically by various departments of the Greek Universities. Among them the most comprehensive coverage

was given by the Departments of Architecture and Rural and Surveying Engineering. Space related courses were

usually complementary to the core courses of the departments offering them. What was of primary importance

to the way geography was taught was the scientific approach adopted by each department, and not the scientific

subject. Students were often taught geography concurrently with subjects which did not allow for spatial

differentiation. A pivotal question to be answered here is why planning and geography teaching has been so

neglected in Greek Universities. The recent establishment of Planning and Geography Departments should

principally be viewed as an outcome of the aggravation of the problems stemming from the unequal regional

development of Greece as well as the realization of the importance of space. The lack of systematic studies

allowed certain scientists to proclaim themselves 'experts' with the right to get invoked in the practice of planning

and geography. Concerning the more sophisticated needs, these were met by 'imported knowledge' acquired by

studies abroad. The outcome of this was two-fold: on the one hand, 'applied' geography relied on explanatory

tools and development models which were not products of analysis of the Greek society, and, on the other hand,

academic education focused more on physical planning and on traditional theories at the level of analysis.

1. Introduction

Planning education in Greece is a relatively recent phenomenon, but its development is closely

linked to geography teaching, and this is more clearly expressed in the courses which are

related to space.

Urban and Regional Planning has been important in decision making involving spatial

phenomena and population distribution. It deals with the identification of trends, planning in

general, and the evaluation of alternative solutions as well as physical planning. Geography

has always been an applied subject, the basis for research and scientific development. After the

Louis Labrianidis, Associate Professor, Department of Economic Sciences, University of Macedonia, 156 Egnatias

Street, Thessaloniki 540 06, Greece. E-mail: loisl@maccdonia.uom.gr

Alex M. Deffner, Lecturer, Department of Planning and Regional Development, University of Thessaly, Pedion

Arcos, Volos 38334, Greece. E-mail: adeffher@uth.gr

0965-4313/99/020243-11 © 1999 Taylor & Francis Ltd


244 Research Briefing

war, geography was the science that interpreted spatial phenomena, the rational ground and

analytical basis for planning. It studies and interprets the effects of spatial phenomena. And

although one cannot conceive planning without geographical analysis, the latter does not

necessarily lead to planning.

Geography studies the earth's surface, as well as the spatial distribution of socio-economic

phenomena and the processes causing this distribution. Thus it is closely related both to

the natural and social sciences. During the historical development of geography, its differentiation

into physical geography and human geography was sometimes marked and at other times

less so.

In its early days (see A. von Humboldt, C. Ritter, F. Ratzel, P. Vidal de la Blache, R.

Hartshorne, P. Kropotkin, E. Reclus, H. Mackinder) geography was a unified field, encompassing

both physical and human geography. In the sixties a sharp distinction was drawn and

in fact, as mentioned earlier, this resulted in the creation of specialized fields within human

geography. Today we are at the stage where criticism of this fragmentation and specialization

by post-positivist geography has restored some unity to the science.

Thus, geography is once again seen as a unity of physical and human geography. Typical

examples of this trend towards reunification are the studies by Cronon (1991), Stoddart (1986),

and Swyngendow (1994). This unity implies the necessity of a unified conception of space

(Panayotatou, 1988). The rough differentiation of geography into physical and human still

exists in universities, as well as in terms of job specialization among geographers, but not in

research.

The paper constitutes a first approach to the analysis of the subject of planning education

and its relation to geography teaching in Greek Universities. It is based on an analysis of the

curricula and syllabuses of the various Departments of Greek Universities, as presented in

their respective course guides. 1

The following important points which would have helped towards a more comprehensive

approach of the subject were not studied, that is: (a) the different approaches to planning

and geography that are taught at Greek Universities (this presupposed an analysis of student

notes and text books used); (b) the undergraduate and post-graduate education in Greece

and abroad of faculty members, in order to identify their academic backgrounds and

interrelations; (c) the question of post-graduate studies both at the Masters degree level which

concerns the Institute of Regional Development at the Pantion University of Social and

Economic Sciences (PU), 2 and at a doctorate level which concerns also the Departments of

Architecture, Rural and Surveying Engineering, Economics, as well as the Departments of

Geology and Physics.

