Otago Regional Land Transport Strategy 2011

orc.govt.nz

Otago Regional Land Transport Strategy 2011

Otago Regional Council

Otago Regional Land Transport Strategy 2011

Prepared under the Land Transport Management

Amendment Act 2008


Otago Regional Council

Private Bag 1954, 70 Stafford Street

Dunedin 9054

Phone 03 474 0827

fax 03 479 0015

Freephone 0800 474 082

www.orc.govt.nz

© Otago Regional Council

ISBN 978-0-478-37616-6

Published August 2011


Chairperson’s foreword

Otago’s prosperity - our quality of

life - depends on good land transport

infrastructure and services. Our primary

industries are driving much of the region’s

economic growth, so good access and

freight services linking the region’s farms

and forests, suppliers, processors and

export gateways are critical. Tourism,

another major driver of growth in Otago,

also depends on quality road links. A good land transport network is

not just of regional but national importance. Dunedin is a nationally

important freight hub. Queenstown Lakes District, a destination for

domestic and international visitors and key access point for trips

to Milford Sound, makes a significant contribution to the national

economy through tourism.

Otago’s challenge is to find affordable ways to maintain the quality

of our regional land transport network, by using this network to

help drive economic growth, while gradually adapting it to meet our

needs in a changing world. Over the next few decades, fuel price

fluctuations and shortages in oil-based fuels will reshape how we

live and the ways we produce goods and services. We can approach

this challenge positively rather than fearfully because it gives us

the opportunity to ensure our transport system is sustainable and

affordable over the longer term.

The Regional Transport Committee has prepared a strategy

recommending the mix of mechanisms needed over the next thirty

years to meet this challenge. Some mechanisms are market-based;

others need to be delivered by the regional council, Otago’s five

territorial authorities, or government agencies: NZ Transport Agency,

NZ Police and Ministries of Transport and Health.

With constraints on future government funding for land transport

in Otago, the strategy takes a realistic stance. It concentrates on

prudently containing costs. This means maintaining, protecting and

making the best use of the region’s transport network, while also

taking opportunities to build the region’s role as a freight and tourism

hub and to build resilience in the face of projected changes in oil

supply and prices. Over the term of this strategy, oil-based fuels are

likely to remain the primary source of transport energy, with a greater

use of biofuel and of electric vehicles for short trips. Good land-use

planning should help reduce our oil dependency, particularly in urban

areas. Greater use of non-motorised transport, public transport and

rail freight will also assist. For those in rural areas away from state

highways however, a high degree of self-reliance and community selfhelp

will be needed to retain access to goods and services.

The Regional Transport Committee is pleased to present this Otago

Regional Land Transport Strategy (RLTS) 2011 – 2041. The committee

thanks those who made submissions. Your input and interest is

appreciated. Changes made as a result of this consultation are listed

on page 3.

Stephen Woodhead

Chairperson, Otago Regional Transport Committee

i


Contents

Chairperson’s foreword

Page

i

Introduction 1

A new land transport strategy 1

Map 2

Consultation undertaken 3

Desired goal, outcomes and outputs 5

Approaches to sustainability, integration, accessibility and equity 6

The strategy, including expected delivery mechanisms 7

Companion documents 9

Regional economic, demographic and land-use considerations 10

Funding considerations 11

The strategy: Schedules 12

SCHEDULE 1 Proposed strategy, including assumptions, risk

management and indicators of success 12

SCHEDULE 2 The appropriate role of each transport mode 48

SCHEDULE 3 The role of demand management, education and enforcement 51

Attachment A 53

Compliance statement 53

Attachment B 63

Policy on the significance of variations to Regional Land Transport Strategy 63

Acronyms and abbreviations 64

ii


Introduction

A new land transport strategy

This Otago Regional Land Transport Strategy 2011 – 2041 sets the

direction for Otago’s land transport system for the next thirty years.

It replaces the 2005 strategy, now outdated by changes in both

political context and legislation. Since the 2005 strategy was adopted,

the government has instituted a new way of prioritising its transport

investment focused on supporting national economic growth and

productivity, and has issued a Government Policy Statement on land

transport funding describing this and other short- to medium-term

impacts sought.

This land transport strategy covers both road and rail. Although

it excludes air transport and the maritime component of shipping

and the air, it covers connections to airports and to shipping

through ports. Schedule 1 sets out the strategy in full, including the

assumptions made, risk management built into it, and the indicators

to be used to measure whether implementation has been successful.

The Otago Regional Transport Committee has prepared this Regional

Land Transport Strategy (RLTS) in accordance with the Land Transport

Management Amendment Act 2008 and proposes it on behalf of

the Otago Regional Council (ORC). All five Otago territorial local

authorities, plus the New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA), are

represented on this ORC standing committee, alongside two ORC

representatives and people appointed to represent the objectives of

economic development, access and mobility, public health, safety and

personal security, and environmental sustainability.

The strategy covers the area shown on the map overleaf including

all of the Waitaki District. The map also shows major road and rail

corridors, including links with neighbouring regions.

The committee will review the strategy in six years’ time (2017). In

the meantime, the strategy will guide the production of the next two

regional land transport programmes for Otago (the 2012-15 and

2015-2018 programmes) and the new long-term plans 2012-2022

by ORC and each of Otago’s territorial local authorities. The strategy

will also guide development of a new regional public transport

plan (2011/12) and the transport section of a new regional policy

statement. NZTA investment decisions will need to take the strategy

into consideration when determining the strategic fit of proposed

projects and programmes.

1


Consultation undertaken

This document is the final Otago Regional Land Transport Strategy,

prepared in consultation with the public in the region, affected

communities, land transport users and providers, including network

providers. The Regional Transport Committee sought the public’s

views on the proposed strategy through both informal and formal

consultation phases explained in the statement of compliance,

Attachment A.

As a result of formal consultation in June/ July 2011, the committee

made several changes to the document, including amendments to:

Output 3.1, mechanism e, regarding provision of an alternative route

from Dunedin to Port Otago.

Output 3.1, mechanisms f and g, to better reflect the needs of

pedestrians and cyclists.

Outputs 3.2.1 and 3.2.3 and mechanism f, j and m, to reflect safety

priorities.

Output 3.3, mechanism g, regarding the crossing of the Manuherikia

River by bridge at Omakau.

Output 3.6, mechanism c, to acknowledge the need for bus stops to

be accessible for the disabled.

Output 4.1, mechanism b, concerning accessways onto arterials.

The titles of outputs 5.1 and 5.2

Output 5.2, addition of a new mechanism concerning school buses in

Queenstown Lakes District.

Output 6.1, recognising the usefulness of rail when adverse weather

closes state highways 1 and 87 for extended periods.

As a result of submissions, the Committee also clarified the wording

of several parts of the document, to make the meaning clearer.

3


How each output is expected to contribute to each outcome

KEY

Consequential effect

Outcome 1.1

Sustainable, demographicallyappropriate

transport infrastructure and

services, serving and linking resilient

communities

Outcome 1.2

The ability of individual, families, households and businesses

to undertake necessary travel and carriage of freight in

safe, healthy, convenient and affordable ways, with travel

constrained only by the choices that people make (i.e. the

realities of residential and business locations).

OUTPUTS NETWORK PEOPLE

2.1 A transport system that is fit for the purpose

2.2 Basic network design and best use of existing

infrastructure and networks

Network planning and operation

2.3 Realistic, appropriate network planning,

management and operation

3.1 Adequate capacity on the network, with

acceptable journey times able to be relied upon


3.2 Ensuring travel safety and personal security





3.3 Ensuring efficient use of infrastructure and good

connections, especially for freight


3.4 Catering adequately for tourism


The service that people receive

3.5 Managing environmental and amenity effects

(including air quality and emissions)

3.6 Physical and spatial requirements for accessible

public transport

4.1 Ensuring access to goods and services in areas

experiencing population growth

5.1 Walking and cycling networks and facilities that

provide for safe, convenient travel by these modes

5.2 Viable public transport that meets the needs of

Otago communities

6.1 Resilience in the face of changes to oil

prices and supply



Addressing growth

Other modes of transport

Ensuring resilience

4


Desired goal, outcomes and outputs

Goal of the strategy

1.0 A safe transport system that provides connections between

communities, leading to regional prosperity, the creation of

wealth and employment, social inclusion and the minimisation

of adverse environmental effects.

Outcomes sought

The committee has identified two transport outcomes as important in

reaching this goal:

1.1 Sustainable, demographically appropriate transport

infrastructure and services, that serves and links resilient

communities.

1.2 The ability of individuals, families, households and businesses

to undertake necessary travel and carriage of freight in

safe, healthy, convenient and affordable ways, with travel

constrained only by the choices that people make (i.e. the

realities of residential and business locations).

Categories of outputs sought

2.1 a transport system that is fit for the purpose.

2.2 basic network design and best use of existing infrastructure and

networks.

2.3 realistic, appropriate network planning, management and

operation.

3.1 adequate capacity on the network, with acceptable journey

times able to be relied upon.

3.2 ensuring travel safety and personal security.

3.3 ensuring efficient use of infrastructure and good connections,

especially for freight.

3.4 catering adequately for tourism.

3.5 managing environmental and amenity effects (including air

quality and emissions).

3.6 physical and spatial requirements for accessible public transport

4.1 ensuring access to goods and services in areas experiencing

population growth.

5.1 walking and cycling networks and facilities that provide for

safe, convenient travel by these modes.

5.2 viable public transport that meets the needs of Otago

communities.

6.1 resilience in the face of changes to oil prices and supply.

The diagram on the facing page shows the relationship between

these outcomes and outputs.

In preparing this land transport strategy for Otago, the committee

has ensured the strategy will contribute to the aim set out in the

Land Transport Management Amendment Act 2008 – an affordable,

integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable land transport system –

and to each of the following objectives specified in the Act:

■ assisting economic development

■ assisting safety and personal security

■ improving access and mobility

■ protecting and promoting public health

■ ensuring environmental sustainability.

These objectives recognise that transport is not an end in itself, but a

means to various ends such as production and trade.

5


Approaches to sustainability, integration, accessibility and equity

In considering how best to achieve the sustainable land transport

system required in the Act, the committee has determined that for

Otago’s land transport system to be sustainable, it must:

■ be affordable to operate, maintain and use over the long term

■ persist in the face of external shocks and natural hazards

■ deliver the level and quality of service expected, safety included,

to enable travel/freight

■ keep social and environmental impacts within acceptable levels.

The strategy is based upon this concept of sustainability.

In order to improve accessibility, the strategy needs to ensure

adequate access to goods and services can be maintained at all times.

The strategy addresses this by focusing on the issues of:

■ rising maintenance and operation costs and an expanding

transport network

■ a likely shortage of affordable transport fuels from time to time.

Mechanisms to address these two issues are woven into the various

outputs of the strategy. The strategy aims to ensure adequate access

to goods and services can be maintained at all times in accordance

with the following policy goals:

Urban areas

■ Supporting the movement of people and freight in urban areas;

■ Choice of travel modes, with easy connections between modes

in urban areas;

■ Acceptable, predictable travel times for routine journeys,

including commuting in urban areas;

■ Urban community and economic well-being;

■ Social participation and inclusion in urban areas.

Rural areas

■ Acceptable rural travel times for the movement of product and

freight, predictable for perishable product;

■ Rural community well-being, social inclusion and participation

provided through a high degree of self-reliance and selforganisation.

In addressing how to improve accessibility, the committee needed

to choose what approach to take to ensure equity to take. Access to

transport will become more difficult for those in small towns or rural

areas with little or no growth and an ageing population facing both

rising fuel prices and a trend towards centralisation of government

services. The committee has opted to seek equality in people’s

capability to undertake necessary travel and carriage of freight, while

remaining realistic about the reality of the region’s geography and

distances (see Outcome 1.2).

The alternative – planning for all citizens to have equal access to

transport, no matter where in Otago they live or their individual

circumstances or whether travel is necessary or discretionary – cannot

ensure our transport system is sustainable in the face of climate

change and peak oil (i.e. likely price volatility and supply constraints

for oil base fuels). Instead, the strategy aims for equality in everyone’s

capability to undertake necessary travel constrained only by:

■ their own life choices (e.g. where to live or operate a business,

what type of vehicle to own)

■ geographical reality, such as distance between rural towns and

Dunedin.

This latter aim fits better with the notion of sustainable development

in the face of concerns about oil-based fuel dependency and climate

change than does any approach based on individual needs. It will,

6


however, mean hard choices for some rural residents about whether

to move closer to centralised services and public transport routes.

The committee’s approach to integration of the land transport system

encompasses:

■ integration (as opposed to fragmentation) through collaboration

in planning, funding and management of land transport

■ linking social, environmental and economic concerns together in

policy rather than attempting to artificially divide the world into

these categories

■ transport planning linked with approaches to infrastructure

planning, resource management and land-use planning

■ integration of transport modes, better intermodal connections.

The strategy, including expected

delivery mechanisms

This strategy identifies how the committee expects to meet the two

desired outcomes, and thus the ultimate goal, by stating the outputs

the committee seeks and the mix of mechanisms expected to be used

in delivering these outputs. Collectively, the outputs represent the

strategic option the committee has selected as being likely to achieve

the outcomes sought for Otago’s land transport.

Schedule 1 contains the full strategy. As well as the core elements

– the goal outcomes and outputs sought – schedule 1 specifies the

mechanisms by which the outputs are expected to be delivered, plus:

■ the key assumptions made, upon which the success of the

strategy depends (the goal and each outcome and output has

assumptions around it)

■ the risks and constraints around the goal and each outcome

(both existing and foreseeable)




the management needed for those risks

indicators of success (some of which are targets)

how indicators can be verified or assessed.

The goal, outcomes, outputs and expected delivery mechanisms

for those outputs are related through logic. If, and only if, all the

expected delivery mechanisms are delivered and implemented, then

all the outputs should be achieved, and thus the outcomes and goal

achieved.

