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UNIVERSITY <strong>OF</strong> AGRONOMIC SCIENCES<br />

AND VETERINARY MEDICINE <strong>OF</strong> BUCHAREST<br />

FACULTY <strong>OF</strong> LAND RECLAMATION<br />

AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING<br />

<strong>JOURNAL</strong> <strong>OF</strong> <strong>YOUNG</strong> <strong>SCIENTIST</strong><br />

Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying,<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

Volume I<br />

2013<br />

BUCHAREST


Hosted by:<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest<br />

Faculty of Reclamation and Environmental Engineering<br />

Under the patronage of:<br />

Royal House of Romania<br />

In collaboration with:<br />

SC Iridex Group SRL<br />

Tech Data<br />

ASIF<br />

2


SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE:<br />

• Răzvan Ionuţ TEODORESCU - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine<br />

Bucharest, Romania<br />

• Sorin Mihai CÎMPEANU - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine<br />

Bucharest, Romania<br />

• Paula IANCU - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Ion Nelu LEU - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Mircea ORTELECAN - University of Agronomical Science and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-<br />

Napoca, Romania<br />

• Ioana SIMINEA - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Ioel VEREŞ - University of Petrosani<br />

• Alexandru BADEA - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Carmen CÎMPEANU - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Elena CONSTANTIN - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine<br />

Bucharest, Romania<br />

• Carmen GRECEA - Politehnica University of Timisoara<br />

• Raluca MANEA - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Sevastel MIRCEA - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Ileana SĂNDOIU - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Ana VÎRSTA - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Mariana CĂLIN - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Claudiu DRAGOMIR - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine<br />

Bucharest, Romania<br />

• Elena IONIȚESCU - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Mădălina MARIAN - University of Pitesti<br />

• Doru MIHAI - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Andreea OLTEANU - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

• Augustina TRONAC - University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest,<br />

Romania<br />

3


• Dan VELE – Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca<br />

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE<br />

• Lecturer Andreea OLTEANU<br />

• Lecturer Daniela BURGHILĂ<br />

• Eng. Mirela DUMITRU<br />

• PhD stud Eng. Sorin IONIŢESCU<br />

• Stud. Cristina BURGHILĂ<br />

• Stud. Thedy PAŞCU<br />

VENUE<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest<br />

Faculty of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering<br />

Adress: 59 Mărăşti, Bvd, District 1, Zip code 011 464<br />

e-mail: simpozionifimcad@gmail.com<br />

web: http://simpozionifimcad.usamv.ro<br />

Phone: +40 788 014 935<br />

4


TABLE <strong>OF</strong> CONTENTS<br />

SECTION 01. LAND RECLAMATION<br />

Paper<br />

ID<br />

Authors Affiliation Paper Title Page<br />

1 Maria-Alexandra<br />

ARTAN, Mircea<br />

HAS,<br />

University Ovidius of<br />

Constanta, Faculty of Civil<br />

Constructions<br />

2 Silviu AUREL University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

3 Dan Ilie<br />

BALEANU<br />

4 Catalin BOTEA,<br />

Ramona<br />

PIRLOG, Ioan<br />

MARGARINT<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

THE ANALYSIS <strong>OF</strong><br />

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN<br />

CONSTANTA IN THE<br />

INTERVAL <strong>OF</strong> TIME 1970-1995<br />

REMOTE SENSING FOR<br />

DISASTER MONITORING:<br />

FLOODS, FIRES AND<br />

EARTHQUAKES<br />

COMPLEX PLANNING<br />

SOLUTIONS FOR SOIL<br />

EROSION CONTROL ON A<br />

VINEYARD<br />

USING NON-DESTRUCTIVE<br />

METHODS TO OBTAIN THE<br />

STRENGTH <strong>OF</strong> CONCRETE<br />

SAMPLES<br />

7<br />

15<br />

21<br />

25<br />

5 Leontin<br />

VISINESCU<br />

BRINZEA<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

STUDIES ON THE<br />

EVALUATION <strong>OF</strong> THE<br />

POTENTIAL AREAS URLATI<br />

TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE<br />

FARMING<br />

29<br />

6 Adrian<br />

COCOCEANU<br />

University “POLITEHNICA”<br />

of Timişoara, Faculty of Civil<br />

Engineering<br />

WATER HAMMER STUDY IN<br />

PRESSURE SYSTEMS UNDER<br />

TRANSITORY FLOW<br />

33<br />

7 Madalin Ionut<br />

COSTINESCU<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

ORGANIC FARMING<br />

BETWEEN THE CARPATHIAN<br />

AND BALKAN MOUNTAINS<br />

41<br />

8 Neculai<br />

DOGARU<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

STUDIES OVER CLIMATE<br />

VARIABILITY IN CRISURI<br />

RIVER BASIN<br />

47<br />

9 Bogdan<br />

DUMITRU,<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

DESIGN <strong>OF</strong> REINFORCED<br />

CONCRETE STRUCTURES<br />

51<br />

5


Georgiana<br />

BUTUC, Marius<br />

GRUIA<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

LOCATED IN SEISMIC AREAS<br />

10 Denisa Mihaela<br />

GRIGORE<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

PRIMING BIOLOGICAL<br />

PROCESSES IN A<br />

WASTEWATER TREATMENT<br />

PLANTS<br />

57<br />

11 Daniela ILIE University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

12 Nicolae<br />

MĂRĂCINE<br />

13 Ramona Rafila<br />

NICULAE<br />

14 Şerban Dan<br />

ROŞULESCU<br />

15 Elena Daniela<br />

ROTARU<br />

16 Vlad-Cristian<br />

TUDOR<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

University of Petrosani<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

EVOLUTION <strong>OF</strong> WATER<br />

QUALITY IN THE BUZAU-<br />

IALOMITA BASIN<br />

THE NECESSITY <strong>OF</strong><br />

COMPLEX PLANNING<br />

CONSIDERATIONS HĂULITA<br />

RAVINE, VRANCEA COUNTY<br />

THE SURFACE’S STABILITY<br />

ANALYSIS WITH FINITE<br />

ELEMENT METHOD UNDER<br />

THE COAL MINING AT E.M.<br />

LIVEZENI<br />

GROUNDS DEGRADATION,<br />

CAUSES AND FORMS <strong>OF</strong><br />

MANIFESTATION<br />

THE IMPROVEMENT <strong>OF</strong><br />

REDIU RIVERBED,<br />

UPSTREAM <strong>OF</strong> TARGU<br />

FRUMOS CITY, IASI COUNTY<br />

WATER DEFERRIZATION<br />

METHODS<br />

61<br />

65<br />

69<br />

75<br />

79<br />

85<br />

6


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

THE ANALYSIS <strong>OF</strong> EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN CONSTANTA IN THE<br />

INTERVAL <strong>OF</strong> TIME 1970-1995<br />

Maria-Alexandra ARTAN, Mircea HAS,<br />

Elena-Daniela PANTEA, Ana PETRIŞOR, Ana Nicoleta POPESCU<br />

Scientific Coordinators: Carmen MAFTEI, Constantin BUTA<br />

University Ovidius of Constanta, Faculty of Civil Constructions, road Unirii, no. 22B, zip code<br />

900524, Constanta, Romania, +40241. 545.093.<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: petrisorana90@gmail.com<br />

The evapotranspiration is one of the components of hydrological cycle. This element is essential in calculus of<br />

hydrological water balance, design water works, determination of climate change, water resources planning and<br />

management. The aim of this study is to analyze the measured and estimated evapotranspiration at a station in<br />

Constanta. In order to estimate the evapotranspiration four methods were used: Thornthwaite, Hargreaves, Turc and<br />

Priestley and Taylor. The results of these equations were compared with observed evaporation. We used the data<br />

recorded in the interval of time 1970-1995. For these years, we were given: the annual medium temperatures and the<br />

monthly measured evapotranspiration.<br />

Key Words: evapotranspiration, solar radiation, temperatures.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

The concept of evapotranspiration provides a<br />

convenient index to represent or estimate the<br />

maximum water loss to the atmosphere.<br />

The evapotranspiration represents the process<br />

of losing water through direct evaporation (E)<br />

and through the perspiration of the plants (T)<br />

(Nagy, 1982; Luca and others., 2008).<br />

The total consumption of water is synonymous<br />

with the term evapotranspiration This term is<br />

used in climatology and it is noted with ∑(e +<br />

t) or ET (Botzan, 1972, Luca and others, 2008).<br />

Regarding this phenomenon, the following<br />

difference must be highlighted between the<br />

terms below:<br />

a. Real evapotranspiration (E.T.R.)<br />

-This represents the realized water consumption<br />

of agricultural crops in normal conditions of<br />

water supply met in nature.<br />

b.Maximum real evapotranspiration (E.T.R.M.)<br />

- This represents the total water consumption of<br />

agricultural crops in optimum water supply<br />

conditions. This consumption ensures optimum<br />

moisture <strong>for</strong> the obtaining of a maximum<br />

agricultural production in economic conditions.<br />

c. Potential evapotranspiration (E.T.P.)<br />

- This represents the total water consumption of<br />

agricultural crops which <strong>for</strong>ms the vegetal<br />

cover with high density, low waist, uni<strong>for</strong>m, in<br />

full development and with water from<br />

abundance. (Luca, 2010).<br />

The evapotranspiration or the total water<br />

consumption of a culture is influenced by a<br />

series of factors which are classified as<br />

following (Popescu, 1978):<br />

-Climatic factors: wind, radiations,<br />

precipitations etc.;<br />

-Pedagogical factors which are needed <strong>for</strong> the<br />

water supply of the plants;<br />

-Biological factors specific <strong>for</strong> the vegetation<br />

which are used to compare the plants<br />

morphologically as well as physiologically,<br />

determining them to consume more or less<br />

water.<br />

The evapotranspiration (ET) is an important<br />

factor which determines not only the growth of<br />

the plants and the carbon assimilation, as well<br />

as the most important element of the water<br />

circuit in nature.<br />

ET has a large practical applicability because<br />

allows the evaluation of the additional water<br />

content in the atmospheric and pedospheric<br />

drought through a system of irrigation which<br />

ensures the conditions <strong>for</strong> a normal vegetation.<br />

By knowing the quantities of precipitations of a<br />

7


egion and the potential ET, the water overflow<br />

or deficit from the soil can be determined so<br />

that the hydric balance could be established.<br />

Estimates of PET are necessary in many of the<br />

rainfall-runoff and ecosystem models that are<br />

used in global change studies.<br />

The increase of evapotranspiration together<br />

with the reduction of the percolation and the<br />

infiltration spillages leads to soil drought and as<br />

a direct result of the growth of ET are the<br />

physiological drought, the reduction of plant’s<br />

growing development, fires etc. According<br />

these results, a social-economical drought can<br />

be identified and it’s composed of three<br />

impacts: economic, social and environmental.<br />

The socio-economic drought is associated with<br />

lack of belongings and services which has its<br />

origins in the meteorological and hydrological<br />

drought. It occurs at different scales and has the<br />

effects at a regional or national scale after a<br />

long period of severe meteorological droughts<br />

(Barbu, Popa, 2001).<br />

Photo no.2 The location of the meteorological and rain<br />

meter stations from Dobrogea(by Lungu M.,2008 and<br />

modified by Popescu A.)<br />

Description of the analyzed area<br />

Streamflows, water quality, and ecosystem<br />

processes can respond substantially to small<br />

changes in precipitation or evapotranspiration.<br />

This is especially true <strong>for</strong> the coastal regions<br />

where evapotranspiration is the dominant factor<br />

on surface and ground water flow patterns.<br />

Thus, it is important to identify the differences<br />

among the evapotranspiration methods when<br />

evapotranspiration is used to predict the actual<br />

evapotranspiration, because different<br />

evapotranspiration methods give widely<br />

different annual values at particular locations as<br />

demonstrated in previous studies (Federer and<br />

others, 1996).<br />

For this evapotranspiration study, we used<br />

recorded data from a meteorological station<br />

from Dobrogea specifically the one from<br />

Constanta (Photo no.2).<br />

Dobrogea (Photo no.2) is limited to the north of<br />

the Danube Delta and Macin Mountains, east of<br />

the Black Sea and west of the lower Danube.<br />

This includes in the northeast of Bulgaria,<br />

Dobrich and Silistra regions.<br />

Photo no.1. Dobrogea’s region and the coastal area of<br />

the Black Sea (www.maps.google.ro, modified by<br />

Popescu A)<br />

This morphological unit from the valley of the<br />

Danube, the Black Sea and Bulgaria border<br />

area consists of the following relief:<br />

-Dobrogea mountains are found between the<br />

Danube valley and Babadag;<br />

-North Dobrogea Plateau between the Danube<br />

Dobrudja Mountains, Black Sea and South<br />

Dobrogea Plateau;<br />

-South Dobrogea Plateau between North<br />

Dobrogea Plateau, the Danube, the Black Sea<br />

and the border with Bulgaria.<br />

Most of Dobrogea region has an arid<br />

climate with high average temperatures (10 o -<br />

11 o C), high summer temperatures (22 o -23 o C),<br />

low rainfall (around 400mm/an), tropical days<br />

and frequent droughts. The chill wind is<br />

frequent and in the winter is frosty and dry at<br />

summer. The coastal climate is influenced by<br />

Pontic moderate heat with stronger sunstroke<br />

and daytime breezes.<br />

8


Dobrogea is divided into two sectors regarding<br />

the type of climate. The western part of<br />

Dobrogea has a temperate continental climate,<br />

while the east side has a seaside or coastal<br />

climate.<br />

Temperate continental climate supports three<br />

external influences as a consequence of "the<br />

buffer "between the adjacent continental land<br />

surrounding it to the north, west and south and<br />

the Black Sea to the east: continental<br />

influences, Pontic and respectively the<br />

advection of air (www.mdrt.ro/PATZzona<br />

costiera faza III.pdf).<br />

The unique feature of Dobrogea maritime<br />

climate is given by the presence of the<br />

paramarine sea and lakes, it’s lack of thermal<br />

extremes throughout the year, a much higher<br />

air humidity in the warm interval compared<br />

with the continental areas and the existence of<br />

local movements of air masses, type breezes.<br />

Due to the predominantly western air<br />

circulation, the moderating influence of the<br />

Black Sea is felt only on a wide strip of 20-25<br />

kilometers along the shoreline<br />

(www.scribd.com/Strategia-de-Conservare-a-<br />

Biodiversitatii-Costiere).<br />

Coastline or coastal climate has meteorological<br />

parameters differences based on the<br />

geographical location, never the less with<br />

common features like: thermal amplitudes<br />

lower than on the mainland, higher humidity,<br />

and sea and land breezes (Teodoreanu, 2002).<br />

Due to the influence of marine waters, the<br />

evolution of annual air temperature in the<br />

coastal area exists a delay phase of heating and<br />

cooling. Autumn is warmer and cooler in the<br />

spring than in Central Dobrogea, in October the<br />

average temperature is 3 to 4.5 0 C higher than<br />

in April. (www.scribd.com/ Strategia-de-<br />

Conservare-a-Biodiversitatii-Costiere).<br />

Consistent with outside influences, the air<br />

temperature is moderate, being yet in the<br />

coastal zone, the largest in the country.<br />

Average annual temperatures are higher than<br />

the national values average of 11.2 ° C (in the<br />

north) and 11.5 (South); average temperature<br />

<strong>for</strong> the period from June to August is around<br />

21°C and the period December-February about<br />

1°C(www.mdrt.ro/<br />

PATZzonacostierafazaIII.pdf).<br />

Summers are very hot and dry (average<br />

temperature in July is + 22 ° C), while winters<br />

have moderate temperatures (average<br />

temperature in January is - 2°C). Due to the<br />

high values of solar radiation and how air<br />

masses of continental and maritime origin shift,<br />

coastal climate is warm and drier<br />

(www.scribd.com/Strategia-de-Conservare-a-<br />

Biodiversitatii-Costiere).<br />

Rainfall is more abundant in the south than the<br />

north coast, the aspect is determined of the<br />

existence of a large areas covered with water at<br />

Cape Midia, which contributes in the summer<br />

months the air to descent and reduces the<br />

<strong>for</strong>mation process of cumuli<strong>for</strong>m cloud from<br />

which could possibly fall precipitation<br />

(www.scribd.com/Strategia-de-Conservare-a-<br />

Biodiversitatii-Costiere).<br />

Average annual quantities in the coastal zone<br />

are between 400-450 mm (411 mm Constance<br />

in 2008). During the year, annual maximum<br />

rainfall according the monthly average is<br />

recorded in June (45-55 mm) and a minimum<br />

in February (18-35 mm) with the same westeast<br />

decreasing trend.<br />

On the coast, there is secondary maximum in<br />

November-December but with smaller values<br />

(30-40mm) determined by the Mediterranean<br />

and pontic cyclones from this period<br />

(www.mdrt.ro/PATZzonacostierafaza III.pdf).<br />

The largest rain quantities fall in April and May<br />

and in autumn in September and November. A<br />

low level of rainfall are recorded in Julie and<br />

August and there are moths with many days of<br />

clear sky (29-31) but with a high probability of<br />

torrential rains (www.scribd.com/Strategia-de-<br />

Conservare-a-Biodiversitatii-Costiere).<br />

MATERIAL AND METHODS<br />

There are approximately 50 methods or models<br />

available to estimate PET, but these methods or<br />

models give inconsistent values due to their<br />

different assumptions and input data<br />

requirements, or because they were often<br />

developed <strong>for</strong> specific climatic regions<br />

(Grismer et al., 2002). Past studies at multiple<br />

scales have suggested that different PET<br />

methods may give significantly different results<br />

(Crago and Brutsaert, 1992; Amatya et al.,<br />

1995; Federer et al., 1996; Vörösmarty<br />

et al., 1998).<br />

9


The four evapotranspiration methods selected<br />

in this comparison study are commonly used<br />

and require relatively fewer input requirements.<br />

In determining the evapotranspiration from<br />

Dobrogea, we considered a time interval<br />

between the years 1970-1995, using monthly<br />

average temperatures <strong>for</strong> each year and<br />

monthly measured evapotranspiration.<br />

The values of ET were compared with the<br />

calculated values through four methods:<br />

a) Thornthwaite method<br />

Thornthwaite method is more adapted in the<br />

temperate moist areas, in dry climate and it has<br />

the tendency to underestimate the values of the<br />

evapotranspiration (Musy and others, 1992).<br />

The method is based on the correlation between<br />

the water consumption of a crop and the air<br />

temperature. According to recent studies made<br />

in our country (Botzan and Merculiev, 1966;<br />

Pleşa and Florescu 1974; Grumeza,Merculiev<br />

and others, Kleps, 1989) it had come to the<br />

conclusion that the obtained results with this<br />

method, based on the air temperature, it is more<br />

accurate and approximates with the results<br />

obtained in the field (Luca, 2010).<br />

The expression of evapotranspiration with<br />

Thornthwaite method is:<br />

ETP = 1, 6 · 10<br />

a·ta ·f<br />

I<br />

were:<br />

ETP – monthly evapotranspiration (mm);<br />

I – the annual heat index is defined as the sum<br />

of monthly heat indices I,<br />

dec<br />

I = i , i = t 1,514<br />

5 <br />

ian<br />

t – average monthly temperature (°C);<br />

a – coefficient based on I, determined by the<br />

following <strong>for</strong>mula:<br />

a = (0,0675 · I 2 – 7,71 · I 2 + 1792 · I + 49239) · 10 -5<br />

f – factor based on the real duration of the<br />

month f = N · ρ;<br />

N – real duration of the month (days);<br />

ρ – parameter which depends on the number of<br />

days in one month ρ= n/ (30 · 12);<br />

n – the astronomical duration of one day<br />

(hours).<br />

b) Metoda Heargreaves (1975)<br />

A number of investigations compared the<br />

estimates <strong>for</strong> ET with different models.<br />

Heargreaves equation produces correct<br />

estimations of the potential of the<br />

evapotranspiration and in some cases, much<br />

more correct estimations result from using<br />

another methods (http://www.civil.uwaterloo.<br />

ca/watflood/Manual/02_03_1.htm ).<br />

This empirical model is based on the<br />

temperature and the solar radiation as it<br />

follows:<br />

ET = K ·R a · (T + 17,8) · T max<br />

− T min<br />

R a = 0, 408 · R a (MJ · m 2 · zi −1 )<br />

where:<br />

ET- evapotranspiration (mm/zi);<br />

k- coefficient with the value 0,023;<br />

Ra- extra-terrestrial radiation;<br />

T max - maximum temperature;<br />

T min - minimum temperature.<br />

c) Modelul Turc (1961)<br />

Turc’s <strong>for</strong>mula is applicable in all climate<br />

zones. It has an error of 10% in arid and humid<br />

areas where evapotranspiration values exceed<br />

20% (Musy and others, 1992).<br />

In Turc’s <strong>for</strong>mula are introduced two variables<br />

such as: solar radiation and relative humidity.<br />

In its simplified <strong>for</strong>m, the <strong>for</strong>mula is written <strong>for</strong><br />

the monthly and decay calculation as it follows<br />

(Maftei, 2004):<br />

t<br />

ETP = 0,4 ∙ (R s + 50) ∙<br />

t + 15<br />

t<br />

ETP = 0,13 ∙ (R s + 50) ∙<br />

t + 15<br />

where:<br />

Rs – global solar radiation or short wavelength<br />

radiation monthly or decadal (calc/cm²*day).<br />

R s = R a ∙ a + b ∙ n N <br />

t – average temperature of the period<br />

considered ( ºC);<br />

R s – extra-terrestrial radiation (calc/cm²j);<br />

N – astronomical time of day (hours/month or<br />

decade);<br />

n – actual duration of bright of the sun<br />

(hours/month or decade)<br />

a, b – coefficients depending on climate zone<br />

(a= 0,24 and b= 0,5).<br />

d) Priestley and Taylor method (1972)<br />

Priestley and Taylor model is a modification of<br />

Penman’s equation, which is more theoretical.<br />

10


An empirical approximation of Penman’s<br />

equation was made by Priestley and Taylor and<br />

it eliminates the need to input data but instead<br />

to rely on solar radiation.<br />

It is assumed that under ideal conditions, ET<br />

will have eventually a steady rate <strong>for</strong> air mass<br />

moving over a vegetation layer with high water<br />

intake. The air mass becomes saturated and the<br />

ET’s actual rate will be equal to the potential<br />

rate of Penman’s ET. Priestley and Taylor<br />

found that the ET derived from areas with<br />

abundant vegetation and increased moisture is<br />

generally higher than the equilibrium potential<br />

rate<br />

(http://www.civil.uwaterloo.ca/watflood/Manua<br />

l/02_03_1.htm).<br />

Priestley and Taylor found that the ET derived<br />

from well-stocked with water vegetation was<br />

higher than the equilibrium potential rate and it<br />

could be estimated using the α (albedo) factor.<br />

This model of equation is used <strong>for</strong> areas with<br />

low humidity and it’s described as following:<br />

∆=<br />

λET = k ∙ ∆ ∙ R n<br />

∆ ∙ γ<br />

λ = 2,501 − 2,361 ∙ 10 3 ∙ t<br />

17,27 ∙ t<br />

4098 ∙ [0,6108 ∙ exp <br />

T + 237,3 ]<br />

(T + 237,3)²<br />

There<strong>for</strong>e, a real and accurate comparison<br />

could be made between the calculated values<br />

and the measured ones.<br />

The minimum values of ET are recorded in<br />

winter months (January, February and<br />

December) and the maximum values are<br />

recorded in summer months (June, July,<br />

August).<br />

Because we had 25 years to analyze, the<br />

graphics <strong>for</strong> all the years were too large to<br />

include them in the article, so we enclosed<br />

them in the annex 1 and 2. For the<br />

determination of which method is more<br />

efficient in the determining of<br />

evapotranspiration, we chose only 5 years<br />

(1991-1995). We made four graphs which<br />

include all five years (1991 -1995) <strong>for</strong> each<br />

method as follows:<br />

a. Thorntwaite Method<br />

Thornthwaite method is a method <strong>for</strong> arid<br />

areas. As it shows the graph in Photo no.3 we<br />

used monthly average measured<br />

evapotranspiration <strong>for</strong> years between 1991-<br />

1995 and monthly values of evapotranspiration<br />

calculated by this method <strong>for</strong> each year<br />

separately. The Photo no. 3 shows that the<br />

calculated ET presents similar values in all five<br />

years analyzed (1991-1995).<br />

R ns = (1 − α) ∙ R s<br />

where:<br />

Δ – slope of saturation water vapor.<br />

γ - psychometric constant (0,66 h Pak).<br />

R n – net radiation (MJn -2 zi -1 );<br />

λ – latent heat of vaporization (MJ/kg);<br />

k – coefficient = 1,26;<br />

α – albedo= 0,25.<br />

The reason why these models are successful is<br />

due to the theories they reflect. Compared with<br />

Penman’s equation, models take into account<br />

the solar radiation and average amount of<br />

energy lost as heat in the amount available <strong>for</strong><br />

evapotranspiration.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

The ET was calculated with four methods<br />

(Thornthwaite, Haregreaves, Turc and Priestey<br />

and Taylor), on an annual and multiannual<br />

basis <strong>for</strong> the period 1970-1995. We took into<br />

account the measured ET values between the<br />

years mentioned <strong>for</strong> each month separately.<br />

Photo no. 3 The analysis of ET with Thorntwaite<br />

method (1991-1995)<br />

After analyzing the maximum values of the<br />

calculated ET, we can notice that there is<br />

considerable difference between the maximums<br />

recorded. The maximum measured ET has a<br />

value of 171.7 mm/day in July and the<br />

maximum calculated ET was of 156.8 mm/day<br />

11


in 1995. The difference between these two<br />

values is of 14.97 mm/day and the percentage<br />

is of 8.72%.<br />

The average values of the calculated ET <strong>for</strong> all<br />

five years (493.91 mm/day) differs with<br />

22.43% meaning 142.85 mm/day from the<br />

average of the measured ET <strong>for</strong> this time<br />

interval (636.76 mm/day)<br />

b. Haregreaves Method<br />

According the Photo no. 5, the calculated ET<br />

differs very much from the measured one. In<br />

1995, in July, the calculated ET reached the<br />

value of 50.85 mm/day which means that is<br />

with 70.38% lower than the measured ET<br />

which recorded a value of 171.73 mm/day.<br />

At the Turc method, there is a significant<br />

difference between the annual average of the<br />

measured and calculated ET with a value of<br />

367.82 mm/day. According to the percentage,<br />

the measured ET is with 57.76% bigger that the<br />

calculated one.<br />

d. Priestley – Taylor Method<br />

Photo no. 4 The analysis of ET with Haregreaves<br />

method (1991-1995)<br />

Regarding the Haregreaves method, the<br />

maximum values of calculated ET were<br />

recorded in June-July in 1995, and the most<br />

significant was of 47.47 mm/day, being with o<br />

percentage of 72.35% lower than the measured<br />

ET which recorded a value of 171.73 mm/day.<br />

The difference between the annual average of<br />

the measured evapotranspiration of 636.76<br />

mm/day and the calculated ET with a value of<br />

269.98 mm/day was 366.78 mm/day which<br />

means that the measured ET is with 57.60%<br />

bigger that the calculated one. From this<br />

percentage we can determine that the method<br />

does not have a very large accuracy coefficient.<br />

c. Turc Method<br />

Photo no. 6 The analysis of ET with Priestley-Taylor<br />

method (1991-1995)<br />

Regarding this method, the maximum values of<br />

the calculated ET were recorded in June-July<br />

and the largest value was in 1995 of 184.4<br />

mm/day which means that the calculated ET is<br />

with 26.01% bigger that the measured ET.<br />

The minimum value was recorded in December<br />

1991 and it was 18.78 mm/day.<br />

At this method too, there is significant<br />

difference between the annual average of the<br />

measured and calculated ET with a value of<br />

481.92 mm/day, the last mentioned being with<br />

43.05% bigger.<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

Photo no. 5 The analysis of ET with Turc method<br />

(1991-1995)<br />

12<br />

The current study suggests that<br />

evapotranspiration is difficult to estimate<br />

accurately and should be used with caution <strong>for</strong><br />

estimating actual water loss from natural<br />

systems.<br />

This commonly used evapotranspiration<br />

methods <strong>for</strong> this comparison study gave a wide<br />

range of values.<br />

From the results obtained from this study it is<br />

revealed that evapotranspiration measured


values are higher than those calculated, and the<br />

differences were significant <strong>for</strong> all studied<br />

years between the period of time 1970-1995.<br />

Because we had 25 years to analyze, the<br />

graphics <strong>for</strong> all the years were too large to<br />

include them in the article, so we enclosed<br />

them in the annex 1 and 2. For the<br />

determination of which method is more<br />

efficient in the determining of<br />

evapotranspiration, we chose only 5 years<br />

(1991-1995). We made four graphs which<br />

include all five years (1991 -1995) <strong>for</strong> each<br />

method<br />

For Thornthwaite method the measured average<br />

of annual evaporation is 142.85 mm/day higher<br />

than the calculated average evapotranspiration<br />

<strong>for</strong> the years 1991-1995.<br />

The difference between the average of annual<br />

measured and calculated evapotranspiration<br />

<strong>for</strong> Hargreaves method was 366.78 mm/day, so<br />

evapotranspiration measured is 57.60% higher<br />

than the calculated one. For Turc method, this<br />

difference was 367.82 mm/day (representing a<br />

percentage of 57.76%).<br />

In case of Priestley-Taylor method the<br />

calculated annual averages of<br />

evapotranspiration has exceeded the measured<br />

ones, the difference being 481.92 mm/day,<br />

which represents a percentage of 43.05%.<br />

We conclude that the methods Hargreaves,<br />

Priestley-Taylor and Turc do not have a very<br />

high coefficient of accuracy <strong>for</strong> this region, the<br />

differences between calculated and measured<br />

values being very high. Hargreaves and Turc<br />

gave much lower values than the reference<br />

ones, while Priestley-Taylor method exceeded<br />

by far the reference ones.<br />

On the other hand, Thornthwaite method was<br />

able to lead to the best results with greater<br />

accuracy, demonstrating that this is a more<br />

efficient method <strong>for</strong> calculating<br />

evapotranspiration <strong>for</strong> arid areas.<br />

We note that in the winter evapotranspiration is<br />

low do the the fact that when the temperature is<br />

0 or below 0, according to the <strong>for</strong>mulas at all<br />

the methods used, the ETP will be also 0.<br />

With the weather warming, the growing season<br />

starts, so the evapotranspiration records a<br />

continuous growth and a peaking point in June<br />

and July. Physiological processes decrease with<br />

cool weather, vegetation a transpiration<br />

decrease, which leads to a decrease of the<br />

evapotranspiration.<br />

The knowledge and study of evapotranspiration<br />

values leads over time to the implementation of<br />

a drought monitoring system, which will<br />

identify areas prone to drought episodes<br />

negative with effect on the vitality, health,<br />

production and productivity of plants. Based on<br />

complex analysis it will be able to quantify the<br />

effect of droughts of different intensities on<br />

silvicultural and economic goals in high risk<br />

areas to drought. Elements of statistical and<br />

mathematical modeling measurement and<br />

drought intensity may underline vulnerability to<br />

the impact of drought environment.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

1. Amatya, D.M., Skaggs, R.W., Gregory, J.D., 1995 –<br />

Comparison of Methods <strong>for</strong> Estimating REF-E, Journal<br />

of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.<br />

2. Barbu, I., Popa,I., 2001 – Monitorizarea riscului de<br />

apariţie a secetei în pădurile din România, Bucovina<br />

Forestieră IX, no. 1-2.<br />

3. Botzan, M., Merculiev, O., 1966 – Culturi irigate,<br />

Regimul de irigaţie al clturilor horticole, Editura Agro-<br />

Silvică de Stat, Bucuresti.<br />

4. Botzan, 1972 – Bilanţul apei în solurile irigate.<br />

Bucureşti, Editura Academiei.<br />

5. Crago, R.D., Brutsaert, W., 1992 – A Comparison of<br />

Several Evaporation Equations, Water Resources<br />

Research.<br />

6. Federer, C.A., Vörösmarty, C., Fekete, B., 1996 –<br />

Intercomparison of Methods <strong>for</strong> Calculating Potential<br />

Evaporation in Regional and Global Water Balance<br />

Models, Water Resources Research.<br />

7. Grismer, M.E., Orang, M., Snyder, R., Matyac, R.,<br />

2002 – Pan Evaporation to Reference Evapotranspiration<br />

Conversion Methods, J. Irrigation and Drainage.<br />

8. Grumeza, N., Merculiev, O., Kleps, C., 1989 –<br />

Prognoza şi programarea aplicării udărilor în sistemele<br />

de irigaţii, Ed.Ceres, Bucureşti.<br />

9. Luca, E., and others, 2008 – Exploatarea sistemelor de<br />

îmbunătăţiri funciare, Editura Risoprint, Cluj-Napoca.<br />

10. Luca, E., 2010 – Irigatii – Desecare - Drenaj, Curs<br />

peisagistica, Cluj-Napoca.<br />

11. Lungu, M., 2008 – Resurse şi riscuri climatice din<br />

Dobrogea, Teză de doctorat.<br />

12. Maftei C., 2004 – Hidrologie aplicaţii, Ex Ponto,<br />

Constanţa.<br />

13. Musy A., Laglaine V., 1992 – Hydrologie générale.<br />

EPFL, Lausanne, Suisse.<br />

14. Nagy Z., 1982 – Curs de irigarea culturilor, Tipo<br />

Agronomia, Cluj-Napoca.<br />

15. Plesa I., Florescu Gh., 1974 – Irigarea culturilor, Ed.<br />

Ceres, Bucuresti.<br />

16. Popescu, V., 1978 – Influenţa unor factori de mediu<br />

asupra creşterii şi fructificării ardeiului gras cultivat în<br />

sere, Teză de doctorat IANB, Bucureşti.<br />

13


17. Teodorenu, E., 2002 - Bioclimatologie umană, Ed.<br />

Academiei Române, Bucureşti,<br />

18. Vörösmarty, C.J., Federer, C.A., Schloss, A.L., 1998<br />

– Potential Evaporation Functions Compared on US<br />

Watersheds: Possible Implications <strong>for</strong> Global-Scale<br />

Water Balance and Terrestrial Exosystem Modeling,<br />

Journal of Hydrology.<br />

19.www.maps.google.ro.<br />

20.www.mdrt.ro/PATZzonacostierafazaIII.<br />

Pdf.<br />

21.www.scribd.com/Strategia-de-Conservare-a-<br />

Biodiversitatii-Costiere<br />

22.www.civil.uwaterloo.ca/watflood/Manual/02_03_1.ht<br />

m.<br />

14


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

REMOTE SENSING FOR DISASTER MONITORING:<br />

FLOODS, FIRES AND EARTHQUAKES<br />

Silviu AUREL<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty of Land<br />

Reclamation and Environmental Engineering, 59 Marasti Blvd., 011464, Bucharest, Romania,<br />

phone: +40 766 525 895, e-mail: aurel_silviu@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Scientific coordinator: Iulia Dana NEGULA<br />