The paper is not a historical review, which in fact would be very useful. One can point

out, however, that the importance of geography was realized almost right from the beginning

of the formation of Greek Universities. In particular, even a brief survey of the history of the

Greek University shows that the first draft of the University of Athens' (UA) charter states

that geography is to be one of the sciences in the School of General Sciences. But, this has

been omitted from the final draft of the charter in 1837 (Rentzos, 1984, p. 34). Physical

geography has been taught in the Department of Natural History at the University of Athens

from 1931 (Rentzos, 1984, pp. 37-38). Finally, economic geography has been taught during

1952—1953 in the Department of Economics and Political Science at the Aristotle University

of Thessaloniki (AUT), 3 while at the Graduate Industrial School of Thessaloniki it was

compulsory in the first year starting with the first academic year of the School's operation

(1957-1958).

It could be argued, as a working hypothesis, that geography was considered as an

important field right from the beginning of university education in Greece. Physical geography

has been taught continuously since 1930, while human geography became a significant subject

in the studies of many schools after the fall of the dictatorship. Economic geography was


Research Briefing 245

introduced in the Departments of Economics very early, often as a compulsory subject.

However, although it started as an important subject in the curricula of the Departments of

Economics during the fifties, it declined in the seventies and eighties.

This gradual decline in the importance of geography was accompanied by a shift towards

regional geography, belatedly following the international trend of the time. During the sixties

the Schools of Technology introduced Urban and Regional Planning, which from the fall of

the dictatorship to the mid eighties—a period of intense politicization reflected in the

introduction of subjects with a social content—became very important and was selected by

many students.

Even a quick glance will show that, essentially, planning and geography are taught to a limited extent

in Greek Universities. Some courses of physical geography are taught in the Department of

Geology [National Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA) and Aristotle University of

Thessaloniki (AUT)], in the Department of Physics (NKUA and AUT) and in the Department

of Rural and Surveying Engineering of the AUT. Human geography courses are taught in

many departments: a few courses in the Departments of Architecture (AUT), of Economics

and International & European Economic Studies [Economic University of Athens (EUA)], of

Agriculture (AUT), of the Primary School of Education [Ioannina University (IOU), AUT,

Dimokrition University of Thrace, (DUT), University of Athens], of History [AUT, Ionian

University (IU)]. A significant number of human geography courses are also taught in the

Departments of Rural and Surveying Engineering [National Technical University of Athens

(NTUA), AUT]. In this respect, the Department of Geography of the University of the

Aegean (UA), which began operation in 1994, is unique; it has filled a serious gap and

undoubtedly has a very important role to play.

There are marry approaches to planning and geography, in other words different approaches to the

analysis of space, something that has a significant impact on the organization of university

studies. However, as we point out in Section 3, this issue has not been raised as yet in Greece,

though at the level of the individual faculty member/researcher the majority have identified

themselves to one approach or the other and some of them are prominent representatives of

the subject. One hopes that it is an issue that sooner or later will be dealt with in the newly

formed specialized departments that is: Urban and Regional Development (PU), Planning and

Regional Development, University of Thessaly (UTH), and Geography (UA).

The paper is divided into two main sections, apart from the introduction (Section 1). In

Section 2 we have focused on the analysis of the courses concerning space in general

(Planning, Geography, Regional Development, etc.) taught in various departments of the

Greek Universities. In Section 3 there are some general comments/conclusions covering the

teaching of planning and geography in Greek Universities.

2. Departments Dealing with the Subject of Space in Greek Universities

This section, which is subdivided in two parts, analyses how planning and geography are

taught in the Greek Universities and is based on an examination of the most recent curricula

of the relevant departments. The first part (Section 2.1) focuses on the three university

departments which specialize in the subject of space. The second part (Section 2.2) focuses on

the relationships between the classification of courses and departments.

