The Egyptian Empire

The Egyptian Empire

The Egyptian Empire

C H A P T E R 2 L E S S O N 3

Key Terms/People/Places

• Terms:

◦ Tribute: forced payment

to the Egyptian pharaoh

• Places:

Thebes: new capital of


• People:

◦ Ahmose

◦ Hatshepsut

◦ Thutmose III

◦ Akhenaton

◦ Tutankhamen

◦ Ramses II

Middle Kingdom

• Golden age of peace and prosperity

• Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height

of its power

• Akhenaton tried to change the religion

• King Tut is famous for his buried treasure

• Ramses II, Egypt regained territory and built great


Middle Kingdom

• Old Kingdom ended around 2300 B.C.

◦ For 200 years, nobles battle for power

Confusion and lack of strong individuals throughout the Egypt

• 2050 B.C., Middle Kingdom begins

◦ A new dynasty takes over

◦ Move the capital from Memphis to Thebes

◦ Ends around 1670 B.C.


• During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt controlled new


◦ Soldiers captured Nubia in the south

◦ Soldiers attacked Syria in the north

Conquered people sent tribute

• Tributes enriched the kingdom,

◦ Added:



Amount of land to be farmed

◦ Built a canal between Nile River and Red Sea

Arts Flourish

• Arts, literature and architecture thrive

◦ Painters cover walls of temples and tombs with colorful scenes

of deities and daily life

◦ Sculptors created large wall carvings and statues of pharaohs

Pharaohs were portrayed as normal people, not godlike

◦ Poets wrote love songs and tributes to pharaohs

◦ New Architecture:

Tombs were cut into cliffs west of the Nile River

Valley of the Kings

Valley of the Kings

End of Middle Kingdom

• 1670 B.C., end of the Middle Kingdom

◦ Nobles plotted to take power from Pharaohs

◦ Egypt faced an outside threat:

Hyksos attacked Egypt

People from western Asia

Mighty warriors

Used horse-drawn chariots

Used weapons made from bronze and iron

Egyptians used copper and stone weapons on foot

• Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 120 years

◦ Ahmose led uprising in 1550 B.C. and drove Hyksos out of



• What time period in ancient Egypt was known as the

time when arts, literature and architecture thrived?

The Middle Kingdom was known as the time when arts,

literature and architecture thrived.

• What advances in art were made during the Middle


◦ Painters painted walls of tombs.

◦ Sculptors carved statues of pharaohs showing them as

ordinary people.

◦ Tombs were built into cliffs.

New Kingdom

• Ahmose began the New Kingdom that lasted from

1550 B.C. to 1080 B.C.

◦ Egypt became richer and more powerful


Woman Ruler

• Hatshepsut came to power in 1473 B.C.

◦ Ruled with her husband and after his death on behalf of her

young nephew

◦ Made herself pharaoh

• Her Reign

◦ More interested in trade than conquest

◦ Sent traders across the Mediterranean and south along the

east coast of Africa

◦ Searched for wood


Cabinets in homes of wealthy


◦ Traded with Phoenicians (Modern day Lebanon) for Wood

Egyptians sent:






Helped Egypt become wealthier

Spread Egyptian food and goods throughout the Mediterranean

Phoenician Trade Routes

Thutmose III

• When Hatshepsut died,

Thutmose III became pharaoh

• He expanded the empire

through the army

◦ North to the Euphrates River

in Mesopotamia

◦ South to regain Nubia

Empire grew rich from trade

and tribute

◦ Claimed many items from

conquered people:




And other valuables

◦ Enslaved prisoners of war

Put to work rebuilding Thebes

◦ Slavery became common in

New Kingdom

Slaves did have rights:

Own land


Eventually granted freedom

Geography Skills

• Gather with your 2 nd Base


• Turn to Page 181

• Look at the Map on

Egyptian Kingdoms

• Answer the questions:

◦ 1. Which kingdom included

lands across the

Mediterranean Sea?

◦ 2. What physical feature

makes up much of the

eastern border of the Middle


◦ 3. During which kingdom

would trade have been more

extensive? Why?

• 1. The New Kingdom

included lands across the

Mediterranean Sea.

• 2. The Red Sea makes up

much of the eastern border

of the Middle Kingdom.

• 3. Trade would have been

more extensive during the

New Kingdom because the

empire was larger. It

included the most coastal

land of the three kingdoms,

which gave it greater access

to the Mediterranean Sea.


• Came to thrown in 1370

• Tried to change Egypt with

wife Nefertiti

• Realized priests were

gaining power at expense

of pharaohs

• Introduced a new religion:

◦ Got rid of old gods

◦ Only 1 god was to be

worshipped, Aton

◦ Priests resisted

Removed them from their


Seized their land

Closed the temples

◦ Changed his name to


Spirit of Aton

◦ Ruled from a new city far

from Thebes


Empire shrinks under his rule

◦ Focused on changing the religion

◦ Neglected his duties as pharaoh

◦ Administrators he appointed were not as experienced as the

priests they replaced

◦ Hittites attacked

Egypt lost most of its land in western Asia


• Boy king/“King Tut”

◦ Son-in-law of Akhenaton

◦ Inherited throne when Akhenaton died

10 years old

◦ Palace officials and priests help him rule

Convinced him to restore old religion

◦ Ruled for 9 years until unexpected death (unsolved)

May have died from a fall or

May have been murdered

• Known more for his tomb

◦ Found by British archaeologist Howard Carter in A.D. 1922

◦ Contained:

King Tut’s mummy

Incredible treasures

Brilliant gold mask of his face


• What was significant about the new religion worshipped

by Amenhotep? What was the name of the god?

The religion worshipped by Amenhotep was significant because it

was a monotheistic religion, and the traditional Egyptian religion

was polytheistic.

◦ Amenhotep introduced a new religion that worshipped the god called


• Which famous king inherited the throne when he was 10

years old?

◦ King Tutankhamen inherited the throne when he was 10 years old.

• Why was the discovery of Tutankhamen’s tomb so


◦ It helped people learn more about ancient Egypt.

Ramses II

• 1200s B.C. pharaohs regained power and worked to

make Egypt great again

• Ramses II

◦ Reigned for 66 years, 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C.

◦ Regained lost land in western Asia

◦ Constructed many new temples

Used enslaved people to build

Most magnificent: Karnak at Thebes


• Temples were not always used for religious ceremonies

◦ Most Egyptians prayed at home

◦ Priests and Priestesses

Daily temple rituals

Washing statues

Bringing deities food

◦ Temples served as


Stored valuables:



Woven cloths

Decline and Fall

• Power faded after Ramses II

◦ Groups from eastern Mediterranean attacked Egypt

By sea

Used strong iron weapons

Egyptians lacked this valuable resource

• By 1150, lost empire and controlled only Nile Delta

• 900s, Egypt under control of group after group

◦ First conquerors were Libyans from the west

• 750 people from Kush (south) began to conquer

• 670 Egypt taken over by Assyrians


• How did Ramses II’s armies help him build a great


◦ His armies regained land in Western Asia.

• What metal, used to make weapons strong, did the

Egyptians lack, which led the decline and fall of the

Egyptian empire?

The lack of iron ore, used to make weapons strong, led to the

decline and fall of the Egyptian empire.

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