The main objective of this study was to test different methods of analysis and interpretation <strong>for</strong> satellite images used in<br />

the monitoring of natural disasters, i.e. floods, fires and earthquakes. The methods were applied on satellite images<br />

acquired by different types of missions in terms of sensor (optical and radar), spatial and spectral resolution. We used<br />

optical SPOT images with a spatial resolution of 20 m that are acquired in 3 spectral bands, Landsat images with<br />

spatial resolution of 30 m, 7 spectral bands and TerraSAR-X radar images with a resolution of 3 m. The satellite data<br />

used in this study consist of: Landsat images downloaded from free online archives (© USGS) as well as SPOT and<br />

TerraSAR-X that were provided by the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA ©). In order to obtain optimal results, the most<br />

appropriate input data should be represented by: radar images <strong>for</strong> earthquakes and floods and optical images <strong>for</strong> fires<br />

and floods. The first case study focused on the floods in the Eastern part of Romania, namely the Siret river floods on<br />

the Nanesti-Silistea sector in July 2005 and the Prut River floods that took place in late July and early august 2008. The<br />

second case study was represented by the <strong>for</strong>est fires of Corsica, which is the third biggest island in the Mediterranean<br />

Sea, located at a distance of 170 kilometers south coast of France and 80 kilometers west coasts of Italy. These fires<br />

have occurred in August-September 2003, when 27,335 hectares of vegetation were burnt. The third case study<br />

consisted of the Haiti earthquake that occurred on January 12, 2010, at 4:53 p.m. local time. It was a major earthquake<br />

with a magnitude of 7.0 on the Richter scale. The epicenter was located near the Port-au-Prince capital. The processing<br />

methods (image classification and change detection) were selected and adapted <strong>for</strong> each type of satellite data. In<br />

conclusion, remote sensing is very useful in monitoring the effects of natural disasters. A very important aspect is<br />

choosing the optimal data depending on the disaster type (floods and earthquakes – optical and radar, fires – optical).<br />

Equally important is the resolution of the images in relation to the investigated phenomenon. For example, in the case<br />

of the Haiti earthquake, satellite images with a spatial resolution better than 30 meters would have been more useful.<br />

Key words: disaster monitoring, earthquakes, fires, floods, satellite images.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

The purpose of this paper was to identify the<br />

most adequate methods <strong>for</strong> the analysis and<br />

interpretation of the satellite images used in the<br />

monitoring of natural disasters, i.e. floods, fires<br />

and earthquakes.<br />

For floods, two events located in the Eastern<br />

part of Romania were chosen. The first event<br />

occurred in July 2005 on the Nanesti-Silistea<br />

part of the Siret River. The second flood event<br />

occurred on the Prut River in July-August<br />

2008. Red code alerts were transmitted during<br />

the floods that affected the North-East part of<br />

the country in 2008, <strong>for</strong> the populated areas<br />

along the Prut River. In Radauti, the river burst<br />

its banks and inundated about 5,000 hectares of<br />

land in the dammed area.<br />

For the second case study, the <strong>for</strong>est fires that<br />

affected Corsica in August-September 2003<br />

were selected. More than 27,335 hectares of<br />

vegetation were burnt. Corsica is the third<br />

largest island in the Mediterranean Sea in terms<br />

of size and it is located at a distance of 170<br />

kilometers from the southern coast of France<br />

and 80 kilometers from the western shores of<br />

Italy.<br />

Initially, the third case study focused on the<br />

earthquake that hit Bucharest in 1977, but the<br />

images from the United States Geological<br />

Survey (USGS) archive could not be used<br />

because the area of interest was completely<br />

covered by clouds. The earthquake occurred at<br />

9:22 p.m. on March 4, 1977 and it had the<br />

earthquake lasted 35 seconds devastating<br />

effects on Romania. With a magnitude of 7.2<br />

15


on the Richter scale and lasting about 56<br />

seconds, the earthquake caused 1,570 victims,<br />

of which 1,391 in Bucharest only. Across the<br />

country about 11,300 people were wounded<br />

and about 35,000 houses collapsed. Most<br />

property damage concentrated in Bucharest<br />

where more than 33 large buildings collapsed.<br />

However, in order to develop a case study <strong>for</strong><br />

this type of disaster too, the earthquake that<br />

occurred in Haiti on January 12, 2010, at 4:53<br />

p.m. local time, was selected. It was a severe<br />

earthquake with a magnitude of 7.0 on the<br />

Richter scale. The epicenter was located near<br />

Port-au-Prince, the capital of Haiti. The<br />

greatest damage occurred in the heart of the<br />

capital where thousands of persons were<br />

reported missing. After the great earthquake, at<br />

least 52 aftershocks took place, measuring up<br />

to 4.5 degrees Richter. These led to a number<br />

of 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial<br />

buildings that collapsed or were severely<br />

damaged. On 28 January 2010, the number of<br />

victims found under the debris reached<br />

approximately 170,000 deaths. On February 4,<br />

the total number of victims was estimated at<br />

230,000 dead, 300,000 injured and 1,000,000<br />

homeless people. The United States of America<br />

(USA) and many other countries, including<br />

Romania gave massive aid to Haiti in order to<br />

overcome the tragedy. Also, a large number of<br />

organizations around the world contributed<br />

financially and by delivering supplies <strong>for</strong> the<br />

people in need.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

The specific processing methods were applied<br />

on satellite images acquired by different<br />

missions in terms of the type of sensor (optical<br />

and radar) and spatial and spectral resolution.<br />

Thus, the optical remote sensing data consisted<br />

of SPOT images with a spatial resolution of 20<br />

m (three spectral bands) and<br />

Landsat TM images with spatial resolution of<br />

30 m (seven spectral bands). In terms of data<br />

acquired by radar remote sensing sensors, a<br />

TerraSAR-X image with a resolution of 3 m<br />

was used. Landsat images are available online<br />

and can be downloaded <strong>for</strong> free (© Landsat<br />

images are courtesy of the U.S. Geological<br />

Survey, http://glovis.usgs.gov/). Subsets of<br />

SPOT and TerraSAR-X data were provided by<br />

the Romanian Space Agency (© ROSA) <strong>for</strong><br />

educational purposes only. In addition to the<br />

satellite images mentioned be<strong>for</strong>e, a vector<br />

dataset containing land cover classes was used.<br />

The dataset was created based on the Land<br />

Cover Classification System (LCCS) developed<br />

by the United Nations - Food and <strong>Agriculture</strong><br />

Organization (UN-FAO). All the land cover<br />

classes were identified by the visual<br />

interpretation of the Landsat ETM+ images<br />

acquired in 2003 over Romania. The LCCS-<br />

RO-2003 dataset <strong>for</strong> the area of interest was<br />

provided by ROSA (©).<br />

The processing methods were selected and<br />

adapted depending on the type of satellite<br />

image. Visual image interpretation was used<br />

<strong>for</strong> the identification of the areas affected by<br />

floods. Visual interpretation is a combination<br />

of art and science based on intuition and it is<br />

used to identify and differentiate the features of<br />

objects and phenomena. Advanced visual<br />

interpretation requires extensive experience<br />

that is developed through specific training and<br />

practice over a long period of time (Badea,<br />

2011a). The extent of the floods was delineated<br />

on the SPOT and Landsat images using<br />

vectorization tools in a Geographic In<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

System (GIS).<br />

The main processing method used <strong>for</strong> the<br />

identification of the damage caused by fires in<br />

Corsica and earthquake in Haiti was change<br />

detection. Using this technique, the changes in<br />

landscape over a given period of time can be<br />

identified and analyzed. Thus, the spatial<br />

distribution of qualitative and quantitative<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation regarding the modifications of the<br />

analyzed objects is highlighted in change<br />

detection maps (Badea, 2011a), (Shaoqing and<br />

Lu, 2008). In order to obtain optimal results<br />

and accurate disaster monitoring maps, it is<br />

recommended to use optical and radar (HH<br />

polarization) images <strong>for</strong> floods, optical <strong>for</strong> fires<br />

and radar <strong>for</strong> earthquakes.<br />

Currently, satellite imagery or satellite-derived<br />

products are provided free of charge by the<br />

following disaster monitoring services: the<br />

International Charter on "Space and Major<br />

Disasters" (www.disasterscharter.org/), the<br />

Emergency Management Service (EMS) of the<br />

European Earth Observation Programme –<br />

Copernicus (http://portal.ems-gmes.eu/) and the<br />

United Nations Plat<strong>for</strong>m <strong>for</strong> Space-based<br />

16


In<strong>for</strong>mation <strong>for</strong> Disaster Management and<br />

Emergency Response, acronym UN-SPIDER<br />

(http://www.un-spider.org/). At the moment, all<br />

these disaster management services are fully<br />

operational (Badea, 2011b).<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

A satellite image acquired by SPOT 2 (Figure<br />

1) was used to study the floods that occurred on<br />

the Siret River, in the Nanesti-Silistea sector, in<br />

July 2005.The image was provided with the<br />

support of the International Charter "Space and<br />

Major Disasters".<br />

The SPOT image is projected in the Universal<br />

Transverse Mercator (UTM) system, zone 35<br />

North, WGS1984 ellipsoid. The image was<br />

acquired on July 16, 2005 and it covers the<br />

Nanesti-Silistea area of interest that is defined<br />

by the coordinates listed in Table 1.<br />

Table 1. Coordinates of the Nanesti-Silistea sector<br />

UTM WGS84<br />

Values (meters)<br />

N 5,050,000<br />

S 5,025,000<br />

V 531,000<br />

E 568,000<br />

In order to monitor the evolution of the flooded<br />

areas in the following period of time, Landsat 5<br />

TM (Thematic Mapper) images acquired<br />

between July 16 and July 30, 2005 were also<br />

used. The images were downloaded from the<br />

USGS archive and they have the same<br />

projection system as the SPOT image.<br />

The first per<strong>for</strong>med operation consisted in the<br />

extraction of the water mask through the visual<br />

interpretation of the SPOT image that captures<br />

the maximum extent of the floods in July 2005.<br />

Next, the area affected by floods in the<br />

Nanesti-Silistea sector was delineated using<br />

GIS vectorization tools. Based on the LCCS-<br />

RO-2003 dataset, the assessment of the flooded<br />

areas by land cover classes was made. The two<br />

GIS layers, namely the water mask derived<br />

from the SPOT image and the land cover<br />

classes, were overlaid and thus a water mask<br />

containing land cover classes was obtained.<br />

The new water mask (Figure 2) was<br />

represented on the SPOT image showing the<br />

land cover classes that were affected by floods.<br />

Based on the LCCS-RO-2003 dataset, the<br />

number of hectares affected by floods, <strong>for</strong> each<br />

land cover category, was computed. The results<br />

are presented in Figure 3 and Table 2.<br />

Figure 1. Water mask derived from SPOT 2 image acquired on July 16, 2005<br />

Nanesti-Silistea sector, Siret River<br />

17


Figure 2. Flooded areas by land cover categories (water mask containing the LCCS 2003 land cover classes).<br />

Nanesti-Silistea sector, Siret River, July 2005<br />

histogram was interactively stretched. The<br />

obtained mask contains not only the flooded<br />

areas (circled in red in Figure 4) but also the<br />

Prut River and other water bodies.<br />

Figure 3. Areas affected by floods in Nanesti-Silistea<br />

Table 2. Flooded areas on the Nanesti-Silistea<br />

Land cover classes<br />

LCCS-RO-2003<br />

Area<br />

(ha)<br />

Percentage<br />

(%)<br />

Agricultural land 17,265.62 78.42<br />

Water 463.57 2.11<br />

Grassland 1,751.79 7.96<br />

Built-up area 392.46 1.78<br />

Forest 718.24 3.26<br />

Bare area 865.99 3.93<br />

Vineyard 530.51 2.41<br />

Orchard 28.09 0.13<br />

Total 22,016.27 100.00<br />

For monitoring the floods on the Prut River that<br />

occurred in late July - early August 2008, a<br />

Terra-SAR-X image was used. In order to<br />

isolate the areas affected by floods, the image<br />

18<br />

Figure 4. Water mask generated by interactive<br />

stretching of the TerraSAR-X image histogram.<br />

Prut River, July-August 2008<br />

Two Landsat images were used <strong>for</strong> the study of<br />

the fires (Figure 5) that affected Corsica in<br />

2003. The images were selected and<br />

downloaded from the USGS archive. One<br />

image was acquired on July 14, 2003 (be<strong>for</strong>e<br />

the fires) and the other one on September 16,<br />

2003 (after the fires). These two images were<br />

acquired at different moments in time so they<br />

can be used to detect the Earth's surface<br />

changes. After image download, the spectral<br />

bands were composed <strong>for</strong> each image in order<br />

to obtain single-image files.


Figure 5. Fires in Corsica, 2003<br />

For a detailed analysis of the burnt areas, the<br />

Landsat images were cropped (Table 3).<br />

Table 3. Coordinates of the subset images - Corsica<br />

UTM WGS84<br />

Values (meters)<br />

N 4,669,800<br />

S 4,647,100<br />

E 508,500<br />

V 484,600<br />

Once the Landsat images have been cropped,<br />

the change detection procedure was applied.<br />

In the resulting image, the areas affected by<br />

fires are highlighted in red (Figure 6).<br />

Figure 7. Earthquake damage in Haiti, 2010<br />

Similar to the case study described above, the<br />

first phase consisted in the composition of<br />

spectral bands <strong>for</strong> each Landsat image. Next,<br />

the images were cropped <strong>for</strong> enabling a more<br />

detailed study over the Port-au-Prince city. The<br />

coordinates of the area of interest are presented<br />

in Table 4.<br />

Table 4. Coordinates of the subset images - Haiti<br />

UTM WGS84 Values (meters)<br />

N 2,056,000<br />

S 2,050,000<br />

E 785,000<br />

V 780,600<br />

In the next step, the changes between the two<br />

subset images were automatically detected. The<br />

change detection map (Figure 8) shows the<br />

damaged areas symbolized in yellow.<br />

Figure 6. Result of change detection: the areas affected<br />

by fires are highlighted in red. Corsica, 2003<br />

The earthquake that struck Haiti (Figure 7) in<br />

2010 was also studied based on two Landsat<br />

images downloaded from the USGS online<br />

archive. In order to apply the same change<br />

detection procedure, the images were selected<br />

one be<strong>for</strong>e the earthquake (on November 26,<br />

2009) and the other one after its occurrence<br />

(January 29, 2010).<br />

Figure 8. Result of change detection: the areas affected<br />

by fires are highlighted in yellow. Haiti, 2010<br />

19


Figure 9. Satellite image acquired by Landsat over Bucharest, March 12, 1977<br />

Initially, this case study was intended <strong>for</strong> the<br />

devastating earthquake that hit Romania in<br />

1977. Un<strong>for</strong>tunately, all the relevant images<br />

from the USGS archive could not be used due<br />

to their significant cloud coverage. The figure<br />

above (Figure 9) illustrates the Landsat image<br />

acquired on March 12, 1977, when Bucharest<br />

was fully covered by clouds.<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

Disaster monitoring based on satellite images<br />

has considerable advantages in comparison<br />

with other investigation techniques due to the<br />

large coverage and the short revisiting time<br />

provided by the current specialized services.<br />

The results offer a clear view on the disaster<br />

extent and a fast assessment of the damages.<br />

In conclusion, remote sensing is very useful in<br />

monitoring the effects of natural and man-made<br />

disasters. The key factor in obtaining accurate<br />

results is represented by the choice of optimal<br />

satellite data depending on the type of disaster.<br />

Hence, best results are obtained when using<br />

optical remote sensing imagery <strong>for</strong> the<br />

monitoring of fires and radar remote sensing<br />

imagery <strong>for</strong> the assessment of the damage<br />

caused by earthquakes. In the case of the<br />

floods, both optical and radar data can be used<br />

<strong>for</strong> disaster monitoring. Moreover, equally<br />

important is the resolution of the images in<br />

relation to the investigated event. For example,<br />

in case of the Haiti earthquake, images with<br />

increased spatial resolution would have led to<br />

much better results.<br />

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS<br />

The SPOT and TerraSAR-X satellite images<br />

and the LCCS-RO-2003 dataset were kindly<br />

provided by the Romanian Space Agency. The<br />

use of the data, covering only the area of<br />

interest, is granted <strong>for</strong> this study exclusively.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Badea, A. (2011a). Remote sensing course, University<br />

of Agronomic Science and Veterinary Medicine –<br />

Bucharest, Faculty of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environment Engineering<br />

Badea, A. (2011b). Remote sensing programmes and<br />

applications, University of Agronomic Science and<br />

Veterinary Medicine – Bucharest, Faculty of Land<br />

Reclamation and Environment Engineering<br />

Shaoqing, Z. and Lu, X., 2008, The Comparative Study<br />

of Three Methods of Remote Sensing Image Change<br />

Detection, ISPRS Proceedings, Beijing, China<br />

http://www.disasterscharter.org/home, International<br />

Charter Space and Major Disasters, accessed June 2012<br />

http://portal.ems-gmes.eu/, Copernicus/GMES: the<br />

European Earth Observation Programme, Emergency<br />

Management Service, accessed March 2013<br />

http://www.un-spider.org/, United Nations Plat<strong>for</strong>m <strong>for</strong><br />

Space-based In<strong>for</strong>mation <strong>for</strong> Disaster Management and<br />

Emergency Response, accessed June 2012<br />

20


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

Abstract<br />

COMPLEX PLANNING SOLUTIONS FOR<br />

SOIL EROSION CONTROL ON A VINEYARD<br />

Dan Ilie BALEANU<br />

Scientific coordinator: Associate Professor Sevastel MIRCEA<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Marasti Blvd,<br />

District 1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax:<br />

+ 4021.318.25.67, Email: dan.baleanu@yahoo.com<br />

Corresponding author email: dan.baleanu@yahoo.com<br />

The paper aims to present the complex planning solutions <strong>for</strong> soil erosion control on a given vineyard with a surface of<br />

52 hectares, being located in the Ialomita River watershed, Ceptura area, Prahova County in Romania. Such solutions<br />

are based on the processing statistical data provided by Ploiesti Meteorological Station and Climatologically Atlas of<br />

Romania as well as on the computed soil loss by using Romanian soil erosion model. Data collected have been<br />

consisting into average annual precipitation, annual temperature and annual soil loss <strong>for</strong> the studied perimeter. The<br />

paper contains a descriptive memorandum concerning site description, current soil degradation and management<br />

situation, natural environment, needs and opportunities <strong>for</strong> designing the anti-erosion system, specific anti-erosion<br />

measures and works <strong>for</strong> vineyard. As a conclusion, the paper provides data about technical efficiency of designed<br />

measures and works as well as the answer of why these measures should be applied be<strong>for</strong>e arranging a vineyard.<br />

Key words: soil erosion control, planning, terraces, vineyard.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Romanian wine culture has been existing <strong>for</strong><br />

almost 6000 years and dates back to history's<br />

earliest inhabitants. It is argued to be one of the<br />

oldest in all Europe. Vineyards throughout<br />

Romania have survived over the years and still<br />

produce these high quality wines today.<br />

Due to its local soil and climate Romania<br />

attracted countries such as France, Germany,<br />

and Italy to invest in vineyards since the 19C.<br />

(Oprea, 2001) Having that in view there can be<br />

found a large variety of different vines, such as<br />

Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot,<br />

Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc (Oslobeanu<br />

et al., 1991).<br />

Dealu Mare wine region (Big Hill in English) is<br />

being spread on approximately 400 square<br />

kilometers over Sub-Carpathian Hills, this area<br />

being one of the most compact wine region in<br />

Romania (Dobrei et al., 2005). Old in tradition<br />

the Dealu Mare vineyard is the cradle of the red<br />

wines, whose special taste and flavor that are<br />

given by the local soil and climate (Cotea et al.,<br />

2003).<br />

In this context, the paper presents the planning<br />

solutions <strong>for</strong> soil erosion preventing and control<br />

on a vineyard <strong>for</strong> an area of 52 ha, located in<br />

Dealu Mare wine region, Prahova County,<br />

Ceptura area.<br />

In this region traditional hillside viticulture uses<br />

deep and surface tillage. But, due to increasing<br />

of mechanization, this technique contributes to<br />

the degradation of soil physical characteristics,<br />

surface erosion, transport of sediment as well as<br />

nutrient leaching (Salceanu, 2006). Controlled<br />

grass covering the inter-rows has proved over<br />

the time improving the stability of soil<br />

aggregation, mitigation of soil erosion by<br />

reducing runoff (Plesa et al., 1980).<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

The climate of the area is represented by cold<br />

winter associated with snow, dry summer,<br />

average rainfall of 522 mm/year, and average<br />

annual temperature of 10.6°C and annual soil<br />

loss of 26 to /year/ha. It is based on the<br />

statistical data provided by Ploiesti<br />

Meteorological Station and Climatologically<br />

Atlas of Romania. The soil type is a clay<br />

textured-chernozem.<br />

The crop, parceling and modeling of the fields<br />

had been done as follows:<br />

a) Sloping the vine rows on the general<br />

direction of the level curves according to the<br />

exhibition requests, realizing bigger lengths of<br />

21


work and applying the agricultural and<br />

technical measures against erosion.<br />

These plantations are done on fields having a<br />

slope up to 14%, the useful surface being of 85-<br />

95% , the plantation distance of 2.2/1.0 meters,<br />

this meaning a number of 4545 hubs on a<br />

hectare.<br />

b) By flattening, cleaning and putting the<br />

roads on level curves, facing the rows on the<br />

line of the biggest slope and ensuring the<br />

mechanization conditions with the winch.<br />

In this case the fields have a slope of over 25%,<br />

the useful surface being 85-90%, the plantation<br />

distance of 1.5-1.0 m, thus there are a number<br />

of 6666 hubs/hectare.<br />

c) By flattening and cleaning the slope, putting<br />

the roads on the level curves, between which<br />

the plantation of the vine is done, on the curve<br />

level. In the first 2-3 years, through repeated<br />

works of the soil, on each interval a micro<br />

terrace is created.<br />

In this situation the slope of the field is of 15-<br />

25%, the useful surface of 85-87%, the<br />

plantation distance of 2.8/0.8 m, thus there are<br />

a number of 4464 hubs/hectare.<br />

d) By creating terraces and by vine<br />

plantation the useful breadth of the terrace<br />

plat<strong>for</strong>m is according to the field slope. In this<br />

case the field slope is of 15-25%, the useful<br />

surface of 58-64%, the plantation distance of<br />

2.0/1.2 m, thus there are a number of 4167<br />

hubs/hectare.<br />

The plantation distances, the density of the<br />

hubs <strong>for</strong> a hectare and the used leading<br />

<strong>for</strong>ms contain solutions which are presented in<br />

Table 1.<br />

Table 1. Plantation distance, density of the vine and leading <strong>for</strong>ms used in experiment<br />

Crop system<br />

Plantation distance<br />

Nutrition<br />

surface/hub<br />

Density of the hub<br />

vine/hectare<br />

Distance<br />

report<br />

Leading <strong>for</strong>m<br />

On the contour level<br />

without terraces<br />

2.20 x1.0 2.20 4545 2.20 Bilateral string on the strain<br />

Terraces 2.00 x 1.20 2.40 4167 1.66 Bilateral string on the strain<br />

Micro terraces on the<br />

contour lines<br />

Rows oriented<br />

on the slope line<br />

2.80 x 0.80 2.24 4464 2.80 Unilateral string on the strain<br />

1.50 x 1.00 1.50 6666 1.50 Unilateral string on the strain<br />

The sustaining system specific to these <strong>for</strong>ms<br />

of crop is the espalier with 2.20 m concrete<br />

poles using 5 rows of wire (Dejeu, 2004).<br />

When there is a crop on level curves through<br />

micro terraces and when there is a crop by<br />

facing the rows on the slope line then the<br />

number of the espaliers used on a hectare is<br />

bigger with 30-40%.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

The way the field was used (Table 2)<br />

emphasizes the 30-40% losses from the<br />

terrace crop surface. For the other crop systems<br />

the field is 80-90% valued.<br />

Soil erosion rate is influenced by the crop<br />

system and by the slope (Table 3).<br />

Table 2 Land use according to the crop system<br />

Field slope %<br />

0-14<br />

Crop system<br />

On the contour level without<br />

terraces<br />

The useful width of the<br />

plat<strong>for</strong>m in meters<br />

Number of rows<br />

60-100 25 - 45 5-15<br />

Non productive field from<br />

the crop surface<br />

15-25<br />

Terraces 9.5-17.5 4 - 8 34-42<br />

Micro terraces on the contour<br />

lines<br />

80-100 29-35 15-23<br />

Over 25 Rows oriented on the slope line 40-60-80 - 10-15<br />

22


Table 3 The average yearly soil erosion according to the crop system<br />

Crop system<br />

Width of the plat<strong>for</strong>m (m) Inclination of the plat<strong>for</strong>m (%) Soil erosion rate/year<br />

On the contour level without terraces 60-100 0-14 3.11<br />

Terraces 9.5-17.5 0-6 2.47<br />

Micro terraces on the contour lines 80-100 12-20 22.87<br />

Rows oriented on the slope line 40-80 Less than 25 28.83<br />

The volume of eroded soil, due to the heavy<br />

torrential rains has values between 2,47 and<br />

28,83 m 3 /hectare/year being substantially<br />

reduced on the contour lines plantations with a<br />

field slope of up to 14% and on terraced<br />

plantations that have a field slope of 15-25%.<br />

(Motoc et al., 1975). For the vine plantations<br />

where the slope degree does not modify, there<br />

the erosion is 15% bigger (Mircea et al., 2007).<br />

For these crop systems, the erosion decreased<br />

with over 50% when the width of this lot is<br />

getting smaller due to improvement works,<br />

like: soil mulching, and non-cultivation through<br />

spraying with herbicides previously and<br />

afterwards (Magdalina, 1994).<br />

The grape production <strong>for</strong> the Merlot type in the<br />

plantations with a slope of up to 14% is<br />

9541kg/hectare, in comparison to 6499-8194<br />

kg/hectare in plantations that have a slope<br />

bigger than 15% (Table 4).<br />

Concerning the quality of the crop, this earned<br />

20-30 grams of sugar/liter on plantations with<br />

micro terraces and on those mechanized with<br />

the help of the winch, to which the general<br />

slope of the field did not modify the latter,<br />

having a great percent of light.<br />

The production costs are influenced by the<br />

slope and by production level. In over 255<br />

slope plantations the values are 20 – 40%<br />

bigger than in 14% slope plantations.<br />

Table 4. Grape production fr the Merlot type<br />

Specification<br />

Measurement<br />

Unit<br />

Average on<br />

variants<br />

Withoutterraces<br />

on levelcurves<br />

Terraces<br />

Crop system<br />

On level curves<br />

through micro<br />

terraces<br />

With the<br />

rows facing<br />

the slope<br />

line<br />

Hub production<br />

Hectare<br />

production<br />

Sugar<br />

Kg<br />

%<br />

Kg<br />

%<br />

g/l<br />

%<br />

1.891<br />

100<br />

7817<br />

100<br />

209<br />

100<br />

2.447<br />

131<br />

9541<br />

122<br />

2.164<br />

104<br />

8194<br />

105<br />

1.611<br />

96<br />

6499<br />

83<br />

Acidity g/l 5.3 5.9 6.4 4.8 4.2<br />

H2SO4 % 100 111 121 91 79<br />

189<br />

90<br />

201<br />

96<br />

220<br />

105<br />

1.273<br />

67<br />

7036<br />

90<br />

228<br />

109<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

On fields situated on slopes bigger than 5%,<br />

agricultural systems and cultivation<br />

technologies must be applied specific <strong>for</strong> these<br />

types of fields which can ensure the production<br />

increase, the prevention and the stop of the soil<br />

erosion, the maintenance and increase the soil<br />

fertility. As the fields slope increases, the<br />

volume of the necessary works <strong>for</strong> the crop and<br />

preparation of the field <strong>for</strong> future plantations<br />

and exploitation is 36 – 130%.<br />

The erosion process on bigger slope fields is<br />

diminished when special terrace works are<br />

done. In order to protect and prevent soil<br />

erosion, vine plantations with slopes up to 14%<br />

23


are recommended with the rows facing the<br />

level curves and plantation on terraces with<br />

slopes up to 25%.<br />

Micro terrace plantations on a slope up to 25%<br />

increase the value of the field. Establishing vine<br />

plantations on slopes bigger than 25% with the<br />

rows facing the slope line can be done in family<br />

farms.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Cotea V.D., Barbu,N., Grigorescu C.C., Cotea V.V.,<br />

2003. Podgoriile si vinurile Romaniei, Editura<br />

Academiei Romane, Bucuresti<br />

Dejeu L., 2004. Viticultura practica, Editura Ceres,<br />

Bucuresti<br />

Dobrei A., Liliana Rotaru, Mustea M., 2005. Cultura<br />

vitei de vie, Editura Solness, Timisoara<br />

Magdalina I., 1994. Exploatarea si intretinerea lucrarilor<br />

de imbunatatiri funciare, Editura Didactica si<br />

Pedagogica, Bucuresti<br />

Mircea S., Lucia Nedelcu, 2007. Indrumator pentru<br />

elaborarea proiectelor de combaterea eroziunii solului,<br />

Bucuresti<br />

Motoc M. si colab., 1975. Eroziunea solului si metodele<br />

de combatere, Editura Ceres, Bucuresti,<br />

Oprea Stefan, 2001. Viticultura, Editura AcademicPres,<br />

Cluj Napoca<br />

Oslobeanu M., M. Macici, Magdalena Georgescu, V.<br />

Stoian, 1991. Zonarea soiurilor de vita de vie in<br />

Romania, Editura Ceres, Bucuresti<br />

Plesa I., Gh. Florescu, D. Muresan, I. Popescu, N.<br />

Ceausu, P. Savu, 1980. Imbunatatiri funciare. Editura<br />

Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti,<br />

Salceanu A., 2006. Aplicarea unor tehnologii moderne in<br />

viticultura – cerinta primordiala a integrarii in structurile<br />

UE.<br />

24


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

USING NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHODS TO OBTAIN THE STRENGTH <strong>OF</strong><br />

CONCRETE SAMPLES<br />

Catalin BOTEA, Ramona PIRLOG, Ioan MARGARINT<br />

Scientific Coordinator: Lect. PhD. Eng. Claudiu-Sorin DRAGOMIR<br />

University of Agronomic Science and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Land Reclamation<br />

and Environment Engineering, Marasti 59, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, tel./fax. (+40) 21 3183076<br />

E-mail:catalin_r3tro@yahoo.com, ramona.pirlog@yahoo.com, linkin_park1375@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author: catalin_r3tro@yahoo.com.<br />

The paper deals with non-destructive methods <strong>for</strong> determination of physical and mechanical characteristics of concrete<br />

specimens. The devices used <strong>for</strong> these determinations as Pundit Lab and Hammer Digi-Schmidt are in according with<br />

European and Romanian norms. The Pundit Lab is an ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test instrument which is used to<br />

examine the quality of concrete. It features online data acquisition, wave<strong>for</strong>m analysis and full remote control of all<br />

transmission parameters. The Schmidt Hammer Digi-Schmidt was developed <strong>for</strong> the non-destructive measurement of<br />

the concrete compressive strength and controlling the uni<strong>for</strong>m concrete quality. The authors emphasizes that the use of<br />

non-destructive testing provides plausible values on compressive strength of concrete specimens. This statement is<br />

proved by results obtained from tests according to SR EN 12390-3: Testing hardened concrete - Part 3: Compressive<br />

strength of test specimens. For experimental determinations presented in this paper the devices belong of Concrete<br />

Laboratory of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering Faculty were used.<br />

Key words: concrete specimens, hardened concrete, non-destructive tests.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Non-destructive test are great <strong>for</strong> new and old<br />

constructions. From old construction is<br />

necessary to know the concrete strength to<br />

know what strengthening measures to take,<br />

and <strong>for</strong> the new ones to know each execution<br />

errors. Measurements were per<strong>for</strong>med with<br />

Digi Schmidt and Pundit Lab devices, and<br />

these measure the rebound index, respectively<br />

the propagation speed of the ultrasounds.<br />

Rebound surface hardness testing of concrete<br />

is one of the most widespread NDT methods<br />

<strong>for</strong> in situ strength estimation of concrete<br />

structures. Rebound surface hardness methods<br />

are available in the civil engineering testing<br />

practice <strong>for</strong> more than 60 years. However,<br />

understanding and modelling of the rebound<br />

surface hardness of concrete as a time<br />

dependent material property is not available<br />

in the technical literature.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

The first set of the test consisted in finding<br />

the concrete rebound index. The Sclerometer<br />

25<br />

sits perpendicular on the test surface. After<br />

impact the rebound index is recorded, but <strong>for</strong><br />

measurements to be valid are needed 10<br />

attempts, after that are averaged together.<br />

Minimum distance between two attempts is<br />

25 mm and should not be tried at a lower<br />

distance than 25 mm from the edge of the<br />

specimen or the structural element. After<br />

measurements are also observed footprints<br />

left by the hammer, to take into the account<br />

the results hit area should not be broken or<br />

punctuated due to an air gap.<br />

This type of testing is in accordance with SR<br />

EN 12501-2:2002 (Dragomir C.S., 2012).<br />

The second sets of measurements consisted in<br />

determining the propagation speed of<br />

ultrasounds. The speed is influenced by a<br />

series of factors:<br />

Humidity has a physical and chemical effect<br />

on the propagation speed of the impulse.<br />

Between a standard specimen and a structural<br />

element of concrete from the same class, there<br />

are significant differences of speed. Thermal<br />

range in which it is assumed that the concrete<br />

does not change his properties would be 10 o -


30 o C. For temperatures not included in the<br />

interval, corrective actions will be taken using<br />

guidance from literature. Length of road<br />

where speed is measured should be enough so<br />

as not influence the propagation speed of the<br />

impulse. It is recommended that the length<br />

would be 100 mm <strong>for</strong> concrete. Small defects<br />

have little or no effects on the transmission<br />

time.<br />

Contour of equal velocity of propagation<br />

schedule often provides in<strong>for</strong>mation on<br />

concrete quality. Examining the attention<br />

signal, it can provide us useful in<strong>for</strong>mation. In<br />

cracked elements, when broken surfaces are<br />

maintained in close contact with compressive<br />

strength, the energy of the impulse can pass<br />

without being stopped along the cracking. If<br />

the crack is filled with liquid or solid<br />

particles, then it is undetectable. In this case<br />

the mitigation measures of the impulse can<br />

offer us useful in<strong>for</strong>mation.<br />

Although the direction in which the maximum<br />

energy propagates perpendicular transmitting<br />

transducer surface, it is possible to detect the<br />

impulses that are crossing standard in another<br />

direction.<br />

So it is possible to make measurements of the<br />

impulses by placing on the opposite surface<br />

(direct method), on the adjacent (semi-direct<br />

method) or on the same surface (indirect<br />

method) of the structure or of the sample.<br />

For direct transmission, the length of the path<br />

is the shortest distance between the probes,<br />

the accuracy of the path lengths must be<br />

registered with an accuracy of ± 1%.<br />

For direct transmission (Figure 1) , the length<br />

of the path is the shortest distance between<br />

the probes, the accuracy of the path lengths<br />

must be registered with an accuracy of ± 1%.<br />

Figure 1. Direct transmission<br />

For semi-direct method (Figure 2), generally<br />

is considered sufficiently accurate if it is<br />

taken as the length of the path, the distance<br />

measured between the centers transducer and<br />

surfaces.<br />

26<br />

Accuracy of the path length depends on the<br />

probe size compared with the distance from<br />

center to center. For indirect transmission<br />

method (Figure 3), the path length is not<br />

measured, but a series of separate<br />

measurements are per<strong>for</strong>med with probes<br />

placed at a distance x from each other.<br />

Figure 2. Semi-direct transmission<br />

Coupling probes must be adequate in terms of<br />

acoustic. So to have a good acoustic<br />

environment we can use glycerol, petroleum<br />

jelly or liquid soap. For the concrete surfaces<br />

that are rough, is used grinding to make them<br />

smothered and levelled, or using a special<br />

transmitters <strong>for</strong> this type of surface. This<br />

device is compliant to SR-EN 12504-4:2004.<br />

Figure 3. Indirect transmission<br />

Finally, a measurement was per<strong>for</strong>med to<br />

verify the concrete specimen was subjected to<br />

a destructive test in universal pres (Dragomir<br />

C.S., 2013). The surface of the turntable was<br />

cleared from <strong>for</strong>eign bodies. The cubes was<br />

placed so that compressive strength to fall<br />

perpendicular in the casting direction of the<br />

sample. It is centered on the turntables, after<br />

which it was applied a load without shock.<br />

After that the load was gradually increased<br />

until the sample fails. After the sample fails it<br />

is checked if the <strong>for</strong>m it is yielding. If it has a<br />

satisfactory <strong>for</strong>m, the results are registered.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

