Geometry

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Geometry

Formalisation of mathematical

perspective


Giotto: confirmation of the rule of St Francis

247


Early Perspective

•Ways of invoking three dimensional space: rounded,

volumetric forms suggested by shading, spatial depth of

room suggested by converging lines.

•Not systematic--lines do not converge to a single

"vanishing" point.

248


Wernzel Jamnitzer’s Perspectiva Corporun regularium 249 1569


Setting for "Invention" of Perspective Projection

The Renaissance: new emphasis on importance of

individual point of view and interpretation of world, power

of observation-- particularly of nature (astronomy, anatomy,

botany, etc.).

Massaccio

Leonardo

Universe as clockworks: intellectual rebuilding of universe

along mechanical lines.

258


Text

Brunelleschi

• Invented systematic method of determining

perspective projections in early 1400's. Evidence that he created

demonstration panels, with specific viewing constraints for complete

accuracy of reproduction.

259


Text

Alberti

Published first treatise on perspective, Della Pittura, in 1435.

"a painting is the intersection of a visual pyramid at a given

distance, with a fixed center and a defined position of light,

represented by art with lines and colors on a given

surface." (Alberti, On Painting pp.32-3)

260


Albrecht Dürer, Artist Drawing a Lute, 1525


Vredeman de Vries's Perspective

262


263


264


265


266


267


costruzioine legitimma


Fillipo Brunelleschi 1337 - 1446

LEON battista Alberti

De Pictura/Della Pittura 1435

De Statua 1438

De Re aedificatoria libri decem, written between 1442 and 1452


dedic ation

origins

ionic

I

II

III

IV

corninthian, doric

knwledge

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

vitruvius

Dedication to the Emperor; branches of knowledge that an architect must be acquainted

with; the factors involved in siting a town and designing its walls, including a rather odd

alberti

extended explanation of the various winds. lineaments designing

A story about Dinocrates, architect to Alexander the Great, serves as prologue. Second

prologue, on the origins of architecture; but most of the book is about materials: bricks,

sand, lime, pozzolan concrete; kinds of stone and types of stone masonry; timber. materials making

Some comments on the chance nature of fame in the arts serve as a rather irrelevant

prologue: it seems clear Vitruvius felt he had to have one. The book then proceeds

totemples, setting forth some basic definitions, then describing a canon for the

construction of temples of the Ionic order.

Corinthian and Doric temples; temple doors and altars; the Tuscan order, which

on construction

Vitruvius seems to find primitive. on public works typology

In which the author warns you that architecture is highly technical, then proves it in

spades in his exposition of civil public spaces: the forum, the basilica, the theatre and its

porticos, the palaestra and the baths; harbors. Vitruvius takes particular delight in the

acoustics of the theatre about which he seems to know much, much more than he has

allowed himself to tell us for fear of boring us: it's a pity.

Prologue: poor but honest makes a good architect. A second sort of prologue on the

diversity of mankind from climate to climate, easing into the topic of private houses:

their construction should depend on the climate as well. Layout of the Roman house and

the Greek house; considerations of weather, function of the rooms, social position of the

on the work of individuals

owner. on ornaments décor

Long prologue on the importance of sharing knowledge, and, conversely, not

plagiarizing. True to his word, Vitruvius then shares with us his recipes for interior

decoration: the preparation and execution of wall paintings: lime, stucco, plaster,

pigments.

Water: how to find it, where it comes from, types of water, how to judge its quality; how

to transport it (aqueducts). A disappointing book though, since most of it is given over to

anecdotal material, cribbed from other authors, about the effects of waters from various

sources.

Prologue: architects deserve more honour than wrestlers. Useful technical achievements

of architects: a method of doubling a square, a method of constructing a right triangle,

Archimedes and the crown. Sundials and water-clocks, preceded by a long section on the

planets and the constellations.

Prologue: a proposal on how to deal with cost overruns. The book then details many

kinds of machines used in civil and military engineering: pulley-based machines for

lifting and transporting weights; the principle of the lever; machines that convert rotary

to linear motion and vice-versa, including the water-screw. The hydraulic organ. An

odometer of sorts. Catapults, scorpions, balistae, tortoises and how to defend against

them.

ornaments to sacred buildings

ornaments to public secular buildings

ornaments to private buildings

in which the restoration of Buildings is described conservation


LEON battista Alberti

De Pictura/Della Pittura 1435

De Statua 1438

De Re aedificatoria libri decem, written between 1442 and 1452

Antionio Averlino called Filarete 1400- 1465

Libro Architettonico


vitruvius

ichnographia, orthographia, scaenographia


Hypnerotomachia Poliphili

Υπνερωτομαχία Πολύφιλου

www.rdqa.com

"Hypnerotomachia," or as roughly translated, "struggle for love in a dream,"

POLIAM FRATER FRANCISCVS COLVMNA PERAMAVIT,

"Brother Francesco Colonna dearly loved Polia."

illustrated with 174 exquisite woodcuts

showing the scenery, architectural

settings, and some of the characters

Poliphilo encounters

Venice 1499


Hypnerotomachia Poliphili

Υπνερωτομαχία Πολύφιλου

www.rdqa.com

"Hypnerotomachia," or as roughly translated, "struggle for love in a dream,"

POLIAM FRATER FRANCISCVS COLVMNA PERAMAVIT,

"Brother Francesco Colonna dearly loved Polia."

illustrated with 174 exquisite woodcuts

showing the scenery, architectural

settings, and some of the characters

Poliphilo encounters

Venice 1499

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