The types of mechanisms through which the committee expects the

anticipated outputs to be delivered are:

■ market-based mechanisms, including technological development,

industry-led organisation and collaboration, and pricing

■ provision of public information

■ education (mainly around safer journeys)

■ regulatory planning

■ provision of walking, cycling facilities, public transport services,

roading infrastructure and parking

■ maintaining levels of road congestion where appropriate and a

restricted supply of parking space.

The table on the following page shows the organisations expected to

deliver the outputs of the strategy; these are categorised by the type

of mechanism through which the outputs is to be delivered.

7


Type of delivery mechanism

Provision of walking; cycling facilities; roading infrastructure, including bus

shelters; parking, including restricted parking space

Road maintenance, operations and improvements

Traffic management, including maintaining levels of road congestion, where

appropriate

Public transport planning; contracting of bus services, where required; funding

of bus shelters in integrated public transport networks, when not funded by a

territorial local authority

Regulatory planning (Resource Management Act)

Education

Rail maintenance, operations and improvements

Enforcement of road rules

Monitoring of air quality: areas with vehicle emissions

Assessing health effects of vehicle emissions

Regional transport planning

Government investment in Otago transport

Agency expected to implement that mechanism

Otago territorial local authorities (TLAs), NZTA

ORC

Otago territorial local authorities (TLAs); ORC for Regional Policy

Statement, air and water plans

Police, NZTA

KiwiRail, Taieri Gorge Railway

Police

ORC, but only if part of general air quality monitoring

NZTA on state highways (at its discretion)

Ministry of Health

ORC

NZTA; Ministry of Social Development (SuperGold funding for public transport)

8


Companion documents

The following two background reports are available on ORC’s

website: www.orc.govt.nz or on request from ORC:

■ Pressures and risks facing land transport in Otago

■ Implementation of the Otago Regional Land Transport

Strategy 2005.

The first report summarises the issues, pressures and risks facing

the region’s transport system, covering topics ranging from regional

factors, such as changes in production (thus in freight) and in

population, to global factors, such as changes in tourism, climate, oil

supply and oil price. The report concludes by summarising the futures

likely to arise out of these regional, national and global pressures, and

the type of transport responses advisable. The second report reviews

implementation of the 2005 regional land transport strategy, listing

work undertaken by the territorial authorities, ORC and NZTA since

2005.

9


Regional economic, demographic and land-use considerations

The main regional economic, demographic and land-use

considerations which the committee took into account during

preparation of this strategy are:

■ projected changes in weather patterns and climate conditions,

and in the supply and affordability of transport fuels, and

implications for transport infrastructure, transport demand and

the meeting of transport needs

■ the economic importance of continuing to support, into the

future, the high levels of mobility currently seen in Otago,

coupled with acknowledgement that planning to encourage an

ever-growing use of individually owned, oil-fuelled vehicles is

no longer a responsible or prudent approach, given shortages

of affordable transport fuels anticipated during the life of the

strategy

■ the value that Otago’s state highway network and main trunk

line represent, the potential of each to handle additional volumes

of traffic and freight, and the opportunities this creates

■ the efficiency advantages of a higher proportion of freight being

carried by rail on the Main South Rail Line; and of trucks being

able to carry heavier / larger loads

■ increasing the attractiveness of public transport to gradually

expand the Otago’s public transport network on the back of

increasing demand so that network remains viable at all times

but has the capacity when needed (e.g. if fuel shortages are

experienced)








the need to encourage future development and subdivision to

areas that can be efficiently served by public transport (e.g. areas

within walking and cycling distance of arterials 1 )

demand for quality roading infrastructure being created through

economic growth in Otago – growth in tourism and primary

industries, plus downstream sectors such as manufacturing and

service industries – and through associated high population growth

in some parts of Queenstown Lakes and Central Otago districts

decline or slowing of population growth being experienced by

several small townships, especially in central Otago

projections of an ageing population in all five of Otago’s district

and the implication of this for both transport demand and

funding

the need to support rural centres by ensuring those living there have

access to transport if transport fuel becomes difficult to afford or

obtain (rather than letting those communities wither and die)

the need to enable, encourage and support people in making

sensible choices (e.g. in travel modes or in choosing to limit

travel when needed (by providing some alternatives)).

the principle that any investment in new transport infrastructure

made in response to climate change and likely price volatility

and/or supply constraints for oil-based fuels should benefit

current as well as future generations if (part-) funded through

rates and taxes.

The columns in schedule 1 detailing assumptions, risks and risk

management expand upon these considerations.

1

Walking and cycling are currently considered suitable modes of transport for

trips under 2km and under 10km, respectively. In urban areas, the distance

people are expected to walk to a bus stop is no more than 450 metres.

10


Funding considerations

The Land Transport Management Amendment Act 2008 requires

the committee to consider the likely funding of any land transport

infrastructure associated with regional economic and land-use

consideration (section 77(d)). More generally, the committee must

take into account funding likely to be available for implementing

the strategy during the period covered by the strategy, 2011 – 2041

(section 76(b)).

The principal sources of public sector land transport funding are:

■ central government funding from the National Land Transport

fund, detailed in national land transport programmes (NLTPs)

■ local authority funding, whether territorial or regional

(rates, development and financial contributions, user charges,

including parking)

■ central government funding for rail (through Treasury).

The current NLTP provides an indication of regional funding available

for the three years from 2009-12, with possible funding ranges over

a ten-year period available at national level only. The long-term plans

of ORC and the five Otago territorial authorities indicate the level

of transport expenditure anticipated until the end of June 2019,

which will in many cases be revised when new community plans

are prepared for the ten years commencing 2012. The committee

has assumed these anticipated levels of expenditure to be indicative

estimates of available funding and has taken them into account when

preparing the strategy, but does not have information about the

funding available in the region beyond 2019.

The committee is, however, aware that in the past there has been a

gap between the cost of transport projects sought for the region and

the funding available from government. Moreover, some transport

projects needed to accommodate projected growth in Queenstown

Lakes are not yet fully costed, potentially increasing the funding gap.

The strategy highlights specific funding issues, principally as the risks

and constraints around the goal (see section 1.0 of schedule 1).

Additionally, output 2.1.1 seeks prudence, fiscal responsibility, value

for money and sensible planning in central and local government

transport management. Potential fiscal constraints include an ageing

population and the effects of rising oil prices on the affordability

of road building and maintenance. Risk management methods are

included to address these constraints.

The committee considers the outputs listed in this strategy, along

with their expected delivery mechanisms, to be priority matters to

address the pressures facing the transport system and the needs of

Otago communities and businesses to achieve the outcomes desired.

Further priority setting is needed for some topics, particularly for

bridge replacements and roading improvements to increase road

safety. Funding of items listed in the strategy is considered reasonably

feasible within the 30-year outlook of the strategy, although by no

means certain.

Funding of matters in the strategy will be subject to their inclusion

in council long-term plans (where local body funding is sought), and

in regional and national land transport programmes when NZTA

funding is sought, and will depend in part on the cash flows of local

bodies and government. The committee has the option of adding

a long-term financial forecast, through subsequent variation to the

strategy, should likely levels of future available funds become better

understood.

11


SCHEDULE 1 Proposed strategy, including assumptions, risk

management and indicators of success

GOAL 1.0

A safe transport system that provides connections between communities, leading to regional prosperity, the creation

of wealth and employment, social inclusion and the minimisation of adverse environmental effects

Key assumptions made, on which success depends Indicators of success and targets How indicators can be verified

or assessed

i. Otago’s prosperity, our quality of life, relies on the region’s

transport system being sustainable, i.e.:

■ affordable to operate, maintain and use over

the long term

■ persisting in the face of external shocks and natural

hazards

■ delivering the level and quality of service expected, safety

included, to enable travel/ freight

■ keeping social and environmental impacts within

acceptable levels.

ii. In connecting with the world, the region’s size and

geography will continue to require two international airports

(Dunedin and Queenstown) and the port.

iii. Dunedin is an important regional freight hub, the basis for

economic prosperity. Opportunities to build that role should

be actively sought.

iv. Transport infrastructure coverage of Otago adequately

supports the region’s diverse sites of economic production,

rural and urban.

v. The state highway network is an asset, able to support

further regional economic development, as it has sufficient

capacity to accommodate predicted traffic growth over the

next 30 years.

vi. The role of markets is to allocate resources efficiently: when

markets are working properly, resources (e.g. oil, fuel) will

flow to their highest value use, which would be transport

only if society values mobility and freight highly.

Assumptions continued on right

1.0.1. At least 80% of the region’s residents

are satisfied with how the transport

system caters to their community’s

needs, and the effect that the

transport system has on their own

quality of life.

1.0.2 The transport system facilitates

(rather than constrains) economic

activity and the generation of wealth

and employment.

Assumptions continued

vii. Land-use planning can help reduce oil

dependency by enabling people to live

within walking / cycling distance of local

services, including transport services.

viii. People will respond to predicted oil

price increases, modifying travel and

choices about where to live and what

type of vehicle to own. Businesses will

take advantage of market opportunities

created.

ix. Market-led technological development

will reduce dependence on oil (e.g.

through greater diversity of fuels) before

oil becomes so costly or scarce as to

jeopardise the region’s entire transport

system.

TLA surveys, mostly as an additional question

added to existing surveys such as the quality

of life survey for Dunedin or an annual

residents’ survey.

Requires a better understanding of the

relationship, over time, between heavy vehicle

movements (as an indicator of freight) and

regional economic activity; therefore, a study

is required.

Correlate changes in the level of transport

movement at key points on the network

across Otago with:

■ regional economic activity (average annual

% change in regional real GDP growth

per capita)

■ regional employment and % of

population in the labour force

■ average income.

Monitor cost of transport in the region.

Monitor road closures, interruptions, areas of

the network being avoided by users.

Sources of data:

NZTA, Statistics NZ; NZ Institute of Economic

Research (NZIER); KiwiRail re train movements;

NZTA and TLA traffic counts at key points in

the network For active transport in Dunedin:

household travel surveys.

12


GOAL 1.0 (continued)

A safe transport system that provides connections between communities, leading to regional prosperity, the creation

of wealth and employment, social inclusion and the minimisation of adverse environmental effects

Risks and constraints under which the strategy will be operating

ii. Some parts of Otago are experiencing high population growth, creating

transport demand.

ii. With ageing infrastructure and an expanding network, Otago faces

potentially declining government funding for transport outside major urban

areas. Moreover, government funding for local road maintenance and

upgrading, public transport, walking and cycling is likely to decline in the

short term.

iii. Revenue-gathering mechanisms for funding are inadequate in several ways:

■ Capital expenditure with long payback periods are inadequate,

especially for areas with small rating bases but projected growth (e.g.

Queenstown).

■ Inadequate depreciation reserves for funding renewal and inappropriate

revenue-gathering mechanisms hinder solutions to the issue of ageing

transport infrastructure (e.g. bridges).

■ The amount of rates funding that rural areas are able to provide for rural

roads is constrained; most exports from Otago are primary produce, yet

only 8.3 percent of the population are employed in agriculture, fishing

and farming.

iv. Providing an adequate transport network to foster tourism is challenged

by a lack of funding arrangements able to ensure those benefiting from

tourism-oriented roadside facilities and services contribute fairly to funding.

v. Uncertainties hinder planning:

■ fluctuating tourism demand (due to such factors as global economic

recession and concern about peak oil, likely to affect the cost of

international airfares)

■ economic benefits and population changes arising from offshore oil

exploration remain conjecture, creating planning uncertainties.

Risks continued on next page

Risk management needed (methods of managing these

risks reappear as outcomes and outputs)

i. Exercise prudence, fiscal responsibility and sensible planning, and seek

value for money, including best use of existing networks and infrastructure.

Define the level and quality of service needed.

ii. Plan to enable (1) individuals, families, households and businesses to

manage daily travel safely, conveniently and affordably; and (2) sustainable,

demographically appropriate transport infrastructure and services, serving

and linking healthy, resilient communities. Seek equality in people’s

capability to travel (everyone’s mobility constrained only by their own

choices e.g. where they live).

iii. To ensure that the transport system can respond quickly and flexibly when

crises occur, government transport agencies and local government should

work together on crisis planning and response. In times of fuel shortage,

Government should check fuel is distributed to keep essential activity going.

iv. Encourage government and local government to, collectively and firmly,

emphasise the expectation of high energy prices to prompt consumer

decision-making.

v. Encourage government to review its evaluation principles for such strategic

investments as land eventually required for public transport corridors or

interchanges where people commonly change mode of transport (e.g. a

bus interchange). Encourage government/ local government to endeavour

to ensure such strategic land remains available.

vi. Matters of energy efficiency, use of renewable fuels, and choice of

vehicle type should largely be left to the market, with central government

regulation.

Continues on next page

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GOAL 1.0 continued

A safe transport system that provides connections between communities, leading to regional prosperity, the creation

of wealth and employment, social inclusion and the minimisation of adverse environmental effects

Risks and constraints under which the strategy will be operating

Risks for Goal 1.0, continued

vi. Affordability constrains the degree to which transport planning, services

and infrastructure can support social connectedness and social inclusion.

vii. Planning for all citizens to have equal access to transport, no matter

what their individual circumstances or where they live, would pose an

unsustainable risk.

viii. Parts of the highway network and rail follow/cross fault lines; a large

earthquake could affect State Highway (SH)1, the rail line, airports or Port

Otago. Weather and natural hazards create access difficulties on parts

of road and rail networks, through flooding, snow, ice, coastal erosion.