Measurements were per<strong>for</strong>med on samples of<br />

concrete cubes shaped with dimensions of<br />

150x150x150 mm, from different classes of


concrete according with Romanian Standards<br />

harmonized with European standard EN<br />

12390-1:2002 (Figure 4).<br />

First measurement was made with digital<br />

Sclerometer Digi Schmidt, Proceq (Figure 5 -<br />

left).<br />

show compression strength value determined<br />

at the specimen surface.<br />

Figure 5. The equipment Digi Schmidt (left) and<br />

Pundit Lab (right)<br />

Figure 4. Concrete samples<br />

Using this equipment was determined<br />

rebound index and compression resistance<br />

specimen surface. Values of compression<br />

strength are shown in Table 1. For<br />

determining these values have been carried<br />

out 4 determinations <strong>for</strong> each of the 3 samples<br />

separately. Each result represents an average<br />

of 10 recordings. In addition resistance value,<br />

the device indicates the minimum and<br />

maximum recoil index, the standard deviation<br />

and the value of the recoil. On the basis of<br />

conversion curve recorded in the internal<br />

memory of this device has the capacity to<br />

The second set of measurements was to<br />

determine the speeds of propagation of<br />

ultrasound with equipment Pundit Lab<br />

(Figure. 5 - right) that were obtained the<br />

values given in Table 2. In this case, attempts<br />

have been made based on the direct method.<br />

The values shown in Table 2 correspond to<br />

periods of time recorded in microseconds,<br />

required signal to travel the distance of 150<br />

mm cube imposed by side. On the other hand<br />

velocities were recorded with the signal<br />

travelled that distance, in m/s Depending on<br />

the values of velocity can be determined as in<br />

the first test case, the corresponding<br />

compressive resistance.<br />

For this type of test were per<strong>for</strong>med 4 attempt<br />

<strong>for</strong> each of the 3 samples and the graphical<br />

representation of the results in terms of speed<br />

is highlighted in Figure 8.<br />

1 2 3<br />

Figure 6. Images from the tests: 1. Digi Schmidt, 2. Pundit Lab, 3. Pundit Lab device calibration<br />

Table 1. Results obtained with Digi Schmidt equipment<br />

Sample no. 1 Sample no. 2 Sample no. 3<br />

No. i ii iii iv I Ii iii iv i ii iii iv<br />

Min 30 34 33 32 35 33 35 36 27 25 23 23<br />

Max 39 41 39 38 40 39 40 41 32 31 31 30<br />

S 3 2.6 1.9 2.1 2 2 1.8 2 1.9 2 2.6 2.5<br />

x͞ 37 37.8 35.5 34.6 37 35.9 36.9 38.3 29 27.9 26.3 23.1<br />

f (N/mm² ) 37 38.4 34.4 32.8 37 35 36.8 39.3 23.5 21.7 19.1 18.9<br />

27


Table 2. Results obtained with Pundit Lab equipment<br />

Sample no. 1 Sample no. 2 Sample no. 3<br />

No. i ii iii iv i ii iii iv I ii iii iv<br />

t (µ sec.) 34.2 35 34.7 34.1 34.3 31.6 30.3 30.3 29.9 30.7 30.6 29.4<br />

v (m/s) 4999 4310 4323 4399 4950 4777 4950 4950 5017 4886 4950 5019<br />

Figure 9. Results displayed on the main unit of universal<br />

press<br />

Figure 7. Compressive strength value determined on the<br />

surface of specimens<br />

Figure 10. End of the test sample<br />

Figure 8. Velocity value<br />

To validate the results obtained by nondestructive<br />

tests, an attempt was made to<br />

determine the compression strength. So, one of<br />

the cubes was introduced in the universal press,<br />

with high compressive capacity of 1500 kN.<br />

After testing, the compression strength was<br />

displayed on the display device. Resistance<br />

value as an indication Figure 9 was 43.83MPa.<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

After the measurements, the results of the nondestructive<br />

test were very close to the<br />

destructive test. By combining the two methods<br />

it can give similar results. For this article we<br />

used a small number of samples. There<strong>for</strong>e<br />

using the non-destructive methods of checking<br />

concrete is as safe as the destructive method.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Dragomir C.S., 2012. Tests on fresh concrete and<br />

hardened Vol I and II. The University of Agricultural<br />

Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, Faculty of<br />

Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering, Civil<br />

Engineering Domain (in Romanian).<br />

Dragomir C.S., 2013. Rein<strong>for</strong>ced Concrete. Laboratory<br />

Notes, The University of Agricultural Sciences and<br />

Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, Faculty of Land<br />

Reclamation and Environmental Engineering,<br />

Department Land Reclamation (in Romanian).<br />

28


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

STUDIES ON THE EVALUATION <strong>OF</strong> THE POTENTIAL AREAS<br />

URLATI TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE FARMING<br />

Leontin VISINESCU BRINZEA<br />

Scientific coordinator: professor Florin MĂRĂCINEANU<br />

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Land Reclamation<br />

and Environmental Engineering, 59, Marasti Blvd., District 1, Postal Code 011464, Bucharest,<br />

Romania, Phone: +4021.318.30.75, email: leo_silviu@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: leo_silviu@yahoo.com<br />

Natural potential of an area determine its readiness to develop in sustainable conditions, is the basis of economic<br />

processes in rural areas. The study shows favorable conditions <strong>for</strong> agriculture are necessary to determine the extent to<br />

which each factor limiting agricultural productivity and natural supports.<br />

Key words: Climat conditions, environmental factors, hydrographic basin, primary natural potentil, sustainable<br />

exploitation<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Socio-economic development of an area<br />

depends on the natural resources it provides<br />

<strong>for</strong> use in accordance with requirements<br />

imposed by the development, evidenced by<br />

general policies, local and regional area.<br />

Natural potential of a territory defined by the<br />

set of resources that makes up the environment<br />

can be analyzed after the magnitude and<br />

specificity of each constituent part.<br />

Primary natural potential consists of the basic<br />

factors that determine the <strong>for</strong>mation and<br />

evolution of the environment and natural<br />

potential secondary potential derived from<br />

primary natural environment consists of<br />

exploitable resources natural. (Mărăcineanu Fl.<br />

et al., 2006).<br />

MATERIAL AND METHOD<br />

Evaluation of natural potential of the study<br />

area reveals the natural opportunities to<br />

support sustainable development.<br />

The basic element which generates complex<br />

environmental factors is the location of the<br />

area is located in the southeast of the county<br />

Prahova, in 45° north latitude and 26° east<br />

longitude, in the contact zone of the Romanian<br />

Plain (subunit of hilly plain Mizil-Stalpu) and<br />

Carpathian hills.<br />

The study area is bordered to the north by the<br />

commune in the south Iordăcheanu Albesti<br />

Paleologu and Tomsani villages in the east of<br />

the village Ceptura and villages in the West<br />

Valley and Plopu Calugareasca.<br />

The access to the area is National Road 1B<br />

Ploiesti - Buzau, in Albesti Paleologu at a<br />

distance of 4 km on County Road 102 W and<br />

rail access is from Cricov station, located at a<br />

distance of 6 km.<br />

Of the total surface area of 4367 ha, 1372 ha<br />

are occupied by urban and rural property is<br />

2995 hectares. Large share of unincorporated<br />

be explained by the existence of large areas<br />

outside influence that farming is well defined.<br />

Also, hilly terrain determines the existence of<br />

extensive areas between the 16 localities of the<br />

study area.<br />

Study of the natural elements covers the main<br />

elements on which environmental quality to<br />

support farming land climate, soils,<br />

geotehnica. Datele are processed by modern<br />

methods to obtain correct conclusions that<br />

underlie the development of proposals <strong>for</strong><br />

programs substantiation the activities<br />

sustainable agricole.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION<br />

Morphology. From geological point of view,<br />

the area is located in the contact zone of the<br />

29


Romanian Plain and Carpathian hills (Figure<br />

1).<br />

Doftana, Teleajen) that are color true directing<br />

air currents (Vişinescu Brânzea L., 2011).<br />

Characterization of synthetic climate plains of<br />

economic importance <strong>for</strong> the agricultural<br />

activity in field crops can be done by<br />

calculating indices proposed by ICPA -<br />

Bucharest stock index (I b ) hydroclimatic index<br />

(Ih) and aridity index (Ia). (Vişinescu Brânzea<br />

L., 2009).<br />

The values of these indices, calculated based<br />

on data provided by weather station Ploiesti<br />

are:<br />

• The index to the balance:<br />

Ib = P-ETP = 633-693 = -60<br />

• The index hidroclimatic:<br />

Ih = P/ETP * 10 = 633/693 *100 = 91%<br />

• The index of aridity :<br />

Ia = P/T+10 = 633/10.6+10 = 30.7<br />

Figure 1. Morphological and tectonic in the area of<br />

study<br />

The terrace area, which rises to 6 to 12 m<br />

above the river level Cricovul Sarat and<br />

inclined to evil from north east to south - west,<br />

the land is characterized by stability and relief<br />

without bumps.<br />

Meadow area on the left side of Sarat Cricovul<br />

river is flooded and partly marshy and hilly<br />

area, known as the Urlati Hills, is<br />

characterized by a height of 400 meters, with a<br />

pronounced fragmentation with deep narrow<br />

valleys.<br />

Moreover, the area is part of the famous winegrowing<br />

region Dealu Mare and sits on the<br />

famous Wine Route.<br />

Forests occupy an area of 173 ha, with also the<br />

special function of protection, degree and are<br />

not populated by important fauna.<br />

Climate. Climate study area falls within the<br />

determined characteristics Prahova Romania's<br />

geographical position in Europe and the<br />

distribution of relief in steps whose rate<br />

decreases from north (top Ornu) south, in the<br />

plain, over 2400 m .<br />

Added to this is the fragmentation of the<br />

landscape by the three main valleys (Prahova,<br />

The interpretation of the values obtained<br />

shows that they correspond subexcedentare<br />

area, the poor class supplying land with water<br />

from precipitation.<br />

This means that efficient farming with<br />

sustainable requires planning works <strong>for</strong> both<br />

bridging water through irrigation and <strong>for</strong><br />

removal of excess water by drainage. The need<br />

<strong>for</strong> accommodation is based mixed irrigation -<br />

drainage. Characterization general climate of<br />

the territory addressed in this study, which<br />

includes both hilly and plain shown in Table 1.<br />

Soils. The diversity of topography, lithology<br />

and climate and vegetation causes a wide<br />

variety of soils, from podzolic and brown<br />

podzolic soils, brown soils of the mountain,<br />

brown-podzolic, brown acid and<br />

pseudorendzine Carpathian area plus cambic<br />

chernozem, chernozem argiloaluvionale,<br />

reddish-brown podzolic and chernozem<br />

leachates in the plains and alluvial soils,<br />

chernozems groundwater lăcovişti and humid<br />

river valleys (Semcu A., 2004).<br />

Depending on the fertility and the category of<br />

their use of the land, soils of Prahova county is<br />

within dominant in classes II and III of the<br />

arable land, in classes IV and V to pastures<br />

and meadows, in the classes III, IV-a, II, to the<br />

wine-growing plantations and classes III and<br />

IV to orchards (Table 2).<br />

30


Table 1. Characteristics climatic<br />

The indicator<br />

Global solar radiation<br />

(Kcal/rnvan)<br />

The brilliance of the sun<br />

(hours/year)<br />

Annual average temperature<br />

(De)<br />

Average temperature in<br />

january (De)<br />

Average temperature of the<br />

month of July (De)<br />

Average annual precipitation<br />

(mm)<br />

Hill Area of flat land<br />

120 125<br />

2000 2150<br />

9,0 10,0<br />

1,9 -2,0<br />

19,6 22<br />

700 600<br />

Nebulosity (days/year) 150 100<br />

Days of snow / year 25 15<br />

The thickness of the layer of<br />

snow (cm)<br />

An annual average of the<br />

wind speed (m/sec)<br />

Table 2. Weight classes in the quality of soils within<br />

categories of use<br />

Item<br />

No.<br />

Category of<br />

use<br />

35 15<br />

4,7 2,3<br />

Quality Class, %<br />

(fertility)<br />

I II III IV V<br />

Pleistocene (pebbles Colentina Mostiştea<br />

sands, gravels of terrace) and Holocene<br />

(gravels and sands of alluvial plains).<br />

Permeable nature of these <strong>for</strong>mations favors<br />

storage of large amounts of groundwater.<br />

The supply aquifers deep in the layers of<br />

Candesti is Subcarpathians edge where<br />

groundwater is found at depths of 50-200 m<br />

due to inside plain gravel slope leading to<br />

groundwater drainage areas.<br />

When these deposits are saturated or springs<br />

occur or high groundwater aquifers are<br />

<strong>for</strong>med. In the study area (Figure 2),<br />

superficial deposits consist of Holocene<br />

alluvial (1), sandy-clayey deposits, colluvial<br />

and proluvial deluvio the glacis associated<br />

with terrace deposits (7), alluvial deposits -<br />

delluvial the tertiary molasse predominantly<br />

conglomerates, sandstones and sands (12) and<br />

piedmont deposits with thin blanket of loess<br />

material (8).<br />

In areas meet little deposits <strong>for</strong>med by the<br />

decomposition of limestone and calcareous<br />

conglomerates.<br />

These deposits are located adjacent tracts with<br />

river-lacustrine quaternary deposits covered<br />

with thick blanket of loess (5) and even sand<br />

wind (3).<br />

1 Arable land 7,3 36,7 37,3 17,7 1,0<br />

2<br />

Pastures and<br />

meadows<br />

- 2,4 21,2 39,6 36,8<br />

3 Vines 2,4 24,9 43,3 27,5 1,9<br />

4 Orchards 0,2 9,4 37,3 49,8 3,3<br />

Hydrography and hydrogeology. Main<br />

hydrogeological units are distinguished by<br />

expansion and acviferitatea parties and after<br />

collector type (intergranular cracks or karst).<br />

Prahova County is included in most of the<br />

Dacic Basin occupying southern and southeastern<br />

Romania having acvilude party<br />

constitution, acvitarde and Miocene aquifers -<br />

Holocene average at depths between 300 and<br />

5000 rn. Geological <strong>for</strong>mations belong to the<br />

Romanian Plain aquifer lower Pleistocene<br />

(Candesti layers, layers of fraternal)<br />

Figure 2. Superficial deposits characteristic of southeastern<br />

Romania<br />

31


CONCLUSIONS<br />

To enhance the resources capable of producing<br />

diversification and restructuring the economy<br />

by promoting differentiated policy, taking into<br />

account the natural potential offer:<br />

- Development and implement a program<br />

to ensure sustainable exploitation of<br />

agricultural area by rehabilitating and<br />

full potential irrigable land and drainage;<br />

- Development program <strong>for</strong> the<br />

implementation of good agricultural<br />

holdings with potential correlation with<br />

real resources;<br />

- Rehabilitation and extension of the<br />

erosion horticulture and viticulture<br />

development;<br />

- Inclusion in the category of LFA areas<br />

affected by industrial restructuring.<br />

- Rehabilitation of inter-role<br />

communications infrastructure;<br />

REFERENCES<br />

1. Vişinescu Brânzea Leontin - The natural<br />

environment, and social-economic in the area <strong>for</strong> its<br />

merits Urlaţi programs on sustainable development.<br />

Report scientific no. 1. USAMV Bucharest 2011.<br />

2. Vişinescu Brânzea Leontin, Constantin Elena,<br />

Mărăcineanu Florin - Studies on the natural<br />

development of Prahova county sustainable rural.<br />

Symposium scientific international participation.<br />

ValahiaTârgovişte University, 2009<br />

3. Mărăcineanu Fl, Constantin Elena, Semcu Adrian -<br />

Sustainable development in rural area of County<br />

Prahova, Ed. Ceres, Bucharest, 2006.<br />

4. Semcu A. - The role of work land improvement in<br />

sustainable rural development", Report Phd USAMV<br />

Bucharest, 2004<br />

32


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

WATER HAMMER STUDY IN PRESSURE SYSTEMS UNDER<br />

TRANSITORY FLOW<br />

Adrian COCOCEANU<br />

Scientific coordonator: Prof.dr.ing. Eugen Teodor MAN<br />

University “POLITEHNICA” of Timişoara, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hydrotehnical<br />

Engineering Department, G. Enescu Street No. 1A 300022, Timişoara, Timiş County<br />

e-mail: cococeanu.adrian@gmail.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: cococeanu.adrian@gmail.com<br />

The purpose of this paper is to obtain results through analytical modeling and physical behavior of pressure systems<br />

under transitory flow. Complexity of water flow, hypothesis and limitations of different equations governing the motion<br />

are studied by analysis using specialized software packages and validate the results obtained by measurements on<br />

experimental stands that shapet the physical phenomenon.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

The main directions pursued in solving the<br />

water flow in pipeline’s under pressure are:<br />

determination of extreme pressures and<br />

parameters that defining transitory flow induced<br />

by the valve handling;design and<br />

implementation of an experimental stand <strong>for</strong><br />

physical modeling of transitory water flow;<br />

results obtained from experimental<br />

measurements made on experimental stand that<br />

modeling the physical phenomenon.<br />

Physical phenomenon of water hammer<br />

resulting from a rapid change in fluid velocity.<br />

Water hammer is an independent phenomena<br />

which arise when fluid flowing in a pipe is<br />

accelerated or decelerated.<br />

The associated pressure transients can be<br />

damaging to pipework or components and<br />

systems must be designed to avoid or withstand<br />

them. The waves propagate velocity - the<br />

velocity of associated propagate waves through<br />

the fluid in rest is called celerity and is equal to<br />

the velocity of sound.<br />

Value <strong>for</strong> celerity is essential <strong>for</strong> correct water<br />

hammer calculation, there<strong>for</strong>e, it is necessary to<br />

know his true value or to assess a value as close<br />

to the real one.<br />

Basic equations that governing the motion in<br />

transitory water flow are the dynamics equation<br />

and continuity equation that modeling the water<br />

hammer physical phenomenon.<br />

Continuity equation:<br />

Dynamics equation:<br />

Water hammer equation system:<br />

K<br />

C = <br />

ρ 1 + Kd<br />

t p E <br />

33


Figure 1 Experimental research on water<br />

hammer. Technical details of Armfield C7 Pipe<br />

Surg Apparature. Water supply stand Armfiel<br />

F1-10<br />

Figure 4 Pressure transducer<br />

Figure 2 Constant water tank<br />

Figure 5 BNC coaxial cable<br />

Figure 6 Acquisition board hardware<br />

Figure 3 Signal Modulator hardware<br />

34


Figure 7 Pipeline system<br />

Figure 8 Software acquisition, representation and processing: AxoScope<br />

35


Figure 9 Experimental scheme<br />

Table 1 Experimental results<br />

Volt/div<br />

Vertical<br />

Pressure<br />

Horizontal<br />

Period<br />

Signal Duration<br />

A<br />

Divisions<br />

P<br />

Divisions<br />

T<br />

Td<br />

(mV/div)<br />

N v<br />

(bar)<br />

N h<br />

ms/div<br />

Ms<br />

1 1 0.135 9 1000 9000<br />

1 18 2.43 9 1000 9000<br />

36


Figure 10 The appearance of water hammer acted with a quick closing valve - with valve open<br />

Table 2 Experimental results<br />

Volt/div<br />

Vertical<br />

Pressure<br />

Horizontal<br />

Period<br />

Signal Duration<br />

A<br />

Divisions<br />

P<br />

Divisions<br />

T<br />

Td<br />

(mV/div)<br />

N v<br />

(bar)<br />

N h<br />

ms/div<br />

Ms<br />

1 1 0.135 9 1000 9000<br />

1 9 1.215 9 1000 9000<br />

37


Figure 11 The appearance of water hammer acted with a quick closing valve - with partially open<br />

valve<br />

Figure 12 Comparative analysis of the variation of pressure<br />

Results obtained by Dobre (Stănescu) M.:<br />

The appearance of water hammer phenomenon<br />

in water networks systems under transitory<br />

flow .<br />

In this case, was used the data processing<br />

program "Hammer" and the water supply<br />

network is a ring shape.<br />

In the graphical representation of the left the<br />

water hammer phenomenon is observed with an<br />

amplitude higher than the plot on the right<br />

because in the right plot is represented the<br />

water supply system with partially open valve.<br />

Figure 13 Results obtained by the author:<br />

The appearance of water hammer phenomenon in water networks systems under transitory flow .<br />

In this case, was used the data processing<br />

program " AxoScope" and the water supply<br />

network is a simple ramified network<br />

It is noted in the graphical representation that<br />

the two data analysis results are similar results,<br />

which shows the accuracy of the results<br />

obtained from the experimental stand.<br />

38<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

Final and personal contributions<br />

From the data analysis obtained by calculation,<br />

comparative analysis and experimentally, have<br />

been observed:


‣ effect of closing the valve on the pressure<br />

pipe is similar in both graphs obtained in<br />

experimental stand by the author, as well<br />

as those from the program, HAMMER of<br />

PhD.eng. Dobre (Stanescu) M.<br />

‣ the maximum pressure is recorded<br />

‣ is clear that in a pipeline network the<br />

customers connected by pipe hydraulic<br />

resistance are protected from pressure<br />

variations induced by the maneuvers of<br />

the valve.<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

In conclusion, from the comparing of the<br />

results obtained <strong>for</strong> the transitory regime,it<br />

results that the extreme values of pressure are<br />

perfectly covered by the results obtained by the<br />

program AxoScope.<br />

39


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

ORGANIC FARMING BETWEEN THE CARPATHIAN AND BALKAN<br />

MOUNTAINS<br />

Madalin Ionut COSTINESCU<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd, District<br />

1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax: + 4021.318.25.67<br />

Email: costin.mada@ymail.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: costin.mada@ymail.com<br />

Scientific coordination: Ass. Prof. Ana Virsta<br />

This article presents a parallel between the two countries in Eastern Europe on organic farming, namely Romania and<br />

Serbia. Throughout the paper are developed common elements and differences between the two countries on<br />

agricultural areas in the ecological system, certified organic products, their sales markets, the criteria <strong>for</strong> certification<br />

of organic products, associations and representative companies and Swot analysis of each Organic farming. It was<br />

analyzed the period from 2000 until present day, during which the concept of organic farming was implemented,<br />

becoming more effective by practicing it and by supporting both governments through laws and EU directives. Due to<br />

high agricultural potential that both Romania and Serbia have, both countries could become an important source of<br />

green products <strong>for</strong> both the European Union and the world <strong>for</strong> a long time.<br />

Keywords: biological certification, organic farming, Swot analysis<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Organic agriculture is part of a wide spectrum<br />

of methodologies that support the environment<br />

being based on a minimum external input and<br />

avoiding synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.<br />

The organic farming represents an alternative<br />

to the traditional agriculture as a consequence<br />

of inappropriate functioning and because of the<br />

causes that determined a weakened resistance<br />

of the plants, animal health, soil quality and<br />

thus human health.<br />

The organic agriculture is based, in principle,<br />

on increasing the organic matter in the soil by<br />

using natural, organic fertilizers.<br />

The main purpose of this agriculture is to<br />

optimize the health and productivity of the<br />

communities interdependent in soil, of plants,<br />

animal and humans. “Organic” is a labeling<br />

term that indicates products obtained<br />

accordingly with the standards of organic<br />

production, and certified by a legal authority<br />

constituted in this regard.<br />

The objectives of organic agriculture are the<br />

same <strong>for</strong> vegetables and animal products<br />

including the application of<br />

41<br />

production methods that do not harm the<br />

environment, rational exploitation of rural<br />

space, care <strong>for</strong> the animals’ com<strong>for</strong>t and getting<br />

high quality agricultural products.<br />

The in<strong>for</strong>mation above can be found in theory<br />

as well as in practice in agricultural<br />

development in Romania and Serbia, both<br />

countries successfully implemented the<br />

Organic farming concept at national level.<br />

Important steps were done in this segment,<br />

these countries became one of the strategic<br />

leaders of ecological products, at European<br />

level but also worldwide.<br />

Both countries have favorable conditions <strong>for</strong><br />

promoting the Organic farming: fertile and<br />

productive soils, as the chemistry and<br />

technology did not reach the levels of highly<br />

industrialized countries.<br />

The agriculture is still based on using clean<br />

technologies, so there is the possibility of<br />

delimiting ecological perimeters, not polluted,<br />

where the Organic farming practices can be<br />

done.<br />

In 2012, the area cultivated in ecological<br />

system in Romania was 450.000 ha, while the<br />

wild flora cultures are collected from a surface<br />

of approximately 520.000 ha.


The areas from the ecological system were with<br />

45% higher in 2012 versus 2011, and they<br />

represent approximately 3.38% of the total<br />

agricultural used surface in Romania. In Serbia,<br />

in 2012 the cultures from the ecological<br />

system, including vegetables, fruits, cereals and<br />

pastures were around 826.000 ha, out of which<br />

40% are perennial crops, approximately 16%<br />

annual crops and the pastures are around 43%.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

Analyzed period is between 2000 and today,<br />

and the data is provided from the in<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

posted online by the Romanian Agricultural<br />

Ministry, Serbian Agricultural Ministry but<br />

also from the websites of agro-ecological<br />

organizations from the two countries.<br />

There are lots of supporters of this kind of<br />

agriculture both in Romania and in Serbia. For<br />

example, in Romania there are “Asociatia<br />

Operatorilor din Agricultura ecologica – Bio<br />

Romania” (located in Stefan cel Mare, Calarasi<br />

county), “Societatea pentru o Agricultura<br />

Ecologica(ClujNapoca), “Fundaţia Academică<br />

pentru Progres Rural – Terranostra”(from Iasi),<br />

“Asociaţia Naţională a Consultanţilor din<br />

Agricultură”(from Bucharest).<br />

In Serbia we can find “Organic Serbia” –<br />

nongovernmental organization that represents<br />

the entire national agricultural area that has as<br />

members “Zadrugar” (Ljubovija), “Royal Eco<br />

Food” (Belgrade), “Nectar” (Novi Sad),<br />

“Agropartner” (Lucani).<br />

As any activity domain, the Organic farming is<br />

regulated by norms and laws under which this<br />

functions and develops so that the rules of<br />

commerce, production and distribution are<br />

respected.<br />

This helps avoiding a weaker safety and<br />

security of humans and environment protection.<br />

Both governments adopted a series of laws that<br />

drive the development of Organic farming<br />

through good practices.<br />

Further on, ordinances are present, that provide<br />

financial support through subventions to the<br />

farmers based on the cultures type.<br />

The shared program of both countries sustains<br />

the development of Organic farming is called<br />

“The National Program of Rural Development<br />

2007 – 2013”.<br />

Romania is represented by the following<br />

measures: Measure 121 – “Agricultural<br />

Exploitation Modernization”; Measure 123<br />

“The Increase of Added Value of Agricultural<br />

and Forestry Products”; Measure 214 – “Agro-<br />

Environment Payments” – which aims to<br />

encourage the farmers to continue with the<br />

application of production methods compatible<br />

with protection and improvement of the<br />

environment.<br />

The first law which regards the Organic<br />

farming in Serbia is dated in 2001 when it was<br />

issued by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.<br />

In 2006 the second law regarding biological<br />

production and organic products was published<br />

in the Serbian Official Monitor (#62/2006).<br />

In May 2010 a new law regarding the Organic<br />

farming was in Parliament, and was published<br />

in January 1 st , 2011.<br />

This law was elaborated in con<strong>for</strong>mity with the<br />

EU legislation regarding the biological<br />

agriculture (EC #834/2007 and its application<br />

norms).<br />

The financial support from the authorities is<br />

around few thousands of Euro <strong>for</strong> the farmers<br />

provided as subventions in order to help them<br />

certify their products but also <strong>for</strong> covering the<br />

loss in case of damages done by the weather,<br />

payments of insurance fee but also <strong>for</strong> technical<br />

support and promoting the ecological products.<br />

Agricultural study is very developed, many<br />

young persons are qualified in the ecological<br />

field starting even from primary school.<br />

The in<strong>for</strong>mation is available starting from very<br />

small age, and they can deepen their knowledge<br />

at the universities, but even further as masters<br />

and PhD programs are available.<br />

An agreement was signed between the Serbian<br />

government and GIZ Germany (Germany’s<br />

International Cooperation Agency) which<br />

implements development projects in behalf of<br />

Federal Ministry <strong>for</strong> Economic Cooperation<br />

and Development (BMZ), but also of other<br />

Federal Ministries and international institutions<br />

and organizations that support and promote<br />

from all points of view the agricultural domain<br />

in Serbia.<br />

In education, the Organic farming is<br />

represented by 33 secondary agricultural<br />

schools, which provide training <strong>for</strong> 4000 young<br />

students (agricultural technicians) every year.<br />

42


After graduation, they can continue the studies<br />

at the universities like Faculty of <strong>Agriculture</strong><br />

and Forestry of the University of Belgrade,<br />

Faculty of <strong>Agriculture</strong> at the University of<br />

Novi Sad, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in<br />

Belgrade, but also in other faculties from<br />

Subotica and Nis (Kalentić, 2013).<br />

In order to improve the agricultural education,<br />

a partnership was signed between the<br />

University of Belgrade and Novi Sand in which<br />

the Serbian students can go and study at the<br />

Kassel University from Germany.<br />

In Romania, the agricultural education is in the<br />

school program from technological high<br />

schools, where the young farmers can receive<br />

the diploma as agricultural technician.<br />

Like in Serbia, they can continue the studies at<br />

the universities from the big cities like:<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and<br />

Veterinary Medicine from Bucharest,<br />

University of Agricultural Sciences and<br />

Veterinary Medicine from Cluj-Napoca,<br />

University of Agricultural Sciences and<br />

Veterinary Medicine Ionescu de la Brad from<br />

Iasi, University of Agricultural Sciences and<br />

Veterinary Medicine of Banat from Timişoara,<br />

Ecological University of Bucharest.<br />

As <strong>for</strong> future perspectives of this economic<br />

segment, both countries have great objectives<br />

regarding the development of the sector in the<br />

long term.<br />

For example, Romania has as a quality<br />

objective to put the Organic farming in the<br />

center of the Romanian agriculture as a engine<br />

of sustainable development.<br />

As quantitative objective the aim is to: increase<br />

the areas cultivated in Organic farming;<br />

diversify the assortment of processed products;<br />

extend the internal market of ecological food;<br />

create stock <strong>for</strong> the intra-community commerce<br />

and export to third parties; professional<br />

development of the parties involved in Organic<br />

farming: trainers, producers, processors,<br />

inspectors, ministry experts, importers,<br />

exporters;create groups of producers to extend<br />

the production market and commercialization<br />

of ecological products;grant special attention<br />

on the impact of the agricultural system on the<br />

environment and to conserve the biodiversity,<br />

wildlife and natural habitats.<br />

Romania and Serbia are two countries with<br />

approximately the same objectives and I hope<br />

with the same perspectives.<br />

Thus, I have to say that Serbian people focused<br />

on the development of internal market, on<br />

efficient evaluation of ecological products in<br />

con<strong>for</strong>mity with the EU regulations, promoting<br />

the export <strong>for</strong> the European and world markets,<br />

applying and monitoring the National Action<br />

Plan regarding the Organic farming.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

