Sparta and Athens

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Sparta and Athens

ATHENS AND SPARTA

Chapter 7

Section 2


COMPARING AND

CONTRASTING

• What countries have governments or

lifestyles that are similar to ours?

• What countries have governments or

lifestyle that are different to ours?


KEY TERMS

• Tyrant

• Someone who takes power by force and rules with total

authority

• Oligarchy

• A few people hold the power

• Democracy

• All citizens share in running the government

• Helot

Spartan slaves; captives of war


KEY PLACES/PEOPLE

• Key Places:

Sparta

Athens

• Key People

• Solon

• Peisistratus

• Cleisthenes


TYRANNY IN CITY-STATES

• Kings ruled the first city-states

• At the end of the Dark Age, nobles have power

• Nobles rule was challenged by small farmers

• Needed money till they could harvest and sell their crops

• Promised to give up their fields if they did not pay back

• Most lost their land

• Had to work for nobles or move to city as a laborer

• Sometimes sold themselves into slavery


TYRANNY IN CITY-STATES

• 650 B.C., demand in power structure by

• Owners of small farms

• Merchants and Artisans

• Became wealthy from trade

• Because they did not own land, they were not considered citizens

• No say in running the polis

• Growing unhappiness led to rise of tyrants

• 600s B.C., tyrants overthrow nobles

• Backed by the common people

• Support from hoplites in the army


TYRANNY IN CITY-STATES

• Tyrants became popular, built new

• Marketplaces

• Temples

• Walls

• Rule by 1 person – opposite of what Greeks wanted

• Wanted rule by law with ALL citizens participating

• 500s B.C., tyrants fall our of favor

• City-states become

• Oligarchies - Sparta

• Democracies - Athens


CHECK & USING GEOGRAPHY SKILLS

• Gather with your 1 st Base Partner

• Check:

• Why were tyrants popular in the city-states?

• Tyrants had built new marketplaces, temples and walls.

• Turn to Page 345 and answer the following questions:

• How many miles apart were Sparta and Athens?

Sparta and Athens were about 100 miles apart.

• Which city-state’s geography might make it more open to attack in a military

battle? Explain.

Athens was more open to attack because it is located closer to the water.

Sparta’s central location within the mountains would make an attack on it

more difficult.


SPARTA

• Founded by the Dorians

Sparta needed more land as it grew

• Did not set up colonies

• Conquered and enslaved neighboring city-states

• Called their captives: Helots

• Conquered people did the farming and manual labor

Sparta focused on military strength and dominance


SPARTAN MILITARY

• Focused on military strength

• Feared that helots would

rebel someday

• Government controlled

people of Sparta

• Young boys began training

for war at 7 years old

• Training

• Age 7 –boys left home to

live in the barracks

• Harshly treated to make

them tough

• Age 20, men join regular

army

• Remained in army for 10

more years

• Ate all meals together in a

dining hall

• Returned home at the age

of 30

• Stayed in army till 60


SPARTAN MILITARY

• Men trained for battle every day

• Expected to win on the battlefield

or die

• Never surrender

• “Come home carrying

your shield or being

carried on it” – Spartan

mother

Spartan Soldier

Spartan Women

• Trained in sports

• Running

• Wrestling

• Throwing discus and javelin

• Kept fit to be healthy mothers

• Lived at home

• Freer than other Greek women

• Could own property

• Could go where they

wanted


SPARTA’S GOVERNMENT

• Oligarchy

• 2 kings headed a council of elders

• Council:

• 28 citizens over age 60

• Presented laws to an

assembly

• Assembly:

• Ephors:

• All Spartan men over 30

• Voted on council’s laws

• Chose 5 ephors each

year

• Enforced laws and managed

tax collection

• Visits from foreigners was discouraged

• Banned travel abroad except for

military purposes

• Frowned upon citizens who studied:

• Art

• Literature

• Kept control over helots for 250 years

• Focus on military

Spartans fell behind in trade

• Knew less about science and

other subjects


CHECK

• Turn to Page 347

• Look at the painting of Spartan boys training for the military.

• Why did the Spartan government want its young people to be

physically fit?

• They wanted their young to be prepared for battle.

• What opinion of Sparta does the artist want you to see? How

does the artist portray this opinion in the painting?

• Why did the Spartans focus on military training?

• They focused on miilitary training so they could conquer

their neighbors and control the large helot population.


ATHENS - LIFE

• Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a

democracy than building a military force

• Athenian Children went to school:

• One teacher taught them to read, write, and arithmetic (math)

• Another teacher taught sports

• A third teacher taught music

• Sing and play lute

• Instruction created well-rounded Athenians

• Good minds and bodies

• Age 18, boys finished school & became citizens


ATHENS – LIFE: GIRLS

• Girls stayed at home

• Mothers taught

• Spinning

• Weaving

• Household duties

• Wealthy families taught daughters to read, write, and play the lyre

• When they married

• Stayed at home to

• keep house

• Teach their own daughters


ATHENS = DEMOCRACY

• 600s B.C., Athens ruled by landowning nobles

• Assembly of citizens existed, but had few powers

• Government was an oligarchy

• 600 B.C., Athenians citizens rebel against nobles

• Wanted an end to all debts from farmers to nobles

• Wanted land for poor


ATHENS = DEMOCRACY

• 594 B.C., nobles turn to a trusted man Solon

• Canceled farmers’ debts

• Freed those who became slaves

• Allowed all male citizens to participate in

• Government

• Law courts

• Council of 400 wrote laws

• All citizen assembly had to pass the laws

• His reforms were popular among common people

• Farmers continued to want Solon to give away wealthy nobles’ land

• He refused


ATHENS = DEMOCRACY

• 560 B.C., Tyrant, Peisistratus seized power

• Won support of poor

• Divided large estates among landless farmers

• Loaned money to poor people

• Gave poor jobs building temples and other public works

• Died in 527 B.C.

• More tyrants ruled until Cleisthenes


CLEISTHENES

• Came to power in 508 B.C.

• Reorganized assembly = Central

role in governing

• Credited for make Athenian

democracy

• All male citizens

• Belonged to assembly

• Voted on laws

• New powers

• Debate matters openly

(free speech)

• Hear court cases (jury)

• Appoint army generals

• Created new council of 500 citizens

• Helped carry out daily business

• Dealt with foreign countries

• Oversaw treasury

• Athenians chose members in a

lottery

• Believed this was fairer than

election

• Might favor rich

• Not all Athenians given political rights:

• Women

• foreign-born men

• slaves


CHECK

• How did Cleisthenes build a democracy in Athens?

• Cleisthenes

• made the assembly the center of government

• Gave citizens more powers

• Created a citizens council to help the assembly

• Study Central


CLOSE

• How might a Spartan citizen complete this sentence:

• “I’m proud of my city-state because . . .”

• Draw a picture representing the above quote and

Spartan culture.

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