Climate change and sea level rise may exacerbate these risks.

ix. International oil prices are likely to be volatile (with price spikes), rising over

the longer term and causing a shortage of affordable transport fuels (and

bitumen). Timing is uncertain but within this strategy’s horizon. As oil-based

fuels become expensive or scarce, they will ‘flow’ to their highest value

use, which may not be transport. Substitution with low emission energy

alternatives such as electricity and biofuels may not prevent shortfall in

supply.

x. Market signals may not prompt timely behaviour change (e.g. if distorted

by motorised transport subsidies exceeding those for active transport, or if

speculative behaviour affects public perception).

xi. If disruptions in supply of oil-based fuels or price spikes occur suddenly,

the opportunity for a large-scale organised response may be limited.

Government may determine which localities receive fuel in times of

shortage. Adequate supplies may not reach some areas.

xii. Government systems and processes around planning and revenue allocation

for transport programmes are, by and large, excessive when weighed

against the scale of Otago’s network. Tension exists between long-term

planning and funding decisions focused through the NLTP, the council,

long-term, and annual plans.

14


OUTCOME 1.1

Sustainable, demographically appropriate transport infrastructure and services, that serves and links resilient communities

Key assumptions made, on which success depends Indicators of success and targets How indicators can be verified

or assessed

i. Resilient communities are a pre-requisite for regional prosperity.

ii. Changes in the price and supply of petroleum oil fuels will prompt

consumers to make different choices about travel and freight

(mode of travel, choice of vehicle and fuel), which will lead

to the development and uptake of new technologies; prompt

fundamental change in mobility (and therefore in the nature of

society); alter patterns of settlement; and change where / how

essential social and government services are located/provided.

iii. There is no sensible economic logic to Otago or NZ trying to be

energy self-sufficient.

iv. As housing density increases, certain core community services

and facilities, public transport included, will reach the threshold

needed to become sustainable.

v. For resource-efficient, stable, easily understood public transport,

a simple route structure is the best configuration. The residential

form that supports the viability of public transport outside large

urban areas – helping ensuring access to goods and services

– concentrates housing within walking/cycling distance of key

corridors.

vi. Virtually every point on Otago arterials (the state highway

network, plus Southern Scenic Route between Balclutha and

Invercargill) are within a 30 minute drive of a centre with essential

services, making at least a basic level of public transport viable on

all these corridors.

vii. For public transport to operate viably (whether within major

urban areas or in linking other communities with those urban

areas), the community must be prepared to support it (through

rates), and users must be willing to pay a sufficient share of the

operating costs.

1.1.1 Towns with essential services, and those

communities within a 30 minute drive

along a state highway from those towns

or from Dunedin, all continue to exist.

Census data

Check towns have retained essential

services.

16


OUTCOME 1.1 (continued)

Sustainable, demographically appropriate transport infrastructure and services, that serves and links resilient communities

Risks and constraints under which the strategy will be operating

i. Many parts of Otago have little population growth and an ageing

population; most small rural Otago towns are projected to decline.

Transport links cannot, by themselves, save communities in decline or

centres that have lost their original purpose for settlement.

ii. The combination of distance and relatively low population means

most inter-town passenger transport currently consists of shuttle

services that are oriented to the tourist market rather than to

local needs. Rail infrastructure is (almost all) along the east coast,

with freight-only services, without any immediate opportunity for

commercially viable passenger rail for Otago communities.

iii. Subdivision is a prime factor causing the network to expand;

future development will create transport demand. Existing funding

mechanisms may not, however, be able to fund an expanding

network fairly. Further risk arises when tourism affects property

prices and rents, resulting in satellite housing centres for workers who

then require commuter transport.

iv. At some stage, the reality of fuel prices/supply is likely to restrict or

shape the ability of transport operators to provide freight and delivery

or passenger transport services. The price at which alternative fuels

become viable sets a cap on the normal price of oil, but does not

guarantee supply of fuels for land transport (oil may be used for other

purposes considered to be of higher value). In a fuel shortage, there

is no guarantee that Otago communities will receive supplies of fuel,

whether oil-based fuel or an alternative.

v. Some expectations exceed current affordability in some situations

(e.g. accessible public transport (buses, shuttles) or routes outside

major urban areas for those with severe disabilities).

vi. Effect of climate change on transport infrastructure.

Risk management needed (methods of managing these

risks reappear as outputs)

i. Retain the basic transport network design, but utilise space in alternative ways,

with less reliance on private motor vehicles in urban areas and on key corridors,

and greater provision for active and shared travel modes. Include provision for

active transport in roading hierarchies, thereby making them transport hierarchies.

ii. In urban areas, and around their fringes, contain / concentrate housing in areas

where genuine transport choice already exists or can viably be provided. Regulate

land use to ensure satellite towns can be linked to main centres with viable public

transport.

iii. Provide (commercial or contract) public transport in major urban areas and along

all key corridors (either commercially provided or, where both community and

user-support exists, contracted).

iv. In rural areas away from key corridors near urban areas, expect and encourage a

high degree of self-reliance and self-organisation concerning transport to ensure

community well-being, social inclusion and participation.

v. Local authorities need mechanisms that ensure the costs arising from an

expanding transport network are adequately and fairly funded.

vi. To ensure transport services and infrastructure can cope when oil becomes

scarce or expensive, gradually build the capacity and use of the public transport

networks centred on Dunedin and Wakatipu Basin, so they remain viable while

expanding.

vii. The risk of insufficient oil-based fuel to operate public transport will largely be

managed by the market, although the government may need to intervene to

reduce the likelihood and severity of major temporary disruptions. Maintain in

Otago a strategic fuel reserve for use at critical facilities, with those responsible

for critical services also responsible for maintaining this fuel reserve.

viii. Road and rail controlling authorities to incorporate measures into routine

management and maintenance programmes and into plans for capital

improvement programmes to address greater extremes of climate change, as/if

those effects become apparent.

17


OUTCOME 1.2

The ability to undertake necessary travel and carriage of freight in safe, healthy, convenient and affordable ways, with

travel constrained only by the choices that people make (i.e. the realities of residential and business locations)

Key assumptions made, on which success depends Indicators of success and targets How indicators can be verified

or assessed

i. Otago will continue to value high levels of mobility and freedom of

individual mobility. Travel will always be needed, as it is part of almost

everyone’s daily lives, although some changes in the travel behaviour of

individuals (such as combining trips) can reduce the amount of travel taken,

when required.

ii. Freight will continue to ‘follow’ economic value.

iii. As the uptake of new energy and transport technologies drives

improvement in the energy efficiency and fuel economy of NZ’s vehicle

fleet (which is poor at present) and increases the transport sector’s

energy efficiency, this should cut consumer costs and support economic

productivity.

iv. Within the outlook of the strategy, there will be Otago-wide access to the

latest communications technology, enabling people to reduce travel by

choice. Cost may pose a barrier for rural areas.

v. Government will acknowledge that where/how it physically

locates/delivers public services (e.g. health services) helps determine

the amount of travel required.

vi. What people actually value is the capability of achieving travel that suits

them/meets their basic needs – this is not the same as equal amounts of

travel for all. People’s expectations regarding access to travel opportunities

and modes reflect where they live. Also, people are prepared to shape their

needs according to sustainability, whether concern about dependency on

oil-based fuels, climate change or simply affordability.

vii. Families will take responsibility for ensuring their young people receive

adequate driver training.

1.2.1 In urban areas (principally

Dunedin and urban parts

of the Wakatipu Basin), all

households have safe walking

or cycling infrastructure

connecting them to essential

services, and access to public

transport within 400 m

walking distance.

1.2.2 Industry satisfaction with the

movement of freight.

1.2.3 Retention of the school bus

network funded by Ministry

of Education to service rural

areas.

Combination of census data,

plus territorial local authorities’

assessments (using GIS mapping, plus

assessment of walking and cycling

infrastructure and bus routes). Public

transport services data obtained from

registration details, plus internet

search to find all shuttle services

operating in the region.

Sector’s views as collated by Road

Transport Association.

Degree of change to this network.

18


OUTCOME 1.2 (continued)

The ability to undertake necessary travel and carriage of freight in safe, healthy, convenient and affordable ways, with

travel constrained only by the choices that people make (i.e. the realities of residential and business locations)

Risks and constraints under which the strategy will be operating

i. Public transport: the size and topography of areas such as Dunedin

and Wakatipu Basin, along with our dominant ‘car culture’ affect the

cost structure of public transport, making it difficult to provide the

same level and quality of service as seen in larger cities.

ii. Some people may find it difficult to afford the fares needed to

operate public transport viably. Others may experience physical

difficulty using public transport.

iii. Distances between towns across Otago; the time needed to travel

between centres of population across the region are constraints.

iv. Major towns are either along SH1 or in the Alexandra-Cromwell-

Queenstown-Wanaka quadrangle.

Foreseeable risks

v. People may not, for whatever reason, be very adaptable in the face of

high prices for oil-based fuels or a shortage in supply.

vi. Some people will experience barriers to using the latest

communications technology (e.g. a lack of training).

vii. Government may act slowly in reshaping how and where it delivers

public services, necessitating expensive transport.

viii. Individuals’ access to transport is likely to be problematic for those in

rural areas or small towns particularly, because of:

■ the current trend towards centralisation of government services

■ an ageing population changes the nature and level of transport

demand, leading to changes in services

■ rising fuel prices.

Risk management needed (methods of managing these

risks reappear as outputs)

i. Encourage people to make good choices in travel and moving goods, increasing

vehicle occupancy.

ii. In urban areas:

■ provide choice in travel modes (both active and motorised), with easy

connections between modes

■ ensure acceptable, predictable travel times for routine journeys

■ provide accessible public transport

■ provide public transport fare concessions for those experiencing long-term

financial constraints

■ provide separate transport for those with severe difficulty

using public transport.

iii. In rural areas:

■ ensure acceptable travel times for movement of product and freight,

predictable for perishable product

■ make it clear that we expect a high degree of self-reliance and selforganisation

to meet transport needs

■ where no bus service is available, people will need to use private transport.

iv. Publicity/discussions to ensure individuals’ expectations concerning the availability

of transport services and infrastructure are realistic in the face of geographic

realities.

v. Implement network improvements to increase the safety of road and rail travel,

including rail overbridges where rail crosses SH1.

19


Network planning and operation

OUTPUT 2.1

A transport system that is fit for the purpose

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

2.1.1 Prudence, fiscal responsibility, value for money and

sensible planning in central and local government transport

management.

a. Local and central government take a realistic approach, providing affordable

infrastructure and services to meet basic needs and specifying levels of service

that will be provided (roading, active and public transport), with these reflecting

population densities. This means that in less densely populated areas, transport

services may be less convenient and frequent.

b. Otago road planning and controlling authorities use a single, region-wide set

of categories specifying appropriate capacity and quality of service for different

categories of roading infrastructure (the roading hierarchy tool).

c. Otago makes best use of rail as an efficient way of transporting bulk and

containerised commodities.

d. Road-controlling authorities ensure that the transport system provides as adequately

for the transport of information and ideas as for the physical shifting of people and

goods. For affordability, those using active transport may need to share road space

with motorised vehicles (rather than have separate, dedicated space).

e. Local and central government decision-makers ensure that the benefits to be gained

from roading improvements intended to make traffic flow faster are really worth

the cost.

f. Transport planners leave the implementation of lower energy intensity in transport,

more efficient use of fuel, and greater use of renewable transport largely to the

market. Government sets appropriate market signals. Otago transport planners take

opportunities to implement useful technology regionally/locally, as they arise.

g. Local government planners maintain a watching brief for viable alternatives to

conventional vehicle technology (public transport included) and determine whether

any local uptake of these necessitates a review of the RLTS.

h. No use of local rates to fund investigation of expensive new technology, instead

make use of others’ investigations.

20


Network planning and operation

OUTPUT 2.1 (continued)

A transport system that is fit for the purpose

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. Otago’s stock of transport infrastructure must be

sustainable; the level of investment required for

maintenance must remain affordable over the

life of these assets.

ii. Even as the network is expanding, maintenance

and operation costs need to be contained.

iii. Investment in improvements must be affordable:

an ageing population will make it more

difficult to find sufficient funding for network

improvements if there are fewer people in

the workforce. An ageing population will also

change demand for different types of transport

infrastructure and services.

iv. Local commitment to local infrastructure

and services is needed, with continued local

investment in Otago’s transport network.

v. The effect of rising oil prices on the affordability

of road building and maintenance (e.g. the

price of bitumen) should be sufficient to prompt

efforts to find more affordable technology (e.g.

for road surfacing).

vi. Planning must ensure movement of freight

remains efficient. The volume of freight carried

within and through Otago is expected to

increase significantly during the outlook of the

strategy. (Nationwide, the amount of freight

being moved annually is predicted to double

by 2040).

Indicators of success and targets

2.1.1 Degree of conformity between regional land

transport strategy, long-term council plans,

regional land transport programme and

national land transport programme. Target:

no significant inconsistencies.

2.1.2 Throughout Otago, the transport network:

■ delivers acceptable travel times

■ is able to accommodate demand

for vehicle movements with some

congestion being acceptable in order to

drive travel behaviour change (see output

6.1 mechanism d).

2.1.3 Amount of expenditure in Otago on road

maintenance and renewals, as a proportion

of regional GDP, remains approximately

static.

2.1.4 For each Otago road controlling authority,

the amount of expenditure on road

maintenance and renewals bears a close

relationship to the length of roading and to

population.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

Comparison of those documents on a three-year

cycle, examining both anticipated outputs and

projected expenditure.

Travel times: establish standard journeys (on state

highways. plus Southern Scenic Route and Crown

Range Road). NZTA and TLAs to check actual

travel times: measure sample of actual travel times

against the expected travel times established.

Ability to accept vehicles indicated by no significant

lengthening of travel times associated with

congestion.

NZTA’s LTP Online reporting; NZIER for regional

GDP.

NZTA’s LTP Online reporting; NZTA benchmarking.

21


Network planning and operation

OUTPUT 2.2

Basic network design, making best use of existing infrastructure and networks

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

2.2.1 The basic design of Otago’s transport network is retained, without any

further arterials being constructed, unless a business case can be made. Road

continues to be the dominant space for moving people and freight in Otago,

with rail principally used for bulk and containerised commodities moving

along the east coast, including to/from Port Otago.