2.1 Departments Specializing in the Subject of Space

At present there are three such departments, however since they have been established very

recently and they arc still understaffed it is very difficult to make any firm judgment. Until

recently there were neither systematic nor comprehensive studies in the Greek Universities

concerning the subject of space. There was no distinct unity recognized by the Greek


246 Research Briefing

academic community which would lead to a degree or specialization on planning or any other

academic field related to that (geography, regional development, etc.). As of 1989, for the first

time there are departments dealing specifically with space, as follows:

First, the Department of Urban and Regional Development at the Pantion University of Social and

Political Studies. It started operating in the academic year 1990-1991, and offers a four-year

degree course. Studies cover economics, quantitative analysis and regional science. The study

of regional science is one of the three main academic axes, which is supported by the other two.

The Department's curriculum does not include the teaching of Physical Geography, the

use of maps or the analysis of specific regions. However, an emphasis is placed on courses

related to law (6 out of 69 courses).

Second, the Department of Planning and Regional Development at the University ofThessaly, which

opened in the academic year 1989-1990, and offers five-year degree courses. As mentioned

in the 1992 curriculum, the Department's aim is to produce scientists who will have not only

a qualitative and theoretical knowledge of the economic, social, demographic and ecological

aspects of regions and cities, but also the ability to handle data quantitatively and to solve specific spatial

problems. The Department's curriculum is clearly orientated towards planning and spatial

analysis. The programme's stated aim is the emphasis on quantitative analysis techniques,

which, however, is not evident from the titles of the courses included in the curriculum and

from the actual contents of the courses. Though, an emphasis is placed on GIS, but it is used

as an analytical tool and not developed into a subject in its own right. The most recent

curriculum, which was initiated in the 1995 = 1996 academic year, differs drastically from the

previous one, in the sense that it is far more structured and concise. Moreover, it has an

additional emphasis on architectural subjects. There is a general tendency towards inter-disciplinarity,

especially in the optional courses: e.g. there exist courses related to cultural

geography, economics, law, political science, and sociology. Third, the Department of Geography,

University of the Aegean, which opened in the academic year 1994-1995, and offers four-year

degree courses. In the curriculum there is small emphasis on the subjects of physical

geography, and an emphasis on subjects concerning the environment.

The correspondence between other departments and universities which offer more

than one course related to space is summarized in Table 1. There is also reference to

the geographical emphasis of these courses. The table is based on an examination of the

most recent curricula of these departments (for a detailed presentation see Labrianidis,

1996).

2.2 Classification of Courses Related to Space and Departments

The classification of courses and departments shows a focus in certain types of courses, which,

in many but not all cases, 'correspond' to what are gene rally considered as the main features

of the types of departments, e.g. economics to Economic Sciences. An interesting point is that

there is a clear emphasis on urban planning courses, but this occurs mainly because of the two

Architecture Departments and not because of the two Planning and the one Geography

Departments. Urban planning courses are also dominant, perhaps surprisingly, in the Civil

and Rural and Surveying Engineering Departments. The second position is occupied by

economics courses which are dominant in the Economic Sciences/International Studies

Departments, but have also a good position in the Planning Departments. The next position

is occupied by methods and information systems courses which are dominant in the Planning

Departments (Figure 1).