In this chapter we will analyze what products<br />

are grown in ecological regime in Romania and<br />

Serbia, but also their evolution from 2007 till<br />

present and the critics of certification used by<br />

them.<br />

Analyzing the areas cultivated with main<br />

cultures in 2007, it can be seen that 32.222 ha<br />

are areas dedicated to cereals and<br />

approximately 27.713 ha oilseeds and proteins.<br />

Pastures and hayfields have 57.600 ha.<br />

For 2012, the surfaces with pastures and fodder<br />

have the largest share out of the total – 44%<br />

(approx. 165.000 ha), followed by the cereals –<br />

29% (approx. 130.000 ha), oilseeds and<br />

proteins 22% (105.000 ha).<br />

The surfaces cultivated with fruit trees; vine<br />

and vegetables have the lowest share, 2% and<br />

1%. In the animal sector, in 2012, it was<br />

recorded an increase of the number of animals<br />

breaded by the ecological production method,<br />

especially in sheep and goats – 160.000, 85.000<br />

laying hens, and 60.000 dairy cows.<br />

Regarding the apiarian sector, in 2012 it was<br />

recorded a number of 102.881 bee families.<br />

Starting with 2010 the number of operators<br />

increased yearly approximately 3 times versus<br />

the previous year.<br />

In 2012 out of the total of 26.736 producers,<br />

103 are from the processing segment, 211 from<br />

commerce and 26.390 are agricultural<br />

producers.<br />

Organic farming does not use synthetic<br />

fertilizers and pesticides, growth stimulators<br />

and regulators, hormones, antibiotics and<br />

intensive breeding system of animals.<br />

Genetically modified organisms and their<br />

derived are strictly <strong>for</strong>bidden in the Organic<br />

farming.<br />

43


Going from conventional agriculture to the<br />

ecological one, is done through the conversion<br />

period which in the vegetal production has 2<br />

years <strong>for</strong> annual cultures and 3 years <strong>for</strong><br />

perennial ones.<br />

On the labels from the ecological products, the<br />

following mentions are mandatory, specific to<br />

the ecological agricultural system: refers to the<br />

ecological production mode, logo, name and<br />

code of the inspection and certification<br />

organism that per<strong>for</strong>med the inspection and<br />

issued the certificate of ecological product, and<br />

starting with 2006 the “ae” logo (Figure 1).<br />

Figure 1 Organic Certificate of Romania<br />

The “ae” logo guarantees that the product with<br />

this label comes from the Organic farming and<br />

is certified by a control organism, allowing the<br />

consumer an easy identification of these<br />

products on the market.<br />

In Serbia, the ecological production is<br />

structured as following: fruits production has<br />

the highest share from the organic zone, with a<br />

total of 46.36%.<br />

The pastures and hayfields are spread on 7.57%<br />

from the arable land and vegetables are grown<br />

on 4.77%.<br />

Out of the total area of ecological production,<br />

perennial plants are cultivated on 46.7% and<br />

annual on approximately 46%. Agricultural<br />

cooperatives are present and are considered<br />

important business partners <strong>for</strong> <strong>for</strong>eign<br />

investors as they operate on large agricultural<br />

surfaces with vegetables, fruits and cereals.<br />

Currently there are 180 active companies that<br />

refrigerate and conserve fruits and vegetables,<br />

their capacity being 600.000 tones.<br />

Additionally there are 80 companies that deal<br />

with hot food processing, with a capacity of 5-<br />

600.000 tones and approximately 40 companies<br />

that produce juices from ecologic fruits and<br />

vegetables (Figure 2).<br />

Figure 2 Structure of organic plant production in ha<br />

(2013)<br />

Certifications criteria are not very different<br />

from the Romanian ones especially that they<br />

are in con<strong>for</strong>mity with the legislation of the<br />

European Union.<br />

This is based on the following set of rules:it is<br />

<strong>for</strong>bidden to use genetically modified<br />

organisms; it is <strong>for</strong>bidden to use irradiations;<br />

the used soil must be kept safe of chemicals <strong>for</strong><br />

several years be<strong>for</strong>e it is used <strong>for</strong> growing<br />

ecological products; it is <strong>for</strong>bidden to use<br />

pesticide and synthetic fertilizers.<br />

Like in Romania, the ecological product is<br />

highlighted through a logo as in this shape and<br />

proves that the respective products are certified<br />

by the profile companies approved by the<br />

Ministry of <strong>Agriculture</strong> from Serbia (Figure 3).<br />

Figure 3 Organic Certificate of Serbia<br />

In Romania, a large amount of the products<br />

received in the Organic farming was <strong>for</strong> export.<br />

A percentage of around 70-80% of the<br />

ecological products is exported yearly.<br />

The import of ecological products increased<br />

every year with the involvement of the<br />

hypermarkets in the retail distribution. In 2007<br />

the imports value was approximately 5 million<br />

Euro, while in 2011 it reached a value of<br />

approximately 75 million Euro (estimations –<br />

according with the existing data in the market).<br />

44


Germany is the most important destination <strong>for</strong><br />

the commerce with ecological products from<br />

Serbia, with a market share of 31%, followed<br />

by France (17%), Great Britain (10%) and Italy<br />

(8%). Except the fact that it is a big consumer<br />

(74 EUR per capita) and a producer of<br />

ecological food (1 million ha in Organic<br />

farming), Germany is also a big importer of<br />

such products. Depending on the type of<br />

product, the imports vary between 2 and 95%<br />

out of the value of the products in the market,<br />

<strong>for</strong> products that can be produced in Germany.<br />

Fruits and vegetables are the best sold products<br />

on the European markets (Kalentić, 2013).<br />

SWOT analysis of the two states in Organic<br />

farming field: (Alexandru P. ,2009 ; Kalentić,<br />

2013).<br />

Romania:<br />

Strengths:<br />

Fertile and productive soils, agriculture based<br />

on technologies that do not affect the<br />

environment,organic fertilizers used (compost,<br />

green fertilizers, natural minerals, seaweeds),<br />

continuous events <strong>for</strong> training and promoting<br />

the concept of Organic farming, existence of a<br />

policy of regulations <strong>for</strong> institutes and<br />

organizations that promote ecological products,<br />

legal frame adapted to the European Union<br />

requirements.<br />

Weaknesses:<br />

Poor development of internal market <strong>for</strong><br />

ecological products, poor promotion of<br />

ecological products, investors are quitting this<br />

type of agriculture, low level of returns on<br />

investments, commercial price of ecological<br />

products is much higher than of conventional<br />

ones.<br />

Opportunities:<br />

Financial support <strong>for</strong> Organic farming,<br />

inspection and certification tax <strong>for</strong> the<br />

conversion period, demand <strong>for</strong> the ecological<br />

products increases at international level,<br />

Organic farming can become an important<br />

financial resource <strong>for</strong> the rural environment,<br />

ecological products export is one of the five<br />

strategic points of Romania.<br />

Threats:<br />

Fake ecological products on the market;<br />

conventional areas are in the very next vicinity<br />

of the ecological ones, old population in the<br />

rural environment, limited sectors <strong>for</strong><br />

processing and commercialization of ecological<br />

products.<br />

Serbia:<br />

Strengths:<br />

National Action Plan in place, legal framework<br />

improving, accreditation Body of Serbia has<br />

assessors trained in organic farming,<br />

international cooperation of local academia<br />

with University of Kassel started,close relations<br />

already existing with organic markets in<br />

Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and The<br />

Netherlands.<br />

Weaknesses:<br />

Sector and domestic market small,financial<br />

engagement of international donors marginal,<br />

financial scheme and technical support <strong>for</strong><br />

creating and running a special unit within the<br />

accreditation body not yet defined, certification<br />

systems still non-transparent.<br />

Opportunities:<br />

Evolution into Europe’s prime supplier of<br />

organic soybean products, evolution into<br />

Europe’s prime supplier of organic food/feed<br />

ingredients such as starches, bran, flakes,<br />

protein cakes, gluten, hydrolysates, pectin,<br />

colors, etc, perspective of becoming major<br />

element in IPARD project approval process,<br />

and thus in restructuring Serbia’s agriculture<br />

and rural areas in general.<br />

Threats:<br />

Farms cannot develop to the level of<br />

international competiveness, sector will be<br />

marginalized by developments in other<br />

countries, offering similar range of products,<br />

actors do not respect accepted EU business<br />

systems and are excluded from major<br />

international trading, domestic and<br />

international investments cannot be mobilized.<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

Following the analysis it can be seen that the<br />

two countries have a major potential in<br />

developing the ecological agricultural segment<br />

due to the available areas and the favorable<br />

climate environment.<br />

There is a rise in the evolution of growing on<br />

more and more areas the ecological products.<br />

45


On medium and long term due to the usage of<br />

these ecological products, the health of humans<br />

can be improved and the environmental<br />

pollution can be reduced significantly.<br />

The income from Organic farming can become<br />

the most important source <strong>for</strong> the Romanian<br />

and Serbian farmers so that their standard of<br />

living would increase.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Kalentić M.Ulrich, GIZ Belgrade 2013 - Organic<br />

<strong>Agriculture</strong> in Serbia Ata Glance 2013<br />

Alexandru P. Scurtu I., 2009 - Strategii Manageriale p<br />

14-20.<br />

www.proiectulecologicromanesc.ro<br />

www.madr.ro<br />

www.srbija.gov.rs<br />

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS<br />

I’d like to express my acknowledgement to the<br />

Faculty of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering that provided the<br />

opportunity to participate at the International<br />

Commerce Fair with Ecological Products from<br />

Nuremberg, Germany in February 2013. This<br />

event gave me the possibility to found out new<br />

knowledge about ecological agriculture in<br />

Romania and abroad.<br />

46


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

STUDIES OVER CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN CRISURI RIVER BASIN<br />

Neculai DOGARU<br />

Scientific coordinator: professor Florin MĂRĂCINEANU<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd, District<br />

1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.30.75<br />

Email: dogarunicu@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: dogarunicu@yahoo.com<br />

The vast majority of rural economic activities are conducted under the direct effect of environmental conditions<br />

outdoors, where climate variability influences physiological processes of plants and growth animals conditions as those<br />

involved in development work such economic processes. Extreme weather events such as droughts, torrential rains,<br />

land degradation and soil assets fall into the category risk natural hazards expose human values. Trends in climate<br />

Cris basin is based on the main elements of weather observations recorded at the meteorological station Oradea, as<br />

well as data collected from various specialized archives. Elements established a specialized data base were processed<br />

by different methodologies.<br />

Key words: Climate change, climatic trend, climate variability, deficit of moisture<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Climate of Bihor county is under the<br />

influence of the western circulation that<br />

carries oceanic air masses, moist but the<br />

geographical location and layout of relief<br />

prints special features to the climate (Dogaru<br />

N., 2012/2).<br />

With the general characteristics of oceanic<br />

temperate and Mediterranean climate of the<br />

south and southwest, which make their<br />

presence felt within the study area, values of<br />

climatic elements are ordered according to the<br />

relief (Gergely Istvan, 2010).<br />

This climatic variability due to natural factors,<br />

determined by its agricultural exploitation,<br />

has become more intense as a result of global<br />

climate changes and it is felt through<br />

increased frequency and intensity of periods<br />

of stress <strong>for</strong> field and horticultural crops.<br />

It identifies climate sub-regions: 1-Plain<br />

Banato-Crişana, 5-Hills Banato Crişene and 9<br />

Western Carpathians, Figure 1, (Popescu D.I,<br />

2004).<br />

The assessment of changing dynamics of<br />

climate elements on long periods of time can<br />

reveal trends that must be treated in culture<br />

technologies to give sustainable farming.<br />

47<br />

Figure 1. Climatic regionalization of the study area<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

To meet the above objective regarding the<br />

evolutionary trend of climate in Crisuri<br />

hydro-graphic basin were organized


esearches based on key elements of<br />

meteorological observations recorded at the<br />

meteorological station from Oradea, as well<br />

as on data collected from various specialized<br />

archives (Dogaru N., 2012/2).<br />

Elements <strong>for</strong>med in a specialized database<br />

were processed by methodology developed by<br />

various specialists:<br />

A<br />

Index Gorczynski, KG = 1,7<br />

− 20, 4<br />

sin( L)<br />

where :<br />

A–amplitude of annual average air<br />

temperature, o C;<br />

L-latitude of location (absolute value)<br />

Values obtained from the calculation shall be<br />

read after the following classification which<br />

determines the type of climate:<br />

KG ≤ 12.4 - maritime climate,<br />

12.5 - 18.4 weak maritime;<br />

18.5 - 27.4 neutral;<br />

27.5 - 33.4 weak continental;<br />

> 33.4 continental<br />

P<br />

Index de Martonne: i = , t +10<br />

where : P– annual average rainfall, mm;<br />

t - annual average air temperature, 0 C .<br />

The interpretation of the results is made by<br />

the below classification:<br />

10, arid climate;<br />

11 to 24 semiarid;<br />

25-30 moderately dry;<br />

30-35 under wet;<br />

36-40 moderately wet;<br />

41-50 wet;<br />

51-60 very wet;<br />

61-187 excessively wet.<br />

Lang precipitation factor, i = P / T,<br />

where :<br />

P – annual precipitations, mm;<br />

T - annual average air temperature, 0 C.<br />

The values of this index are judged by the<br />

following scale:<br />

Index de Martonne – Gottman:<br />

1 Py Pa<br />

b = ( + 12 ),<br />

2 Ty + 10 Ta + 10<br />

where :<br />

Py - annual precipitation, mm;<br />

Ty - annual average air temperature, 0 C;<br />

Pa - precipitation of the driest month, mm;<br />

Ta - average air temperature in the driest<br />

month 0 C.<br />

The values of this index are judged by the<br />

following scale:<br />

b 59 very wet climate.<br />

Thornthwaite Humidity Global Index, I m is<br />

calculated as follows:<br />

Im = Iu − 0, 6 Ia<br />

s<br />

- index humidity, Iu = 100<br />

ETP<br />

- s, monthly water surplus amount, mm<br />

d<br />

- index of aridity, Ia =<br />

ETP<br />

- d, monthly water deficits amount , mm.<br />

Assessment scale of this index is:<br />

Im> 100, over wet climate;<br />

100-80, wet climate;<br />

20-0, under wet climate;<br />

0 ÷ -20 under dry climate;<br />

-20 ÷ -40, semiarid climate;<br />

≤ -40.<br />

The calculation of these indices was made <strong>for</strong><br />

three specific periods: the period between the<br />

years 1895 – 1955, as reference period, where<br />

the climate was characterized by a greater<br />

stability compared to past decades, the decade<br />

1990-1999 and the decade 2000 - 2009.<br />

The results are in Table 1.<br />

i


Table 1. Comparative climatic indices characteristic to Bihor County<br />

Climate index<br />

Calculation period<br />

1896-1955 1990-1999 2000-2009 class limits<br />

Gorczynski<br />

value 84 79 84 > 34<br />

Index<br />

Type climate continental continental continental<br />

continental<br />

value 31 31,6 28,6 25-30, moderately<br />

Martonne<br />

arid;<br />

Index<br />

type climate under wet under wet moderately arid<br />

30-35, under wet<br />

Lang Precipitation factor<br />

Martonne-Gottman<br />

Index<br />

Thornthwaite Humidity<br />

Global Index<br />

Clasifications ICPA<br />

value<br />

type climate<br />

60,0<br />

semiarid area<br />

50,9<br />

Arid area<br />

54,2<br />

Arid area<br />

56-180,<br />

semiarid area;<br />

21 – 55,<br />

Arid area<br />

value 32,9 30,8 32,5<br />

30-59<br />

type climate<br />

Wet climate Wet climate Wet climate<br />

Wet climate<br />

value -1,8 22,0 9,0 0 ÷-20<br />

Under dry<br />

type climate Under dry wet under wet<br />

0-20<br />

Under wet<br />

value<br />

type climate<br />

I b=82mm,i h=114%,<br />

i a=32<br />

surplus,<br />

moderately surplus<br />

I b=88,8mm,i h=116%,<br />

i a=32<br />

surplus,<br />

moderately surplus<br />

I b=16mm,i h=97%,<br />

i a=28<br />

surplus,<br />

low surplus<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

Methods of processing of raw climate data,<br />

highlight the Crisuri Plain climate variability<br />

and the climate trend to become more arid.<br />

Thus, according to the Martonne index, Lang<br />

precipitation factor and ICPA classification,<br />

in the last decades the climate has become<br />

more arid, a trend which reduces the volume<br />

of water that rains make them available to<br />

crops. More pronounced moisture deficit<br />

requires more extensive technological<br />

interventions, such as irrigation and use of<br />

varieties of plants hardier to drought and also<br />

by applying culture technologies in order to<br />

preserve in a greater way the soil water<br />

reserves.<br />

Highlighting modification of annual rainfall<br />

frequency generation and average air<br />

temperature may indicate the development<br />

trend of climate. There<strong>for</strong>e, the last four<br />

decades were taken in a comparative study,<br />

1970-2010; the results are presented in table 2<br />

and 3.<br />

Table 2. Frequency of annual average precipitation in<br />

the study area<br />

Annual<br />

Frequency (nr / %) per decades<br />

precipitations,<br />

mm<br />

1970-<br />

1979<br />

1980-<br />

1989<br />

1990-<br />

1999<br />

2000-<br />

2010<br />

1000 - 700 2 / 20 1 / 10 4 / 40 2 - 20<br />

700 - 600 1 / 10 5 / 50 1 / 10 4 - 40<br />

600 - 500 3 / 30 2 / 20 1 / 10 1 -10<br />

500 - 400 4 / 40 2 / 20 2 / 20 2 / 20<br />

400 - 300 - - 2 / 20 1 - 10<br />

Table 3. Frequency of annual average temperature air<br />

in the study area<br />

Air<br />

Frequency (nr / %) per decades<br />

temperature, 1970- 1980- 1990- 2000-<br />

o C 1979 1989 1999 2010<br />

≥ 12 - - 2 / 20<br />

12 - 11 - - 3 / 30 3 / 30<br />

11 - 10 8 / 80 7 / 70 4 /40 4 / 40<br />

10 - 9 2 / 20 3 / 30 3 / 30 1 / 10<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

It is noted that during the 40 years, it is<br />

developed the trend of producing a smaller<br />

volume of annual rainfall since the decade<br />

1990 -1999. In the same time, the share of<br />

rainfall of 700 mm / year is maintained at the<br />

range of 10% - 40% of annual rainfall <strong>for</strong><br />

each decade separately.<br />

There is a clear trend of reduction in annual<br />

rainfall between 500 - 600 mm / year, from<br />

40% in the decade 1970 -1979, to 10%<br />

starting with the decade 1990 -1999. Also,<br />

from the same decade weak precipitation<br />

occur, between 300 and 400 mm/year,<br />

(Dogaru N., 2012/1).<br />

Dynamics of annual average air temperatures<br />

shows a consistent trend of increasing the<br />

annual average temperatures from 10 o C and<br />

11 o C, to values greater than 12 o C, so starting<br />

to the decade 2000-2010 they accounted <strong>for</strong><br />

20%.<br />

Weight loss annual average temperatures<br />

between 10 o C and 11 o C from 80% to 40%<br />

which modify the thermal regime of the area.<br />

49


These conclusions support the interpretation<br />

of results from climatic indices on which it is<br />

considered the evolutionary trend of climate<br />

towards aridity.<br />

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS<br />

This paper was prepared in the major field of<br />

intervention 1.5 "Doctoral and post-doctoral<br />

in support of research". The identification<br />

number of the contract POSDRU<br />

107/1.5/S/76888.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Dogaru N. - Partial results of research <strong>for</strong><br />

substantiating rural development programs of study<br />

area. Scientific Report No. 3, USAMV Bucharest,<br />

2012<br />

Dogaru N. - Characterize the landscape of the study<br />

area. Scientific Report No. 2, USAMV Bucharest,<br />

2012<br />

Gergely Istvan. – PhD thesis. Lower Danube<br />

University, Galaţi, 2010<br />

Popescu D.I., Constantinescu J., Bâlteanu D. Dumitru<br />

M., coordinators – Geographic atlas. Soil quality and<br />

electricity transmission network. Romanian Academy<br />

Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004<br />

*** Geobihor. Blogspot. Tourist attractions in Bihor<br />

County, 2010<br />

*** apmbh. anpm.ro/upload. Report on the state of the<br />

environment in Bihor County <strong>for</strong> 2010<br />

50


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

DESIGN <strong>OF</strong> REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES LOCATED IN<br />

SEISMIC AREAS<br />

Bogdan DUMITRU, Georgiana BUTUC, Marius GRUIA<br />

Scientific Coordinator: Lect. PhD. Eng. Claudiu-Sorin DRAGOMIR<br />

University of Agronomic Science and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Land Reclamation<br />

and Environment Engineering, Marasti 59, 011464, Bucuresti, Romania, tel./fax. (+40) 21 3183076<br />

e-mail: bogdanfdumitru@yahoo.com, butuc_georgiana@yahoo.com,<br />

gruiamarius_89@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: bogdanfdumitru@yahoo.com.<br />

In Romania there are yet many old buildings, who have suffered damage during earthquakes in the last century.<br />

Securing them is an important issue <strong>for</strong> the owners and of course <strong>for</strong> the authorities. The paper analyses the maximum<br />

displacements at the top of the structures under seismic actions at different heights. Maximum values are compared<br />

with allowable limits specified in current design codes. The study was conducted <strong>for</strong> RC frame structures with different<br />

heights. As a novelty authors used as entry data <strong>for</strong> structural modelling, the resulting values from the non-destructive<br />

tests on concrete and rein<strong>for</strong>ced concrete samples. In the first part of this study relative positions of the two intrinsic<br />

centers, CG and CR, were calculated. Then, RC frame structures that have the same shape in plan, but different heights<br />

were modelled using Autodesk Robot structural analysis program. Because the maximum amplification was at the<br />

largest structure height, the second part of the study was to determine the displacement <strong>for</strong> structures with the same<br />

height but different shape in plan. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the influence of the height regime on the<br />

displacement at the top of the building and irregularities that influence on the same phenomenon. The results are<br />

conclusive and are discussed both on the charts and analytical results obtained. The activities of this research were<br />

conducted under the supervision of Mr. Claudiu-Sorin DRAGOMIR, Lecturer in the Department of Environment and<br />

Land Reclamation at the Faculty of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering of Bucharest.<br />

Key words: eccentricities, old irregular buildings, seismic action, structure response<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

The study presumes that in Bucharest many<br />

buildings were built after more permissive<br />

norms than the existing ones that follow the<br />

seismic design code P100-1:2006 (Dragomir,<br />

2013). The study looks at the displacements<br />

caused by the earthquakes at the superior levels<br />

of buildings with different heights<br />

(GF+3Storeys, GF+7Storeys, GF+10Storeys)<br />

and various plan <strong>for</strong>ms (L, T and +).<br />

For exemplification it were chosen two<br />

buildings presented in Figure 1 because they<br />

are old, have an irregular shape and do not<br />

meet the rigors of today’s design codes.<br />

a. Law Faculty b. Romanian Opera<br />

Figure 1. Irregular shapes of buildings<br />

51


In order to determine the state of the buildings<br />

non-destructive test can be made using the<br />

following equipment: Digi Schmidt, which<br />

records the concrete’s rebound index and<br />

Pundit Lab, which measures the speed and time<br />

needed <strong>for</strong> ultrasounds to transit the concrete<br />

block. In this manner the entry dates was<br />

obtained <strong>for</strong> the automatic structural<br />

calculation.<br />

METHODS AND MATERIALS<br />

Methods of structural analysis.<br />

As methods of structural analysis the Autodesk<br />

Robot Structural Analysis Professional<br />

software used:<br />

The method of equivalent static seismic<br />

<strong>for</strong>ces.<br />

This method can be applied to buildings <strong>for</strong><br />

which the characteristics can be calculated<br />

through the consideration of two plane models<br />

on orthogonal directions and <strong>for</strong> which the total<br />

seismic response is not significantly altered by<br />

the higher oscillation Eigen modes. In this case,<br />

its fundamental mode of translation has a<br />

predominant influence in the total seismic<br />

response. The main shear <strong>for</strong>ce corresponds to<br />

the proper fundamental mode, <strong>for</strong> each of the<br />

primary horizontal directions considered in the<br />

building’s calculations, is determined as<br />

followed:<br />

F b = γ I S(T 1 )m (1)<br />

where:<br />

S(T 1 ) - is the design response spectrum<br />

ordinate correspondent to the fundamental<br />

period;<br />

T 1 - is the primary fundamental period of<br />

oscillation <strong>for</strong> the building in the plan that<br />

contains the considered horizontal line;<br />

m - is the building’s total mass;<br />

γ I - is the importance (exposure) factor of<br />

building;<br />

λ – is the correction factor that considers the<br />

proper fundamental mode through the effective<br />

modal mass associated to it, whose values are λ<br />

= 0,85 if T 1 ≤ T C and the building has more<br />

than two floors and λ = 1,0 in the other cases.<br />

The primary fundamental period T 1 is<br />

determined using a dynamic structural analysis.<br />

For the structures considered in the calculation<br />

the following expression regarding the main<br />

shear <strong>for</strong>ce:<br />

F b = γ I S(T 1 )mλ => F b = 0,14m (2)<br />

The method of modal analysis with response<br />

spectra.<br />

In the method of modal analysis, seismic<br />

actions evaluated based on response spectra<br />

corresponding to unidirectional translational<br />

movement of ground described by<br />

accelerograms. Horizontal seismic actions<br />

described by two horizontal components<br />

measured on the same design response<br />

spectrum. The vertical component of seismic<br />

actions was characterized by vertical response<br />

spectrum. This analysis method applies to<br />

buildings that do not meet the specified<br />

conditions <strong>for</strong> use of the simplified equivalent<br />

static lateral <strong>for</strong>ces. For buildings that meet the<br />

principles of regularity in plan and vertical<br />

uni<strong>for</strong>mity principle, the calculation can be<br />

done using two plane structural models<br />

corresponding to the main horizontal<br />

orthogonal directions. Buildings that do not<br />

meet the above principles will be calculated<br />

with spatial models. When using a spatial<br />

model, seismic action will apply to the relevant<br />

horizontal and orthogonal main directions. For<br />

buildings with structural elements located in<br />

two perpendicular directions can be considered<br />

as relevant. Usually, the main directions<br />

corresponding with the base shear <strong>for</strong>ce<br />

associated with the fundamental mode of<br />

translation oscillation and the normal <strong>for</strong>ce on<br />

this direction. The structures with linear<br />

behaviour are characterized by their own<br />

modes of oscillation (natural period,<br />

proper oscillation shapes, effective modal<br />

masses, and effective modal mass<br />

of participation factors). They are determined<br />

by dynamic calculation methods using dynamic<br />

inertial and de<strong>for</strong>mation characteristics of<br />

structural systems resistant to seismic action. In<br />

calculating Eigen modes will consider a<br />

contribution to the total seismic response.<br />

Dynamic aspect of seismic action and inelastic<br />

behaviour of structures affected by destructive<br />

earthquakes require specific design<br />

methods, governed by rules of seismic<br />

design. In Romania, these regulations are<br />

52


contained in the "Seismic Design CodeP100 –<br />

part I –Design provisions <strong>for</strong> buildings" (P100-<br />

1:2006). P100 provisions contain two<br />

fundamental requirements, per<strong>for</strong>mance levels<br />

that constructions built in seismic areas must<br />

satisfy:<br />

The life safety requirement – The buildings<br />

must be designed such that under the effect of<br />

the projected seismic action to possess enough<br />

margin of safety towards the local or global<br />

collapse of the buildings, so that the people’s<br />

lives be protected. The level of the seismic<br />

action associated with this per<strong>for</strong>mance level<br />

corresponds to an average recurrence interval<br />

(Average Recurrence Interval = 100 years)<br />

The degradation limit requirement – The<br />

buildings must be designed in such a way that<br />

<strong>for</strong> the earthquakes with a higher probability of<br />

occurrence than the projected seismic action,<br />

the buildings do not suffer degradations or<br />

these be taken out of use, so that the repairs<br />

cost would be exaggerated towards the initial<br />

cost of the building.<br />

The level of the seismic action associated with<br />

this per<strong>for</strong>mance level corresponds to an<br />

average recurrence interval SLS (ARI=30<br />

years).<br />

Romanian territory is divided in seismic zones<br />

depending on local seismic chance, which is<br />

considered to be constant in each seismic area.<br />

The seismic chance <strong>for</strong> design is expressed by<br />

top value of the horizontal ground acceleration<br />

(a g ) determined <strong>for</strong> the appropriated Average<br />

Recurrence Interval ULS (ARI =100 years).<br />

The seismic motion in a point on the ground is<br />

described by elastic response spectra <strong>for</strong><br />

absolute accelerations (two horizontal<br />

components and one vertical component).<br />

The local ground conditions affect the <strong>for</strong>m of<br />

the elastic response spectrums and change both<br />

peak acceleration amplification of the ground<br />

(a g ), as well the frequency content of the<br />

seismic motion. The peak acceleration<br />

amplification of the ground <strong>for</strong> the Bucharest is<br />

0,24. The local ground conditions are described<br />

trough the values of the control interval (of<br />

corner), T C , of the response spectrum <strong>for</strong> the<br />

regarded area, which is expressed in seconds.<br />

The value <strong>for</strong> this interval in Bucharest is 1.6<br />

seconds. The code P100:2006 or the Eurocode<br />

8 specifies tree values of the control interval T C<br />

on a macro seismic map. Of a value of the<br />

control interval, T C corresponds to a pair of<br />

values T B and T D . The control interval, T C (s)<br />

of the response spectrum is the limit between<br />

the maximum values area from the absolute<br />

acceleration spectrum, the normalized <strong>for</strong>ms of<br />

the elastic response spectrum <strong>for</strong> the horizontal<br />

components of the ground acceleration, β(T),<br />

<strong>for</strong> the fraction of critical damping (ξ =0,05-<br />

depending on the control interval T B , T C and<br />

T D ), and the area of maximum values in<br />

relative speed range.<br />

0 ≤ T ≤ T B , β(T) = 1 + (β 0−1)<br />

T B<br />

T (3)<br />

T B < T ≤ T C , β(T) = β 0 (4)<br />

T C < T ≤ T D , β(T) = β 0<br />

T C<br />

T<br />

(5)<br />

T > T D , β(T) = β 0<br />

T C T D<br />

T 2 (6)<br />

where:<br />

β 0 – maximum dynamic amplification factor;<br />

T – own period of oscillation of a system with<br />

one degree of dynamic elastic freedom<br />

response;<br />

The graph in Figure 2 shows that dynamic<br />

amplification factor value of ground<br />

acceleration <strong>for</strong> Bucharest is 2.75.<br />

Figure 2. Normalized spectrum of elastic response of<br />

acceleration <strong>for</strong> horizontal components of ground motion<br />

in areas characterized by control period T C = 1.6 s<br />

A conceptual design of structures located in<br />

seismic areas that ensures adequate seismic<br />

behaviour is very important.<br />

Simplicity of the structure assumes a<br />

continuous and strong enough structural system<br />

53


that can ensure a clear path, uninterrupted <strong>for</strong><br />

the seismic <strong>for</strong>ces directly to the foundation<br />

soil. An example of discontinuity of seismic<br />

actions is a big hole in the ceiling or a lack of<br />

rein<strong>for</strong>cement. Seismic design should aim<br />

producing a structure as regular and as uni<strong>for</strong>m<br />

distributed in plan so that inertial <strong>for</strong>ces are<br />

transmitted directly on the shortest way to the<br />

foundations. There<strong>for</strong>e plans <strong>for</strong>m shown in<br />

Figure 3 should be avoided in designing<br />

structures.<br />

Figure 3. Examples of irregular shapes in plan<br />

In Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis<br />

Professional software were simulated different<br />

types of structures that determined a system of<br />

axes with an opening and a span of 4.5 meters<br />

and 3 meters distance between levels. Concrete<br />

used is C16/20, section poles at ground level<br />

are 45x45 cm and at the top will be 30x30 cm;<br />

25x50 cm section beams and rein<strong>for</strong>cement is<br />

done according to the standards in effect. It<br />

should be mentioned that in each case the<br />

structure were encased to the bottom.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

In the first part of the study we chose three<br />

simple structures with three different height<br />

regimens (GF+3Storeys, GF+7Storeys,<br />

GF+10Storeys). The three structures were<br />

modelled using Autodesk Robot Structural<br />

Analysis Professional software. It was<br />

simulated an earthquake and then it was<br />

determined their displacement values at the top<br />

of structure (Dragomir, 2011). Following the<br />

results it was observed, as expected, that the<br />

largest displacement was recorded at the<br />

highest structure height as shown in Figure 4.<br />

Figure 4. 3D representation of the structures and comparative chart of displacements on x direction<br />

In Figure 5 you can see the 3D de<strong>for</strong>mation<br />

shape of buildings after the seism induced on<br />

the X direction, and in the right part of the<br />

figure is a chart that contains periods of<br />

oscillation <strong>for</strong> each structure. These periods<br />

correspond to the first three fundamental modes<br />

of oscillation.<br />

Following graphs in Figure 5 it can be seen that<br />

the periods of time obtained <strong>for</strong> the highest<br />

structure have the highest values, signifying<br />

that it has greater flexibility. In the three cases<br />

it can be seen that the first two periods of<br />

oscillation modes have equal values and higher<br />

than the third. Equal values of the first two<br />

periods can be explained through regular<br />

shapes that they have.<br />

54


Figure 5. Representation of the four 3D de<strong>for</strong>mation shapes and the structure displacements<br />

In the second part of the study we considered<br />

the buildings with the same height and the<br />

same characteristics, with different shape in<br />

plan, to observe the differences in their<br />

displacements (Figure 6).<br />

Figure 6. 3D representation of four structures with different shape in plan and with the same height regime<br />

Figure 7. Representation of the four 3D de<strong>for</strong>mation shapes and the structure displacements<br />

In figure 7 where those four buildings have the<br />

same height, it can observe that only symmetric<br />

buildings have the first two periods equal (□<br />

and +) while the irregular structures (L and T)<br />

have their first two periods of oscillation<br />

different on the strength of their eccentricity<br />

which can be seen in figure 9. We can also<br />

55<br />

observe that the irregular structures have a<br />

longer period of oscillation than the<br />

symmetrical ones on the strength of the same<br />

reason: their eccentricity.


Figure 8. Representation on the vertical displacements of<br />

the structures<br />

action, where it can observe that the regular<br />

square buildings are the safest, with the<br />

smallest displacement, and the „L” shaped<br />

structures are the most dangerous, having the<br />

biggest displacement.<br />

In Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis<br />

Professional software it can also calculate the<br />

eccentricities, calculus was done, and found out<br />

that the symmetrical structures have no<br />

eccentricities, the „T” shaped structure has<br />

eccentricity on only one direction, and the „L”<br />

shaped building have eccentricities on both<br />

horizontal directions which make it the most<br />

unstable (Figure 9).<br />

In figure 8, it is emphasised a chart that<br />

compares building displacements under seismic<br />

Figure 9. Eccentricities on the two directions in plan<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

Using Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis<br />

Professional was emphasised the answer of<br />

different types of buildings to side action with<br />

specification that, in calculus, were considered<br />

only the ef<strong>for</strong>ts given by its own weight. The<br />

analysis showed that largest displacements<br />

were obtained <strong>for</strong> structures with the largest<br />

height. It was also validated the clause on<br />

irregular plan shapes of structures, both defined<br />

in the Code P100-1: 2006 and in Eurocode 8.<br />

Analysing the results we can say that at<br />

irregular buildings the weight - geometry<br />

relation has an important role, and irregularities<br />

are controlled using the principles of<br />

conceptual design code P100-1: 2006 or<br />

Eurocode 8.<br />

There are no perfect buildings and from this<br />

point of view deviation from perfection means<br />

additional cost.<br />

Building irregularities cannot be avoided. They<br />

appear from functional reasons in plan, and<br />

technological on height.<br />

Theoretical problems of irregularities are<br />

treated with the study of relative relation<br />

between the center of rotation CR and center of<br />

gravity CG.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Dragomir, C.S., 2013. Rein<strong>for</strong>ced Concrete, Course<br />

Notes. University of Agronomic Science and Veterinary<br />

Medicine, Faculty of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environment Engineering, Civil Engineering Domain (in<br />

Romanian).<br />

Dragomir C.S., 2011. Seismic response of civil irregular<br />

buildings, Noua Publishing, Bucharest (in Romanian).<br />

Seismic design code - Part I - Design stipulations <strong>for</strong><br />

buildings, indicative P 100-1:2006 (in Romanian).<br />

56


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

PRIMING BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN A WASTEWATER TREATMENT<br />

PLANTS<br />

Denisa Mihaela GRIGORE<br />

Scientific Coordinator: Dragos DRACEA<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd, District<br />

1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax: + 4021.318.25.67, email:<br />

denisagrigore88@yahoo.ro<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: denisagrigore88@yahoo.ro<br />

Wastewater treatment plants are important objectives to ensure the quality of sources of water . The paper presents<br />

some aspects of determining the time <strong>for</strong> priming of biological processes in wastewater treatment plants , identification<br />

of specific steps and processes priming , reducing costs and to ensure a safe exploitation.<br />

Key words: costs, processes priming, Romania.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Evolution of human society is dependent on the<br />

availability of natural resources and meet<br />

certain conditions geoclimactic minimal.<br />

Currently, we are at a stage of development<br />

where natural resources are exploited<br />

intensively, due to increased needs resulting<br />

from population growth and living standards.<br />

If water reserve highlights the peculiarity that<br />

the vast majority of human activities it is<br />

consumed only in terms of quality being<br />

reintroduced later in natural cycles.<br />

An important area of human activity that<br />

consumes resources quantitative water is<br />

agriculture with irrigation segment, which<br />

generates power production and safety<br />

resources.<br />

It is necessary to ensure the protection of water<br />

resources in physical, chemical, and biological<br />

and increasing water use in the context of<br />

increased demand and reduced volumes<br />

available.<br />

Protection of water resources is achieved<br />

through specific measures: soil erosion control<br />

discharges of pollutants from various human<br />

activities, and through wastewater treatment.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

Wastewater represents all physical, chemical<br />

and biological processes by which water<br />

57<br />

pollutants are removed or trans<strong>for</strong>med into a<br />

more environmentally friendly <strong>for</strong>m.<br />

Treatment processes of plants made by man<br />

takes place in nature with low intensity in a<br />

process called purification.<br />

In industrial installations aims to accelerate the<br />

process to reduce concentrations of pollutants<br />

(Iancu Paulina. 2005)<br />

Practical in nature and in industrial plants<br />

treatment, meet processes: mixing, decantation,<br />

filtration, oxidation, reduction, absorption,<br />

adsorption, osmosis, specific biochemical<br />

processes at the cellular level.<br />

If the treatment is not done and are discharged<br />

into water sources organic pollutants, reaching<br />

eutrophication development when nutrients<br />

because they develop important populations of<br />

algae and other life <strong>for</strong>ms resistant to high<br />

concentrations of pollutants and the variation of<br />

water chemistry and oxygen levels.<br />

(M.Negulescu.1978).<br />

Substances that influence intensity of<br />

eutrophication processes are nitrogen and<br />

phosphorus. The nature and treatment plant,<br />

reducing phosphorus absorption is achieved by<br />

the cellular level or by precipitation<br />

(phosphorus oxide) with salts of iron,<br />

aluminum, calcium etc.<br />

Follow concentrations in water sources shows<br />

that there is a cyclical process of assimilation,<br />

fermentation and reintroduction of this element<br />

circuit.