2.2.2 At key points in the region, freight carriers are able to switch modes to

reduce carbon footprints or save costs, without lowering customer service.

2.2.3 In urban areas, people have choice in travel modes, covering both active and

motorised transport, including public transport. In urban areas and on key

corridors, space is utilised in alternative ways, with less reliance on private

motor vehicles, and greater provision for active and shared travel modes.

Separate provision is made for active transport where affordable, or else

space is shared with other users.

2.2.4 To ease congestion in busy areas (e.g. SH6A), road space is allocated to give

priority to energy-efficient modes, including high occupancy vehicles, public

transport and active transport.

2.2.5 To ensure access to goods and services in urban areas, and around the

fringes of urban areas, housing is concentrated where genuine transport

choice already exists or can viably be provided. This is most likely to be in

either existing urban areas, or at nodes on either a state highway or the

Southern Scenic Route between Balclutha and Invercargill.

2.2.6 New roading links are constructed only when allocation of priority road space

to energy-efficient modes proves insufficient to ease congestion sufficiently

on key freight routes or in premier tourist areas.

2.2.7 The roading corridor provides for cost-effective transport of information and

knowledge (e.g. by fibre optic cable), as well as physical products and people.

a. Establish a consistent transport categorisation of transport

infrastructure across the region, encompassing both active and

motorised transport (i.e. a transport hierarchy specifying appropriate

capacity and quality of service for different categories).

b. Review (as part of the three-yearly Regional Land Transport

Programme (RLTP) cycle) all roads to determine which require

provision for active transport and/or priority for low-emission modes;

assign priorities for retrofitting.

c. Implement through design of infrastructure design (when new

construction is planned)/redesign of existing infrastructure/repairs and

maintenance.

d. Regulatory planning encourages housing along corridors that can/

could support viable public transport, with housing within walking/

cycling distance of those corridors. New connections onto state

highways should be limited sufficiently to ensure these highways

function as arterials. Short access roads adjacent to clusters of

houses may need to be constructed, in order to limit the number of

access points onto the arterial. Where feasible, new developments

should connect to adjacent developments through local roads

accommodating local traffic movements (e.g. new subdivision in the

Wakatipu Basin, with connections to SH6 should also be linked by

local roads to keep some of the traffic off the state highway).

e. Where commercially provided public transport services do not exist

or do not deliver an adequate standard and frequency of public

transport, then provide contracted public transport only when

sufficient support exists from both the community and bus users, or

help communities to organise shared transport.

f. Through regulatory planning, require roading infrastructure providers

to accept and enable use of the transport network for transporting

information/ideas.

22


Network planning and operation

OUTPUT 2.2 (continued)

Basic network design, making best use of existing infrastructure and networks

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. We can achieve economic prosperity

without a large road building programme.

ii. Access to goods and services is one of

several matters that influences where

development occurs. Matters not concerned

with transport lie outside the scope of this

strategy.

iii. Those communities wanting public

transport, where commercial services are

not viable, are willing to support these

services adequately through rating (or some

other financial mechanism).

iv. Public transport users are willing to pay an

adequate proportion of costs needed for

services to operate viably.

Indicators of success and targets

How indicators can be verified or

assessed

2.2.1 District plan roading hierarchies aligned. Assess district plans and make

recommendations as required.

2.2.2 Length of arterial road and lane-km, compared to 2005

and 2010. Target: less than 1% increase every three

years.

2.2.3 Length of shared roadway making provision of active

transport in each district (cf. population and no. of

vehicles owned, compared to 2005 and 2010).

2.2.4 Length of active transport corridor (separate from the

road corridor) in each area (standardised for. population

and number of vehicles owned), compared to 2005 and

2010.

2.2.5 Length of road corridor in which low-emission modes

are given priority (public transport; other high occupancy

vehicles; active transport), compared to 2010.

For coverage of areas by public transport, see

outcome 1.2.

NZTA annual network statistics.

NZTA and TLAs to collect this data.

2.2.6 Clear, understandable information that helps people

make choices about vehicles and travel.

2.2.7 Number of functional points on the network where

freight can readily and efficiently be switched from one

mode to another, compared to 2010.

2.2.8 District plans contain common provision for infrastructure

in road corridors. Target is no significant inconsistency.

Establish a master list of standard journeys

to test; use ‘guinea pigs’ to check whether

information is easy to find for those

journeys.

Road Transport Association to assess

and report.

Assess district plans.

23


Network planning and operation

OUTPUT 2.3

Realistic, appropriate network planning, management and operation

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

2.3.1 Realistic levels and quality of service specified for road and rail infrastructure

to meet basic needs, including freight, public and active transport.

a. Regionally coordinated approach – the RLTP – to set region-wide

funding priorities intended to deliver the outputs in this strategy,

within the limits of government funding available through the NLTP.

b. Levels of service in asset management plans (individual authorities)

and Regional Public Transport Plan (RPTP) to align with this strategy

[outputs 3.1 to 3.6, in particular] and to reflect population densities

and affordability.

c. Each district has a transport hierarchy, based on a consistent

categorisation across the region, and adequately implemented

through land-use planning and traffic management measures.

d. Publicity/discussions to ensure individuals’ expectations concerning the

availability of transport services and infrastructure are realistic in the

face of environmental, geographic and fiscal realities.

24


Network planning and operation

OUTPUT 2.3 (continued)

Realistic, appropriate network planning, management and operation

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. The anticipated alignment and use of common

planning tools (including a single transport

hierarchy for Otago) can be achieved, despite

the level of government bureaucracy and

despite the diverse political agendas and

interests represented in those responsible for

planning Otago’s transport system.

Indicators of success and targets

2.3.1 For transport matters provided by local

government or NZTA, levels and quality of

service are defined and well publicised.

2.3.2 RLTP aligns with this strategy. Levels of

service in asset management plans and RPTP

align with this strategy. Target is 100%

conformance.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

Assess whether information on level and quality

of service is available to the public and covers the

entire network (i.e. search for that information in

the manner that a member of the public would).

Assess RLTP against RLTS, asset management plans

and RPTP.

25


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.1

Managed capacity on the network, with acceptable journey times able to be relied upon

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

3.1.1 Acceptable, predictable travel times within the tolerable level of

variance specified for key, routine journeys, covering both commuting

and movement of product/freight.

3.1.2 Minimal closure of the major freight routes due to weather, with closed

routes reopened only when safe to travel.

3.1.3 Alternative routes provided between Dunedin city and the port and

airport, for use when natural hazards/ events close the main routes.

3.1.4 Safe, not unduly long detours are available for those sections of road

critical for transport within, or in / out of, Otago. For any road closures,

Police and road controlling authorities make it a priority to reopen the

road quickly.

a. Otago road controlling authorities use a single, common system

categorising roads by levels of service (transport hierarchy), with clear

standards of maintenance and expenditure levels to ensure acceptable

capacity and predictable travel times for routine journeys (including freight

and cross-Otago travel).

b. Road and rail controlling authorities minimise road closures arising from

maintenance/improvements and natural events, ensure adequate detours

for road users and keep overall delay / disruption to a minimum.

c. Monitoring and communications systems operate on the entire state

highway network and special purpose roads, watching for closures and

communicating this to road users.

d. Lifeline planning undertaken, covering essential transport routes.

e. Improve route security along the existing link between Dunedin city and the

port; review feasibility of an alternative link within the 30 year horizon of

the RLTS. Review/upgrade those routes likely to provide an alternative link

to the airport in the event the main route is disrupted by natural events or

weather, in order to ensure the alternative(s) can carry the requisite loads.

f. Road surface treatments are appropriate for the conditions, maximising

the time that weather-challenged routes can be safely travelled. Decisions

about road surfaces should consider the needs and safety of active

transport users as well as motorised users.

g. Where necessary, bridges, culverts and surface levels are modified to

conform with flood mitigation measures to ensure the transport network is

kept open as much as possible despite flooding.

h. Protocols for responding to emergencies make reopening the road / rail line

a high priority. Contingency plans should consider pedestrians and cyclists.

26


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.1 (continued)

Managed capacity on the network, with acceptable journey times able to be relied upon

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. Asset management planning kept up-to-date by

all road-controlling authorities and KiwiRail

ii. Speed limits will be needed for safety reasons;

these limits may affect travel times.

Indicators of success and targets

3.1.1 For state highways, arterial road and routes

important for commuting or critical freight:

target is 100% conformance with standard

journey times (based on 2010), within

acceptable variance levels.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

For assessment of travel times, see output 2.1.

3.1.2 Target: a gradual decline in number and

duration of complete closures and in the

number of severe crashes and fatalities per

vehicle-km travelled per capita (associated

with icy or wet sections of the network).

3.1.3 Lifeline planning completed and

implemented.

3.1.4 Adequate performance of alternative routes

to Port Otago and Dunedin airport in event

of a major disruption. Target is minimal

disruption to necessary transport and trade,

especially for perishable items.

NZTA/DCC to measure number of times when each

state highway is closed without any detour available,

plus locality, reason and duration. DCC to measure

the same for George/Princes Street in Dunedin.

Measurement to include additional time required on

each detour.

Monitor road closures and crashes due to icy,

wet conditions and to flooding (see road closure

measure above).

Measure severe crashes and fatalities per vehicle-km

travelled per capita, by district.

Check protocols are in place and adequate.

Check lifeline planning.

Survey road users after a major disruption

to port/airport routes.

27


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.2

Ensuring travel safety and personal security

Output sought

3.2.1 Everyone’s travel in Otago becomes

progressively safer (statistically).

Crashes are less severe, on average.

Fewer severe crashes.

Reducing towards zero, the number of

avoidable fatalities, concentrating on those

involving:

■ drink and drug-affected drivers

■ fatigued drivers

■ distracted drivers

■ high risk drivers

■ young drivers (under 25 years)

■ car drivers/passengers not wearing restraints

■ restraints for children and infants

■ cyclists without helmets

■ speed

■ unsafe loads

■ unregistered vehicles

■ unsafe roadsides, including the placement

of poles and trees (fixed objects) alongside

road corridors, etc.

3.2.2 The social cost of road and rail crashes

lessened over time.

3.2.3 Walking alone in urban neighbourhoods after

dark is considered safe.

Expected delivery mechanisms

A safe system approach

a. Coordinated, sustained national campaign seeking and promoting the social change–including

change in norms–needed to ensure safe travel.

b. Integrate safety management (including safety audits) into local authority management systems for

the transport network.

c. Specify freight routes through Dunedin city, and all Otago towns, or else construct bypasses.

Safe roads and rail, more accommodating of human error

d. Require /design safe access ways onto state highways and high volume roads, and remedy existing

unsafe ones as opportunities arise, taking into consideration tourists’ use of certain roads.

e. Erect crash barriers on state highways (open road situations) where the effect of leaving a road is

likely to be fatal. On high volume roads, erect barriers separating oncoming traffic to prevent headon

crashes. Within shared space, separate modes where required for safety. Where the safety of

those using active transport to commute on arterials is at significant risk from motorised traffic,

build cycleways/walkways separated from traffic.

f. Remedy tight corners in icy, or persistently shady or wet situations based on traffic volumes and

other risk factors within the funding available.

g. Reconfigure/ refit unsafe intersections.

h. Replace one-lane bridges on state highways with two-lane ones (see section 3.3 re priority for

bridge replacements).

i. Install overbridges on all rail crossings of SH1 in Otago. Regulatory planning to ensure any

developments next to Main South Rail line that require further crossings incorporate grade

separation.

Safe roadsides

j. Remove roadside hazards (e.g. trees, poles) likely to cause crashes or make crashes worse when a

vehicle leaves the road, based on traffic volumes and other risk factors within the funding available.

All regulatory provisions making poles or structures permitted activities in road corridors are to

require their safe placement.

k. Utility operators to review safety of pole placements alongside all Otago road corridors, and rectify

those likely to make any crashes fatal. Collect and publish information on road crashes involving

utility operators’ poles/structures in road corridors.

Expected delivery mechanisms continued on right

28


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.2 (continued)

Ensuring travel safety and personal security

Expected delivery mechanisms

Safe travel, including safe road use, safe speeds and safe vehicles

l. Minimise unsafe road-user behaviour.

m. Undertake extended road safety programmes (with greater police input), focusing on sectors of the

community at risk of dying on Otago roads, including:

■ mandatory road safety education, and mandatory driver training for young drivers, new and

future drivers, about the need to drive to the conditions and to have tolerance for other travellers,

including those driving slowly in appropriate circumstances

■ driver training focusing on problematic issues of intersections and corners

■ education and information aimed at the tourist sector, including rental car drivers and industry

operators

■ encouraging the family unit to take responsibility for ensuring all new and future drivers receive

adequate training.

n. Help people drive to the conditions and encouraging them to comply with safe speed limits.

o. Provide adequate, timely information to road users to ensure safety, including provision of information

about road conditions and any roadside hazards (e.g. fire, flood) for those about to journey.

p. Publish expected journey times and acceptable tolerances, and average speeds, for key journeys.

q. Enforcement of land transport rules concerning safety, with focus on those issues most problematic for

Otago, as listed in this strategy.

Personal security

r. In urban areas, provide lighting adequate for transport modes being used. In urban areas and along

key corridors, encourage greater use of public and shared transport at night.

Continues on next page

29


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.2 (continued)

Ensuring travel safety and personal security

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. Gathering of crash statistics will lead to better

understanding of the proportion and type of

crashes that are preventable compared to the

proportion that are merely accidents.

ii. Significant government expenditure on

improving both road and rail safety.

iii. Enforcement is effectively targeted.