The fourth position is occupied by human, rural and cultural geography courses mainly

because of the Geography and Planning Departments. Next comes, perhaps surprisingly low,

spatial/regional planning courses which have this position mainly because of the Planning


Table 1. Other departments and universities offering courses related to space

Department

Architecture

Rural and Surveying Engineering

Civil Engineering

Economic Sciences

Social Anthropology

Political Science

International and European Studies

Primary Education

Law

Environment

Geology

Physics

Biology

History

Geographical

emphasis

Planning

Mapping

Transportation

Economical

Cultural

Political

Regional

Descriptive

Legal

Planning

Physical

Physical

Physical

Historical

University

AUT NTUA DUT UP EUA UPI UM UA P NKUA IU IOU

/

Note: UP is the University of Patras, UPI is the University of Piraeus, UM is the University of Macedonia. For other abbreviations see text.

rO


248 Research Briefing

European Studies

Methods & Information

Systems

Economics

Policy/Institutional Context

Spatial/Regional

Planning

Environment

Housing &

Infrastructures -

Urban Planning

-

Theory & History

Physical Geography

Human, Rural &

Cultural Geography

zoa

-

-

-

— 1

Pill

mm//

I

n

1

i

IXX>G


n

hxxxx>« vA

• Planning

1 1 i 1

10 20 30 40 50

• Political Science/Law/Social

Anthropology

0 Economic Sciences/Administration/

International Studies

0 Primary Education/Foreign

Languages/History

• Positive-Natural Sciences

B Environment

0 Engineering

• Architecture

HI Geography

Figure 1. Types of departments based on types of courses.

Departments. The sixth position is occupied by theory and history, courses which have this

position mainly because of the Architecture Departments followed by housing and infrastructure

courses which have this position mainly because of the Planning Departments. The eighth

position is occupied by physical geography courses which are dominating in the Geology/

Physics/Positive and Geotechnic Sciences/Forestry Departments (Figure 1).

The majority of courses are taught in the Planning Departments, followed, with a large

difference, by Architecture and, perhaps surprisingly, by Civil and Rural and Surveying

Engineering Departments. In the Primary Education/Foreign Languages/History Departments

the dominant type of course is theory and history, which is also dominant, along with

spatial and regional planning, in the Political Science/Law/Administration/Social Anthropology

Departments (Figure 2).

If the departments are grouped in three types, then the vast majority of courses are taught

in the Planning/Geography/Architecture Departments, in which case the dominant type of

course is urban planning. The second position is occupied by the Environment/Natural

Sciences/Engineering Departments, in which case the dominant type of course is physical

geography. Fewer courses are taught in the Social Sciences Departments, in which case the

dominant type of course is economics (Figure 3).

Political Science/

Law/Social Anthropology

Economic Sciences/Administration/

International Studies

Primary Education/

Foreign Languages/History

Positive-Natural

Sciences

Environment

Engineering

Architecture

Geography

Planning

1 I HI

~r~m

mi

-

H VKl/A

II 1

20

BTT

40 60 80 100

fj] European Studies

E3 Methods & Information Systems

I

Economics

0 Policy/Institutional Context

• Spatial/Regional Planning

n

Environment

B Housing & Infrastructures

^

Urban Planning

Theory & History

^

Physical Geography

• Human, Rural & Cultural Geography

Figure 2. Types of courses based on types of departments (nine).


Research Briefing 249

Social Sciences

Environment/Natur.

Sciences/Engineer.

Planning/Geography/

Architecture

n European Studies

Q Methods & Information Systems

• Economics

0 Policy/Institutional Context

• Spatial/Regional Planning

D Environment

^ Housing & Infrastructures

^ Urban Planning

Theory & History

• Physical Geography

£] Human, Rural & Cultural Geography

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Figure 3. Types of courses based on types of departments (three).

3. Concluding Remarks

(1) The teaching of planning and geography in Greek Universities was until recently extremely

limited, and there were neither Planning nor Geography Departments. The situation has

changed with the recent establishment of the Departments of Urban and Regional Development

at PU, Planning and Regional Development at the UTH, and the operation of the

Department of Geography at the UA as of 1994. It is necessary to consider why no

Department of Geography existed in Greek Universities and why the study of geography at

the level of the university was underdeveloped in a country with a rich tradition in geography

in the ancient world (Herodotus, Ptolemeus, Strabon, etc.). Also, there existed Greek scientists

doing post-graduate studies abroad, as well as significant geographical research as early as

1960 due to the French human geographers who worked in Greece. They published several

books (Burgel, 1965/1988; Kayser, 1964; Kayser et al, 1971, 1989), and the first Socio-economic

Atlas of Greece (Kayser et al, 1964). A new Atlas is being produced through the

collaboration of the Institute of Urban and Rural Sociology (of the National Centre for Social

Research in Athens) and the French School of Athens.