The second important element in the process of<br />

eutrophication is nitrogen. It is believed that<br />

biological development in water sources and<br />

not only, is subject to the following aspects:<br />

Chemically speaking, support is provided by<br />

dissolving carbon from the atmosphere and<br />

result in breathing or digestion, phosphorus as a<br />

product of pollution and the subsequent<br />

trans<strong>for</strong>mation and nitrogen pollution that<br />

fermentation processes.<br />

Trans<strong>for</strong>mation and nitrogen removal is<br />

accomplished in nitrification and denitrification<br />

processes in biochemical processes.<br />

Specialized bacteria, convert ammonia into<br />

nitrates and nitrites in the presence of oxygen,<br />

while others provide reduced to molecular<br />

nitrogen using oxygen in metabolic processes<br />

remove carbon dioxide, thus ensuring energy<br />

<strong>for</strong> life.<br />

concentrations are important in quantities<br />

above 15 mg / l (SC Adiss S.A.2010).<br />

Technological chain pilot plant is (fig1):<br />

-Mixing<br />

-Pumping<br />

-Pre-denitrification and carbon intake<br />

-Nitrification<br />

-Secondary settling stage<br />

-Disinfection with sodium hypochlorite<br />

Figure 1. Water Treatment Plant Flow<br />

Legend Figure 1:<br />

Biochemical process per<strong>for</strong>med by bacteria<br />

found in biologically active sludge, is the most<br />

effective process to remove nitrogen.<br />

Other nitrogen removal processes are chemical<br />

or physical:<br />

ammonia-nitrogen reaction with chlorine to<br />

eliminate their disadvantage as 1 g NH 4 Cl and<br />

7.6 g are required in practice to reach 15g Cl / 1<br />

g NH4, resulting chloramines being released<br />

into the atmosphere.<br />

- strip at high pH> 9.5 units involves removing<br />

ammonia in the atmosphere and pollution of the<br />

environment factor.<br />

-osmosis or ion exchange filters involves<br />

obtaining volumes with high concentrations of<br />

ammonia and other by-product water volumes<br />

in the regeneration of ion exchangers.<br />

This paper presents the results obtained in a<br />

pilot plant to reduce nitrogen.<br />

An important issue addressed in the paper is<br />

related to a priming stage biological process.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

The pilot plant used <strong>for</strong> water loaded with<br />

ammonium, treats wastewater from an<br />

economic, containing domestic sewage and<br />

water from washing of metal parts processing<br />

industry with a high oil contents. Ammonium<br />

58<br />

1. Finally grills 6. Nitrification reactor<br />

2. Cominutor 7. Denitrification reactor<br />

3. Primary clarifier 8. Secondary clarifier<br />

4. Mixing tank 9. Sludge thickener<br />

5.Oxidation reactor<br />

Since when nitrification pH decreases,<br />

depending on the concentration of ammonia<br />

nitrogen was adopted version predenitrificare<br />

involving large volumes of circulation and thus<br />

increase the buffering capacity of<br />

denitrification step.<br />

Ensuring the-fosferizarii is achieved by dosing<br />

FeCl3 (ferric chloride) and pH balance with<br />

soda NaOH.<br />

The process is automated with sensors <strong>for</strong><br />

process:<br />

- PH monitoring and metering automation soda<br />

<strong>for</strong> pH balance<br />

- Dissolved oxygen level monitoring and<br />

automation nitrification reaction blower<br />

operation<br />

- Monitoring and control activated sludge<br />

concentration of biological activity<br />

- NO3 and NH4 in reactor monitoring and<br />

automation that raw water recirculation<br />

High frequency determination token nitrogen<br />

(ammonium-nitrate) is provided by equipment<br />

mounted in the reactor biological process.


These values were verified using precision<br />

measurements standardized methods, drawing<br />

up a daily bulletins analysis, indicators<br />

monitored are: CCO-Cr, BOD5, NH4, NO3,<br />

NO2, SS, phosphorus, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide,<br />

detergents, phenols; petroleum products.<br />

In Figures 1-7 are shown the evolutions of the<br />

main indicators of quality of treated water <strong>for</strong><br />

the period 1 to 21 March 2012<br />

SS (mg/l)<br />

400<br />

350<br />

300<br />

250<br />

200<br />

150<br />

100<br />

50<br />

0<br />

12.11.2012<br />

19.11.2012<br />

26.11.2012<br />

3.12.2012<br />

Figure 2. Evolution of concentrations of suspended<br />

solids leaving the SE entry<br />

10.12.2012<br />

SS- intrare<br />

7.01.2013<br />

18.01.2013<br />

SS iesire<br />

24.01.2013<br />

data<br />

Ptot<br />

(mg/l)<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

sulfuri<br />

(mg/l)<br />

8<br />

7<br />

6<br />

5<br />

4<br />

3<br />

2<br />

1<br />

0<br />

12.11.2012<br />

Figure 5. Evolution of ammoniacal nitrogen<br />

concentration in SE<br />

12.11.2012<br />

19.11.2012<br />

19.11.2012<br />

26.11.2012<br />

26.11.2012<br />

3.12.2012<br />

3.12.2012<br />

Ptot- intrare<br />

Figure 6. Evolution of phosphorus concentrations in SE<br />

Ntot<br />

(mg/l)<br />

300<br />

250<br />

Ntot- intrare<br />

Ntot- iesire<br />

200<br />

150<br />

100<br />

50<br />

0<br />

data<br />

12.11.2012<br />

19.11.2012<br />

26.11.2012<br />

3.12.2012<br />

10.12.2012<br />

7.01.2013<br />

18.01.2013<br />

24.01.2013<br />

10.12.2012<br />

7.01.2013<br />

18.01.2013<br />

S- intrare S- iesire<br />

10.12.2012<br />

7.01.2013<br />

18.01.2013<br />

Ptot- iesire<br />

24.01.2013<br />

24.01.2013<br />

data<br />

data<br />

Figure 3. Evolution of chemical oxygen demand COD-<br />

Cr in SE<br />

NH4<br />

(mg/l)<br />

350<br />

300<br />

250<br />

200<br />

150<br />

100<br />

50<br />

0<br />

12.11.2012<br />

19.11.2012<br />

26.11.2012<br />

3.12.2012<br />

NH4- intrare<br />

10.12.2012<br />

7.01.2013<br />

NH4- iesire<br />

18.01.2013<br />

24.01.2013<br />

data<br />

Figure 7. Evolution of sulfur concentrations in SE<br />

Figure 4. Evolution of total nitrogen in SE<br />

Figure 8. Evolution of sulfur concentrations in SE<br />

59


In the biological process priming stands<br />

existence of distinct phases (fig. 9):<br />

- Oxidation of ammonia nitrogen to nitrite NO2<br />

- Complete oxidation of NH4 and NO2 to<br />

nitrate NO3<br />

- Priming process of denitrification and nitrate<br />

removal in the <strong>for</strong>m of molecular nitrogen.<br />

Destabilization biological process showed that<br />

recovery is done in the same sequence of steps<br />

is maintained and there<strong>for</strong>e measures should be<br />

operating:<br />

- Over-aeration, oxygenation in the first 2<br />

stages<br />

- Stimulation of denitrification by reducing<br />

oxidation / oxygenation and recirculation<br />

control in the last round.<br />

- Increasing carbon in the last stage<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

-The results highlight the need <strong>for</strong> the<br />

implementation of systems with an architecture<br />

to provide mobility service by concentrations<br />

of water pollutants from entering the water<br />

treatment station.<br />

-Avoid overflow of high concentrations of<br />

pollutants into the environment is achieved by<br />

optimizing priming biological processes and<br />

increase recovery capacity when the biological<br />

process is destabilized because of shortfalls in<br />

service.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Iancu Paulina. 2005. Alimentari cu apa. Ed. Bren.<br />

Bucureşti.<br />

M.Negulescu.1978. Canalizari. Ed Didactica si<br />

Pedagocica Bucuresti.<br />

Water Treatment Technologies SC Adiss S.A.<br />

Figure 9. Nitrogen trans<strong>for</strong>mation in the biological<br />

priming<br />

60


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

EVOLUTION <strong>OF</strong> WATER QUALITY IN THE BUZAU- IALOMITA BASIN<br />

Daniela ILIE<br />

Scientific coordinator: Ana VIRSTA<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd, District<br />

1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, email: danag.ilie@gmail.com<br />

Abstract<br />

The paper presents the evolution of Water Quality in Romania during the period 2004-2009 in the Buzau-Ialomita<br />

Basin who includes the rivers Buzau, Ialomita, Prahova, Calmatui, Mostistea*. It is based on the statistical data<br />

provided by Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. The in<strong>for</strong>mation has been processed into the following<br />

indicators: water quality, phisico-chemical and biological status of water quality, accidental pollution. During the<br />

analyzed period, was found an increase in the length of river sections with water quality framed in III rd class, but the<br />

IV th and the V th classes have registered an decrease by few percents. The average flow rate taken from 2004 to 2009 has<br />

modified in most areas.*distribution according to the National Administration of “Romanian Waters”.<br />

Key words: water quality, biological status, physico-chemical structure of the water, Buzau – Ialomita Basin<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Rivers are the main source of drinking and<br />

industrial water in Romania, which are<br />

characterized by flowing phenomenon<br />

(influencing the amount of suspended solids<br />

and colloidal, physical and chemical<br />

characteristics, shape of the riverbed, flow<br />

variation and water level) and by water contact<br />

with the atmosphere (which influences<br />

oxygenation capacity, variation in daily and<br />

seasonal temperature) and by purification<br />

ability. (Teodosiu, 2001)<br />

Generally, rivers are characterized by lower<br />

mineralization, amount of dissolved salts is<br />

below 400mg/l, and consists of sodium<br />

chlorides and sulphates, potassium, calcium<br />

and magnesium.<br />

The main feature of rivers is the load with<br />

suspended solids and organic matter, the load is<br />

proportionally related to weather conditions<br />

and climate.<br />

The discharge of insufficiently treated effluents<br />

led to alteration in the water bodies and the<br />

emergences of a wide range of contamination<br />

and in some cases are exacerbated bacterial<br />

contaminations. (Rojanschi et al., 1997)<br />

Ialomita- Buzau Basin is located in the southeast<br />

of the country with a surface of 19 040km 2<br />

representing about 8% of the country. Water<br />

resources in the studied area are mostly of<br />

Ialomita and Buzau Rivers, the resources of<br />

Mostistea River and Calmatui River are<br />

insignificant <strong>for</strong> major uses.<br />

On the studied area 87 treatment plants are in<br />

operation out of which only 10 shows<br />

satisfactory operations. 22.2% of the total<br />

discharged debits does not require treatment,<br />

and of those treated 58.4% are insufficiently<br />

purified, 18.3% are purified in a satisfying<br />

manner, while 1.1% is not purified being<br />

directly discharged (Ilie, 2007).<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

In order to characterize the quality of the water<br />

in the Ialomita – Buzau Basin, the following<br />

indicators were used: physico - chemical water<br />

quality, bacteriological characteristics of water,<br />

the length of river investigated and accidental<br />

pollution.<br />

The period analyzed in this study was 2004 –<br />

2009.<br />

The data have been collected from Ministry of<br />

Environment and Climate Change and they<br />

have been processed and interpreted based on<br />

simulation models.<br />

61


RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

Romania's water resources potential and<br />

technical used from inland rivers are (thousand<br />

m 3 ):<br />

• Theoretical resource 40.000.000;<br />

• Existing resource according to the level<br />

of spatial watershed 13.952.663:<br />

• Water requirement of land use according<br />

to the ability to capture in operation<br />

3.545.744<br />

Water requirement decreased from 20.4<br />

thousand m 3 in 1990 to 5.3 thousand m 3 in<br />

2006 and reaching the value 8.5 thousand m 3<br />

according to statistics from 2009, due to:<br />

decrease of industrial activity, reducing water<br />

consumption in the technological processes,<br />

reduce losses, applying economic mechanism<br />

in water management.<br />

Water levies, during the analyzed period, have<br />

been 60 – 80% of total water demands because<br />

of overestimation of requirements, especially in<br />

industry and agriculture. Measurements were<br />

per<strong>for</strong>med on the combined lengths of river that<br />

reach 1175 km in the interval 2004 to 2006 and<br />

getting to 1308 km in 2009; number of<br />

sampling points have increased from 37 to 45<br />

over the same period. Quality of water has been<br />

analyzed in terms of physico-chemical and<br />

bacteriological structure of the water. observing<br />

the quality of the water courses Biologically<br />

(bacteriological), was founded on the following<br />

elements: macro-invertebrates, phytobenthos<br />

and phytoplankton. Ecological status is the<br />

structure of aquatic ecosystems, emphasized by<br />

biological quality elements, general<br />

bacteriological and physico-chemical elements<br />

with a classification system in 5 classes: high,<br />

good, moderate, poor and bad.<br />

Table1. Evolution of the ecological status<br />

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009<br />

High 2.5 6 23.6 16.73 16.25 19.95<br />

Good 19 32 28.2 29.54 36.85 23.55<br />

Mod 24 37 41.7 46.28 39.02 47.71<br />

Poor 25 12 5.8 6.65 7.88 8.79<br />

Bad 29.53 12 0.7 0.8 0 0<br />

And, in 2008 and 2009, in Ialomita- Buzau<br />

Basin, have not registered sections in bad<br />

ecological status, but the largest share has been<br />

the III rd water quality class – the moderate<br />

ecological status.<br />

The physico-chemical tests include<br />

measurements of temperature, turbidity, odor,<br />

color, total solid, total dissolved solid, pH,<br />

conductivity, total suspended solid and iron<br />

content. (Shittu, 2008)<br />

For evaluation of physico-chemical water<br />

quality overall, in each monitored section, were<br />

calculated <strong>for</strong> each indicator the 90% and 10%<br />

insurance values of dissolved oxygen and these<br />

were compared the limit values as set out in the<br />

normative with five quality classes, resulting in<br />

inclusion in one of five quality classes.<br />

The chemical state is represented by the<br />

concentrations of pollutants which must<br />

con<strong>for</strong>m to the environmental quality standards<br />

to ensure protection of human health and the<br />

environment.<br />

%<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

water qualitu<br />

classes<br />

2004<br />

2005<br />

2006<br />

2007<br />

2008<br />

2009<br />

60<br />

40<br />

20<br />

0<br />

Year<br />

Figure1. Evolution of the physico-chemical status<br />

(Percentage)<br />

2004<br />

2005<br />

2006<br />

2007<br />

2008<br />

2009<br />

Year<br />

Figure2. Evolution of the physico-chemical status<br />

(Percentage)<br />

Hig<br />

h<br />

I<br />

st<br />

As can be seen in Figure 1, in 2004, poor and<br />

bad ecological statuses were recorded on<br />

approximately half of the river length on which<br />

measurements were made.<br />

62


Table2. Evolution of the physico-chemical status<br />

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009<br />

I st 2.5 0 23.6 1.8 9.1 21.2<br />

II nd 19 14.5 28.2 33.1 25.1 29<br />

III rd 36.2 38.9 41.7 51.4 59.2 43.6<br />

IV th 40.2 34.6 5.8 13 4.2 5.7<br />

V th 2.2 12.1 0.7 0.7 2.4 0.5<br />

The physico-chemical properties of water in<br />

Ialomita- Buzau Basin have improved in the<br />

last years as you can see in Figure 2, the<br />

IV th and V th quality classes have registered a<br />

slight decrease, but the largest share has been<br />

the III rd water quality class.<br />

The overall aim of the Water Framework<br />

Directive is to achieve by 2015 a "good status"<br />

<strong>for</strong> of all water bodies in Europe, which<br />

involves providing similar living conditions in<br />

terms of the aquatic environment <strong>for</strong> all<br />

European citizens. (Water Law 107/1996)<br />

River Basin Management Plan is the main<br />

instrument <strong>for</strong> implementing the Water<br />

Framework Directive, presents aspects of water<br />

quality management based on knowledge status<br />

of water bodies, set target goals over a period<br />

of six years (2009-2015) and propose measures<br />

to achieve "good status “of waters <strong>for</strong> their<br />

sustainable use. (Water Framework Directive)<br />

leading to eutrophication of waters. (Leau.<br />

2011).<br />

In 2008, after physico-chemical analyzes, was<br />

found an increase of 8.2% of the river sectors<br />

who fall into III rd water quality class due to<br />

pollution by oil products with substances both<br />

organic and inorganic, due to negligence of<br />

some operators during the development<br />

processes, and by the lack of upgrading of<br />

technological processes in some industrial<br />

units.<br />

In Figure 4 are outlined river lengths framed<br />

into a class depending on the biological and<br />

physico-chemical status.<br />

Figure3. View from Buzau River<br />

Because only 42% of population is connected<br />

to the sewage system, the degree of connection<br />

to wastewater treatment plants by about 31%,<br />

inadequate protection of soil when sludge is<br />

used from sewage treatment plants pollution<br />

with organic substances occurs: an excess of<br />

organic matter due to untreated wastewater,<br />

affecting aquatic life and state waters.<br />

Nutrient pollution due untreated wastewater,<br />

agricultural practices unsuitable to new<br />

requirements, industry and transportation, all<br />

Figure 4.Biological status of the basin (left) and physicochemical<br />

(right) in 2009<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

From 1990 to 2009 water demand decreased by<br />

41.7% due to decrease of industrial activity,<br />

reducing water consumption in the<br />

technological processes, reduce losses,<br />

applying economic mechanism in water<br />

management.<br />

63


The physico-chemical status of water has<br />

registered an increase of the III rd water quality<br />

class during the period under review but it can<br />

be seen a slight decrease of IV th and V th quality<br />

classes.<br />

Biological analysis revealed that most part of<br />

the length analyzed fall into the third class of<br />

water quality. Water from this category can be<br />

used as water supply <strong>for</strong> irrigation systems,<br />

water supply <strong>for</strong> industry.<br />

By 2015, Romania proposes measures to<br />

achieve "Good status" of waters <strong>for</strong> their<br />

sustainable use, measures in accordance with<br />

River Basin Management Plan, the main<br />

instrument <strong>for</strong> implementing the Water<br />

Framework Directive.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Ilie Ct., 2007, Complex arrangement of watershed,<br />

Fundatiei Romania de Maine Publishing, p.139-145<br />

Rojanschi V., Bran F., 1997. Protection and<br />

environmental engineering, Economica Publishing,<br />

Bucharest, p. 84-86<br />

Teodosiu C., 2001. Technology of potable and industrial<br />

water, Matrix Rom Publishing, Bucharest, p. 7-8<br />

Agiu A. 2009 Management plan of Buzau-Ialomita river<br />

space<br />

www.mmediu.ro<br />

www.rowater.ro<br />

64


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

THE NECESSITY <strong>OF</strong> COMPLEX PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS<br />

HĂULITA RAVINE, VRANCEA COUNTY<br />

Nicolae MĂRĂCINE<br />

Scientific coordinator: professor Florin MĂRĂCINEANU<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd,<br />

District 1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax: + 4021.318.25.67,<br />

Email: maracine_buzau@yahoo.com<br />

Corresponding author email: maracine_buzau@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract:<br />

Deep erosion cause great damage, especially if they occur in areas with human activities. In this case refer this work<br />

shows increasing erosion causes, <strong>for</strong>ms and processes of evolution and development techniques.<br />

Key words: deep erosion, landslides, longitudinal profile, ravine, surface erosion<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Erosion means the mechanical phenomenon<br />

which continually shapes the lithosphere under<br />

the action of atmosphere and hydrosphere.<br />

Here are included erosion by water and wind,<br />

the processes of weathering and alteration of<br />

rocks and field movements. Narrowly, erosion<br />

is a dynamic process, physical and geological<br />

kneading - displacement, transport and<br />

deposition of soil and rock particles by erosive<br />

agents.<br />

Deep erosion is the most advanced expression<br />

of soil erosion and is also the most destructive<br />

because of concentration leakage.<br />

The deep erosion occupies a small area in the<br />

locations where they occur, but may have very<br />

serious consequences in the area, depending on<br />

the depth and the distance between them.<br />

Deep erosion <strong>for</strong>mations may occur<br />

simultaneously with surface erosion and<br />

landslides, resulting in, excessive damage not<br />

only the soil but also the land.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

Location<br />

Vrancea County is recognized by the large<br />

share of total degraded land by erosion and also<br />

by extensive deep erosion <strong>for</strong>mations, (Partene<br />

I., 2011). This category includes ravine Hăulita,<br />

part of second order Şuşiţa basin, river basin of<br />

65<br />

order I Siret with cadastral code XII. 1. 000. 00.<br />

00. 0. The route of the ravine crosses the<br />

Panciu town, the administrative centre of the<br />

vineyard with the same name, with an area of<br />

9500 ha, located in the foothills Movila Panciu<br />

and Chicerea, in the foothills of the Carpathians<br />

and Sub-Carpathians Vrancea curve.<br />

Relief unit that sits Panciu city is Sub-<br />

Carpathians glacis and represents inclined<br />

plane and is not exceeding 25 °, which makes<br />

the transition from the hillside to the plains.<br />

In terms of catchment area is crossed by rivers<br />

Zăbrăuţi to north and Şuşiţa to south, tributaries<br />

of the Siret River<br />

Climate<br />

The climate is typical steppe zone resulted in<br />

an Eastern European continental climate with<br />

Central European influences, influenced by the<br />

movement of air masses from south and<br />

tropical Mediterranean-Scandinavian-Baltic in<br />

the north.<br />

The average annual temperature is 9.5°C. The<br />

maximum temperature recorded in the area is<br />

37.5 °C and minimum temperature recorded is -<br />

26 °C.<br />

Average annual rainfall in Panciu is 591l / m<br />

highs of 117.2 l/m (at 01/07/1974) and even<br />

199.00 l / m (in summer 2005).<br />

These climatic conditions provide a growing<br />

season of about 185 days, corresponding to<br />

favorable development of vines, fruit trees and<br />

cereals.


Lately reveals a significant change in rainfall<br />

by increasing the torrential rain and aggression,<br />

while a random distribution characterized by<br />

alternating periods of drought with rainy<br />

periods.<br />

The consequence of this phenomenon is the<br />

acceleration of soil degradation through erosion<br />

surface and deep, liquid and solid flows due to<br />

large catchments flowing in the ravine Hăulita,<br />

consisting of agricultural and non-agricultural<br />

areas.<br />

Hăulita ravine catchment area is 480 ha<br />

consisting of the following categories of using<br />

the land: vine plantations, 266.08ha, orchards,<br />

19.06 ha, arable land, 29.83ha, pasture, 36.2 ha,<br />

<strong>for</strong>est, 7.79ha, unproductive, 32.64 ha, farm<br />

roads, 19.67ha unproductive, 32.64ha.<br />

Slope is between 5.5% and 12.79%, which<br />

indicates that the entire basin is subject to<br />

surface erosion. Hăulita weighted average basin<br />

slope is 7.4%.<br />

Potential serious risk that it presents Hăulita<br />

ravine is the evolution of the width on the line<br />

that crosses Panciu town and threatening<br />

economic households and social activities<br />

taking place on adjacent land.<br />

For this reason, studies were conducted to<br />

substantiate specialized techniques of local<br />

disaster prevention, picture no. 1 and 2<br />

(Maracine N., 2010).<br />

Picture no 2. Ravine shore erosion<br />

The general objective is to develop a<br />

longitudinal profile of the thalweg ravine to<br />

ensure relative stability of the ravine bottom,<br />

ensuring in this way the banks stability by<br />

strengthening their base.<br />

Solving this problem should consider the<br />

following objectives: Establishment of work<br />

development should be made after a thorough<br />

analysis of the data because they are expensive<br />

and difficult to execute, taking into account the<br />

following conditions:<br />

- The ravine shows great economic and<br />

social importance throw different<br />

objectives damage;<br />

- The ravine is in a state of intense activity;<br />

- The works in catchments are not<br />

sufficient to remove the effects of the<br />

flood;<br />

Forest plantation works on drainage network<br />

torrent can not be applied without initially<br />

giving a first stability to the bed and banks<br />

network. Hydraulic construction works to be<br />

applied differ by location in three categories:<br />

works from the top ravine; works on the<br />

thalweg; works on the sewage.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION<br />

Picture no 1. Cross section of Hăulita ravine in the<br />

village<br />

The calculation of the debt leaked version<br />

undeveloped regime.<br />

Calculation of the slope drained flow was<br />

per<strong>for</strong>med by the method of similarity and<br />

observations on the current state of land<br />

(Stematiu D., Drobot R., 2007).<br />

66


Energy calculation of erosion (morph metric<br />

indicator <strong>for</strong> basin characterization of the area):<br />

l = H 4<br />

=<br />

√A<br />

153m<br />

4<br />

= 3,27<br />

√4.800.000<br />

H = Depth of erosion<br />

H = 318m – 165.12m =152,88 m ≈ 153m<br />

S = river basin surface, S= 480ha =<br />

4.800.000m 2<br />

Morphometric elements of river basin<br />

ravine-length = 5.6 km<br />

- maximum width of the basin = 940m<br />

basin-wide average = 489.6m ~ 490m<br />

- asymmetry coefficient is ~ 1 (bh is<br />

symmetrical)<br />

- longitudinal slope. vlHăulita = 7%<br />

Estimating surface erosion status<br />

Soils located on slopes subject to erosion in the<br />

area, site area is steppe framed in class. 1 of<br />

moderate erosion slopes characterized by<br />

erosion of up to 50% of the horizon "A"<br />

Estimating the state of deep erosion<br />

The area is characterized by the existence of<br />

deep erosion <strong>for</strong>mations, rare and deep at<br />

distances more than 100m <strong>for</strong> ravines and thick<br />

<strong>for</strong> wheel track cutting at distances less than<br />

100m.<br />

Flow calculation under undeveloped regime<br />

Calculation of maximum flow to areas<br />

receiving up to 10.0 km 2 in unimproved<br />

system:<br />

Q = 0.167 × c × i × A<br />

Q = flow rate (m 3 / s) by providing 5% (m 3 / s)<br />

C = coefficient of discharge<br />

I 10% = average rainfall intensity calculated in<br />

Vrancea (zone 2) (mm / min) - unimproved<br />

0.44 (mm / min)<br />

A = surface collection (ha) = 480 ha<br />

i = 7.4% - weighted average slope<br />

Runoff coefficient depending on land use<br />

category:<br />

-Arable (maize, soybean, sun flower without<br />

anti-erosion measures and fodder)<br />

C = 0.60 * 29.83 ha<br />

-Vineyards<br />

C = 0.35 * 266.08 ha<br />

-Roads of agricultural exploitation from earth<br />

C = 0.70 * 19.67 ha<br />

-Unproductive (Ravine)<br />

C = 0.70 * 32.64 ha<br />

- degrade partially pasture<br />

C = 0.60 * 36.20 ha<br />

- Forest<br />

C = 0.25 * 7.79 ha<br />

- Orchard<br />

C = 0.30 * 19.06 ha<br />

- Yards construction ~agricultural<br />

C = 0.60 * 68.73 ha<br />

Leakage coefficients calculation on land uses<br />

(weighted average), (Maracine N., 2010).:<br />

∑ Ci × Si<br />

C =<br />

S B.H.<br />

C = coefficient of discharge<br />

C i = leakage coefficient on land used category<br />

S i = partial surface from the ravine basin with<br />

the same covering shape<br />

S B.H. = Hăulita basin surface<br />

C = ((C 1 ∗ S ar ) + (C 2 ∗ S vie ) + (C 3 ∗ S dr.ag. )<br />

+ (C 4 ∗ S nep ) + (C 5 ∗ S ps )<br />

+ (C 6 ∗ S pd ) + (C 7 ∗ S lv ) + (C 8<br />

∗ S cc ))/S B.H. = 240,13/480<br />

= 0,50<br />

Q 10% = 0.167 × 0.5 × 0.44 × 480<br />

= 17.64 m 3 /s<br />

Rain intensity<br />

Is determined from the intensity and duration of<br />

heavy rains diagram with frequency of 1/10 <strong>for</strong><br />

zone 2 (the area within the city Panciu) and<br />

depending on the time of concentration.<br />

Concentration time<br />

T c = t v + t c + t rv (min)<br />

T C = total duration of concentration (min)<br />

t v = time of concentration of runoff on the<br />

slope (min)<br />

t c = time of concentration of runoff in<br />

intercepting channels (min)<br />

67


t rv = time of concentration of runoff in the<br />

ravine (min)<br />

Concentration time of runoff on the slope:<br />

t v = 0,0167 ∗ K ∗ l v<br />

√I<br />

lv = flow length (average) of the slope=<br />

469.5m<br />

I = average slope of the slope = 7.4%<br />

K = parameter with different values in relation<br />

to the roughness = 30 on cultivated slopes<br />

t v = 0,0167 ∗ 30 ∗ 469,5 = 6,58 min<br />

√7,4<br />

Concentration time of runoff in intercepting<br />

channels:<br />

t c = K ∗ l<br />

√I<br />

l average = length of water leakage (m) =<br />

1878m channels<br />

I = average slope of leakage (%) = 7.4%<br />

K = parameter with different values in relation<br />

to channel roughness = 0.00278 strengthened<br />

by grassing.<br />

t c = 0,00278 ∗ 1878 = 1,92 min<br />

√7,4<br />

Concentration time of runoff in the ravine<br />

t rv =<br />

L<br />

60 ∗ v<br />

L = length of flow along the main thalweg (m)<br />

= 5.6km = 5600m<br />

v = velocity of water flow (m / s) = 1.08m / s<br />

(<strong>for</strong> particle diameter between 2.50 ÷ 5.00mm)<br />

t rv = 5600 = 86,419 min ≅ 86,42 min<br />

60 ∗ 1,08<br />

t C = t v + t c + t rv (min) = 6,58 + 1,92 + 86,42<br />

= 94,92 min<br />

Calculation of annual soil loss caused by<br />

erosion surface in unimproved system<br />

(Maracine N., 2010).:<br />

E = K ∗ S ∗ C ∗ C s ∗ L m ∗ j n<br />

E = average annual erosion in tons/ha or cu.<br />

m/ha<br />

K = coefficient of aggression climate = 0.144<br />

(to the south of Moldova and the Carpathian<br />

foothills)<br />

S = erosion coefficient determined by soil<br />

resistance to erosion = 0.7 (moderately erosion<br />

soils with medium cohesion)<br />

C = crop influence factor = 0.58<br />

- For monoculture corn in uneven rotation = 1<br />

- For the vineyards = 0.7<br />

- Potatoes and beet = 0.6<br />

- Perennial grass after 2nd year = 0,014<br />

C average = 0.5785 ~ 0.58<br />

Cs = influence factor of soil conservation<br />

measures = 0.6 (<strong>for</strong> works on the level curve)<br />

L = length of the slope = 469.5m<br />

I = slope (average) = 7.4%<br />

E = K ∗ S ∗ C ∗ C s ∗ L m ∗ j n<br />

= 0,144 ∗ 0,70 ∗ 0,58 ∗ 0,60<br />

∗ 469,50 0,5 ∗ 7,4 1,4<br />

= 12,53 To/Ha<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

Analyzing the results of calculation of flow and<br />

loss of soil is found that the erosion is<br />

significant and fertile soil losses are large from<br />

Horizon A (12.53 tons/year). Under these<br />

conditions it is necessary to take measures to<br />

control erosion surface so that agricultural<br />

potential of agricultural land use will not<br />

diminish continuously, and economic losses<br />

due to low agricultural productivity of the land<br />

to be smaller.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Mărăcine N. - Partial results on the growth potential of<br />

land use in the study area by land reclamation works.<br />

Scientific report No. 3 (PhD), USAMV Bucharest, 2010<br />

Partene I. – PhD thesis, USAMV, Bucharest, 2011<br />

Stematiu D., Drobot R.- Methodology <strong>for</strong> determining<br />

the torrential catchments are exposed settlements<br />

clarified rapid flood, UTCB, Bucharest, 2007<br />

http://www.scribd.com/doc/52511078/Formatiunileeroziunii-de-adancime<br />

http://www.scritube.com/geografie/geologie/eroziuneasolului-amenajari-an22941.ph<br />

68


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

THE SURFACE’S STABILITY ANALYSIS WITH FINITE ELEMENT<br />

METHOD UNDER THE COAL MINING AT E.M. LIVEZENI<br />

Ramona Rafila NICULAE<br />

University of Petrosani, 20 Universitatii Street, Postal code: 332006, Petrosani, Romania, Phone:<br />

+40 (254) 54 29 94, Fax: +40 (254) 54 34 91,<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: ramona_nicolae4@yahoo.com<br />

Long-term global economic growth may not be a realistic target since are not provided the appropriate and available<br />

mineral resources, which extraction affects – most often negative – the land surface stability. There<strong>for</strong>e, it is necessary<br />

to reduce, if not to eliminate, impacts from mining activity through finding solutions based on monitoring the land<br />

surface movement. The main goal of the research is to achieve a better prognosis of the phenomenon, to protect the<br />

objectives located in the influence area of the underground mining, preventing their destruction.<br />

Key words: de<strong>for</strong>mation, finite element method, subsidence, underground mining.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Exploitation of coal deposits (or any kind of<br />

useful minerals) creates inevitably significant<br />

environmental problems. Thus, coal<br />

preparation and long-distance transportation of<br />

coal to generate electricity, is producing coal<br />

dust, methane, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide<br />

and carbon monoxide, etc. Mining exploitation<br />

in careers causes problems by destroying<br />

landscapes, woodlands, agricultural land, loss<br />

of groundwater reserves etc.<br />

In this paper will be used frequently the term<br />

subsidence. This term refers to the whole<br />

phenomenon of displacement of the land<br />

surface as a result of groundwater exploitation.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

