Ch 8 Sec 1

Ch 8 Sec 1

Chapter 8 Section 1

Myth: traditional stories about gods and


Oracle: sacred shrine where a priest of priestess

spoke for a god or goddess

Epic: long poems about heroic deeds

Fable: a short tale that teaches a lesson

Drama: a story told by actors who pretend to be

characters in the story

Tragedy: a drama where a person struggles to

overcome difficulties but fails

Comedy: a drama where the story ends happily

Key People:

◦ Homer

◦ Aesop

◦ Sophocles

◦ Euripides

Key Places:

◦ Mount Olympus

◦ Delphi

Answer the following questions with your

table group:

◦ Why do you think that the Greeks had so

many gods and goddesses?

◦ What do you know about Greek gods and


Turn to Page 377 – Understanding Charts

◦ Review the Chart on Greek Gods and Goddesses

Which god is the central point of the chart?


How do the gods and goddesses shown in the chart

relate to Zeus?

They are either the children or siblings of Zeus

How can you tell who are the siblings and who are the


They key indicates that siblings are connected by green lines

and children by red lines

Who was the twin sister of Apollo?

Artemis is the twin sister of Apollo.

How were Ares and Zeus related?

Ares was Zeus’s son.

Greek mythology expressed the Greek’s

religious beliefs

◦ Gods and goddesses affected:

Forces of nature

Zeus: ruled sky, threw lightning bolts

Demeter: made crops grow

Poseidon: caused earthquakes

People’s lives


Most impressive Greek buildings were temples

12 most important lived on Mount


◦ Zeus: chief god

◦ Athena: wisdom and crafts

◦ Apollo: sun and poetry

◦ Ares: war

◦ Aphrodite: love

◦ Poseidon: seas and earthquakes

Gods were not all-powerful

◦ Human characteristics

Greeks sought gods’ favor

◦ Followed many rituals

◦ Prayed to their gods

◦ Gave them gifts

◦ Held festivals to honor gods

Hoped for good fortune by doing these things

Believed in afterlife:

◦ Underworld ruled by Hades

Why did the Greeks have rituals and

festivals for their gods and goddesses?

◦ They hoped the gods would grant good

fortune to them.

What did the Greek gods and goddesses


◦ The Greek gods and goddesses controlled:


People’s actions


Greeks believed in fate/destiny

◦ Certain events were going to happen, no matter


Greeks believed in prophecy

◦ Predictions about the future

Gods gave prophecies to warn about future; time to

change it

To find out about future, Greeks visited an


◦ Most famous – Temple of Apollo at Delphi

Priest or priestess spoke for god or goddess

Priest or priestess in oracle gave answers in riddles

Earliest Greeks stories – epics

◦ Long poems about heroic deeds

◦ Homer wrote first epics during 700s B.C.

Iliad – War between Greeks and Troy; war was over a woman

Greeks won – wooden horse


Journey of Odysseus home after Trojan War

Took him 10 years

Both were looked at as more than poems

Real history

Stories promoted courage and honor

Stories taught loyalty between friends

Stories valued the relationship between husband and wife

550 B.C., Greek Slave Aesop wrote now

famous fables

Fable: short tale that teaches a lesson

◦ Animals talk and act like people

◦ Expose human flaws as well as strengths

◦ Ends with a moral or message

◦ Aesop's Fables

About 200 years, Aesop’s fables were part

of Greek oral tradition

What two epic poems were written by


◦ Homer wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey.

What are the characteristics of a fable?

◦ A fable is:

A short tale/story

Teaches a lesson

Often involves funny stories about animals that



◦ Story told by actors who pretend to be

characters in the story

◦ Actors:


Show emotion

Imitate the actions of the character

◦ Modern examples:



Television shows

Greek plays were performed in outdoor theaters

Greeks had two types of dramas:

◦ Tragedy:

A person struggles to overcome difficulties but fails

Unhappy ending

Struggle against their fate

Person’s character flaws cause them to fail

◦ Comedy:

Ends happily

Greek stories dealt with big questions:

◦ What is the nature of good and evil?

◦ What rights should people have?

◦ What role do gods play in our lives?

First plays had only one actor


◦ 2 characters: Conflict

◦ Costumes

◦ Props

◦ Stage decorations

◦ Oresteia – group of 3 plays:

what happens when king of

Mycenae returned from

Trojan War


◦ Used 3 actors

◦ Painted scenes

◦ Oedipus Rex

◦ Antigone

“Is it better to follow orders

or to do what is right?”


◦ Beyond heroes and gods

◦ Real-life situations

◦ Questioned traditional



◦ Comedies

◦ Made fun of politicians and


◦ Encouraged the audience to

think and laugh

◦ Included jokes like today’s

popular television shows

What two types of drama did the Greeks


◦ The Greeks created tragedies and comedies.

Actors speak and show emotion in what?

◦ In a drama, actors speak and show emotion.

What big questions did Greek stories deal


◦ Greek stories dealt with big questions, such as

the nature of good and evil

the rights of people

the role of the gods in their lives.

Greek Artists believed in certain ideas

◦ Art was to show those ideas





Greek Art

◦ Murals: none have survived

◦ Paintings on pottery

Red or black

Large vases have scenes from myths

Small drinking cups have scenes from everyday life

Architecture: art of designing and building


Most important: temple for a god or goddess

◦ Best known example: Parthenon

Large columns supported many Greek buildings

◦ First columns were made of wood

◦ 500 B.C., marble

Built in sections, then stacked on top of each other

◦ What buildings in America have columns?

Many temples were decorated with sculptures

◦ Favorite subject: Human body

◦ Tried to show ideal version of perfection and beauty

Did not include flaws of person

What was the most important type of

building in Greece?

◦ The most important type of building in

Greece was a temple dedicated to a god or


What were the ideas that Greek artists

hoped would inspire people?

◦ Reason, moderation, balance, and harmony

were ideas that Greek artists hoped would

inspire people.

List the three most important ways the

ancient Greeks have influenced our


◦ Draw a picture representing each way that

they have influenced us.

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