Indicators of success and targets

3.2.1 Targets each year (rolling average of last

three years):

■ steady reduction in the social costs of

crashes in Otago (road and rail)

■ nil easily avoidable fatalities

■ fewer fatalities

■ fewer crashes due to young / new drivers

■ fewer fatalities and severe injuries at

intersections and on corners.

3.2.2 At least 70% of urban residents feel safe

walking alone in their neighbourhood after

dark (70.7% in 2008).

3.2.3 No roads that pose either medium or high

collective risk (in 2007, 1% of Otago-

Southland rose posed high risk and 12%

medium-high risk).

3.2.4 Reduce the percentage of Otago state

highways posing high personal risk from

51% (Otago-Southland, 2007) to 21%

(national average, 2007).

How indicators can be verified or assessed

Police/NZTA crash statistics – see table on next page

for baseline data and for type of statistics to be used

to assess indicator (target) 3.2.1.

TLA survey questions (e.g. in a quality of life or

residents survey).

KiwiRap

KiwiRap

30


Baseline data for Indicator 3.2.1

Components of target Average for three-year period Yearly data (for calculating

rolling average)

2001-03 2004-06 2007-09 2007 2008 2009

Steady reduction in the social costs of crashes in Otago ($m 2008 prices) 239 242 243 246 237 245

Nil easily preventable crashes

Number of injury crashes with alcohol as a contributing factor 76 81 86 102 81 75

Number of crashes involving unsafe loads 4 4 3 4 1 3

Number of crashes involving unregistered vehicles N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Number of crashes with showing off as a contributing factor 3 3 3 3 3 3

Number of crashes with forbidden movements as a contributing factor 2 3 4 2 6 5

Number of crashes with following too closely as a contributing factor 1 1 1 1 1 1

Number of crashes with travelling unreasonably slowly as contributing factor 1 1 0 0 0 0

Number of crashes with overtaking as a contributing factor 7 8 8 7 6 10

Number of crashes with failing to signal in time as a contributing factor 3 2 3 3 3 4

Number of injury crashes with speed as a contributing factor 128 147 135 159 120 126

Number of injury crashes with fatigue as a contributing factor 40 45 43 52 40 38

Number of injury crashes with inattention as a contributing factor 98 109 157 133 140 198

Number of injury crashes involving car drivers/ passengers not wearing restraints N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Number of injury crashes involving cyclists without helmets N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Number of injury crashes involving fixed objects (poles, trees, etc.) 276 314 290 416 366 325

Fewer fatalities 18 16 19 24 21 11

Fewer crashes due to young/new drivers

Car and van drivers aged 15-19 years involved in injury crashes 189 208 209 245 184 199

Car and van drivers with learner licenses involved in injury crashes 4 4 5 5 6 5

Car and van drivers with restricted licenses involved in injury crashes 5 6 5 6 6 6

Fewer injury crashes at intersections and on bends

Number of injury crashes at intersections 272 259 303 289 316 303

Number of injury crashes at bends 276 314 290 330 281 259

Source: NZTA performance monitoring

2010 data not yet available

N/A – Data not available (not currently collected, or not available at regional level)

31


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.3

Ensuring efficient use of infrastructure and good connections, especially for freight

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

3.3.1 Efficient flow of traffic on the entire transport

network, including state highways and trains on

the main trunk rail line.

3.3.2 Good use of the road and rail networks by

appropriately sized vehicles and loads, through

appropriate hubs, bridge capacity, and road and

rail configuration. Bridges are adequate for the

type and volume of transport using them.

3.3.3 Unimpeded and efficient flow of goods to/from

Port Otago, by road and rail.

3.3.4 Unimpeded and efficient flow of goods to/from

Dunedin and Queenstown airports.

3.3.5 Best (greater) use of rail as an energy-efficient,

low emission way of transporting bulk and

containerised commodities.

a. Identify and maintain routes that can accommodate overweight or overlength vehicles without

significant expenditure or additional maintenance costs. Contain local road maintenance costs

by keeping the heaviest trucks off local roads (except for those transporting milk, livestock and

aggregate – items of general community benefit) and providing sufficient hubs on those routes

selected for use by heavier/longer trucks, strengthen bridges (where needed) and remove tight

corners.

b. In regulatory planning, provide adequately for freight hubs, and ensure existing hubs / inland

ports continue to function effectively (e.g. those at Taieri (Fonterra), Milton, Mosgiel and

Cromwell).

c. Protect KiwiRail’s ability to continue operations (including maintenance) safely and efficiently

24/7, to create more sidings, increase train speed and numbers and grow freight.

d. Protect the functioning of critical transport infrastructure at risk from natural processes such as

coastal erosion (e.g. rock walls protecting the Main South Rail line and the rail yard at Oamaru).

e. Encourage access to rail for existing commercial/industrial/extractive activities and for primary

production.

f. Lower the gradient of the main trunk line between Dunedin and Oamaru to allow efficiently sized

trains to run both north and south.

g. Construct new bridges (able to take overwidth vehicles) over the Clutha River at Beaumont and

Clydevale, the Lindis River at Lindis Crossing and the Kawarau River (replacing the Kawarau

Falls Bridge). Investigate options for widening crossings of the Manuherikia River at Omakau,

and undertake when economically viable to do so. Undertake further work to determine the

factors to use in prioritising bridge replacements in Otago, and the appropriate timing of those

replacements.

h. In Dunedin, review the strategic links through the city to/from the port.

i. On state highways, remove slow speed areas impeding efficient freight carriage where the

combination of efficiency and safety benefits to be gained substantively exceed the costs ( e.g.

the Deborah rail underpass (SH1 near Oamaru), the Sawyers Bay rail underpass (SH88 near Port

Chalmers) and the intersection of SH1 and Macpherson’s Drive at Hilderthorpe).

j. Institute decision-making mechanisms to ensure benefits to be gained from road and rail

improvements intended to reduce travel times are worth the cost. Review NZTA decision-making

criteria concerning efficiency.

32


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.3 (continued)

Ensuring efficient use of infrastructure and good connections, especially for freight

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. TLAs and NZTA are keeping levels of

maintenance up and not creating a backlog due

to deferred maintenance.

ii. Adequate government expenditure on

improving the rail network along the east coast

and on the road network (bridges in particular).

Indicators of success and targets

3.3.1 Moves to bigger trucks have been successful

in improving the efficiency of freight carried

in Otago.

3.3.2 For trucks travelling between Lookout Point

and the port, target is 100% conformance

of expected travel times (based on 2010)

within accepted variance levels.

3.3.3 No significant increase in maintenance costs

per km, per district, from year to year.

3.3.4 Proportion of bulk commodities and

containerised items that are carried by rail

along the east coast increases noticeably at

least every six years.

3.3.5 For road and rail improvement projects

undertaken to improve efficiency in travel

times, the benefits predicted actually accrue.

Target is 100% conformance.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

NZTA or TLAs to establish an expected time and

acceptable variances and monitor actual times.

TLAs and NZTA to monitor maintenance costs per

km, per district, p.a.

Monitor freight-km and freight tonne-km; the

relationship between these would change if the

efficiency of freight transport has increased.

Undertake some after-the-fact analysis of benefits

that have accrued compared to those predicted.

33


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.4

Catering adequately for tourism

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

3.4.1 Otago’s transport system caters for increasing

numbers of tourists and has adequate services

and infrastructure (road, rail, walkway, cycleway,

with easy transfers between modes) to ensure

safe, quality travel experiences and manage

adverse effects on the environment and

communities.

a. Use funding mechanisms, including any new mechanism(s) that may be needed, to ensure those

directly benefiting from tourism-oriented facilities, infrastructure and services associated with

transport contribute fairly to their funding.

b. As tourist numbers increase, reconfigure roads in central Queenstown to accommodate the

movement of people and preserve amenity.

c. Adequate roadside facilities, destination signage and information to promote quality, safe travel

experiences in those areas frequented by tourists (e.g. rest areas, pull- off areas for vistas).

d. Provision of information about road conditions and travel times (not merely travel distances).

e. Provision of information directly to foreign drivers, through vehicle rental companies.

f. Coordination to ensure consistently high standard across Otago, as a regional marketing tool.

g. Provision of information about public transport operating in tourist areas.

h. Adequate public conveniences on tourist routes.

i. Standards for the commercial campervan fleet to control environmental impact.

j. Provision of adequate, appropriate coach parking, pick-up/drop-off points in areas used by

tourists.

k. Provision of adequate facilities and services for transporting cruise ship passengers.

l. New two-lane bridges on SH6, over the Kawarau River (replacing the Kawarau Falls Bridge).

m. A regional cycle network connecting different parts of Otago and linking to Southland and

Canterbury cycle trails.

n. Buses travelling to tourist facilities, ski areas to/from cruise ships etc. will be fully commercial in

provision (i.e. not subsidised).

34


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.4 (continued)

Catering adequately for tourism

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. A suitable organisation can be found to

coordinate and monitor the quality and

consistency of roadside facilities, destination

signage and information aimed at tourists

using Otago roads. Road controlling authorities

cooperate on this matter.

Indicators of success and targets

How indicators can be verified or assessed

3.4.1 Tourist numbers increase year by year. Visitor monitoring by Regional Tourism Offices.

3.4.2 A new funding mechanism is instituted for

tourism-oriented facilities, infrastructure and

services.

3.4.3 Number of serious crashes involving

international tourists decreases significantly

at least every five-year period, as does

the number of serious crashes involving

domestic tourists.

Assess funding mechanisms available.

Crash statistics – Police to record whether crashes

involve domestic or international tourists.

35


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.5

Managing environmental and amenity effects (including air quality and emissions)

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

3.5.1 Design of urban roads/streets and transport infrastructure

contributes to quality liveable environments, taking account of the

character of particular locations, and keeping exposure to adverse

effects from traffic (including noise and air pollutants) at a level

acceptable in that locality.

3.5.2 The idling of heavy vehicles and buses does not pose unnecessary

health risks to the community.

3.5.3 Roadside litter and waste minimised.

3.5.4 Surface water run-off from roads does not adversely affect the

quality of water bodies into which it is discharged or the health of

adjacent land.

a. Regulatory planning and best practice guidelines. Standards for subdivision and

development, adapted by TLAs to suit the character of particular localities.

b. Enforcement of government rules concerning smoky or noisy vehicles and

emission standards for imported vehicles and fuels.

c. Creation and enforcement of vehicle quality standards (in the regional public

transport plan) and (if an appropriate mechanism) of bylaws concerning bus

idling.

d. Standards for commercial campervan fleet to control environmental impact.

Suitable enforcement methods (e.g. instant fines) to discourage roadside

littering and waste disposal.

e. Rural and urban surface water run-off addressed through storm water

management.

f. Completion of Otago’s network of stock truck effluent disposal sites, adding

appropriately sited facilities in central Otago using fair funding mechanisms.

36


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.5 (continued)

Managing environmental and amenity effects (including air quality and emissions)

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. Businesses operating vehicle fleets make fuel

efficient, clean vehicles a priority.

Indicators of success and targets

3.5.1 District plans address the environmental and

amenity effects of transport explicitly, and

provide for mitigation where effects cannot

be avoided or remedied.

3.5.2 Cost-benefit analyses prepared for funding

applications for transport projects identify

environmental externalities, and that

information is then used to set enforceable

conditions that manage environmental

effects within acceptable limits and/or

mitigate them.

3.5.3 Air quality in main streets of Dunedin,

Queenstown and towns (where traffic flow

is greatest and where buses idle) is within

acceptable limits for health.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

TLAs to evaluate implementation through district

plans, resource consents and other regulatory

consents concerning transport projects.

NZTA to assess and report on applications for

improvement projects in Otago.

ORC monitoring if part of general air quality

monitoring. NZTA to monitor vehicle emissions

on state highways, at its discretion. Ministry of

Health assessment of the health effects of vehicle

emissions.

3.5.4 Reduction in roadside litter and waste. Comparative annual total cost of removing litter and

waste from Otago roadsides

37


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.6

Physical and spatial requirements for accessible public transport

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

3.6.1 Fully accessible public transport operating in urban

areas and along key corridors. In rural areas, those

not able to use public transport make their own

travel arrangements.

3.6.2 Spatial requirements for the operation of public

transport are adequately met.

a. Regional public transport plan vehicle quality standards.

b. Enforcement of vehicle and building accessibility standards.

c. Road controlling authorities’ set specifications for bus stops (including adequate stop length,

unimpeded bus movement in/out of stops and accessibility for those with disabilities).

d. Standards for urban subdivision and development ensure design/layouts suited to public

transport, including:

■ roading layouts allowing buses to manoeuvre

■ footpaths on both sides of the road, as appropriate

■ adequate bus stops and shelters, with stops close to the entrance of all public facilities.

e. Design and installation standards for new bus shelters.

38


The service people receive

OUTPUT 3.6 (continued)

Physical and spatial requirements for accessible public transport

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. Proportion of vehicles operating in each of the

Dunedin and Wakatipu Basin integrated public

transport network that are super low floor,

wheelchair accessible. Target is 100%.

ii. Proportion of bus stops in the Dunedin and

Wakatipu Basin integrated public transport

network judged to be wheelchair-friendly.

Target is steady increase each year.

iii. All TLA codes of subdivision and development

include appropriate standards.

Indicators of success and targets

3.6.1 ORC to monitor proportion of super

low floor vehicles in the public transport

network.

3.6.2 Each TLA to monitor proportion of

wheelchair friendly bus stops.

3.6.3 Each TLA to monitor standards in their codes

of subdivision and development.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

ORC’s vehicle (bus) quality monitoring.

TLAs to monitor.

TLAs to assess.

39


Addressing growth

OUTPUT 4.1

Ensuring access to goods and services in areas experiencing population growth

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

4.1.1 Growth in population and housing density is

encouraged in areas in walking/cycling distance

of existing public transport and local services, or

in clusters along major transport corridors capable

of supporting viable public transport and essential

services.