After extracting a volume of useful mineral<br />

substances in a reservoir, solid state voltage<br />

changes, leading to a destruction of<br />

surrounding rock stability. Following<br />

redistribution the surrounding rock stress are<br />

sitting occupying space created after<br />

exploitation (Onica 2001).<br />

The most important factors that determine the<br />

movement area are (Figure 1): size of the gap<br />

resulting from exploitation, mining depth, layer<br />

thickness and inclination of useful mineral,<br />

mining method and technology used, the way<br />

of controlling the pressure, geomechanical<br />

characteristics of the rock, structure and<br />

tectonics deposit, length of service, etc.<br />

Depending on these factors, in some cases,<br />

massive movement of rock occurs only over a<br />

certain height, without affecting the integrity of<br />

the land surface, but most of the time, this<br />

movement is transmitted to the surface,<br />

affecting it and also producing a certain<br />

degradation of civil and industrial targets<br />

located in the influence area of operation. Thus,<br />

following the massive movement of rocks on<br />

the surface, it appears a cavity known as diving<br />

bed (Bell et. Al. 2000).<br />

The main parameters that define the diving bed,<br />

defined in the literature by several authors<br />

(Anghiuş 2002, Marian 2011, Onica 2001,<br />

Ortelecan 1997) are as follows (Figure 1): dip<br />

angles (β s downstream, γ s upstream, δ s<br />

directional); breaking angles: β r , γ r , δ r ; sinking<br />

or vertical movement: W , in mm; horizontal<br />

displacement: U, in mm; the specific horizontal<br />

de<strong>for</strong>mation: ε, in mm/m; tilt: T, in mm/m;<br />

curvature: K, in m -1 .<br />

69


Figure 1. Displacement curves and de<strong>for</strong>mation of the terrain <strong>for</strong> horizontal layers and small tilt<br />

The knowledge of these parameters is<br />

necessary to take some measures to protect the<br />

surface and the targets located on the surface.<br />

The movement begins with bending the rock<br />

layers above the working front and the collapse<br />

of the directly roof. As advancing the working<br />

front, there are put in motion new portions of<br />

undermined layers package and if the exploited<br />

space is large, the mass movement of rocks gets<br />

to the surface.<br />

According to the mining methods that are<br />

currently used the roof rocks mined layer<br />

crumbles as the working front advances (Figure<br />

2).<br />

shaped space, space delimited by some inclined<br />

levels from the horizontal with the dip angles<br />

(β s , on tilt and γ s δ s directional).<br />

Figure 3. The movement in massive rocks as the working<br />

front advances (Marian 2011)<br />

Figure 2. The behaviour of rock mass above and behind<br />

the working front<br />

Massive movement of rocks from the mining<br />

layer until the surface is within a pyramid<br />

The principle of finite element method consists<br />

in replacing the de<strong>for</strong>mable body (in this case<br />

the entire solid), through an articulated<br />

structure composed of triangular finite elements<br />

or square (two-dimensional case). There<strong>for</strong>e,<br />

one can speak of a finite element structure that<br />

substitutes the real structure.<br />

The finite element method has developed a<br />

series of finite elements (Figure 4) that in terms<br />

of the <strong>for</strong>m may be classified as follows<br />

(Marian 2011):<br />

70


Figure 4 Types of finite elements (Marian 2011)<br />

To achieve the calculations models with finite<br />

elements in 2D and 3D was used a program<br />

named CESAR-LCPC which includes the<br />

CLEO 2D and CLEO 3D processor.<br />

The average values of the main mechanical and<br />

elastic characteristics of rocks that are used in<br />

the analysis of land surface stability at the<br />

Livezeni Mine are shown in Table 1 (Hirian<br />

1981).<br />

Table 1. The average values of the main mechanical and elastic characteristics of rocks<br />

Feature Symbol UM<br />

Rocks<br />

Coal<br />

roof<br />

litter layer 3<br />

Apparent specific gravity<br />

γ a kN/m 3 26,63 27,01 14,5<br />

Elasticity module E kN/m 2 5 035 000 5 268 000 1 035 000<br />

Poisson coefficient ν adim. 0,19 0,20 0,13<br />

Compressive strength<br />

σ c kN/m 2 43 500 46 000 12 500<br />

Tensile resistance<br />

σ t kN/m 2 4 600 4 950 1 000<br />

Cohesion C kN/m 2 6 130 6 630 1 300<br />

Internal friction angle ϕ<br />

o<br />

55 56 50<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

On 2D model, to determine the surface<br />

displacement field, at the Livezeni Mine, where<br />

land is affected by the operation of three<br />

working fronts, were developed two different<br />

models assuming plane strain, namely (Marian<br />

2011):<br />

- the model with "exploitation goals" resulting<br />

from the extraction of coal (Figure 5.a);<br />

- the model with "open excavations" (a height<br />

of 8 or exploited thickness of the layer)<br />

resulting from the collapse of roof rocks in<br />

mining voids (Figure 5.b).<br />

For a better precision the calculations were<br />

made patterns with length of about X=1500m<br />

and Y = 690m (taking into account a distance<br />

of 500m from the end of the model run to the<br />

edge of exploited areas).<br />

Mesh model of each region respectively, was<br />

achieved by surface triangular finite elements<br />

with quadratic interpolation; mesh model was<br />

made with a total of 23,448 nodes and 11,661<br />

elements surface.<br />

71


a) b)<br />

Figure 5. Finite Element Mesh model:<br />

a) model "operational goals", b) model with "open excavations"<br />

The best possible accuracy results were<br />

achieved extended 3D models, size about<br />

X = 1440m, Y=1500m and Z = 650m, taking<br />

into account a distance of 500m from the end of<br />

the model run to the edge of space, to avoid the<br />

influence of the model limits the results (Figure<br />

6.a).<br />

Figure 6.b showns a 3D model that reveals the<br />

layer couch, the coal layer and the three<br />

"operational goals", and the follow of the<br />

approx. route around the station area land<br />

movement.<br />

a) b)<br />

Figure 6 a) Mesh 3D finite element model (model "operational goals")<br />

b) The route around the station ground surface movement tracking<br />

The mesh model of each region respectively,<br />

was achieved by hexahedral finite element with<br />

linear interpolation, resulting in a total of<br />

95,611 nodes and 89,244 volume elements.<br />

The diving bed obtained by numerical<br />

modeling in 3D, following the path in Figure<br />

8.b, is represented in Figure 7 compared to the<br />

diving bed stop tracking measured surface<br />

subsidence and sinking bed obtained by 2D<br />

numerical modeling.<br />

72


-300<br />

-200<br />

-100<br />

0<br />

0<br />

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600<br />

Scufundarea W (mm)<br />

100<br />

200<br />

300<br />

400<br />

500<br />

600<br />

700<br />

800<br />

900<br />

1000<br />

Distanţa D o (m)<br />

Albie scufundare MĂSURATĂ<br />

Albie scufundare CESAR 2D<br />

Albie scufundare CESAR 3D<br />

Figure 7 white dip obtained by numerical modeling in 2D and 3D,<br />

compared with measured diving bed.<br />

The vertical displacements of the surface<br />

(sinking) obtained on the 3D model are shown<br />

in Figure 8 on a scalar <strong>for</strong>m and horizontal<br />

displacements by X and Y axis in Figure 9 and<br />

10.<br />

a) b)<br />

Figure 8 a) Immersion w in mm - scalar representation, b) Main cross-section<br />

a) b)<br />

Figure 9 a) Horizontal movements after axis X, u in mm - scalar representation;<br />

b) Directional section by panel 6<br />

73


a) b)<br />

Figure 10 a) Horizontal displacements after axis Y, v in mm - scalar representation;<br />

b) Main cross-section<br />

Calculations <strong>for</strong> the two models were made in<br />

two situations, namely:<br />

a) assuming elastic behavior of the massive;<br />

b) assuming elastic-plastic behavior Mohr-<br />

Coulomb type without ecruisaj (without<br />

cruing).<br />

Maximum immersion obtained in the 2D model<br />

is Wmax = 592mm and horizontal<br />

displacement is between U = + 125 and U =-<br />

232mm;<br />

The maximum immersion obtained in the 3D<br />

model is Wmax = 936mm and horizontal<br />

movements after axis Y varies between the<br />

values V=252mm and V = - 168mm;<br />

The results of these studies provide a basis <strong>for</strong><br />

protection on new fields of working fronts<br />

which will come into exploitation and the<br />

protection of underground and surface<br />

construction against the destructive effects of<br />

underground mines.<br />

Numerical modeling of subsidence<br />

phenomenon is particularly useful because it<br />

provides in<strong>for</strong>mation on the distribution of<br />

stresses and strains throughout the massive<br />

space operated from the surface.<br />

The diving bed surfaced, obtained by numerical<br />

modeling in 2D, has a simple <strong>for</strong>m different<br />

from that obtained from measurements<br />

The 3D numerical modeling of dipping bed<br />

obtained following approximate route tracking<br />

station is close to the bed of immersion<br />

measured.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Anghius, S. 2002. Study of surface displacement under<br />

the influence of underground exploitation of lignite<br />

deposits in the basin of Oltenia, PhD Thesis, University<br />

of Petrosani.<br />

Bell, F. G., Stacey, T. R., Genske, D. D. 2000. Mining<br />

subsidence and its effect on the environment: some<br />

differing examples, Environmental Geology.<br />

Hirian, C. 1981. Rock mechanics, Didactic and<br />

Pedagogic, Bucharest.<br />

Marian, D.P. 2011. Analysis of land surface stability<br />

under the influence of coal exploitation layers with small<br />

and medium inclination in Jiu Valley Basin, PhD thesis,<br />

University of Petrosani,.<br />

Onica, I. 2001. The impact of the exploitation of s.m.u.<br />

environment, Universitas Publishing House, Petrosani.<br />

Ortelecan, M. 1997. The influence of surface movement<br />

underground exploitation of deposits in the Jiu Valley,<br />

the eastern, PhD Thesis, University of Petrosani.<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

After analyzing the results obtained from<br />

finite element numerical modeling to mine<br />

Livezeni we conclude that:<br />

74


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

GROUNDS DEGRADATION, CAUSES AND FORMS <strong>OF</strong> MANIFESTATION<br />

Şerban Dan ROŞULESCU<br />

Scientific coordinator: professor Florin MĂRĂCINEANU<br />

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering, 59, Marasti Blvd., District 1, Postal Code 011464, Bucharest, Romania,<br />

Phone: +4021.318.30.75, email: serbanrosulescu@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: serbanrosulescu@yahoo.com<br />

Soil degradation in its various <strong>for</strong>ms is a fundamental and persistent problem. The situation in Europe is reflected and<br />

amplified in many parts of the world. It is also a matter of global development as land degradation, poverty and<br />

migration determine each other, but this is often ignored largely because the observed effects appear gradually. This<br />

paper presents <strong>for</strong>ms of land degradation, processes and causes that must be considered to limit the effects of<br />

environmental degradation.<br />

Key words: excessive pasture, <strong>for</strong>est operation, grounds degradation, landslide, mineral substances exploitations<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Grounds degradation is a major issue of the 21 st<br />

century due to its negative impact on the<br />

agriculture productivity, on the environment, as<br />

well as on life quality and food safety.<br />

Grounds degradation is caused by enhancing<br />

human activities such as: irrational agricultural<br />

and <strong>for</strong>est exploiting, industrial activities,<br />

tourism, urban space extension and<br />

constructions.<br />

Soils and grounds degradation processes are<br />

due to their faulty management applied to the<br />

two complex systems which are interacting:<br />

natural ecosystem and social and human system<br />

(Mărăcineanu Fl., 2011).<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

Grounds degradations are negative alterations<br />

of physical and chemical properties of soils and<br />

lithological masses (substratum rocks, cover<br />

deposits), of landscape dimensional and <strong>for</strong>m<br />

aspects due to geomorphologic and pedologic<br />

processes, having as consequence the reduction<br />

or temporary or definitive suppression of<br />

optimal using possibilities of the Agricultural<br />

Real Estate.<br />

Pressure more and more intense exercised by<br />

degradation and pollution on grounds has as<br />

effect the partial or total loss of their<br />

75<br />

production capacity, as a consequence of the<br />

reduction process, in a variable measure, of the<br />

specific potential ecologic functions.<br />

These functions refer to the biomass production<br />

– nutrients provision, water and air provision,<br />

plants roots support – to the filtration, retention,<br />

deposit and trans<strong>for</strong>mation processes of some<br />

soil products, to zoocoenosises and specific<br />

genetic reserves. Thus the soil current or future<br />

capacity to produce goods and services is<br />

diminishing because of degradation.<br />

Degraded areas are those which by erosion,<br />

pollution or destructive action of anthropic<br />

factors lost definitively the agriculture<br />

production capacity, but which may be<br />

improved:<br />

- grounds very strong and excessive<br />

surface erosion;<br />

- Deep erosion grounds – gullies, gulches,<br />

torrents;<br />

- Grounds affected by active landslide,<br />

falls, tearing down and muddy overflows;<br />

- Sandy grounds exposed to wind or water<br />

erosion;<br />

- Grounds with stones, rocky valley,<br />

detritus, rocks and torrent alluviums<br />

deposits;<br />

- Permanent excess humidity grounds;<br />

- Highly salty or acid soils;


- Grounds polluted with chemical, oil<br />

substances or nox;<br />

- Grounds occupied by hillocks, industrial<br />

or household wastes, holes <strong>for</strong> rent;<br />

- Non-productive grounds, if they are not<br />

constituted as natural habitats;<br />

- Mobile sands grounds, which need<br />

af<strong>for</strong>esting activities <strong>for</strong> their fixture;)<br />

- The grounds of any of the abovementioned<br />

category, which were<br />

improved by <strong>for</strong>est plantations and the<br />

vegetation has been removed from.<br />

The main causes determining the grounds<br />

degradation and their effects (Table 1):<br />

de<strong>for</strong>estation, which leaves the soil exposes to<br />

the erosion processes; the excessive pasture,<br />

which finally determines the installation of the<br />

erosion processes in depth; <strong>for</strong>est operation<br />

(cutting, <strong>for</strong>est ways, logs transfer) followed by<br />

streaming, gullies, landslides etc.<br />

The de<strong>for</strong>estation effects remain in the<br />

landscape much time and sometimes they guide<br />

the linear erosion; grounds cultivation by<br />

practicing some inadequate rotations and<br />

monoculture; inadequate use of the irrigation<br />

systems; useful mineral substances<br />

exploitations (coal, oil, and natural gases) on<br />

which there are made huge excavations or, on<br />

the contrary, sterile mountains or other<br />

degradations; urbanisation extension and<br />

traffic infrastructure to the detriment of fertile<br />

soil grounds; desertification generates the<br />

continuous decline of natural and agricultural<br />

biotic productivity. By this process, productive<br />

geosystems arrive to nude physical geosystems.<br />

At present, one appreciates that 4500 millions<br />

of hectares are pending <strong>for</strong> the risk of<br />

desertification, and 950 millions of hectares<br />

have already been severely affected by this<br />

degradation, Figure 1.<br />

Figure 1. Soil degradation map<br />

Table 1 Grounds degradation types (millions of ha) and degradation causes (UNEP, 1992)<br />

Causes<br />

Degradation type<br />

Forest<br />

Excessive<br />

Industrial<br />

De<strong>for</strong>estation<br />

<strong>Agriculture</strong><br />

overexploiting pasture<br />

activities<br />

Hydrological erosion 471 38 320 266 -<br />

Aeolian erosion 44 85 332 87 -<br />

Chemical egradation 62 10 14 133 22<br />

Physical degradation 1 - 14 66 -<br />

Total on the Globe 578 133 680 552 22<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

Grounds degradations due both to natural and<br />

anthropological causes have different <strong>for</strong>ms<br />

of manifestation in the soil, as the upper layer<br />

of the ground, but also in the landscape,<br />

<strong>for</strong>med of the ground and of the biological<br />

and anthropological structures covering it.<br />

Destructuring constitutes the reduction or<br />

loss of soil structural aggregates stability<br />

under water and agricultural tools action,<br />

being one of the most important physical<br />

processes of soil degradation. Additionally,<br />

76<br />

destructuring is the cause generating a lot of<br />

other negative processes or the enhancement<br />

of the existent ones. Thus, structural<br />

aggregates quality deterioration, that is: their<br />

<strong>for</strong>m, porosity, hydrologic stability, especially<br />

the arable use soils, is of great importance<br />

because it influences the hydrological<br />

characteristics, water and air permeability of<br />

soil, stability and configuration of the<br />

macroporous space. Among other negative<br />

processes caused by destructuring which are<br />

extremely important we may enumerate: crust<br />

<strong>for</strong>mation, puddly surfaces, dusting and


cogging of the porous layer, erosion,<br />

compacting etc.<br />

Soil life degradation. It is considered that the<br />

soil houses 2-5 t/ha of living organisms which<br />

ensure soil structure, mineral elements<br />

recycling and plants nutrition. Soil working<br />

deepness increasing and works frequency, as<br />

well as the use of agricultural tools with<br />

rotating accessories determine the removal of<br />

a great part of them. Superficial horizon<br />

aeration and fragmentation determine an<br />

intense mineralization of the humus which<br />

overpasses the <strong>for</strong>mation capacity, also<br />

diminished because of the absence of vegetal<br />

layer determined by the crop removal and the<br />

vegetal wastes, as well as by the noncompliant<br />

crops rotation. Altering the<br />

grounds usage by trans<strong>for</strong>ming several<br />

surfaces covered by <strong>for</strong>ests and pastures in<br />

arable fields generates complex changes in<br />

the soil carbon dioxide retention by strongly<br />

diminishing the gas volume stored, with<br />

severe effects on the carbon cycle in nature,<br />

and the change of vegetal layer characteristics<br />

contributes to supporting the clime changes<br />

by modifying the local albedo and exhausting<br />

greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere<br />

(methane, nitrous oxide etc.).<br />

Anthropological compacting, irrespective of<br />

the origin, has many negative effects on the<br />

soil. Thus, it decreases the water and air<br />

permeability of the soil and increases water<br />

excess risk, it reduces water retention capacity<br />

and accessible water content, it damages soil<br />

aeration, it increases the penetration<br />

resistance and inhibits the roots system<br />

developing, it increases the ploughing<br />

resistance and the fuel consume, it degrades<br />

the soil structural aggregates (<strong>for</strong>m, size and<br />

stability), the agrotechnical works have a<br />

precarious quality.<br />

Soil salinisation is due to excessive<br />

increasing of soluble salts concentration on<br />

the profile by accumulating salts of sodium,<br />

potassium, magnesium and calcium,<br />

chlorides, carbonate sulphates and<br />

bicarbonates.<br />

By salinisation, soluble salts are accumulating<br />

in the upper horizons of the soil profile<br />

<strong>for</strong>ming solonchak soils, in which the sodium<br />

content does not overpass 12 – 15% of the<br />

cationic exchange capacity and solonetz soils,<br />

if it is higher than 12-15%. Soluble salts<br />

concentration in the soil solution is of 20-60<br />

g/l, but it may increase to much higher values<br />

in arid areas, comparatively to non-salinised<br />

soils, where soluble salts concentration is of<br />

3-15 g/l. (Mărăcineanu Fl., 1994).<br />

Alkalinisation means the exchangeable<br />

sodium content increasing in the soil. Na + ion<br />

is accumulating in the solid or liquid stage of<br />

soil as efflorescence (crystals) and penetrates<br />

the soil adsorptive complex, producing the<br />

solubility of soil colloids. Salinisation and<br />

alkalinisation processes are frequently<br />

associated with irrigates fields where<br />

precipitations are reduced, potential<br />

evapotranspiration has high values and the<br />

textural soil characteristics prevents soils<br />

washing, which accumulates in the upper soil<br />

layer.<br />

Acidification. Acidity of a soil is expressed<br />

by Ph. At a Ph lower than 6, the soil is very<br />

acid <strong>for</strong> the greatest part of plants cultivated,<br />

which generates the biological activity<br />

limitation, the structure degradation, nutrients<br />

and dietary minerals assimilation faults by the<br />

plants. Soil reaction, that is the acidity or<br />

alkalinity degree of soil solution is assessed<br />

as follows: lower than 6.80, acid reaction;<br />

6.81 – 7.20, neutral reaction; higher than 7.21,<br />

alkaline reaction.<br />

Erosion is a natural and continuous process.<br />

Soils have been <strong>for</strong>med by parental material<br />

erosion, its transport and deposits. This mass<br />

transport of soil particles is only a part of the<br />

degradation process, at which we also add soil<br />

quantitative changes processes: nutrients,<br />

organic materials loss, biological activity<br />

reduction and structure degradations<br />

(Ballayan D., 2008).<br />

By hydrological erosion it is removed step by<br />

step the uppers soil layer until the complete<br />

removal of the soil profile. According to the<br />

manifestation intensity of the erosion agents,<br />

there are removed the upper soil horizons,<br />

rich in humus and nutritive elements and can<br />

be highlighted horizons of the profile subsoil,<br />

much less fertile or non-fertile rock layers.<br />

The soil profile modification according to its<br />

characteristics determines the degradation of<br />

the soil fertility status and so the decreasing<br />

of the agricultural fields production<br />

(Constantin E., 2010).<br />

77


Desertification is the degradation process of<br />

arid, semiarid and sub-humid areas grounds,<br />

resulting from different causes, including<br />

climatic causes and human activities. There<br />

are considered as desertification danger areas<br />

those areas where the precipitations /<br />

evapotranspiration ratio (aridity index, R) has<br />

values between 0.05 and 0.65, which<br />

represents 2/5 of the total midland surface and<br />

affects 20% of the world population. There is<br />

no desertification danger in the territories<br />

with R>0.65, which constitute the humid<br />

areas, as well as those with R


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

THE IMPROVEMENT <strong>OF</strong> REDIU RIVERBED, UPSTREAM <strong>OF</strong> TARGU<br />

FRUMOS CITY, IASI COUNTY<br />

Abstract<br />

Elena Daniela ROTARU<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd,<br />

District 1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax: + 4021.318.25.67,<br />

Email: elenadaniela.rotaru@gmail.com,<br />

Scientific Coordinator: Lect. Augustina TRONAC<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd,<br />

District 1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax: + 4021.318.25.67,<br />

Email: augustina.tronac@yahoo.com<br />

Corresponding author email: elenadaniela.rotaru@gmail.<br />

The water scheme goal is to provide flood defence and to protect the objectives on the south side of Targu Frumos. In<br />

this paper I approach the issues of the optimal choice <strong>for</strong> an ideal design. This thing was possible by interpreting two<br />

solutions, using multi-criteria analysis. Also, I analyzed the aspect of the environmental impact during the execution of<br />

the work, as well as during the operation. After calculations, the second scenario is considered to be the optimal, thus<br />

solving the flooding problem on the south area of the city.<br />

Key words: environment, flood defence, multi-criteria analysis, riverbed.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

The water scheme goal is to provide flood<br />

defence and to protect the objectives on the<br />

south side of Targu Frumos city: houses,<br />

greenhouses, land, railway, by increasing the<br />

transport capacity of the river in order to transit<br />

Rediu flood flows.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

The river flows from the hill Breazu, flowing<br />

through the valley, along the road that connects<br />

Iasi city with the Rediu village. The river is an<br />

affluent of Bahluiet river and it is part of a<br />

complex scheme of Bahlui river basin (river<br />

basin Prut), whose main purpose is the<br />

protection against flood Iasi city.<br />

The river has a total length of 14 km and a river<br />

basin at the confluence zone of 42 km 2 .<br />

Current situation is as follows (figure 6):<br />

The dam shows a gap of about 80 m, located<br />

between the bottom and left side drain.<br />

Figure 1. Current situation<br />

Also, there is settling of about 70 cm. The<br />

bottom outlet is destroyed in proportion of<br />

90%. The surface spillway is about 50%<br />

destroyed. The reservoir is silted at a rate of<br />

70%. On the left bank there is the railway<br />

Pascani - Podu Iloaiei. Currently, in the<br />

impoundment there is in progress a social<br />

project including a stadium and a natural park<br />

with playgrounds <strong>for</strong> children.<br />

The non-permanent water storage is out of<br />

operation; as a result it has been made works<br />

<strong>for</strong> clogging and river cross section<br />

79


ecalibration obtaining a channel base width of<br />

aprox. 10 m, in order to assure the capacity<br />

needed to transit the Q 10% . Works were carried<br />

out downstream the confluence with Bahlueţ<br />

river (figure 2) (Consitrans, 2009).<br />

Rediu riverbed and geotechnical characteristics<br />

of the materials from the riverbed and banks. It<br />

is proposed cross section recalibration,<br />

ensuring a base width of 10 m and 1:2 slopes<br />

(figure 3). Material extracted will be used <strong>for</strong><br />

filling in the defence dike body.<br />

Figure 3. Recalibrated cross section<br />

Figure 2. Current situation<br />

Taking into account these considerations, it is<br />

considered that reservoir rehabilitation involves<br />

high costs and low efficiency.<br />

There<strong>for</strong>e, the proposed solution <strong>for</strong> flood<br />

defence consists in cross section recalibration<br />

and dike construction to insure the city in flood<br />

periods. Considering the assets protected,<br />

constructions to be per<strong>for</strong>med will be included in<br />

Class IV of importance, according to STAS<br />

4273/83, the flow calculation is Q 5 % = 49m 3 /s,<br />

according to STAS 4068/88.<br />

Present situation of Rediu stream water scheme<br />

looks as follows:<br />

-upstream of the earth-dam, <strong>for</strong> L = 3000ml,<br />

the riverbed is natural<br />

- downstream the earth-dam up to the bridge<br />

over DN28, <strong>for</strong> L = 350ml: cross section was<br />

enlarged, the base width is about 10 m, and the<br />

resulting material was systematized on the left<br />

bank, in the <strong>for</strong>m of dikes with slopes of 1: 1 ÷<br />

1: 1.5 and crest width of about 3 m, poorly<br />

compacted.<br />

-downstream the bridge over DN28 up to the<br />

confluence with Bahlui river, <strong>for</strong> L = 200ml,<br />

the cross section has not sufficient transport<br />

capacity. On the left side there is a defence<br />

dyke of reduced height, its crest being under<br />

the water level. This area is frequently flooded.<br />

Proposed solution consists in all the works<br />

described in the following:<br />

A.Cross section recalibration<br />

The technical solution adopted takes into<br />

account the morphological characteristics of<br />

B.Defence dike. There is proposed a defence<br />

dyke and additional works <strong>for</strong> raising the<br />

existing dike and bringing it to the<br />

corresponding level <strong>for</strong> the Class IV of<br />

importance, plus a safety guard of 0.3-0.5 m.<br />

Considering that:<br />

-the right slope is steep and there<strong>for</strong>e the city<br />

extends and expands the itself on the left bank;<br />

-there is an ongoing project <strong>for</strong> a beltway,<br />

developed on the stream right bank;<br />

-during flood periods, by overcoming the right<br />

bank, floods cause not damages, because there<br />

is an unproductive area;<br />

Those are the reasons to sustain the solution of<br />

a defence dike construction on the left bank<br />

(figure 4).<br />

Figure 4. Dyke section<br />

The dike will be done in extending bank, will<br />

have the crest width of 3.5 m and slopes of 1:2.<br />

To protect the dyke downstream it will be<br />

protected with an erosion mat, set at the slope<br />

foot in a spur plain concrete of 0.4x0.8m.<br />

80


The dike upstream slope will be covered with a<br />

20 cm topsoil, to be grassed.<br />

For the dike body filling it will be used material<br />

from the riverbed and from the existing earthdam.<br />

C.Undercrossing<br />

For rainwater discharges the project includes 3<br />

undercrossing works underneath the dyke body.<br />

They will take over the collected water at the<br />

upstream slope foot channel and will discharge<br />

it into Rediu river. Undercrossings will be<br />

placed into lowest levels to ensure gravity flow.<br />

They will be equipped with planar gates<br />

upstream and downstream with inverted flaps<br />

which closing under water pressure when the<br />

water level increase.<br />

Proposed solutions are:<br />

Variant 1<br />

Dyke length is of 1040 ml. The defence dyke is<br />

intersecting downstream (near confluence) the<br />

railway embankment and upstream the higher<br />

terrace on left bank, defending only the stadium<br />

and the park area (project in execution)<br />

Recalibration work will be done on 850Oml.<br />

The effect is to protect an area of 9 ha from the<br />

flooding.<br />

VARIANT 2<br />

Dyke length is of 1650 ml. The defence dyke is<br />

intersecting downstream (near confluence) the<br />

railway embankment and upstream the existing<br />

discharge channel, defending the stadium and<br />

the park area (project in execution) and an<br />

additional area of 11ha.<br />

In this area it is possible to develop the city in<br />

complete flood protection on account of cross<br />

section recalibration on 1600ml. Effect is to<br />

protect an area of 20ha. (Consitrans, 2009)<br />

Hydraulic calculations were per<strong>for</strong>med with<br />

HEC-RAS computer soft-wear: it determines<br />

the water level applying energy equation under<br />

uni<strong>for</strong>m motion and solving it by iterative<br />

procedure called standard step method applied<br />

from a cross section to another.<br />

Hydraulic calculation was per<strong>for</strong>med assuming<br />

both natural regime establishing water level <strong>for</strong><br />

Q 5% as well as <strong>for</strong> designed solution (cross<br />

section recalibration and dike construction).<br />

Given the current configuration of the riverbed<br />

and valley and required earthworks<br />

compensation between different cross sections<br />

it was accepted the assumption that, in some<br />

sections, the right bank could be flooded<br />

without reaching the road and houses. (Rotaru<br />

E.D., 2011)<br />

B.Slope stability computation<br />

For defence dike cross section I realized slope<br />

stability computation with GeoSlope Studio<br />

soft-wear using analysing methods Spencer,<br />

Fellenius, Janbu, Morgenstern-Price (figure 5).<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

A.Hydraulic calculation<br />

For the sector of Rediu stream analysed we<br />

propose cross section recalibration after<br />

calculation being obtain water level using 20<br />

cross section (P1 - P17 and intersections with<br />

DN 280 A and DN 28) <strong>for</strong> 5%, 2% and 1%<br />

flows in two variants: current situation and the<br />

situation occurring after work execution.<br />

It has been developed calculation to determine<br />

appropriate water levels and velocity spectrum.<br />

Surveying results are used <strong>for</strong> this kind of<br />

calculation.<br />

Figure 5. Stability calculations<br />

I choose values resulting <strong>for</strong>m Morgenstern-<br />

Price method because they are the lowest.<br />

(GeoStudio, 2007).<br />

C. Environmental impact<br />

81


Environmental impact has three aspects: water,<br />

soil and air.<br />

During the execution of the objective the<br />

possible sources of water pollution are: traffic,<br />

excavation, earth and other construction<br />

materials handling and placing, grading and<br />

ditch cleaning, other specific construction. The<br />

pollution could be made with oil and fuels that<br />

may leak from vehicles or machinery involved<br />

in the construction.<br />

After execution, the problem of water pollution<br />

is minor because there are no processes which<br />

can be occurred.<br />

Work carried out in the period of execution of<br />

the objective may have a notable impact on air<br />

quality, in construction site and adjacent areas.<br />

The execution woks are a source of dust<br />

emissions and a source of pollutant emissions,<br />

specific combustion of fossil fuels (petroleum<br />

distillates) both in engines of the equipment<br />

needed to per<strong>for</strong>m the work and the<br />

transportation equipment.<br />

Dust emissions that occur during the execution<br />

of the construction are associated with the<br />

excavation, earth and other construction<br />

materials handling and placing <strong>for</strong> grading and<br />

ditch cleaning and other specific construction.<br />

Release of dust into the atmosphere may vary<br />

substantially from day to day, depending of the<br />

activity, the specific of operations and weather<br />

conditions.<br />

The work involves a number of different tasks,<br />

each one with its own duration and potential<br />

dust generation. In other words, <strong>for</strong> creating a<br />

construction the emissions are associated with<br />

well defined period of existence (period of<br />

execution), but can differ substantially in<br />

intensity, nature and location from a phase to<br />

another of the building process.<br />

The proposed objective shows no air impact.<br />

There is a minor potential <strong>for</strong> soil pollution by<br />

per<strong>for</strong>ming proposed objectives.<br />

The impact on soil is produced by excavation,<br />

earth and construction materials handling and<br />

placing the soil <strong>for</strong> grading and ditch cleaning<br />

and other specific construction.<br />

Another way of soil pollution would be fuel or<br />

oil leaks from equipment used during<br />

construction. There is no risk <strong>for</strong> soil pollution.<br />

Accidental pollution during execution can<br />

occurs during accidents, oil leaks (fuel, oil) that<br />

can cause degradation of the soil, the<br />

watercourses, groundwater and vegetation.<br />

The risk of accidental pollution during<br />

execution is higher than during operation<br />

because site specific traffic (big cars, loaded<br />

with construction materials or fuel). To<br />

decrease this risk, the site will be suitably<br />

marked and will be established routes <strong>for</strong><br />

construction and transportation equipment.<br />

In conclusion, the designed solution does not<br />

have adverse effects on soil, air, surface water,<br />

climate, vegetation, wildlife, and landscape.<br />

In principle, the water scheme works and flood<br />

defence effect have a positive impact on the<br />

environment.<br />

Regarding the negative impact, the influence<br />

occurs during execution period. During<br />

operation the negative impact decreases and<br />

tends to a normal situation, increasing positive<br />

weight to negative influences.<br />

The proposed works do not generate waste and<br />

require no materials leading to environmental<br />

pollution.<br />

The project analyzes constructive solutions<br />

which harmoniously frame with the landscape,<br />

being used mostly natural materials.<br />

Defence embankments slopes unprotected will<br />

be filled with grass. After work completion, the<br />

contractor will dismantle buildings and<br />

facilities concerning site organization. On this<br />

occasion the arrangements will be made to<br />

regain the previous land destination.<br />

It will be removed all potential sources of<br />

pollution (production zones, equipment repair<br />

and maintenance sites, fuel depots).<br />

On the occasion of the site organization<br />

dissolution, the Contractor shall also ensure site<br />

cleaning. (Consitrans, 2009)<br />

D.Multi-criteria analysis<br />

Multi-criteria analysis method allows<br />

comparing multiple versions of a project<br />

design, based on relevant and representative<br />

criteria.<br />

The purpose of the method consists in selecting<br />

and recommending the alternative which<br />

complies as rigorously and completely to the<br />

specific requirements.<br />

For multi-criteria analysis looking the optimal<br />

choice it can be consider the following criteria<br />

and sub-criteria:<br />

a) C1 - economic criteria:<br />

- C1.1 - cost of investment, operation and<br />

82


maintenance costs updated <strong>for</strong> a period of 20<br />

years;<br />

- C1.2 - the cost of damages caused by erosion,<br />

collapse of banks, flooding .<br />

- C1.3 - related costs: lower revenues from<br />

tourism, sport, recreation<br />

b) C2 - Social criteria:<br />

- C2.1 - aesthetic landscape;<br />

- C2.2 - protection of riparians;<br />

- C2.3 - recreation, tourism, sport,<br />

- C2.4- affecting effect on the population in the<br />

area (restrictions, circulation, stress, including<br />

the works execution);<br />

- C2.4 - quality of water used by riparians<br />

c) C3 - ecological criteria:<br />

- C3.1 - overall impact index due to spatial<br />

solutions, IGSA;<br />

- C3.2 – index of the overall impact due to<br />

constructive solutions, IGSC;<br />

- C3.3 - degree of impairment of ecosystems,<br />

preservation, conservation, trans<strong>for</strong>mation,<br />

destruction;<br />

d) C4 - compliance criteria restrictions:<br />

- C4.1 - compliance with urban river basin and<br />

river basin management plan;<br />

- C4.2 - approved areas "accepted" as flooded;<br />

- C4.3 - affecting protected areas<br />

- C4.4 - public services affecting water supply,<br />

sewage, landfills.<br />

Criteria and sub-criteria chosen are those <strong>for</strong><br />

which the expected spatial differences between<br />

variants are considerable.<br />

For multi-criteria analysis of the optimal choice<br />

<strong>for</strong> the Rediu stream project it is considered the<br />

following criteria and sub-criteria:<br />

a) C1 - economic criteria:<br />

- C1.1 - cost of investment and operation and<br />

maintenance costs updated <strong>for</strong> a period of 20<br />

years;<br />

- C1.2 - the cost of damages caused by erosion,<br />

collapse of banks, flooding (affecting<br />

households, land, crops etc.) <strong>for</strong> a period of 20<br />

years;<br />

b) C2 - Social criteria:<br />

- C2.1 - aesthetic landscape;<br />

- C2.2 - areas removed from the effect of<br />

flooding;<br />

c) C3 - ecological criteria:<br />

- C3.3 - degree of impairment of ecosystems,<br />

preservation, conservation, trans<strong>for</strong>mation,<br />

destruction;<br />

d) C4 - compliance criteria restrictions:<br />

- C4.1 - compliance with urban river basin and<br />

river basin management plan.<br />

They were take into account three situation:<br />

VARIANT 1<br />

Defence dike length = 1040ml.<br />

Cross section recalibration L = 850 ml. Effect<br />

is removing an area of about 9 ha from the<br />

flooding.<br />

VARIANT 2<br />

Defence dike length = 1650ml.<br />

Cross section recalibration L = 1600ml. Effect<br />

is removing an area of about 20 ha from the<br />

flooding.<br />

VARIANT 3 - no work (option 0).<br />

The results of the 3 different scores obtained<br />

are presented in the following (table 1):<br />

Criteria Share of Sub-criteria<br />

Table 1. The results of 3 different scores<br />

Share<br />

of<br />

Total -p<br />

Normalized<br />

grade p<br />

Variant 1 Variant 2 Variant 3<br />

Weighted<br />

grade<br />

Normalized<br />

grade Np1<br />

Weighted Normalized<br />

grade Np2 grade<br />

Weighted<br />

grade Np3<br />

Economical C1 0.25<br />

C 1.1 Investment 0.17 0.09 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.852 0.142<br />