The answer to the aforementioned question may lie in the fact that the subject was

dominated by engineers and that the powerful Technical Chamber of Greece blocked the

entry of competing professions. Also, until recently neither the extent of regional inequalities in

Greece nor their importance for the development of the country as a whole or its regions had

been realized. The conventional wisdom was that if the country developed as a whole, this

would inevitably lead to the development of the regions and therefore would reduce or

eliminate spatial inequalities.

Finally, it should not be forgotten that other important scientific fields were very late in

developing in Greek Universities. For example, a Department of Sociology was established for

the first time in the sixties, while Departments of History and Social Anthropology were

started only in the early eighties. Thus, there is a general delay in the organization of social

sciences in the Greek Universities, due to the role they play in Greek society. In other words,

the social sciences are clearly underdeveloped in Greece, and universities are mainly interested in

professional training as in the Faculties of Medicine, Engineering, Agriculture and Education.

Finally, it should be pointed out that the rich tradition of geography in Ancient Greece did

not necessarily continue in modern Greece, where the economic, social, and political

circumstances are entirely different. This argument is in accordance with a modern approach

of heritage which has recently been formulated and focuses on the last two centuries.


250 Research Briefing

(2) Studies in Planning and Regional Development consist of isolated courses and faculties

scattered among several departments of the Greek Universities. The peculiarity of the subjects

that planning and geography deal with as well as the plurality of approaches to planning and

geography are important explanatory factors referring to the peculiarity of faculties and

departments in Greek Universities that are dealing with all these different aspects. The

importance and nature of the courses dealing with space vary between schools and departments. The same

department in different universities will not always teach the same or similar courses dealing

with space.

(3) As it has already been pointed out there is not only one 'geography' and hence there

are many approaches to geography teaching in universities, placing an emphasis on physical

rather than human geography, on quantitative rather than or on critical geography, etc. (see

Figure 3). Up to now there has not been any opportunity for a substantive scientific discussion regarding the

direction of teaching of geography and planning in Greek Universities should follow.

This is mainly due to the fact that until 1989 there was no university department dealing

with the subject of space. Hence, since the teaching of planning and geography was peripheral

to the main core of the apartments where it was taught, it was to be expected that there was

not going to be any scientific discussion on the approach to planning and geography that the

department was going to take. As for the three departments specializing in the subject of space

that have developed since 1989 at the moment they are still in a process of formation, they

are relatively understaffed and hence one should not have expected them to develop a

dominant view on which approach to geography to follow.

(4) The space related courses are not always incorporated into the curriculum, and their

teaching must adapt to the general direction of the department. The faculties where these

courses are taught are not always orientated towards planning and regional development.

Thus, these courses complement other subjects which make up the core of the faculty or

department. Because of this they cover a limited area of this science, as viewed from the

faculty's or department's main subject. The courses are not taught fully or in a structured way,

and are not orientated towards a specific specialization.

However, a scientific field cannot be properly organized simply by lumping together the

individual subjects that constitute it. The parts must be integrated into a whole with its own

philosophy of studies, conceptual categories, analytical and methodological tools, modus

operandi and mechanisms of growth.

In many departments they are the 'icing on the cake', cut off from the main body of

studies such as: Primary Education, Agriculture and Forestry (AUT), Foreign Languages (IU).

Students are taught subjects that do not recognize the existence of spatial differentiation. In

the final analysis, the scientific approach that prevails in the department is more important than the scientific

subject into which it is incorporated. The difficulties involved in the teaching of the space related

courses in Economics Departments in Greece are considered below.