4.1.2 If new satellite towns are established, these should

be within a 30 minute drive along a key corridor (a

state highway or special purpose road) from towns

with essential services, with all parts of the satellite

town within walking or cycling distance of the

arterial.

a. Regulatory (Resource Management Act) planning requiring the sustainability of developments

to be considered, with transport to be considered as part of statutory decision-making on this

matter.

b. Residential developments encouraged to be within walking/cycling distance of a key transport

corridor (state highway or arterial road), or (for Dunedin and Wakatipu Basin) the existing public

transport networks. Accessways onto arterials should be considered where safety, efficiency and

functionality of the arterial can be maintained and enhanced.

40


Addressing growth

OUTPUT 4.1 (continued)

Ensuring access to goods and services in areas experiencing population growth

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. Every point on every arterial road in Otago

(except the upper Waitaki Valley and southern

Catlins) is within a 30 minute drive of a town

with essential services; this situation will

continue (i.e. these services will remain, in one

form or other).

Indicators of success and targets

4.1.1 District plans’ urban policy contains this

policy (concerning development relative

to transport corridors and public transport

networks).

4.1.2 Percentage of Otago households living

within a 30 minute drive of centres with

essential services: for those living along an

arterial/state highway – target is 99%.

4.1.3 Any new subdivisions are located and

designed to ensure quality walking access to

public transport corridors.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

Check district plans.

Monitoring using GIS and census data

(every five years).

TLAs to monitor.

41


Other modes of transport

OUTPUT 5.1

Walking and cycling networks and facilities that provide for safe, convenient travel by these modes

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

5.1.1 Greater provision for these active modes, enabling people in urban

areas to choose to commute as pedestrians or cyclists.

5.1.2 Greater use of active travel for local trips, resulting in a lower level of

dependence on non-renewable fuels for transport energy, increased

physical activity levels in society and improved community health.

a. Funding criteria recognise that pedestrians and cyclists have the same rights

to road space and to safe infrastructure as those travelling in motorised

vehicles, and place the same value on their time.

b. Give some existing road space over to active transport modes to ensure safe

travel.

c. Where the safety of those using active transport to commute on state

highways or arterials is at significant risk from motorised traffic, build

cycleway/walkways separated from that traffic.

d. New road construction and major improvements in high pedestrian and

cycle use areas to make safe, purpose-designed provision for walking and

cycling.

e. Bike racks on all urban buses, provided potential physical impediments and

obstacles are first removed.

See, also, Output 3.4, delivery mechanism m.

42


Other modes of transport

OUTPUT 5.1 (continued)

Walking and cycling networks and facilities that provide for safe, convenient travel by these modes

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. Higher level of government expenditure on

Otago walking and cycling (including funding

outside the NLTP for tourist or recreational

walking and cycling facilities).

ii. NZTA accepts that the road network should be

as safe for pedestrians and cyclists as it is for car

drivers.

Indicators of success and targets

5.1.1 All Otago district plans recognise that

pedestrians and cyclists have the same rights

to road space and safe infrastructure.

5.1.2 All NZTA funding criteria place the same

value on the time of those walking, cycling

and in motorised vehicles.

5.1.3 All transport hierarchies include active

transport corridors, to give choice.

5.1.4 Provision made in all district plans specifying

adequate width of footpaths, and whether

these are required on one or both sides of

roads in urban areas.

5.1.5 Target: steady annual increase in ratio of

footpath/walkway/cycleway/cycle lane to

road in each district. See also targets under

output 2.2.

5.1.6 Measure the walking and cycling share of

total trips by residents of main urban areas.

Target: gradual annual increase.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

Check district plans.

Check NZTA funding criteria (e.g. in NZTA manuals).

Assess transport hierarchy documents.

Assess district plans.

TLAs to monitor measure length of

footpath/walkway/cycleway/cycle lane

compared to length of road in each district.

Census means of travel to work.

43


Other modes of transport

OUTPUT 5.2

Viable public transport services meeting the needs of Otago's communities

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

5.2.1 Public transport networks operating within major

centres (Dunedin, Wakatipu Basin).

5.2.2 Where the community is prepared to support a

service (through rates), and where users are willing to

pay a sufficient share of the operating costs to ensure

service viability, ‘access services’ link all Otago towns

on state highways, and the Southern Scenic Route,

with shopping, medical and recreational facilities.

5.2.3 These viable public transport services in Otago:

i. support community well-being through mobility,

building social integration and participation and

assisting economic development.

ii. help to ensure community resilience when external

events (such as a rapid rise in the price of oil, or a

shortage of fuel) disrupt normal travel patterns.

iii. provide an alternative to car travel in urban areas

and along key corridors, which benefits as a whole

the communities in which those services operate.

iv. offer those in urban areas personal choice in travel

mode, assisting the transport disadvantaged and

people with disabilities, and catering to those

studying/working at the tertiary campuses.

v. through their existence, serve to encourage

intensive residential development in areas where

growth can be adequately supported, providing

opportunity for people to be less car-dependent if

they so choose.

a. Operate the urban public transport system in each of the following areas as a separate Otago

integrated urban public transport network:

■ Dunedin metropolitan area, including Port Chalmers, Peninsula and Mosgiel

■ all of the Wakatipu Basin.

b. Manage these two networks to:

■ facilitate efficient, safe and reliable movement of many people

■ achieve economic efficiency and energy efficiency in movements of people

■ make best use of existing infrastructure (instead of providing extra road capacity)

■ increase the attractiveness of public transport travel by expanding the network on the

back of increasing demand to ensure public transport can cope when oil becomes scarce

or expensive.

c. Base the fare structure of public transport networks on distance travelled, reflecting the

proportion of costs varying with distance. Continue to offer concession fares and to operate

the Total Mobility scheme.

d. Invest in two new bus hubs in Dunedin, within the campus area and near the Exchange, as

long-lasting public transport infrastructure needed for resilience. Maintain a watching brief on

alternative public transport vehicle technologies.

e. Facilitate commercial provision of passenger transport both within these networks and in all

areas of Otago outside those networks, through regulatory planning that encourages housing

along corridors that can/could support viable public transport (see output 4.1).

f. Where public transport providing a basic level of access service on Otago key corridors are

not being commercially provided or are not delivering an adequate standard and frequency of

public transport and sufficient support from both the community and bus users exists, then

the regional council contracts services (follows on from output 2.2, mechanism e).

g. Use passenger rail for special events, where appropriate, on a commercial basis.

h. Enforce registration requirements in the Public Transport Management Act 2008; bylaws

precluding parking on bus stops; jaywalking that impedes the safe flow of buses in

urban areas.

i. Widen the provision of school bus services in the Queenstown Lakes District.

44


Other modes of transport

OUTPUT 5.2 (continued)

Viable public transport services meeting the needs of Otago's communities

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. As the capacity of Otago public transport is

gradually expanded (through the addition of

more services and routes), people respond by

making more trips on public transport, ensuring

the viability of the overall network is preserved.

ii. Bus fares are set at a level that allows a gradual

expansion of the public transport network

without its viability being compromised.

Indicators of success and targets

5.2. 1 Steady increase in the number of trips being

made on public transport in each of the

integrated networks and region-wide.

5.2. 2 Public transport access services: target is

a basic level of service (at least one day a

week) linking all communities on Otago

arterial roads with shopping, medical and

recreational facilities.

5.2. 3 In each urban area, % households within

x [200, 300, 400] m of a public transport

service (weekdays, weekends, evenings,

public holidays), compared to 2005 and

2010. Target is a yearly improvement, with

fare box recovery between 45% and 51%.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

ORC patronage monitoring for integrated public

transport networks in Dunedin and Wakatipu Basin.

RPTP to require all commercially-registered public

transport services to supply ORC with patronage

data. Check shuttle services by Internet search.

Monitor relative costs of running a car versus taking

a bus (AA data for car running costs).

Public transport coverage: see outcome 1.2.

Public transport coverage: see outcome 1.2.

Fare box recovery calculation, using standard NZTA

formula.

45


Ensuring resilience

OUTPUT 6.1

Resilience in the face of changes to oil prices and supply

Output sought

Expected delivery mechanisms

6.1.1 In rural areas away from key corridors, communities show a

high degree of self-reliance and self-organisation concerning

transport, in order to provide for their well-being, social

inclusion and participation.

6.1.2 In urban areas and along key corridors: resilience in transport

through public transport being available when required.

6.1.3 On the whole, people make sensible choices in travel and

moving goods, including:

■ combining trips, or decisions that negate the

need to travel

■ making greater use of information technology

■ making greater use of active travel for local trips

■ making greater using shared transport for both daily

use and holidays

■ helping each other minimise the need for travel.

6.1.4 Oil stored to keep critical services and life support operating,

when needed.

6.1.5 When adverse weather closes State Highway 1 or State

Highway 87 to Middlemarch for extended periods, the

railway is able to provide an alternative mode for travel or

freight transport.

6.1.6 The open space nature of ex-rail corridors is protected

(e.g. that occupied by the Central Otago Rail Trail and that

between Balclutha and Maclennan), in case rail ever needs

to be reinstated along one or more of these corridors.

a. Matters listed in outputs 4 and 5. Increases in oil price should prompt change in travel

behaviour.

b. Comprehensible, widely available information that emphasises the expectation of high

energy prices and helps people make choices about vehicles and travel.

c. Territorial authorities adapt the supply and pricing of car parking over time to support

efforts to help build the habit of greater use of active and shared transport.

d. Territorial authorities manage traffic to maintain certain levels of congestion when

needed to prompt change in travel behaviour.

e. When (and only when) oil shortages or price spikes loom:

■ run a coordinated, region-wide campaign designed that draws on community

values that balance or override those acting against sustainability: an appeal to

solidarity and good sense, in the face of external threat.

■ run community programmes aimed at rural self-organisation and resilience in

transport (assisting households and families to make good choices).

■ provide information which supports and encourages good travel choices.

f. Plan fuel certainty for essential services. Maintain in Otago a strategic fuel reserve, with

those organisations operating critical services being responsible for this.

g. Regulatory planning protects the open space nature of ex-rail corridors.

h. Territorial local authorities ensure regulatory planning does not place unnecessary

barriers on use of alternative technologies that would aid the resilience of

communities, households and businesses (e.g. charging stations for electric vehicles).

46


Ensuring resilience

OUTPUT 6.1 (continued)

Resilience in the face of changes to oil prices and supply

Key assumptions made, on which

success depends

i. Government removes any (explicit or hidden)

subsidies for motorised transport that cloud

how those market signals arising from oil supply

shortages and price hikes prompt people to

make choices that lessen their dependence on

oil for transport energy.

ii. Conflict between the value that Otago people

place on ensuring the transport system’s

sustainability and that placed on individualised

motorised transport will lessen over time.

iii. When oil supply shortages and price hikes loom,

businesses reassess global supply chains and

just-in-time business models, with the effect of

reducing freight fuel demand.

iv. Moving more freight by rail and coastal shipping

is a key way to reduce freight fuel demand,

assuming such opportunities to do this will

arise. (At present, potential appears limited

to the transport of meat, some milk product

and cement principally, possibly other bulk or

containerised product).

Indicators of success and targets

6.1.1 Regional economic activity: no large scale

disruptions caused by lack of affordable

transport fuels.

6.1.2 At least 80% of the region’s residents are

satisfied with local government preparation

for changes in oil prices and supply.

6.1.3 Monitor indicators of change:

■ public transport patronage levels

■ amount of fuel sold in Otago

■ profile of the local vehicle fleet

■ vehicle km travelled

■ proportion of household income spent

on transport

■ vehicle ownership rates.

6.1.4 Monitor related trends:

■ price of fuel.

6.1.5 In case of earthquakes or other severe

natural hazard events, those operating

emergency and critical services are able to

access adequate fuel supplies.

How indicators can be verified or assessed

Monitor disruptions.

TLA surveys (e.g. as an additional question added

to existing surveys such as quality of life survey or

residents survey).

ORC bus patronage data

TLA monitoring of fuel undertaken for tax purposes

Warrant of fitness data

Census data

Statistics NZ surveys.

Ministry of Economic Development data.

Monitor disruptions (Civil Defence).

47


SCHEDULE 2 The appropriate role of each transport mode

Freight – road, rail

Industrial, agricultural and commercial activity gives rise to freight on

road and rail networks, both within the region and inter-regionally.

The volume of freight carried within and through Otago is expected

to increase significantly during the outlook of this strategy. In the

short term (at least), a large proportion of the region’s freight will

continue to be moved on the road network. Good rural roading

and state highway networks are therefore essential for the region’s

economic development. Rural roads provide access to areas of

primary production. Otago local authorities face increasing challenges

in maintaining rural roads appropriate for the heavy vehicles

transporting primary products, given the councils’ small rating bases

and the significant length of road network involved, much of it

unsealed.

The state highway network has potential to handle additional

volumes of freight. The strategy recognises the importance of

optimising the operational efficiency of this network for freight

traffic, by ensuring that commuter traffic does not unduly delay

freight traffic. It also recognises that efficiencies can be gained

from trucks being able to carry larger and heavier loads. This will be

particularly important when oil supply shortages make it imperative to

reduce fuel usage.

Rail freight is appropriate not only for the movement of high

volumes of goods over long distances between key production and

distribution nodes, but also for movement of domestic freight over

shorter distances. Rail freight will play a key role in the event of oil

supply shortages. The strategy sees rail as an energy-efficient way

of transporting bulk and containerised commodities moving along

the east coast, including to and from Port Otago. The strategy seeks

greater access to rail for commercial and industrial activities, as well

as for primary production, to support further improvements to the rail

network. The strategy also recognises the role of intermodal hubs in

Otago in allowing freight carriers to switch modes to save costs and

reduce carbon footprints.

See outputs 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 3.3.1, 3.3.3 and 3.3.5.