C 1.2 Damage cost 0.08 0.31 0.03 0.63 0.05 0.06 0.005<br />

Social C2 0.4<br />

C 2.1 Esthetic 0.13 0.35 0.05 0.5 0.07 0.15 0.02<br />

C 2.2 Defence surfaces 0.27 0.37 0.1 0.53 0.14 0.11 0.028<br />

Ecological C3 0.25 C 3.1 Degree of damage 0.25 0.17 0.04 0.39 0.1 0.43 0.109<br />

Respecting<br />

C 4.1 Plan and river<br />

0.1<br />

restrictions C4<br />

basin management<br />

0.1 0.41 0.04 0.59 0.06 0 0<br />

Total 1.00 0.27 0.43 0.30<br />

83


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

According to the table bellow (table 2), suitable<br />

<strong>for</strong> multi-criteria analysis (by weight criteria)<br />

the variant 2 has obtained the highest weighted<br />

score.<br />

Table 2. Comparison of a 2 solutions<br />

Criteria Np1 Np2 Np1/Np1 Np2/Np1<br />

C 1.1 Investment 0.01 0.01 1 0.73<br />

C 1.2 Damage cost 0.03 0.05 1 2.00<br />

C 2.1 Esthetic 0.05 0.07 1 1.43<br />

C 2.2 Defence surfaces 0.1 0.14 1 1.43<br />

C 3.1 Degree of damage 0.04 0.1 1 2.25<br />

C 4.1 Plan and river basin management 0.04 0.06 1 1.43<br />

TOTAL 0.27 0.43 1 1.58<br />

Variant 3 (variant "zero" – no work, no<br />

investment) can not be taken into account<br />

because, although ecologically is the most<br />

advantageous, economic and social factors are<br />

severely affected. So, by floods that occur, if<br />

they do not per<strong>for</strong>m any modification on the<br />

stream Rediu, a number of households are<br />

directly affected.<br />

The damages avoided justify realization of<br />

proposed works <strong>for</strong> flood protection.<br />

Option 2 is the most advantageous social and<br />

environmental solution.<br />

From the economic perspective, the investment<br />

needed to carry out the works in version 2 is<br />

higher than <strong>for</strong> variant 1, but the increase is not<br />

directly proportional to the surface removed<br />

from the flood effect. (at 30% increase of the<br />

investment, the protected area is increasing<br />

100%), meaning that from a social perspective,<br />

the village will have secured an area (owned by<br />

municipality) where can be built public interest<br />

objectives.<br />

Variant 2 has some ecological disadvantages<br />

(especially in the execution of works, thus<br />

directly affecting the existing ecosystem) but is<br />

recommended to be implemented.<br />

Multi-criteria analysis method clearly shows<br />

that exclusive consideration of the investment<br />

cost criterion is disadvanta to all general and<br />

local requirements and interests.<br />

It follows from the above that the project in<br />

Variant 2 is the most responsive to the<br />

requirements imposed by multi-criteria analysis<br />

and has the least impact on the environment.<br />

(Rotaru E.D., 2011)<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

Rediu stream water scheme upstream Targu<br />

Frumos city, Iasi county <strong>for</strong> defence against<br />

floods by increasing the transport capacity of<br />

the river, after studying design alternatives,<br />

involves the design objectives described in<br />

variant 2 and is applied on 1650 ml.<br />

The defence dike is intersecting downstream<br />

the railway embankment and upstream the<br />

existing discharge channel, defending the park<br />

and stadium but also an additional area with a<br />

surface of approx. 11 hectares.<br />

In this area it is possible to develop the city in<br />

complete safety from the point of view of the<br />

defence against flooding. Works consist on<br />

cross section recalibration of 1600ml length<br />

Effect is to remove a 20 ha area from the flood<br />

risk zone.<br />

The proposed works will be carried on public<br />

property. Riparian residents on whose property<br />

is to run defence works are directly interested<br />

in their achievement, being the first to suffer<br />

when floods.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Chen G.K, Zhu D.Y. , Fee C.F., Qian O.H., 2005. A<br />

concis algorithm <strong>for</strong> computing the factor of safety using<br />

Morgenstern-Price Method - Canadian Geotechnical<br />

Journal, p 272-278,Canada<br />

Consitrans , 2009. Feasibility Study – The improvement<br />

of Rediu riverbed, upstream Targu Frumos city, Iasi<br />

County, p 3-28, Bucharest<br />

GeoStudio, 2007. Product details Slope / W software <strong>for</strong><br />

calculating the safety factor <strong>for</strong> soil and rocks, Canada<br />

Daniela Elena Rotaru, Final Paper - License Degree- The<br />

improvement of Rediu riverbed, upstream Targu Frumos<br />

city, Iasi County, p 46-70, Bucharest<br />

84


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

WATER DEFERRIZATION METHODS<br />

Vlad-Cristian TUDOR<br />

Scientific coordinator: Paulina IANCU<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd, District<br />

1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax: + 4021.318.25.67, email:<br />

yovlad_88@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: yovlad_88@yahoo.com<br />

The depth aquifer has an important role <strong>for</strong> ensuring water treatment . In many of these cases abstracted water is<br />

loaded with iron compounds , and needing special processes <strong>for</strong> the treatment. This paper presents the results of<br />

water treament from depth drill, loaded with iron compounds using coagulation-flocculation reagents.<br />

Key words: water treament, deferrization, precipitation.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

We all depend on water <strong>for</strong> our survival, and<br />

we all have to take global responsibility <strong>for</strong><br />

it (Kemira Kemwater. 2003).<br />

During the industrial revolution insufficient<br />

water treatment led to waterborne diseases.<br />

Even the existence of entire communities<br />

could be threatened. This development was<br />

simply not sustainable and water management<br />

became a prioritized area. Today, the<br />

processes and technologies to deliver<br />

acceptable drinking water quality are quite<br />

similar all around the globe. However, the<br />

conditions and requirements can differ<br />

between regions. Searching <strong>for</strong> tomorrow’s<br />

technology and fine-tuning processes remain<br />

important issues.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

This project aims to demonstrate evolution of<br />

water treatment technologies. Sample refers to<br />

the system implemented at a drinking water<br />

treatment plants, raw water coming from deep<br />

wells (35-40 m). Water is loaded with iron,<br />

with an average concentration around 2 mg / l.<br />

The deferrization process involves several<br />

steps, including the chemical that is used <strong>for</strong><br />

iron removal, iron-based coagulant (ferric<br />

chloride) (Iancu Paulina. 2005).<br />

This water plant model is being implemented in<br />

Romania.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

Water treatment plant presentation:<br />

Station is per<strong>for</strong>med in order to treat an average<br />

flow of drinking water up to 460 mc / h<br />

extracted from 27 wells with depths between<br />

30-45 m.Water caracteristics and specification<br />

(Table 1).<br />

Table 1. Water caracteristics and specification<br />

Raw MAC* Apa<br />

water<br />

tratata<br />

pH 7.4 6.5-9.5 6.5-8<br />

Turbidity (NTU) 2.75 ≤5 < 1<br />

Conductivity (μS/cm) 1474 2500 5 > 5<br />

Ammonia (mg/l) 0.41 0.5 < 0.3<br />

Iron (mg/l) 1.5-2.3 0.20 < 0.1<br />

Color (units of Pt/co) 10 < 25 < 25<br />

* Maximum admissible concentration - law 458/2002<br />

Water extracted from the wells is pumped<br />

through intermediate pumping stations to a<br />

common collecting pipe where is injected<br />

chlorine <strong>for</strong> pre-chlorination and soda (NaOH)<br />

to increase the pH <strong>for</strong> deferrization support<br />

(Figure.1). The deferrization proces begins in<br />

aeration tank were the dissolved iron from raw<br />

water will by oxidise in the presence of oxygen<br />

and <strong>for</strong>m ferric hydroxide. The amount of air<br />

required <strong>for</strong> iron oxidation and precipitation is<br />

85


Treatment<br />

maintained in the aeration tank of oxygen to a<br />

value of about 5 mg / l. Water pH is a critical<br />

parameter <strong>for</strong> the oxidation and precipitation of<br />

iron. For oxidation pH should be at least 7.2<br />

and ideally should have a value between 7.5<br />

and 8.0. With NaOH injected be<strong>for</strong>e aeration<br />

tank pH will be maintained around the values<br />

of 8.<br />

Theoretical is necessar 0.1432 mg / l of oxygen<br />

per 1 mg iron / L.<br />

Maintaining a proper amounts of oxygen is<br />

necessary <strong>for</strong> various reasons:<br />

• provide a "buffer" of oxygen to react to<br />

sudden increases iron;<br />

• the resulting water tastes better;<br />

• air needed to maintain oxygen tank mixing<br />

facilitates iron to react quickly and efficiently<br />

with oxygen.<br />

Value of 5 mg / l residual oxygen is generally<br />

accepted. Oxidation tank is fitted with diffusers<br />

that uni<strong>for</strong>mly distributes air from two blowers<br />

that provide an average flow of 71.45 m3 air /<br />

h.<br />

Iron oxidation is not instantaneous. For this<br />

reason the station have specific reaction times<br />

follow to such a process. Sizing of reaction<br />

tanks is optimal, aeration tank with a retention<br />

volume of 125 m 3 , guarantees a reaction time<br />

of 17 minutes at maximum output. Mixing<br />

tanks are sized to a total volume of 14 m 3 ,<br />

which guarantees a minimum of 2 minutes<br />

rapid reaction. Flocculation tanks are sized to a<br />

volume of 50 m 3 , guaranteeing the slow<br />

reaction time of 8 minutes.<br />

Once oxidized, iron from the aeration chamber<br />

it should be removed from the water. Processes<br />

that continue deferrization are coagulation and<br />

flocculation. Coagulation occurs in mixing<br />

tanks where FeCl 3 (ferric chloride) is<br />

introduced to produce the phenomenon of<br />

coagulation and NaOH (soda) <strong>for</strong> pH<br />

correction.<br />

The next stage is represented by flocculation<br />

tanks, where an anionic polyelectrolyte<br />

prepared at a concentration of 0.1% is dosed to<br />

per<strong>for</strong>med in slow mixing flocculation of<br />

particles produced in previous processes.<br />

The last step of this process is the water<br />

treatment filtration. This is done in three sand<br />

filters, which provide water to the finish like<br />

removing agglomerates <strong>for</strong>med in the chemical<br />

step.<br />

Filtered water is collected in deposits where<br />

final disinfection with chlorine occurs.<br />

The station is provided also with a line <strong>for</strong><br />

sludge resulting from the treatment process.<br />

Loaded sludge is thickened and dehydrated in<br />

special installations where cationic<br />

polyelectrolyte is dosed.<br />

Legend:<br />

1 Wells drilled; 12 Filters<br />

2 Pumping station 13 Filtered water storage<br />

3 Overflow 14 Treated water storage<br />

4 NaOH dosage 15 Treated water output<br />

5 Chlorine dosage 16 Float recovery storage<br />

6 Aeration tank 17 Wash water recovery<br />

storage<br />

7 Air dosage 18 Cationic polymer dosage<br />

8 FeCl 3 dosage 19 Sludge thickener<br />

9 Mixing tank 20 Sludge dewatering<br />

10 Flocculation tank 21 Dried sludge storage<br />

11 Anionic polymer<br />

dosage<br />

Figure 1. Treatment plant scheme<br />

In the first step deferrization occurs by<br />

oxidation. The phenomenon takes place in the<br />

aeration tank where water is brought by soda at<br />

pH 8.<br />

The following reaction describes the oxidation<br />

of iron in the presence of oxygen: 4 Fe(HCO 3 ) 2<br />

+ O 2 + 2H 2 O 4 Fe(OH) 3 + 8CO 2<br />

At the end of the oxidation processes of iron<br />

water is loaded with iron hydroxide particles,<br />

colloids and other substances and suspensions.<br />

Removing water loading is per<strong>for</strong>med in<br />

coagulation and flocculation step.<br />

Coagulation is a very important step in the<br />

process of drinking water treatment, by<br />

chemical reaction of destabilization, colloids<br />

and matter in suspension suspended solids in<br />

86


water, <strong>for</strong>ming settleable flakes or microflakes<br />

easily removed by filtration.<br />

To achieve a maximum efficiency of this<br />

chemical process advance documentation is<br />

needed and laboratory tests to determine the<br />

optimal dose of coagulant.<br />

At this moment in our country are used <strong>for</strong><br />

coagulation aluminum and iron salts.<br />

Aluminum salts are:<br />

- Aluminum sulfate, is a solid product with a<br />

concentration of the active ingredient - 15-17%<br />

aluminum, which is used at different<br />

concentrations dissolved in water.<br />

- Polihidroxide aluminum chloride is a liquid,<br />

with different active ingredient concentrations<br />

4-9% aluminum, is proposed to replace<br />

aluminum sulphate, showing advantages in<br />

terms of dosing and improved reaction on<br />

water.<br />

Iron salts:<br />

- Ferric chloride, is a liquid, reddish brown,<br />

very corrosive, concentration used at 40%<br />

ferric chloride, the substance is more used <strong>for</strong><br />

wastewater treatment plants.<br />

- Ferric sulfate is a liquid, dark brown, less<br />

corrosive than ferric chloride, used in<br />

concentrations of 40-43% ferric sulphate,<br />

applied over wastewater treatment plants.<br />

The choice to treat water loaded with iron with<br />

an iron salt highlight more the phenomenon of<br />

chemical coagulation.<br />

To establish the optimal dosage we have to take<br />

into consideration pH and the water loading.<br />

Be<strong>for</strong>e chemical coagulation step the water has<br />

a pH of 8 and a load of iron hydroxide,<br />

suspension matter and colloids.<br />

Laboratory tests are per<strong>for</strong>med, demonstrating<br />

practical and spreadsheet coagulation process,<br />

finding the optimal dosage of coagulant (Table<br />

2).<br />

Also at laboratory level is established the<br />

flocculant dose required to speed up process of<br />

removing colloids and the suspensions from<br />

water.<br />

Laboratory tests were made jar-test type, in 1<br />

liter glasses, simulating the processes of the<br />

plant, respecting the response time of each<br />

stage. (quick mixing 2 minutes, slow mixing 8<br />

minutes and decanting 12 minutes).(Figure 2).<br />

Raw water characteristics:<br />

pH – 8<br />

Turbidity – 2.75<br />

Fe – 2 mg/l<br />

Color – 10 units Pt/Co<br />

Table 2. Laboratory Jar-test results<br />

Probe nr. MU 1 2 3 4 5<br />

FeCl 3 µl/l 2 4 6 8 10<br />

dosage<br />

Polymer ml/l 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7<br />

dosage<br />

NaOH µl/l 1 1.5 2 2.5 3<br />

dosage<br />

pH 7.21 7.18 7.15 7.13 7.09<br />

Turbidity NTU 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.82 0.95<br />

Fe mg/l 0.26 0.15 0.08 0.06 0.05<br />

Color units<br />

Pt/Co<br />

11 14 18 24 27<br />

Considering the data obtained in the laboratory,<br />

it was determined an optimal dose of coagulant<br />

FeCl3 at 6 ml / l, an anionic flocculant dose<br />

(conc. 0.1%) at 0.7 ml / l and the pH correction<br />

with soda at a dose of 2 ml / l.<br />

Using these doses all parameters were rated<br />

according to the law 458/2002 on drinking<br />

water quality.<br />

Figure 2. Photos from laboratory – optimal doses results<br />

87


CONCLUSIONS<br />

Treatment processes <strong>for</strong> drinking water are<br />

continuously developing. Rehabilitation and<br />

upgrading their flow changes require new<br />

technology and new solutions applied to<br />

increase the quality and the economic<br />

efficiency of treatment plants.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Kemira Kemwater. 2003. About water treatment. Editor:<br />

Agneta Lindquist; Text: Lars Gillberg, Bengt Hansen,<br />

Ingemar Karlsson, Anders Nordstrom Enkel, Anders<br />

Palsson. Helsingborg, Sweden.<br />

Iancu Paulina. 2005. „Alimentari cu apa” Ed. Bren.<br />

Bucuresti.<br />

88


TABLE <strong>OF</strong> CONTENTS<br />

SECTION 02. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING<br />

Paper<br />

ID<br />

17 Marius<br />

ANDREI,<br />

Andreea<br />

ANDRONIC,<br />

Florin BITAN,<br />

Cristiana<br />

NISTOR<br />

18 Gianina<br />

DAMIAN,<br />

Simona<br />

VARVARA,<br />

Roxana<br />

BOSTAN<br />

Authors Affiliation Paper Title Page<br />

19 George Marian<br />

DASCALU,<br />

Alex Nicolae<br />

VADUVA<br />

20 Gheorghe<br />

FLOREA,<br />

Mihai NISTOR,<br />

Robert<br />

VIRLAN<br />

21 Cristina ILIE,<br />

Iulian Zoltan<br />

BOBOESCU,<br />

Diana ANDREI<br />

University Ovidius of<br />

Constanta, Faculty of Civil<br />

Engineering<br />

University "1 Decembrie 1918"<br />

of Alba Iulia<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

University „Politehnica” of<br />

Timisoara<br />

22 Mihai MIREA University of Craiova, Faculty<br />

of <strong>Agriculture</strong> and Horticulture<br />

23 Nicolae<br />

OLARU<br />

University of Craiova, Faculty<br />

of <strong>Agriculture</strong> and Horticulture<br />

DETERMINATION <strong>OF</strong> UNIT<br />

HYDROGRAPH<br />

PRELIMINARY<br />

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE<br />

USE <strong>OF</strong> DIFFERENT<br />

NATURAL SORBENTS FOR<br />

REMOVAL <strong>OF</strong> HEAVY<br />

METAL FROM ACID MINE<br />

DRAINAGE (CASE STUDY:<br />

“Larga de Sus” Mine)<br />

THE EFFECT <strong>OF</strong> THE<br />

COLLOIDAL CLAY CONTENT<br />

ON THE SWELLING AND<br />

PLASTICITY BEHAVIOR<br />

CONCRETE SAMPLE PRISM -<br />

BENDING RESISTANCE<br />

DETERMINATION TEST<br />

JUDGING CRITERIA FOR<br />

WATER BODIES STATUS IN<br />

ROSCI 0226 – SEMENIC<br />

CHEILE CARAŞULUI SITE<br />

EXPERIMENTAL MODULAR<br />

EQUIPMENT<br />

FOR NUTTY FRUITS<br />

HARVESTING<br />

EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT<br />

FOR BULK GRAIN AERATION<br />

IN SMALL FARMS<br />

91<br />

95<br />

105<br />

109<br />

115<br />

119<br />

125<br />

89


24 Ana-Maria<br />

Laura<br />

PETRUȚA<br />

25 Bogdan George<br />

RUJOI<br />

26 Robert Cristian<br />

S<strong>OF</strong>RONIE 1 ,<br />

Constantin<br />

ENACHE 2<br />

Technical University of Civil<br />

Engineering of Bucharest,<br />

Faculty of Hydrotechnics<br />

University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

1 University of Agronomical<br />

Science and Veterinary<br />

Medicine, Faculty of Land<br />

Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

2 S.C. ARGIF S.A., Pitesti<br />

27 Catalina STAN University of Agronomic<br />

Sciences and Veterinary<br />

Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and<br />

Environmental Engineering<br />

28 Andreea University of Petrosani<br />

Cristina<br />

STANCI, Petru<br />

Dan COȘARIU<br />

29 Dorina Maria<br />

VINŢAN<br />

University "1 Decembrie 1918"<br />

of Alba Iulia<br />

MATHEMATICAL<br />

MODELING <strong>OF</strong> POLLUTANTS<br />

IN SEWAGE<br />

STUDIES REGARDING THE<br />

RECOVERY POSSIBILITIES <strong>OF</strong><br />

DEMOLITION WASTE<br />

REHABILITATION <strong>OF</strong><br />

GRAVITY DAMS. CASE<br />

STUDY: CLUCEREASA DAM<br />

STRUCTURE ON TARGULUI<br />

RIVER, IN THE ARGES<br />

DISTRICT<br />

BIOGAS FROM<br />

WASTERWATER<br />

TREATMENT PLANT<br />

IDENTIFYING POLLUTED<br />

AREAS BY CET MINTIA<br />

MONITORING <strong>OF</strong><br />

PORCELAIN INDUSTRY<br />

WASTEWATER. CASE STUDY:<br />

SC APULUM SA ALBA IULIA<br />

129<br />

133<br />

135<br />

139<br />

145<br />

149<br />

90


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

DETERMINATION <strong>OF</strong> UNIT HYDROGRAPH<br />

Marius ANDREI, Andreea ANDRONIC, Florin BITAN, Cristiana NISTOR<br />

Scientific Coordinators: Professor, PhD, Eng. Carmen MAFTEI, Lecturer, PhD, Eng.<br />

Constantin BUTA<br />

University Ovidius of Constanta, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 22 B Unirii, 900524 - Constanta,<br />

Romania, Phone:+40 241 545093, Fax: +40 341 816909, Email: marius_andr@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: marius_andr@yahoo.com<br />

The main objective of this study is to determine the unit hydrograph of the Voineşti Basin, located in the north-west of<br />

Dâmboviţa county, at the border between the Curvature Sub-Carpathians,GeticSubcarpathians and Getic Plateau.<br />

Voinesti Basin shows climatic and hydrological characteristics specific to watershed that favors the production of fast<br />

velocity floods. The unit hydrograph is important <strong>for</strong>: (i) the design of various hydrotehnical constructions and (ii)<br />

determination of flooding hydrographs <strong>for</strong> a given storm data. The applied method statement consists of: (i) separation<br />

between direct runoff and the base flow (using a graphical method), (ii) determining the net precipitation, (iii)<br />

determining the unit hydrograph ordinates (iii) the selection of unit hydrograph which correspond to a uni<strong>for</strong>m<br />

precipitation evenly distributed to basin. The study has been per<strong>for</strong>med based on the analyses of the storm flow events<br />

from 1997-1998. The selected hydrograph was the one corresponded to august 2-nd 1997.<br />

Key words: unit hydrograph, Voinesti Basin, direct runoff, base flow, net precipitation<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

The transfer function allows the<br />

trans<strong>for</strong>mation of precipitation into the flow<br />

and determination of pluvial leaking flow. In<br />

hydrology there are several types of transfer<br />

functions:<br />

- the method of unit hydrograph;<br />

- the method of hydrograph similarity to<br />

the <strong>for</strong>m of a triangle, trapezoid and<br />

parable;<br />

- parallelogram method.<br />

Unit hydrograph (UH) is one of the most<br />

important tools in the investigation of rainleaking<br />

process. (C. Maftei, 2004).<br />

A unit hydrograph is a direct runoff<br />

hydrograph resulting from a rainfall excess<br />

(or effective rainfall) of unit depth (Sherman,<br />

1932).<br />

The notion of “unit hydrograph” was<br />

theorized by Sherman in 1932, Horton in<br />

1933, and was taken over by Wisler&Brater<br />

in 1949.<br />

The unit hydrograph theory proposed by<br />

Shermann in 1932 allow the determination of<br />

the hydrograph only if the amount of<br />

precipitation is known. (Jorge A. R)<br />

The fundamental assumptions implicit in the<br />

use of unit hydrographs <strong>for</strong> modeling<br />

hydrologic systems are: (1) the response of<br />

watershed is linear; (2) the effective rainfall is<br />

uni<strong>for</strong>mly distributed over rainfall duration;<br />

(3) the rainfall excess is of constant intensity<br />

throughout the rainfall duration; (4) the<br />

duration of the direct runoff hydrograph that<br />

is independent of the effective rainfall<br />

intensity and depends only on the effective<br />

rainfall duration.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

Voinesti Basin belongs to the Dambovita<br />

Basin, located in the north-western part of the<br />

district Dambovita, at a distance of only 27<br />

kilometers from the municipality of<br />

Targoviste, Targoviste — Campulung axis.<br />

The area lies between the ranges of 8-9°C.<br />

The lower average monthly record in January<br />

(-3°C) and the highest in July (+19°C).<br />

Annual precipitation is 914,5 mm.<br />

Character of the continental climate is marked<br />

by the presence of the maximum rainfall in<br />

May about 134 mm, 107 mm in June and in<br />

March is record the lowest value 32,9 mm.<br />

91


- Starting from hydrograph (Figure 3),<br />

the flow hydrographs were determined<br />

based on the limnimetric key. Q=f(t)<br />

(Figure 4)<br />

Figure 1-Voinesti Hydrographic Basin.<br />

The catchment area is 785750,65 m² (0,78<br />

km²). (C. Maftei, Hidrologie-Aplicatii, 2004).<br />

Basin is crossed by Water Muret Valley, who<br />

has two tributaries: the Elah Valley on the<br />

right side and the Sadu Valley on the left side.<br />

In hydrologic terms, water is fed primarily by<br />

rainfall, the Valley of Muret having an<br />

impermanent, with flow rates between 0,3-0,4<br />

mc/s. Altitude basin is between 420-540<br />

meters.<br />

In terms of geo-botanic this area identifies on<br />

deciduous <strong>for</strong>ests, with passage from beech<br />

to pine in extreme north; woodlands occupy<br />

large ranges areas of territory, reaching down<br />

to near hearth village.<br />

The study was conducted on the use of<br />

hydrological data from the period 1997-1998,<br />

it is about 10 events rain-flow.<br />

For each of the 10 events considered were the<br />

following steps:<br />

- The precipitation hietogram were<br />

determined at 10 minutes (Figure 2)<br />

Figure 2. Hietogram at 10 minutes of 2.08.1997<br />

Water level, mm<br />

Time, min<br />

12:40<br />

Figure 3. Level Hydrograph of 2.08.1997<br />

12:40<br />

Figure 4.Flow hydrograph of 02.08.1997<br />

- separation of direct discharge is<br />

obtained by using a graphic solution<br />

drawing the logarithmic curve<br />

log(Q)=f(t)(Figure 5). (Serban M., 2011)<br />

Assuming each leak follows a decreasing<br />

exponential, decay curve and depletion curve<br />

drawn into a semi-logarithmic scale are<br />

described by two lines of different slopes.<br />

Transposition of the decrease flow into a<br />

semi-logarithmic axes system (time on the<br />

abscissa and log Q on the ordinate) eases<br />

observing a change in slope at the turn of the<br />

decay curve and rye. This corresponds to<br />

stopping the surface runoff and the passing to<br />

the hypodermic runoff. (Roche M., 1967)<br />

92


Table 1. Calculation of unit hydrograph <strong>for</strong> the event<br />

from 2.08.1997<br />

Data Qrx (cm) Qrx/Lr (mm)<br />

13:20 0.18 0.0064<br />

13:30 11.82 0.4221<br />

13:40 14.82 0.5292<br />

13:50 5.24 0.1871<br />

14:00 2.43 0.0867<br />

14:10 1.61 0.0575<br />

14:20 0.8 0.0285<br />

Total: 1.3178<br />

Figure 5. Determination of direct discharge using a<br />

graphic solution<br />

- to determine the direct runoff volume we<br />

determined the direct surface runoff (in<br />

Figure 6 the area between ABC represents the<br />

volume of water drained from the surface,<br />

between ACD represents the hypodermic<br />

runoff, and between ADE represents the<br />

underground drainage), which multiplied by<br />

the scale factor represents the volume sought.<br />

Figure 6. Discharge hydrograph from 2.08.1997<br />

- the <strong>for</strong>mula <strong>for</strong> calculating direct runoff<br />

or rainfall excess is:<br />

Vr<br />

Lr =<br />

S<br />

- the ordinate flow was of a time step of<br />

10 min. (Qrx)<br />

- we calculated <strong>for</strong> each time step, the<br />

ordinate HU, multiplying the ordinates<br />

of direct runoff 1/Lr ratio (Table 1),<br />

ultimately resulting in the total value of<br />

net rain.<br />

- we extract the value that is closest to the<br />

unit value.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

The procedure presented in the previous<br />

paragraph was applied to all 10 rainfall-flow<br />

events, results are presented in the following<br />

table.<br />

Date<br />

10.06.<br />

1997<br />

02.08.<br />

1997<br />

28.05.<br />

1997<br />

17.07.<br />

1998<br />

03.08.<br />

1998<br />

05.06.<br />

1998<br />

31.07.<br />

1997<br />

04.06.<br />

1997<br />

11.06.<br />

1997<br />

03.08.<br />

1997<br />

Table 2. Results <strong>for</strong> 10 rainfall-flow events<br />

Volume<br />

drained<br />

surface<br />

(m 3 )<br />

Net rain<br />

(mm)<br />

Gross<br />

rain<br />

(mm)<br />

Runoff<br />

coefficient<br />

51714 65 112.5 0.577<br />

22146 28 42.1 0.665<br />

2925 3 6.3 0.476<br />

34413 43 78.6 0.547<br />

15624 19 27.5 0.690<br />

8979 11 19.3 0.569<br />

5892 7 14.5 0.482<br />

15768 19 28.3 0.671<br />

21966 27 43.2 0.625<br />

65854 83 120.7 0.687<br />

Discharge coefficient is the ratio of H net and<br />

H gross :Cs = 28 / 42,1 = 0,665 which means<br />

that the total rainfall that fell on the surface of<br />

the hydrografic basin, 66,5% comes in the<br />

<strong>for</strong>m of flow in the measuring section and<br />

runs directly on the slopes, and the rest is lost<br />

through evaporation and infiltration in soil.<br />

93


Table 3. Net rainfall values<br />

Date Unit hydrograph (mm)<br />

10.06.1997 1,3576<br />

02.08.1997 1,3178<br />

28.05.1997 1,6233<br />

17.07.1998 1,3509<br />

03.08.1998 1,4289<br />

05.06.1998 1,4309<br />

31.07.1997 0,6971<br />

04.06.1997 1,3721<br />

11.06.1997 1,3185<br />

03.08.1997 1,3386<br />

The unit hydrograph resulting from analysis<br />

of data provided by NMA series since 1997-<br />

1998 is obtained on 02.08.1997 after choosing<br />

value ratio QRX / Hn nearest 1. (Table 3)<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

Based on UH thus determined we can see the<br />

evolution of other events without knowing<br />

other details about the rain, than pluviogram,<br />

rainfall duration and time of concentration.<br />

Analysis per<strong>for</strong>med on Voinesti basin shows<br />

that hydrological circuit elements work<br />

together and that all components are<br />

dependent of the hydrografic basin.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Arsenie D.I., 1982, Hidraulica, Hidrologie si<br />

Hidrogeologie, IIS Constanta (pag. 62)<br />

Dubreil P., 1974, Initiation à l’ analyse hydrologique,<br />

Masson & Cie,.<br />

Hancu S., Stanescu P., 1971, Hidrologie Agricola,<br />

Ed.Ceres, Bucharest (pag. 35-36)<br />

Gherghina C, Maftei C., 1998, Hidrologie generala,<br />

Editura Ovidius, Constanta (pag. 78-80)<br />

Maftei C., 2004, Hidrologie, Ed. ExPonto, Constanta<br />

(pag.169)<br />

Maftei C., Hidrologie–Aplicaţii, Ed. ExPonto,<br />

Constanta (pag. 183)<br />

Maftei C., 2004, Modélisation spatialisée de<br />

l’écoulementsur des petitsbassins versants, Ed. Cermi,<br />

Iasi (pag. 24)<br />

Jorge A. R., Water Resources, Hydrologic and<br />

Enviramental Science (pag.1)<br />

Serban M, 2011, Identificarea hidrografului unitar,<br />

Lucrare de disertatie, Universitatea Ovidius Constanta-<br />

Facultatea de Constructii (pag.43-45)<br />

Roche M., 1967, Recherche d'un hydrogramm<br />

standard, Vol I (pag. 65-67)<br />

94


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS ON THE USE <strong>OF</strong> DIFFERENT<br />

NATURAL SORBENTS FOR REMOVAL <strong>OF</strong> HEAVY METAL FROM ACID<br />

MINE DRAINAGE (CASE STUDY: “Larga de Sus” MINE)<br />

Gianina DAMIAN, Simona VARVARA, Roxana BOSTAN<br />

University "1 Decembrie 1918" of Alba Iulia, N. Iorga Street, no. 11-13, Alba Iulia (510009),<br />