(a) The neo-classical economists accepted it as a fact that economic activity happened in

a vacuum ('on the head of a pin'). As Richardson (1969/1972, p. 8) points out, if we accept

the assumptions of neo-classical theory (the most important of which are price and wage

flexibility and total mobility of the factors of production—labour and capital—within the

country), then space makes no difference. Intractable regional problems do not exist, since the

market smoothes out all interregional disequilibria. Interregional differences in prices, wages

and incomes cannot persist, other than to the extent that transportation costs prevent their

equalization. In other words, the market smoothes out all interregional disequilibria. For this

reason, the neo-classical economists did not include space in their general economic theory,

nor did they analyse the problems created by the spatial distribution of economic activities.

From the nineteenth century 'spatial theories' had been put forward concerning the

location of agricultural and industrial production (von Thiinen, 1826/1966; Launhardt, 1882;

Weber, 1909/1971), which, however, remained outside the general economic theory.


Research Briefing 251

(b) The introduction of the concept of space creates problems in economic equilibrium

analysis (general equilibrium in the private sector and general equilibrium in the private and

public sectors). The neo-classical economists accept positions based on marginal analysis (e.g.

the marginal utility of a good is inversely proportional to the quantity consumed) that cannot

incorporate space. They assume, for example, that all relations can be expressed as continuous

functions, whereas distance and other spatial factors create discontinuities in these continuous

functions, discontinuities that cannot be dealt with by using marginal analysis.

(c) The concept of space is absent in economics courses. It is not accepted that space has

an impact on social, political, cultural or other activities, and that it is influenced by them. The

following two examples are characteristic. In the subject of public economics considerable

time is spent on the determination and analysis of public and semi-public goods. The partial

and general equilibrium models of the neo-classical theory for the specification of the

optimum quantity of public and semi-public goods do not take space into account as a

variable, even though certain public and semi-public goods are of limited geographical range,

e.g. a lighthouse which is a semi-public good, the fire brigade, a road, which is built under

entirely different conditions on level ground and through mountains.

In the subject of Macroeconomics Analysis, the theory of investments plays an important

role in determining the equilibrium income of the economy. Nevertheless, in the neo-classical

approach the factors determining investment do not mention space directly as a component

that also influences the extent or nature of investments. However, in reality investments vary

enormously in size and form from one area to another.

The teaching of subjects dealing with the analysis of space may be thought of by both

students and academics as something that concerns 'special' cases or 'something else' such as

'sociology', 'epistemology' or 'pedagogy'.

(5) In the Departments of Architecture and Rural and Surveying Engineering these

subjects are taught more extensively and intensively. The Schools of Architecture are

traditionally connected to urban and regional planning. As early as the late sixties regional

planning moved towards the social sciences. The relative independence of urban and regional

planning was initially expressed in Greek Universities through the establishment of Chairs in

Urban Planning and later Regional Planning at the Schools of Architecture (AUT and

NTUA). The above Chairs later developed into Faculties. Regional planning is no longer seen

as technical training for engineers, but as a complicated procedure for regulating social

practices which develop in space. Courses in social sciences, geography, etc. were introduced.

This change was favoured by political developments in the 1970s (dictatorship and shortly

after its fall) when many students chose these courses, while now very few do so.

(6) New subjects have recently been added to departments where the analysis of space was

already being taught such as GIS, EU and ecology. In addition, subjects related to space are

gradually beginning to appear in departments where they were not taught in the past (i.e. in

Law Schools subjects concerning the social and institutional component of the issue).

However, most of the new trends that have appeared in planning and geography since the

eighties (e.g. structuration, post-modernism, realism) seem not to have been incorporated in

the curricula.

(7) Mapping is a useful tool for spatial analysis. However, the way it is taught today leads

to fetishism of digitization techniques (GIS), which thus become autonomous. Descriptive

geography, e.g. geography of continents, countries, etc., is absent. With the exception of the

Departments of History and Archaeology, no subjects are taught concerning the historical

dimension of spatial development.