Private motor vehicles and shared transport

Historically (for 40 years or more), individuals in both urban and rural

parts of Otago have relied on private vehicles for the majority of trips

due to the flexibility and convenience a car provides. Those living in

small towns and rural areas are particularly reliant on private vehicles

for access to key goods and services. The strategy acknowledges that

because people in Otago are likely to continue to value high levels of

mobility and freedom of individual mobility, many will continue to use

the private vehicle as their primary mode of transport. Nevertheless,

there is a need to reduce reliance on private vehicles in order to

contain roading costs and to build resilience in the face of projected

changes in oil supply and prices. Changes in oil supply and prices are

likely to bring changes to the light vehicle fleet, improving energy

efficiency and fuel economy.

The strategy considers private vehicle use to be the most appropriate

mode of transport over distances that cannot be easily cycled or walked,

or in areas without any public transport services. For urban areas, the

strategy seeks to develop patterns of settlement and complementary

transport systems that will enable, encourage and support people to

make reduce reliance on private vehicular travel, particularly for short

trips. Some people living in rural areas and small towns will continue to

be reliant on the private vehicle for necessary travel, and the strategy

therefore expects rural communities to have a high degree of self-reliance

and self-organisation concerning transport.

48


The strategy envisages that, as the price of oil-based fuels rise and/or

become scarce at times, people will make much greater use of shared

transport using private or community-owned vehicles – both formal

arrangements such as RideShare and informal ones (e.g. neighbourhood

rise sharing) . In those areas where public transport is unavailable or low

frequency, shared transport will fill an important role.

See outputs 2.2.3, 6.1.1 and 6.1.3

Public passenger transport

The strategy envisages public passenger transport continuing to play

an important role in supporting community well-being by providing

a means for those without cars, and those who chose not to travel

by car, to travel longer distances. Public passenger transport will

also remain important for those for whom active transport poses a

physical challenge. As Otago’s population ages, and as changes in

the price and supply of petroleum oil fuel affect people’s ability to

travel by private vehicle, the role of public passenger transport (and

shared transport) will grow. In busy areas such as SH6A between

Queenstown and Frankton, public transport will play an important

role in easing the increased congestion projected.

In the Wakatipu Basin, and outside Dunedin, existing public

transport is largely orientated to the visitor market (both domestic

and international), and priced accordingly. The services on arterial

routes across / through Otago are principally shuttle services. The

strategy envisages these visitor-oriented services continuing to

be an important mode of travel in coming decades. The strategy

also envisages steady but gradual improvements to the two public

transport networks operating in Dunedin and the Wakatipu Basin.

These improvements are intended to gradually build patronage while

maintaining the viability of these networks. The strategy anticipates

shuttle services, taxis and the Ministry of Education-funded school

bus network and special education travel assistance continuing to fill

the roles they currently play. Passenger rail for commuting is unlikely

to be viable within the term of this strategy, but rail could be used

increasingly for transport to special events and for visitor excursions.

For any public transport service, whether existing or new, to be viable,

the community must be prepared to support it (e.g. through rates, if

necessary), and users must be willing to pay a sufficient share of the

operating costs.

If public transport is to remain viable outside of Otago’s urban

areas, even at the basic level of service currently available between

many towns, then it must be supported by land-use planning that

concentrates housing within walking and cycling distance of the key

roading corridors used by buses.

In order for usage of public transport to increase, services need

to accessible for those with disabilities and for older people. This

requires attention to roading design and layout, bus infrastructure,

including bus stops, plus a greater proportion of Otago buses and

shuttles being accessible. Households in urban areas should be within

400 m walking distance of a bus stop, less in areas which are hilly, or

have high density housing or low vehicle ownership levels. The design

of bus services and setting of fares also help determine accessibility.

See outputs 2.2.3, 2.2.4, 3.6.1, 4.1.2, 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and 5.2.3.

49


Walking

The strategy seeks greater provision for active modes of travel and

greater use of these modes – principally walking and cycling – for local

trips. An essential component of a sustainable, accessible land transport

system, walking is currently considered a suitable mode of transport for

short trips (under 2 km) and for connecting different modes (e.g. walking

to a bus stop or from a car park to work). Walking also has an important

recreational role and contributes to improvements in public health, the

minimisation of environmental effects and reduced oil dependency.

The strategy envisages people walking longer distances and more often.

It seeks to encourage and support higher levels of pedestrian activity

through land-use planning that enables people to live within walking

distance of local services, including transport services, and through

improved pedestrian facilities.

See outputs 2.2.3, 3.2.3, 4.1.1, 5.1.1 and 5.1.2.

Cycling

Cycling is currently considered a suitable mode of travel for

those covering short to medium distances (under 10 km). Cycling

contributes positively towards a sustainable and accessible transport

network, because it is energy efficient, has minimal environmental

impacts, is affordable and has associated health and fitness benefits.

The strategy seeks to encourage and enable higher levels of cycling,

envisaging that reallocating roading space to cycling during new

roading projects will help increase recognition of the rights of cyclists

to safe road space. Provision of good quality cycle facilities, within

the roading corridor and where affordable as separate facilities, will

play an important role in increasing the levels of cycling within Otago.

Improved land-use planning practices will also assist in greater levels

of cycling activity in Otago because local services as well as transport

services will be more accessible by bicycle.

See outputs 2.2.3, 4.1.1, 5.1.1 and 5.1.2.

50


SCHEDULE 3 The role of demand management, education and enforcement

The strategy for managing the demand

for travel and freight

The strategy seeks to manage demand for travel and freight in order

to make best use of the existing transport network and to promote

resilience in the face of expected changes in the price and supply

of oil-based fuels. Leaving the market to manage demand is the

main mechanism recommended, plus land-use planning assisted

by the provision of information to support sensible travel choices.

The provision of quality public transport, walking and cycling

infrastructure in urban areas, the installation of bike racks on buses,

and the management of parking supply and price, all promoted in the

strategy, will also help manage travel demand. Improvements in, and

wider use of, communications technology may also reduce the need

to travel.

Predicted increases in oil price and supply constraints are expected to

influence people’s choices about where to live, what type of vehicle to

own and how much travel they undertake, and how essential social

and government services are located or provided. Public transport

provides an alternative to car travel and helps to ensure community

resilience when events such as oil price rises disrupt normal travel

patterns.

Encouraging future development and subdivision in areas that can

be efficiently serviced by public transport will help reduce demand

for private vehicle use and therefore the load on the network. Public

transport linking rural communities, towns and Dunedin can also help

reduce reliance on private vehicle travel. This is particularly so when

land-use planning concentrates housing near key nodes and within

walking or cycling distance of key roading corridors where public

transport services run on a regular basis, connecting these nodes to a

centre with essential services. For this to be a viable way of managing

the demand for travel, communities must be prepared to support

public transport through rates and users must be prepared to pay a

fair and sufficient share of the operating costs through bus fares. In

urban areas, restrictions on car parking and appropriate pricing of

parking will be required to support efforts to increase public transport

usage.

The strategy proposes gradually building the capacity and use of the

urban public transport networks in Dunedin and the Wakatipu Basin,

ensuring that the capacity does not get way ahead of demand and

threaten the network’s viability. To support gradual improvements to

urban bus services and increased patronage, local authorities need to

ensure that urban subdivision and developments have street layouts

suited to public transport as well as adequate bus stops, shelters and

footpaths to enable people to access buses safely and conveniently.

Growing the use of public transport will also mean keeping bus fares

competitive with the costs of private vehicular travel.

To help manage capacity on the transport network and ensure

reliable journey times, particularly for freight, the strategy promotes

an alternative utilisation of road space in urban areas and on

key corridors to provide for active and shared travel modes (high

occupancy vehicles, public transport). This reduced reliance on the

private vehicle should ease congestion in busy areas such as SH6A.

The strategy considers it to be appropriate to construct new roading

links only when the allocation of priority roading space to energyefficient

modes proves insufficient to ease congestion in busy areas.

See outputs 2.2, 3.6, 5.1, 5.2 and 6.1.

51


Education

The strategy envisages education playing a key role in ensuring

everyone’s travel in Otago becomes progressively safer. The strategy

endorses a coordinated and sustained national education campaign

to promote social change in driver behaviour. This campaign should

focus on minimising unsafe road user behaviour through encouraging

safer speeds and safer vehicles, among other issues. Local road safety

programmes focusing on sectors of the community most at risk of

dying on Otago’s road, for example young drivers, motorcyclists, the

visitor/tourist sector.

Education will also be a component of community programmes

designed to encourage and support resilience in the face of changes

to oil prices and supply. The strategy envisages that when oil

shortages or price spikes are looming, then community programmes

aimed at rural self-organisation and resilience in transport will

assist households and families to make good choices by providing

information.

See outputs 3.2.1, 6.1.1 and 6.1.3.

Enforcement

The strategy envisages enforcement as a mechanism for assisting

in delivery of many of the strategy’s outputs: enforcement of the

provisions in legislation, land transport rules, government standards,

local body bylaws and statutory plans, including those prepared

under the Resource Management Act 1991 and Public Transport

Management Act 2008. The strategy recognises the importance of

enforcement being effectively targeted.

Enforcement of land transport rules concerning traffic management

and safety will continue to play a key role in ensuring everyone’s

travel in Otago is safe and efficient. Enforcement of vehicle and

(for bus shelters) building accessibility standards will continue to

be important in ensuring the physical and spatial requirements for

accessible public transport are met.

Enforcement is also important in managing the environmental and

amenity effects of transport. The strategy recognises the adverse

effects that transport emissions have on the environment and public

health, and envisages enforcement of government emission standards

for imported vehicles and fuels, of government rules concerning

smoky or noisy vehicles, and of ORC and NZTA national vehicle

quality standards for buses. Enforcement (e.g. of local body bylaws)

will help control environmental impacts such as roadside littering and

effluent disposal caused by campervans and stock trucks.

See outputs 3.2.1, 3.5, 3.6 and 5.2.

52


Attachment A

Compliance statement

This strategy has been prepared and approved by the Otago Regional

Transport Committee, in accordance with sections 73 to 77 of the

Land Transport Management Amendment Act 2008. In accordance

with section 73(1) of the Act, the committee will review this strategy

within six years of its approval and will amend as appropriate.

Additionally the committee will prepare three-yearly reports on

progress in implementing the strategy, as required by section 83(1) of

the Act.

The following statement shows how the how the document complies

with each statutory requirement regarding the content of a regional

land transport strategy.

The committee is satisfied that the outcomes, strategic options

for achieving those outcomes-the expected delivery mechanisms

specified-and targets specified as needing to be met to achieve

those outcomes fulfil the requirements of sections 75, 76 and 77

of the Act.

53


Requirements of sections 75 and 76 of the Land

Transport Management Amendment Act 2008

regarding regional land transport strategies

Assessment of compliance

When preparing the RLTS, the Regional Transport Committee must ensure that the strategy meets the following requirements:

Section 75 (a) (i)

Contributes to the overall aim of achieving an

affordable, integrated, safe, responsive and

sustainable land transport system.

Complies. The goal, outcomes and outputs included throughout this strategy reflect the government’s

aim of achieving an affordable, integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable land transport system.

■ Outcome 1.1 seeks/addresses the aim of achieving an affordable land transport system.

■ Outcome 1.2, output 3.5 and output 5.0 seek/address the aim of achieving a sustainable land

transport system.

■ Output 3.2 addresses the aim of achieving a safe land transport system.

■ Output 6.0 addresses the aim of achieving a responsive land transport system.

An explanation of the RLTS’s approach to an integrated land transport system is outlined on page 6 of the

RLTS. Mechanisms addressing an integrated land transport system are woven into the various outputs of

the strategy, for example:

■ output 2.2.3 seeks choice in travel modes in urban areas

■ output 2.2.5 seeks to ensure access to goods and services in urban areas, and around the fringes of

urban areas; housing is concentrated where genuine transport choice already exists or can viably

be provided

■ output 4.1 seeks to ensure access to goods and services in areas experiencing population growth

■ output 5.1 promotes higher levels of walking and cycling

■ output 5.2 promotes higher levels of public transport.

Through monitoring (of indicators and trends), six-yearly reviews, and through any variations, the RLTS

will be responsive to changes in transport needs over time.

54


Requirements of sections 75 and 76 of the Land

Transport Management Amendment Act 2008

regarding regional land transport strategies

Assessment of compliance

When preparing the RLTS, the Regional Transport Committee must ensure that the strategy meets the following requirements:

Section 75 (a) (ii) (A) to (E)

Contributes to assisting economic development.

Contributes to assisting safety and personal

security.

Contributes to improving access and mobility.

Contributes to protecting and promoting public

health.

Contributes to ensuring environmental

sustainability.

Complies. The strategy recognises that primary industries are driving much of the region’s economic

growth, so good access and freight services linking the region’s farms and forest, suppliers, processors

and export gateways are critical. This is provided for in outputs 3.1 and 3.3. Tourism is recognised as a

major driver of growth; output 3.4 recognises the importance of providing quality road links for tourism.

The RLTS also seeks to contribute to assisting economic development through retaining mobility in times

of fuel shortages/fuel price spikes. This is provided for through outputs 2.2.3, 2.2.2, 3.6.1, 4.1.1, 5.1, 5.2

and 6.1.

Complies. Safety is as a core component of the strategy, reflected in the goal of the strategy and also a

key part of outcome 1.2. Output 3.2 seeks to ensure travel safety and personal security.

Complies. The strategy seeks to ensure adequate access to goods and services can be maintained at all

times to improve accessibility in the face of:

■ rising maintenance and operation costs and an expanding transport network; and

■ a likely shortage of affordable transport fuels from time to time.

Mechanisms to address these two issues are woven into the strategy’s outputs.

In addressing how to improve accessibility, the committee needed to choose what approach to take to

ensure equity. The committee opted to seek equality in people’s capability to undertake necessary travel

and the carriage of freight, constrained only by their own choices and geographical realities, as expressed

in outcome 1.2.

Complies. The protection and promotion of public health is an inherent part of the strategy, as conveyed

in outcome 1.2, which seeks equality in everyone’s capability to undertake necessary travel, constrained

only by their own choices and geographical realities. Outputs 3.5, 5.1 and 5.2 contribute to protecting

and promoting public health.

Complies. In considering how best to ensure environmental sustainability, the committee determined

that environmental impacts of the land transport system must be kept within acceptable levels.

Environmental sustainability is a core component of the strategy, as reflected in the goal and addressed in

outputs 3.4, 3.5 and 5.0.

55


Requirements of sections 75 and 76 of the Land

Transport Management Amendment Act 2008

regarding regional land transport strategies

Assessment of compliance

When preparing the RLTS, the Regional Transport Committee must ensure that the strategy meets the following requirements:

Section 75 (a) (iii) (A)

Is consistent with any national land transport

strategy.

Not relevant. There is currently no national land transport strategy in force under Part 3 of the Land

Transport Management Amendment Act 2008.

Section 75 (a) (iii) (B)

Section 75 (a) (iv)

Is consistent with any relevant national policy

statement or regional plan that is for the time

being in force under the Resource Management

Act 1991.

Avoids, to the extent reasonable in the

circumstances, adverse effects on the

environment.

Complies. The role of transportation in contributing to the well-being, safety and health of people

and communities is an integral part of the Built Environment Chapter of the Otago Regional Policy

Statement (RPS). The RPS recognises the region’s dependency on an efficient transport network to utilise

its resources, and to provide mobility and access for its people and communities. The RLTS reflects the

following issues outlined in the RPS:

■ cost burdens on a small and declining population base of maintaining and developing roading

infrastructure

■ high dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels

■ adverse effects of transport systems including air and water pollution, noise, visual intrusion, dust and

local ecological damage

■ adverse effects of land-use activities on the transport network affecting safety and efficiency.

Complies. The strategy seeks to avoid adverse effects on the environment,

as expressed in its goal, and in outputs 3.4, 3.5 and 5.0.

56


Requirements of sections 75 and 76 of the

Land Transport Management Amendment

Act 2008 regarding regional land transport

strategies

Assessment of compliance

When preparing the RLTS, the Regional Transport Committee must:

Section 75 (b) (i)

Section 75 (b) (ii)

Section 75 (b) (iii)

Take into account the relevant Government

Policy Statements on Land Transport Funding

(GPS).

Take into account any national energy

efficiency and conservation strategy.

Take into account any relevant district plans.

Complies. The government’s main priority stated in the 2009 GPS is to support economic growth and

productivity. The goal of the RLTS aligns with this.

The government's main priorities stated in the 2012/13 GPS are:

• economic growth and productivity

• value for money

• road safety.

The goal, outcomes and outputs of the RLTS align closely with this.

Complies. The draft National Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy 2010 (NEECS) recognises that

the greatest potential for energy efficiency improvements is in the transport (and business) sectors. The

draft NEECS proposes the following objective for the transport sector: ‘A more energy efficient transport

system, with a greater diversity of fuels and renewable energy technologies’. The RLTS recognises that fuel

price fluctuations and shortages in oil-based fuels will reshape how we live and the ways we produce goods

and services. The strategy seeks to build resilience in the face of projected changes in oil supply and prices

through greater use of non-motorised transport, public transport and rail freight; greater use of biofuels

and electric vehicles for short trips; and good land-use planning, particularly in urban areas, to reduce our oil

dependency.

Complies. The previous Regional Transport Committee commenced developing the RLTS with two

workshops, after which the committee chair wrote to Otago territorial local authorities, NZTA and all

objective representatives on the committee, seeking further feedback, including the matters in each local

authority’s district plan that the committee needed to take into account. All five territorial local authorities

provided feedback, which was incorporated into subsequent iterations of the strategy.

Section 76 (a)

Take into account any guidelines issued by the

Minister for regional land transport strategies.

Not relevant. The Minister has not issued any such guidelines.

57


Requirements of sections 75 and 76 of the

Land Transport Management Amendment

Act 2008 regarding regional land transport

strategies

Assessment of compliance

When preparing the RLTS, the Regional Transport Committee must:

Section 76 (b)

Take into account the land transport funding

likely to be available within the region for

implementing the strategy during the period

covered by the strategy.

Complies. The ‘Funding Considerations’ section in the RLTS Introduction discusses this matter.

Section 76(c)

Section 76 (d)

Take into account the views of affected

communities.

Take into account the views of land transport

network providers.

Complies. The committee sought the views of all Otago residents and communities through a preliminary

consultation exercise undertaken in January/February 2011. The February edition of ORC’s OtagoWide newsletter,

which is delivered to every household in the Otago region, invited public input from Otago communities on how

their long-term transport needs could best be met. Additionally, ORC sent letters to representative organisations

and persons listed in s78 of the Land Transport Management Amendment Act 2008, including representative

groups of land users and providers, representative groups of coastal shipping users and providers, and Otago iwi

organisations, seeking their views on meeting the long term transport needs of the Otago region.

When the committee consulted on the draft strategy in May/June 2011, it sought the views of affected

communities through widely placed public notification in newspapers and libraries and through letters to

community boards in the region. The committee received 55 formal submissions, heard 13 oral submissions,

and duly considered the views expressed in all those submissions.

Complies. The strategy has been developed in close collaboration with Otago’s territorial local authorities,

NZTA and KiwiRail. The previous Regional Transport Committee commenced developing the strategy with

two workshops examining values, goals and potential policy options. The first workshop, held 15th February

2010, involved territorial local authorities, NZTA, Ministry of Transport and KiwiRail staff. The second

workshop, held 18 March 2010, involved committee members and territorial local authority staff.

Subsequently, the committee chair wrote to Otago territorial local authorities, NZTA and all objective

representatives on the committee seeking further feedback on:

■ collated material from workshops

■ two reports intended to provide background for the strategy

■ changing patterns of economic development and settlement.

The five territorial local authorities, NZTA and the regional council itself provided written feedback. Using this

information, council staff drafted a strategy, subsequently discussed at a further workshop for territorial local

authority and NZTA staff on 4 February 2011. During formal consultation in May/June 2011, the committee

received submissions from NZTA and three territorial local authorities, which it duly considered.

58


Requirements of sections 75 and 76 of the

Land Transport Management Amendment

Act 2008 regarding regional land transport

strategies

Assessment of compliance

When preparing the RLTS, the Regional Transport Committee must:

Section 76 (e)

Section 76 (f)

Section 76 (g)

Take into account the need to give early and

full consideration to land transport options

and alternatives in a way that contributes

to the matters referred to in s75(a)(iv) and

paragraph (c).

Take into account the need to provide

early and full opportunities for persons and

organisations listed in s78 (1) to contribute

to the development of those regional land

transport strategies.

Take into account the regional council’s

function under s30 (1) (gb) of the Resource

Management Act 1991 to consider the

strategic integration of transport infrastructure

with land use through objectives, policies and

methods.

Complies. Following the workshops in early 2010, the five Otago territorial local authorities, NZTA and ORC

itself were asked to provide feedback on three alternative futures (scenarios) presented at the workshops

and refined as a result of workshop feedback. This request was part of the wider request made at the time.

All local authorities and NZTA provided feedback on the alternative futures.

The request for feedback made in early 2011, through letters and OtagoWide newsletter, explicitly sought

views on how to avoid adverse effects of transport on the environment.

Complies. The preliminary consultation undertaken in late January 2011 included sending letters to those

listed in s78(1)(a) and in s78(1) (c) to (k), and also to Maori groups (the latter to comply with s78(1)(m) – 65

letters in total. The committee had already consulted territorial authorities through a request for written

feedback in mid-2010, described earlier in this table. The February edition of council’s Otago-wide newsletter

inviting public input, also described above, provided early opportunities for affected communities and the

public in the region to express their needs and views, complying with s78(1)(l) and (n). The committee

received five submissions at this informal consultation.

Complies. The concept of strategic integration of transport infrastructure with land use is woven into

the various outputs of the strategy. An explanation of the RLTS’s approach to the strategic integration of

transport infrastructure with land use is outlined in the Introduction of the RLTS.

59


Requirements of sections 75 and 76 of the Land

Transport Management Amendment Act 2008

regarding regional land transport strategies

A RLTS must contain:

Section

77 (a)

Inter-regional and intra-regional transport

outcomes relevant to the region.

Assessment of compliance

The strategy seeks two outcomes (1.1 and 1.2): see schedule 1.

Section

77 (b)

Section

77 (c)

The strategic options for achieving those

outcomes.

An assessment as to how the Regional

Land Transport Strategy complies with

sections 75 and 76.

The outputs in the RLTS, with the specified mechanisms by which the committee expects these outputs to

be delivered, represent the strategic options for achieving the outcomes being sought: see schedule 1.

This table contains that statement.

Section

77 (d)

A statement of any relevant regional

economic or land-use considerations, and

the likely funding of any land transport

infrastructure associated with those

considerations.

See Introduction to the RLTS.

Section

77 (e)

A demand management strategy. See schedule 3.

Section

77 (f)

Section

77 (g)

An assessment of the appropriate role for

each transport mode in the region.

An assessment of the role of education and

enforcement in contributing to the land

transport outcomes.

See schedule 2.

See schedule 3.

60


Requirements of sections 75 and 76 of the Land

Transport Management Amendment Act 2008

regarding regional land transport strategies

A RLTS must contain:

Section

77 (h)

A regional land transport plan (within the

meaning of section 47 of the Transport

Services Licensing Act 1989).

Assessment of compliance

Repealed by the Public Transport Management Act 2008.

Section

77 (i)

A statement that identifies any strategic

option for which cooperation is required

with other regions.

See sub-section following this table.

Section

77 (j)

A statement that identifies persons or

organisations who should be involved in

further development of strategic options.

See sub-section following this table.

Section

77 (k)

Measurable targets to be achieved to meet

the outcomes of the regional land transport

strategy.

See schedule 1; the columns of indicators include measurable targets for some outputs.

Section

77 (l)

A statement provided by an independent

auditor of how the process followed by the

Regional Transport Committee complied

with the requirements of this Act.

See page 62.

S77 (m)

A summary of the policy relating to

significance adopted by the Regional

Transport Committee under section 106 of

this Act.

See attachment B.

61


Further development of strategic options

to be undertaken

The Regional Transport Committee recognises that there are a

number of organisations, interest groups and communities which

should be involved in further development of strategic options for

transport in Otago, as anticipated in section 77(j) of the Act. The

committee identified those who have an interest in the strategy

and its content, and invited them to participate in consultation over

development of the strategy.

Section 77(i) of the Land Transport Management Amendment Act

2008 requires the strategy to identify any strategic option (i.e. any

outputs) for which co-operation with other regions is required. Those

outputs are:

Statement by independent auditor

The strategy is required by section 77(l) of the Land Transport

Management Amendment Act 2008 to contain a statement provided

by an independent auditor of how the process followed by the Otago

Regional Transport Committee complied with the requirements of

the Act. In April 2011, ORC engaged Brian Baxter of Wellington

to provide an independent review of the procedures implemented

during development of the strategy.

On 1 August 2011, Mr Baxter reported that he was satisfied

"that the Regional Transport Committee, in preparing the Otago

Regional Land Transport Strategy 2011, has followed the processes

and requirements as set out in the Land Transport Management

Amendment Act 2008".







Output 2.1.1, mechanism c and output 3.3.5: making

best use of rail

Outputs 2.2.2 and 3.3.1: freight carriers being able to operate

efficiently and switch modes

Output 3.1.1: acceptable, predictable travel times for key

journeys, some of which cross regional boundaries

Output 3.3.2: good use of road and rail networks by

appropriately-sized vehicles; some of these journeys will cross

regional boundaries

Output 3.4.1: catering for increasing number of tourists

Output 6.1.4: obtaining adequate oil storage to keep critical

services and life support operating in times of shortage may

require co-operation with other regions.

62


Attachment B

Policy on the significance of variations to Regional Land Transport Strategy

Purpose

This policy sets out how to determine the significance of variations

to Otago’s Regional Land Transport Strategy. This policy is set in

accordance with the requirements of section 106(2) of the Land

Transport Management Act 2003 (the Act).

Application

The Regional Land Transport Strategy can be varied at any time.

Consultation will be required in accordance with section 78 of the

Act, unless the variation is not significant.

General determination of significance

When determining the significance of a variation to the Regional

Land Transport Strategy, consideration must be given to the extent to

which the variation:





signals a change to the balance of strategic investment

impacts on the strategy’s contribution towards objectives of

the New Zealand Transport Strategy and the priorities in the

Government Policy Statement on Land Transport Funding

affects residents (variations with a moderate impact on a large

number of residents, or variations with a major impact on a small

number of residents will have greater significance than those of

a minor impact)

affects the integrity of the Regional Land Transport Strategy,

including its overall affordability.

Consideration should also be given to:

■ balancing the need for public input/consultation on the variation

against the likely cost of a consultative process; and

■ the extent to which, and manner in which, the matter has

already been consulted on (the addition, removal or amendment

of any matter which has already been consulted on in

accordance with section 78 of the Act will usually be considered

not significant).

63


Acronyms and abbreviations

cf

GDP

km

NZIER

NLTP

NZTA

ORC

p.a.

RLTP

RLTS

RPTP

SH

TLA

compared to

gross domestic product

kilometre

New Zealand Institute of Economic Research

National Land Transport Programme

New Zealand Transport Agency

Otago Regional Council

per annum

Regional Land Transport Programme

Regional Land Transport Strategy

Regional Public Transport Plan (formerly known as Regional Passenger Transport Plan)

state highway

territorial local authority

64


Otago Regional Council

Private Bag 1954, 70 Stafford Street

Dunedin 9054

Phone 03 474 0827

fax 03 479 0015

Freephone 0800 474 082

www.orc.govt.nz

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