(8) Geography is either not taught in the Primary Education Departments (e.g. Mathematics,

Chemistry) or it is taught in a very restricted way (only physical geography in the

Departments of Physics and Biology). Moreover, in secondary schools, where geography is


252 Research Briefing

supposed to be taught by high school teachers of physics and chemistry (who have not been

taught any relevant subjects), geologists, biologists and naturalists, it is actually taught by many

others (Rentzos, 1984, p. 70). In universities, subjects related to human geography and urban

and regional planning are taught mainly by those with a first degree in Architecture and

post-graduate studies—usually abroad—in Geography, Regional Development, Urban

and Regional Planning, etc. Subjects related to regional development and space economics

are usually taught by holders of a degree in Economics.

(9) There are many reasons for the recent establishment of special university Departments

for Urban and Regional Development, Planning and Regional Development, and Geography.

First the acute problems arising from the country's unequal regional development and

awareness of this through more complete statistical data which show the extent of the

inequalities. The realization by Greek University professors and society in general that, as

Massey argues, 'geography matters' (1984). The development of EU Regional, Environment,

as well as Urban Planning policies. Finally the realization of the problems created in the

professional field by the absence of systematic studies on space. The lack of a defined and

institutionalized subject allows various professionals (architects, economists, land surveyors,

etc.) to proclaim themselves 'experts' in planning by simply registering in the 'General

Researchers' Registry'. As far as specialized imported needs are concerned, these are covered

by 'imported knowledge' acquired through studies abroad, mainly at a post-graduate level.

Among other things this leads to the use of explanatory tools and development models which

are not based on an analysis of Greek society.

The consequences of importing knowledge into Greek Universities were, on the one hand,

excessive emphasis on physical planning as a result of an 'imported' knowledge from the

Anglo-Saxon School, and, on the other hand, traditional theories at the level of analysis due

to the influence of the German School.

Starting from the last remark, we can formulate the main directions that planning

education in Greece should take: a) the development of a 'local knowledge' based on the

interrelationship of the physical and social aspects of planning as well as the examination of

the specific regional and urban inequalities of the country; b) the materialization of the

plurality of approaches to planning (including the new trends which appeared in the eighties)

combined with a unified conception of space and the use of both quantitative and qualitative

methods of analysis; c) the balance between planning theory and practice, incorporating the

historical dimension of spatial development.

Notes

1. For an extensive presentation of the arguments advanced in this paper see Labrianidis (1996).

2. This body has a tradition in the subject. Although founded in 1975, it is essentially a continuation of

the Society for Regional Economic Studies (1962-1967) founded by Professor Ieronimos Pintos. It

offers two-year courses and accepts graduates from various fields such as engineers, economists,

lawyers, etc.

3. Professor Poulopoulos's text book Economic Geography of Greece, published in 1972 by Sakkoulas

(Thessaloniki—Athens) was available as of 1964.

References

BuRGEL, G. (1965/1988) Pobia. Étude Géographique d'un un Village Crétois. Athens: National Centre for Social

Research.

CRONON, W. (1991) Nature's Metropolis. Chicago and the Great West. New York and London: Norton & Co.

KAYSER, B. (1964) Geographic Humaine de la Gréce: Élements pour l'Étude de l'Urbanisation. Paris: Presses

Universitaires de France.


Research Briefing 253

KAYSER, B., PÉCHOUX, P.-Y. and SrviGNON, M. (1971) Exode Rural et Attraction Urbaine: Matériaux pour tine

Elude Géographique des Mouvements de Population dans la Grèce d'Aujourd'hui. Athens: National Centre for

Social Research.

KAYSER, B., PéCHOUX, P.-Y. and SiViGNON, M. (1989) Trois Études stir la Grèce Rurale: Margariti, la Plains

de Nestos, Samarina, vers 1960-1968. Athens: National Centre for Social Research.

KAYSER, B., THOMPSON, K. and KOUKIS, V. (1964) Economic and Social Atlas of Greece. Athens: National

Centre for Social Research.

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