Romania, Tel:+40-0258-806130,+40-0258-806273, Fax:+40-0258-812630,<br />

Email: gianina_ln@yahoo.com; svarvara@uab.ro; a_roxananadina@yahoo.com<br />

Corresponding author email: gianina_ln@yahoo.com<br />

Abstract<br />

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem associated with both working and abandoned<br />

mining operations, because it generates acidic solutions containing toxic heavy metal ions, such as Fe 2+ , Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ ,<br />

Cu 2+, Pb 2+, which are not biodegradable and tends to accumulate in living organisms causing various diseases.<br />

The present study aimed at evaluating the possibility of using two low-cost sorbents, i.e. zeolite volcanic tuff from<br />

Rupea (Brasov County, Romania) and peat from “Poiana Stampei” (Suceava County, Romania) in the removal process<br />

of the heavy metals (Fe, Zn and Mn) from AMD generated at the abandoned mining perimeter of “Larga de Sus” from<br />

Zlatna (Alba County, Romania). The composition of the acid mine drainage from “Larga de Sus” Mine be<strong>for</strong>e and after<br />

the treatment with natural sorbents was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The removal efficiency of Fe,<br />

Zn and Mn from AMD was determined at different doses and grain sizes of the natural zeolite and peat. The preliminary<br />

results showed that both sorbents can be used as a low cost alternative in the treatment of AMD.<br />

Key words: Acid mine drainage, heavy metals, natural zeolite, peat moss.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major cause of<br />

environmental pollution associated with the<br />

poor management of working and abandoned<br />

mining operations. AMD polluted waters<br />

typically show low pH values (Macías et al.,<br />

2012) and contain important concentrations of<br />

iron, sulphate and heavy metals (i.e. Zn Mn,<br />

Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd) which are toxic <strong>for</strong> the aquatic<br />

fauna and flora, (Yang et al., 2009), damage the<br />

ecosystem of soil and receiving rivers or lakes<br />

and corrodes the infrastructure (Ruihua et al.,<br />

2011).<br />

When a mine is abandoned, the pumping ceases<br />

and water floods the underground site<br />

(Natarajan, 2008). AMD results from the<br />

leaking of acidic water from abandoned mines<br />

and mineral wastes and occurs naturally within<br />

the environments containing an abundance of<br />

sulphide minerals, usually pyrite (FeS 2 ) which<br />

oxidizes and dissolves when in contact with<br />

water and air (Pérez-López et al., 2010),<br />

according to the following equations<br />

(Suteerapataranon et al., 2006):<br />

FeS 2 (s)+7/2O 2 (g)+H 2 O→Fe 2+ (aq)+2H + (aq)+2SO 4 2- (aq)<br />

2Fe 2+ (aq)+1/2O 2 (g)+5H 2 O(l)→2Fe(OH) 3 (s)+4H + (aq)<br />

Taking into account the predictions on the<br />

future loading of dissolved metals from<br />

abandoned mines which notify that the sulphide<br />

oxidation and release of dissolved metals could<br />

carry on <strong>for</strong> decades to centuries, proper AMD<br />

treatments <strong>for</strong> heavy metals removal are<br />

required (Rios et al., 2008).<br />

The conventional methods used <strong>for</strong> AMD<br />

treatment can be divided into either passive or<br />

active processes.<br />

Passive treatment technologies rely on<br />

naturally occurring chemical and biological<br />

processes to buffer the AMD acidity and to<br />

remove the sulphate and heavy metals, using<br />

one or more of the following treatment<br />

methods (Clyde, 2008): anoxic limestone<br />

drains, biosorption, anaerobic bioreactors and<br />

aerobic wetlands, settling ponds. Active<br />

treatment involves the addition of a chemical<br />

neutralizing agent (CaCO 3 , Ca(OH) 2 , CaO,<br />

95


Na 2 CO 3 , NaOH etc.) to the source of AMD or<br />

directly to the stream that has been polluted.<br />

The AMD treatment with limestone does not<br />

only neutralize the AMD, but it also serves to<br />

precipitate Fe and other metal hydroxides,<br />

since the solution pH may increase to 6.0-7.5<br />

and thus allowing the metals to be removed<br />

(Rios et al., 2008).<br />

Although the active treatment of AMD could<br />

be very successful, it has the disadvantage of<br />

requiring continuous operation and<br />

maintenance. Apart from chemical<br />

precipitation, several treatment procedures <strong>for</strong><br />

metal contaminated AMDs, including<br />

adsorption, ion-exchange, electroflotation,<br />

membrane separation, reverse osmosis,<br />

electrodialysis and solvent extraction have been<br />

also investigated.<br />

The choice of a method <strong>for</strong> AMD remediation<br />

is equally based on (Motsi et al., 2011) the<br />

concentration of heavy metals in the<br />

wastewater, the cost of the treatment procedure<br />

and possibility to implement it in remote areas<br />

(Wanjing et al., 2010).<br />

The AMD treatment by adsorbents is one of the<br />

most efficient and economical technique used<br />

<strong>for</strong> heavy metal removal, especially when<br />

natural materials that has potential as low-cost<br />

effective sorbents are available and could be<br />

easily regenerated.<br />

These include fly ash (Rios et al., 2008;<br />

Ahmaruzzaman, 2011), peanut shell (Zhu et al.,<br />

2009; Witek-Krowiak et al., 2011) peat moss<br />

(Brown et al., 2000; Ringqvist et al.,2002; Qin<br />

et al., 2006; Kalmykova et al., 2008; Bulgariu<br />

et al., 2008; Caramalău et al., 2009; Gupta et<br />

al., 2009; Koivula et al., 2009; Lourie and<br />

Gjengedal 2011) lignite (Mohan and Chander,<br />

2006) kaolinite (Sen et al., 2002; Arias et al.,<br />

2002; Yavuz et al., 2003; Trevino and Coles,<br />

2003; Kamel et al., 2004; Omar and Al-Itawi,<br />

2007) Neem leaves (Oboh et al., 2009) orange<br />

waste (Perez-Marin et al., 2007) pine bark<br />

(Kalmykova, 2004) sawdust (Bulut and Tez,<br />

2007) mollusk shells (Chenxi, 2008) sand<br />

(Awan et al., 2003) and natural zeolites<br />

(Hossein and Hassan, 2006; Burca et al., 2008;<br />

Bedelean et al., 2010; Motsi, 2010; Jamil et al.,<br />

2010; Wang, 2010; Taffarel,2010; Tetisan,<br />

2010; Popa, 2011; Motsi et al., 2011; Shavandi<br />

et al., 2012).<br />

Natural zeolites (clinoptilolite and chabazite)<br />

are environmentally friendly, naturally<br />

occurring low-cost minerals which posses a<br />

structural net negative charge due to<br />

isomorphic substitution of cations in the<br />

mineral lattice. They have a strong affinity <strong>for</strong><br />

cations of transition metals, but only little<br />

affinity <strong>for</strong> anions and nonpolar organic<br />

molecules.<br />

Due to its significant ion exchange ability and<br />

high surface areas, natural clinoptilolite offer a<br />

potential <strong>for</strong> a variety of industrial uses,<br />

including molecular sieves, ion-exchangers,<br />

adsorbers, catalysts, removal of cations from<br />

AMD and industrial wastewater.<br />

Despite numerous studies (Peric, 2004;<br />

Hossein, 2006; Buasri, 2008; Taffarel, 2009;<br />

Tetisan, 2010; Taffarel, 2010; Bedelean, 2010;<br />

Motsi, 2011; Muzenda, 2011) attesting the<br />

effectiveness of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite)<br />

<strong>for</strong> the removal of single metal ion from<br />

synthetic aqueous solution under different<br />

experimental conditions, only limited research<br />

(Ouki and Kavannagh, 1997; Rıos, 2008;<br />

Motsi, 2010) have been carried out on its<br />

ability to remove various concentrations of<br />

heavy metals from real AMD solutions.<br />

Apart from natural zeolite, peat moss is another<br />

low-cost sorbent that has been widely used to<br />

remove a variety of materials including organic<br />

compounds and heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Cd, Pb,<br />

Ni, Cr etc.) from waste waters (Ho, 1995; Ho,<br />

1996; Brown et al., 2000; Arunachalam, 2002;<br />

Ringqvist et al.,2002; Qin et al., 2006; Bulgariu<br />

et al., 2008; Kalmykova et al., 2008;<br />

Caramalău et al., 2009; Koivula et al., 2009;<br />

Gupta et al., 2009; Lourie, 2011).<br />

Various functional groups in lignin allow such<br />

compounds to bind on active sites of peat. Peat<br />

is a heterogeneous mixture of decomposed<br />

plant materials accumulated in poorly<br />

oxygenated wetlands. The major constituents of<br />

peat, namely lignin, cellulose and humic<br />

substances, contain structural moieties groups,<br />

such as –OH, –COOH, =C=O, –C–O–C–,<br />

capable of taking part in protolytic, ion<br />

exchange and complexation reactions with<br />

adsorbed pollutant species (Balan et al., 2009).<br />

Since, the composition of peat from various<br />

sources may vary considerably depending on<br />

age, the nature of its original vegetation, the<br />

regional climate, the acidity of the water and<br />

96


the degree of metamorphosis (Fernandes et al.<br />

2007), detailed studies to evaluate the<br />

adsorption potential of this material in relation<br />

to the characteristics of the waste waters,<br />

including real AMD solutions are necessary.<br />

The present work focused on evaluating at<br />

laboratory-scale the use of two naturally<br />

occurring low-cost sorbents, i.e. zeolite<br />

volcanic tuff (RNZ) from Rupea (Brasov<br />

County, Romania) and peat moss (PM) from<br />

“Poiana Stampei” (Suceava County, Romania)<br />

in the removal of the heavy metals from real<br />

AMD generated at the abandoned mining<br />

perimeter of “Larga de Sus” from Zlatna (Alba<br />

County, Romania). The composition of the<br />

AMD from “Larga de Sus” mine be<strong>for</strong>e and<br />

after the treatment with natural sorbents was<br />

determined by X-ray fluorescence<br />

spectroscopy.<br />

MATERIALS AND METHODS<br />

Sampling site<br />

The Zlatna mining perimeter is located in<br />

South Apuseni Mountains (Romania) and<br />

comprises two main exploitations, “Larga de<br />

Sus” and “Hanes” mines, where the extraction<br />

of gold-silver ores and the mining of<br />

polymetallic ores took place <strong>for</strong> more than 40<br />

years.<br />

Although the “Larga de Sus” gallery was<br />

closed in 2006 (Figure 1a), currently the mine<br />

waters are flowing unimpeded in the “Bloria”<br />

Creek from nearby and then in the lake <strong>for</strong>med<br />

at the bottom of the tailings (Figure 1d) (Keri et<br />

al., 2010).<br />

The mine water drainage channel is arranged<br />

inadequately (Figure 1b), as it is a simple 20–<br />

50 cm deep trench dug in the topsoil blankets<br />

from the abandoned plat<strong>for</strong>m (Keri et al.,<br />

2010).<br />

On 02 November 2012, four AMD samples<br />

were collected from the mine water drainage<br />

channel and sealed in polyethylene bottles. The<br />

pH and electrical conductivity of the raw water<br />

were measured on-site using a pH meter<br />

(Hanna instruments) and a Cond 315i<br />

conductivity meter (Hanna instruments),<br />

respectively. Figure1. The studied site: a) “Larga de Sus” Gallery b)<br />

water drainage channel c) dump d) lake<br />

97


Chemical composition of the AMD samples<br />

was determined in laboratory by X-Ray<br />

Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), using a<br />

Quant’X ARL X-ray fluorescence spectrometer<br />

(Thermo cientific, USA).<br />

Another problem that has been already<br />

identified by A.A. Keri et al. in the area of<br />

“Larga de Sus” mine was related to the storage<br />

of the gangue material extracted from the<br />

gallery (Figure 1c).<br />

There are two dumps situated about 80 m from<br />

the pit mouth, encompassing 50 tons of gangue<br />

materials in an area of 3.2 ha (Keri et al.,<br />

2010). After the final closing of the mine,<br />

wastes and materials resulted either from the<br />

extraction activity or from the closing of the pit<br />

mouths have been dumped in the surrounding<br />

environment (Keri et al., 2010)<br />

Adsorbents<br />

In this study, natural zeolite-rich tuff (RNZ)<br />

and peat moss (PM) samples were used as<br />

sorbents <strong>for</strong> AMD treatment.<br />

The zeolite-rich tuff samples originating from<br />

Rupea (Romania) were provided S.C. Eleolit<br />

S.A Company. RNZ samples were used in their<br />

natural state (“as received”) without any<br />

chemical modifications. The particle size of the<br />

natural zeolite used in this study was 1-3 mm.<br />

The chemical composition of the natural zeolite<br />

was determined by XRF and the results are<br />

summarized in Table 1. The values of other<br />

physiochemical properties were obtained from<br />

the provider of the natural zeolite and included<br />

in Table 1.<br />

Prior the experiments, the zeolite samples were<br />

washed with distilled water and dried in an<br />

oven at 100 0 C <strong>for</strong> 8 hours.<br />

The mineralogical analysis of RNZ was<br />

carried out by the provider using X-ray<br />

diffraction (XRD) and the result showed that<br />

the sample mainly consisted of clinoptilolite<br />

(71-83.3 %), volcanic glass (4.1%-9.7%),<br />

plagioclase (6.67 %), SiO 2 (2.25%-2.6%) and<br />

traces of other minerals.<br />

The peat moss (PM) samples are originated<br />

from Poiana Stampei (Romania). A complete<br />

characterization of the peat moss is presented<br />

in Angelica-Liliana Kicsi’s PhD Thesis:<br />

Studies on the use of natural indigenous<br />

sorbents <strong>for</strong> decontamination of wastewater<br />

containing heavy metals. The peat material was<br />

dried <strong>for</strong> 24 hours in an oven at 100 0 C,<br />

grounded using a vegetables mill (Grindomix<br />

GM 200) and sieved using a 1 mm sieve.<br />

Table1. Chemical composition and physico-chemical<br />

parameters of the zeolite-rich tuff samples originating<br />

from Rupea (Romania)<br />

Chemical composition<br />

(%)<br />

SiO 2 70.94<br />

Al 2 O 3 16.21<br />

CaO 4.72<br />

K 2 O 3.69<br />

Fe 2 O 3 2.82<br />

MgO 0.46<br />

Na 2 O 0.45<br />

TiO 2 0.25<br />

BaO 0.10<br />

MnO 0.05<br />

LOI 0.21<br />

Batch sorption experiment<br />

Physico-chemical<br />

parameters<br />

Cation exchange capacity<br />

1,51mqv / 100g<br />

Specific surface area (BET)<br />

23,4 m² / g<br />

Specific gravity: 1,65 – 1,75<br />

gf / cm³<br />

Total porosity: 33,08 %<br />

Water absorption: 16,21 %<br />

Density: 2,15 – 2,25 g / cm³<br />

Bulk Density: 0,88 kg / dm³<br />

The efficiency of the two sorbents, RNZ and<br />

PM in the removal of the heavy metals from<br />

real AMD was investigated at the laboratory<br />

scale, using a batch reactor (250 ml) at 22 ±<br />

0.5 ◦ C, with continuous stirring at 300 rpm.<br />

3 g of sorbents were left in contact with 100 ml<br />

of real AMD solution having an initial pH<br />

value of 2.8. Aliquots of supernatant (1 ml)<br />

were withdrawn at different time intervals<br />

(from 5 min to 72 hours), but the total sampling<br />

volume did not exceed 10% of the total<br />

solution volume.<br />

The final concentration of the heavy metal ions<br />

in the aqueous phase was immediately<br />

determined by XRF. When using PST, be<strong>for</strong>e<br />

XRF analysis, the supernatants were filtered by<br />

a 150 mm diameter filter paper.<br />

All sorption experiments were in duplicates in<br />

order to observe the reproducibility of the<br />

results, and the mean value was used.<br />

The removal efficiency, R.E. (%) of metallic<br />

ions by the adsorbent was calculated using the<br />

following equation:<br />

R. E. (%) = C i − C f<br />

C i<br />

∗ 100<br />

98


where, c i and c f are the concentrations of the<br />

metal ions in the initial and final solutions,<br />

respectively.<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSION<br />

Characterization of AMD samples collected<br />

from “Larga de Sus” mine<br />

Table 2 shows the average chemical<br />

composition and the physicochemical<br />

parameter of the AMD samples collected from<br />

“Larga de Sus” mine.<br />

Table2. Average chemical composition and<br />

physicochemical parameters of AMD collected from<br />

“Larga de Sus” mine<br />

2524 2000<br />

Parameter AMD Maximum consent<br />

limits (NTPA02)<br />

*Romanian Standard<br />

NTPA 02 Waste water<br />

directly into sewage<br />

pH 2.8 6.5-8.5<br />

Fe, mgL -1 112 5<br />

Mn, mgL -1 20 1<br />

Zn, mgL -1 9.6 0.5<br />

Ca, mgL -1 182.5<br />

Total solids<br />

(TSS), mgL -1<br />

Conductivity,<br />

μScm -1 2161<br />

As it can be seen in Table 2, the water drainage<br />

from “Larga de Sus” mine is acidic (pH = 2.8),<br />

present a high conductivity and contains<br />

various heavy metal ions (Fe, Mn, Zn).<br />

The concentrations of the zinc, iron and<br />

manganese in the acidic drainage water from<br />

“Larga de Sus” mine exceed more than 19 to<br />

22 times the maximum consent limits<br />

established by Romanian Standard NTPA02.<br />

The specific orange color of AMD is due to the<br />

high concentrations of ferric iron in the<br />

solution. It is clear that this water drainage<br />

introduces sulphuric acid and toxic heavy<br />

metals (Fe, Mn and Zn) into the environment,<br />

which pose a serious threat to organisms and<br />

natural ecosystem, because AMD is disposed<br />

without any remediation treatment.<br />

For instance, on-site it was observed that the<br />

AMD infiltrates the soil profile, which retains<br />

heavy metals causing constant pollution (Keri<br />

et al., 2010).Additionally, severe degradation<br />

of the land is caused by the gangue material<br />

deposition at the pit mouth (Keri et al., 2010).<br />

AMD treatment using RNZ and PM<br />

The removal of heavy metals from the acidic<br />

water drainage collected from “Larga de Sus”<br />

mine onto RNZ and PM samples was<br />

investigated at different contact times and<br />

sorbent:AMD ratios.<br />

Figure 2 illustrates the variation of iron,<br />

manganese and zinc concentrations during the<br />

contact time, <strong>for</strong> a sorbent:AMD mixture of<br />

3g:100 ml.<br />

As it can be seen in Figure 2a, both<br />

investigated sorbents produced similar trends<br />

of the iron removal with an abrupt decrease of<br />

its concentration level within the first 5 min,<br />

followed by a progressive decrease up to 12 h<br />

in the case of PM and 24 h <strong>for</strong> RNZ,<br />

respectively.<br />

At longer contact times, plateau values with<br />

very low residual concentrations (< 1 mgL -1 )<br />

were reached and both sorbents allowed an<br />

almost complete removal of iron from AMD.<br />

However, at the same contact time and sorbent<br />

concentration, the iron removal efficiency of<br />

the peat moss sample seems to be higher than<br />

the value obtained using natural zeolite.<br />

As shown in Figure 2b, Mn concentration<br />

decreases during the first 60 min, when using<br />

RNZ and PM. After that a sudden increase of<br />

manganese concentration occurred between 1<br />

and 2 hours, followed by a new decrease of its<br />

concentration at 6 h in the case of using PM<br />

and 24h <strong>for</strong> RNZ, slightly decreasing further<br />

<strong>for</strong> the rest of the contact time intervals.<br />

It is interesting to note that in the first 2 hours<br />

of contact, the percentage of manganese<br />

removal is higher when PM was added to AMD<br />

as compared to RNZ, while at longer contact<br />

times it decreases.<br />

The addition of RNZ produces a steep decrease<br />

in Zn concentration within the first 5 min<br />

immediately followed by a slight increase at 15<br />

min of contact, after which the metal<br />

concentration in AMD constantly decreases <strong>for</strong><br />

the rest of the time intervals (Figure 2c).<br />

The presence of PM in contact with AMD lead<br />

to a steep decrease of the Zn concentration<br />

within the first 30 min, followed by a<br />

progressive increase up to 60 min; then, an<br />

99


abrupt decrease was observed at 2 hours,<br />

followed by a new increase at 12 h, decreasing<br />

again <strong>for</strong> the rest of the contact time intervals<br />

(Figure 2c).<br />

The values of the removal efficiency of the two<br />

investigated sorbents at different contact times,<br />

as a function of the adsorbent dose (3 g) are<br />

presented in Table 4.<br />

It is known that the removal of heavy metal<br />

ions from aqueous solutions using sorbents is<br />

rather a complex process, consisting of ionexchange<br />

and adsorption, but is likely to be<br />

accompanied by precipitation of metal<br />

hydroxide complexes on the active sites of<br />

sorbents surface (Rios, 2008).<br />

The solubility of metals is strongly dependent<br />

on the solution pH. Thus, the Fe 3+ removal<br />

from aqueous solution requires low pH value<br />

(pH~4.3), Zn 2+ is precipitated at pH 5.5-7.0 and<br />

most of the Mn 2+ s removed when the solution<br />

pH is close to 9.<br />

In our study, the initial pH of acidic water<br />

drainage (pH = 2.8) slightly increases during<br />

the contact time with the highest investigated<br />

quantity of natural zeolite (5 g) to values of 3.0<br />

and 3.3 after 24 and 48 hours, respectively.<br />

The addition the peat moss to AMD leads to a<br />

decreases of the solution pH at 2.45 after 72<br />

hours of contact.<br />

Table 4. Treatment of AMD collected from “Larga de<br />

Sus” mine using 3 g of natural zeolite (RNZ) and peat<br />

moss (PM) at various contact times<br />

Adsorbent<br />

Heavy<br />

metal<br />

Time<br />

(min)<br />

R.E.<br />

(%)<br />

Adsorbent<br />

Heavy<br />

metal<br />

R.E.<br />

(%)<br />

Figure 2 Variation of Fe (a), Mn (b) and Zn (c)<br />

concentration as a function of the contact time during the<br />

sorption batch experiments (sorbent: AMD mixture of 3<br />

g/100 ml)<br />

RNZ<br />

Fe 5<br />

15<br />

30<br />

60<br />

120<br />

1440<br />

4320<br />

Mn 5<br />

15<br />

30<br />

60<br />

120<br />

1440<br />

4320<br />

Zn 5<br />

15<br />

30<br />

60<br />

120<br />

1440<br />

4320<br />

32.1<br />

40.1<br />

45.5<br />

55.3<br />

60.2<br />

79.4<br />

98.7<br />

15<br />

10<br />

12.5<br />

22.5<br />

12.5<br />

35<br />

45<br />

25<br />

16.6<br />

17.7<br />

19.7<br />

23.9<br />

41.1<br />

48.9<br />

PM<br />

Fe 67.8<br />

77.6<br />

75.8<br />

87.5<br />

93.1<br />

99.1<br />

99.1<br />

Mn 10<br />

25<br />

15<br />

40<br />

30<br />

10<br />

15<br />

Zn 32.8<br />

35.4<br />

19.2<br />

27.08<br />

34.8<br />

22.9<br />

32.29<br />

100


As it can be seen in Table 4, in the investigated<br />

experimental conditions, both natural sorbents<br />

(RNZ and PM) were able to remove significant<br />

amounts of heavy metals from AMD collected<br />

at “Larga de Sus” mine, especially iron, from<br />

solution.<br />

At sorbent doses of 3g/100ml the percent of<br />

iron removal was 98.7% after 72 hours, in case<br />

of using RNZ, while 91% of iron was removed<br />

after 24 hours when using PM.<br />

When comparing removal efficiency of the two<br />

investigated sorbents at different contact times,<br />

PM gave best removal efficiencies, which are<br />

40% (1 hour) and almost 36% (15 minutes)<br />

manganese and zinc respectively, while the<br />

percent of manganese and zinc removal was<br />

only 45% and 49% after 72 hours, in case of<br />

using RNZ.<br />

At sorbent doses of 5 g/100 ml AMD, the<br />

percent of iron removal was almost 100% and<br />

the final concentrations of iron were reduced to<br />

levels less than the maximum consent limit <strong>for</strong><br />

waste water discharges after 48 hours and 2<br />

hours, when using RNZ and PM, respectively.<br />

Similar results we obtained by Motsi et al.<br />

(2010) when treating the AMD from Wheal<br />

Jane mine with natural zeolite.<br />

Although Motsi (2010) attributed the high<br />

removal rate of iron from the solution to ionexchange<br />

and adsorption processes, but also to<br />

precipitation, in our research the probability of<br />

iron precipitating out of AMD solution is rather<br />

small in the investigated experimental<br />

conditions, since the equilibrium pH was lower<br />

than the minimum pH value (close to 4.3)<br />

needed <strong>for</strong> the iron precipitation.<br />

On the other hand, the lower removal percent<br />

of manganese and zinc obtained using both<br />

natural sorbents should be related to the<br />

solution pH.<br />

Thus, it might be possible that at low pH<br />

values, Mn 2+ and Zn 2+ ions removal to be<br />

inhibited possibly as a result of a competition<br />

between H + and heavy metals ions on surface<br />

exchangeable sites with an apparent<br />

preponderance of H + ions (Taffarel et al.,<br />

2010).<br />

Although the concentration of zinc and<br />

manganese in AMD after treating with natural<br />

zeolite and peat moss were higher than the<br />

respective consent limits, it is possible to<br />

further reduce their final concentrations if<br />

higher quantities of sorbents having lower<br />

grain-sizes are used or if the AMD solution is<br />

contacted with modified sorbents, such as<br />

zeolite in Na-<strong>for</strong>m <strong>for</strong> improving the removal<br />

of Zn (Bedelean et al., 2010), manganese oxide<br />

coated zeolite (Taffarel et al., 2010) <strong>for</strong> a better<br />

removal of manganese or by treating the peat<br />

moss with HNO 3 and NaOH (Bulgariu et al.,<br />

2009).<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

In the present study two low-cost natural<br />

materials, namely zeolite-rich tuff from Rupea<br />

(Brasov County) and peat moss from Poiana<br />

Stampei (Suceava County) were investigated in<br />

batch experiments as potential sorbents <strong>for</strong> the<br />

treatment of acid mine drainage collected from<br />

“Larga de Sus” mine (Romania).<br />

The preliminary results indicated that the<br />

natural zeolite volcanic tuff and the peat moss<br />

samples were able to remove significant<br />

amounts of heavy metals, especially iron from<br />

AMD.<br />

The removal effectiveness of the heavy metals<br />

by the two low-cost sorbents is strongly<br />

dependent on their applied dosage and contact<br />

time with AMD solution.<br />

In the investigated experimental conditions,<br />

PM was proved to be more effective in<br />

removing the heavy metals from AMD<br />

compared to RNZ sample.<br />

Thus, it was found that RNZ produced a<br />

complete removal of iron after 48 h of contact<br />

time when a dosage of 5 g was used, while PM<br />

was effective in reducing Fe concentration<br />

within the first 2 hours of contact leading to a<br />

percent of iron removal of almost 100%.<br />

In the same investigated experimental<br />

conditions, the removal of manganese and zinc<br />

by the two natural sorbents was not very<br />

efficient, probably due to the low pH of the<br />

solution.<br />

The reaction between RNZ and AMD after 48<br />

hours of contact produced decreases in the<br />

manganese and zinc concentration of 50% and<br />

73%, respectively. The maximum efficiency of<br />

peat moss in the removal of the two abovementioned<br />

metallic ions after 2 hours of contact<br />

was of 30% <strong>for</strong> Mn and 27% <strong>for</strong> Zn.<br />

101


Our preliminary results showed that the two<br />

investigated natural sorbents have the potential<br />

<strong>for</strong> use in treating actual acid mine drainage.<br />

However, further researches, including column<br />

studies are needed in order to find the best<br />

conditions <strong>for</strong> using natural sorbents to cleanup<br />

AMD at industrial scale economically.<br />

The possibility of regenerating the sorbents<br />

used <strong>for</strong> AMD treatment is another issue to be<br />

further investigated.<br />

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS<br />

The authors thank Eng. Gelu Chiorean from<br />

S.C. Eleolit S.A Company (Rupea, România)<br />

and to Mrs. Carmen Fodor (Poiana Stampei,<br />

România) <strong>for</strong> supplying us the zeolite-rich tuff<br />

and the peat moss samples, respectively.<br />

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104


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

THE EFFECT <strong>OF</strong> THE COLLOIDAL CLAY CONTENT ON THE<br />

SWELLING AND PLASTICITY BEHAVIOR<br />

George Marian DASCALU, Alex Nicolae VADUVA<br />

Scientific Coordinators: Ioana SIMINEA, Tatiana IVASUC<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd, District<br />

1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax: + 4021.318.25.67, Email:<br />

geoorgee_13b@yahoo.it<br />

Abstract<br />

Corresponding author email: geoorgee_13b@yahoo.it<br />

Clayey soils are soils with high shrink-swell potential. This soils have the property to significantly modify their volume<br />

when moisture changes. The magnitude of dry contraction and moisture swelling increases with the colloidal clay<br />

content. Minerals of the kaolinite group are the least active, while the montmorillonites are the most active. As shown<br />

by tests, the swelling potential and the plasticity of clays are high in clay of the montmorillonite type (bentonite) and<br />

rise with the fine-fraction content.<br />

Key words: colloidal clay content; clay mineral; free swelling; plasticity index.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

The present experimental study has been<br />

undertaken to understand swelling behavior of<br />

an red clay from Dobrogea, high grade<br />

montmorillonite and kaoline clay mixed in<br />

different proportions by weight.<br />

The main factors that cause the swelling<br />

behavior can be grouped into two categories:<br />

internal factors – this factors depends on the<br />

physicochemical properties of soils and water;<br />

and external factors – this factors depends on<br />

environmental conditions and the <strong>for</strong>mation of<br />

the soils.<br />

Clay particles are very small and their shape is<br />

determined by the arrangement of the thin<br />

crystal lattice layers that they <strong>for</strong>m, with many<br />

other elements which can become incorporated<br />

into the clay mineral structure (hydrogen,<br />

sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur). The<br />

presence and abundance of these dissolved ions<br />

can have a large impact on the behaviour of the<br />

clay minerals.<br />

In an expansive clay the molecular structure<br />

and arrangement of these clay crystal sheets has<br />

a particular affinity to attract and hold water<br />

molecules between the crystalline layers in a<br />

strongly bonded ‘sandwich’.<br />

Because of the electrical dipole structure of<br />

water molecules they have an electro-chemical<br />

attraction to the microscopic clay sheets. The<br />

mechanism by which these molecules become<br />

attached to each other is called adsorption. The<br />

clay mineral montmorillonite, part of the<br />

smectite family, can adsorb very large amounts<br />

of water molecules between its clay sheets, and<br />

there<strong>for</strong>e has a large shrink–swell potential<br />

(Jones&Jefferson, 2011).<br />

MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES<br />

In this study were collected three types of<br />

clayey soils with different physical and<br />

mineralogical properties.<br />

The kaolinite group includes the dioctahedral<br />

minerals kaolinite, dickite, nacrite, and<br />

halloysite.<br />

The primary structural unit of this group is a<br />

layer composed of one octahedral sheet<br />

condensed with one tetrahedral sheet. In the<br />

dioctahedral minerals the octahedral site are<br />

occupied by aluminum; in the trioctahedral<br />

minerals these sites are occupied by<br />

magnesium and iron. Kaolinite are single-layer<br />

structures (Al. Rawas&Groosen, 2006).<br />

105


METHODS<br />

Figure 1. Mineralogical structure of kaolinite<br />

(Jones&Jefferson, 2011)<br />

Members of the smectite group include the<br />

dioctahedral minerals montmorillonite,<br />

beidellite, and nontronite, and the trioctahedral<br />

minerals hectorite (Li-rich), saponite (Mg-rich),<br />

and sauconite (Zn-rich).<br />

The basic structural unit is a layer consisting of<br />

two inward-pointing tetrahedral sheets with a<br />

central alumina octahedral sheet.<br />

The layers are continuous, but the bonds<br />

between layers are weak and have excellent<br />

cleavage, allowing water and other molecules<br />

to enter between the layers causing expansion<br />

(Al. Rawas&Groosen, 2006).<br />

The physical characteristics of these soils were<br />

determined according to the Romanian standard<br />

in <strong>for</strong>ce, specifically: grading – STAS 1913/5-<br />

85; plastic limits – STAS 1913/4-86 and free<br />

swelling – STAS 1913/12-88.<br />

According to STAS 1913/12-88, the clayey<br />

soils were oven dried at 105°C. After drying,<br />

the clayey soils were ground using a mortar and<br />

pestle until the soil passed the 0.02 mm<br />

standard sieve. 90 ml of water were poured into<br />

a 100 ml graduated cylinder. Twelve grams of<br />

sieved soil were placed in the water in 0.1 g<br />

increments. After the 12 grams were added,<br />

additional solution was poured to fill the<br />

cylinder to the 100 ml and to rinse any particle<br />

of soil adhere to the internal sides of the<br />

cylinder. After minimum 16 hour of hydration<br />

period after the last increment, the final<br />

temperature and the volume of swollen soil<br />

were measured. The free swell index, measured<br />

by this method, is calculated with( Ivasuc,<br />

2012):<br />

Vf −Vi<br />

S = ⋅100(%)<br />

(1)<br />

Vi<br />

where: S – free swell (%); V f – final volume<br />

(cm 3 ) and V i – initial volume (cm 3 ).<br />

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS<br />

Figure 2. Mineralogical structure of montmorillonite<br />

(Jones&Jefferson, 2011)<br />

Table 1 shows the mineralogical composition<br />

<strong>for</strong> an red clay from Dobrogea.<br />

Table 1. Mineralogical composition of red clay in<br />

Dobrogea (Siminea, 1986)<br />

Mineral Content %<br />

Montmorillonite 22<br />

Illite + Muscovite 18<br />

Chlorite + vermicullite 12<br />

Kaolinite 14<br />

Other minerals 14<br />

The swelling grows up in the same time with<br />

the growth of the specific surface, which<br />

depends on the type of mineral (Table 2).<br />

Table 2. Soil characteristics<br />

A 2 % W L % W P % I P % U L %<br />

Montmorillonite<br />

100 610 150 460 760<br />

Kaolin 100 52 29 43 32<br />

Red clay 43-93 70 30 40 160<br />

Also the swelling clay soil is influenced by the<br />

complex nature of adsorbtion. The presence of<br />

Na + cations in the absorption complex establish<br />

the <strong>for</strong>mation of thick water layers.<br />

106


If the adsorption complex is composed of<br />

monovalent, bivalent and trivalent cations and<br />

the moisture water content low range<br />

depending on the nature of ions following<br />

sequence occurs ( Nicolescu, 1981):<br />

Li + > Na + > K + > Mg 2+ > Ca 2+ > Ba 2+ > Al 3+ (2)<br />

INFLUENCE <strong>OF</strong> FINE FRACTION<br />

CONTENT ON SWELLING POTENTIAL<br />

According to the series mentioned that the size<br />

of absorbed water layer decreases with<br />

increasing valence cations in the adsorption<br />

complex, in Figure 3 we can observe the<br />

influence of cations on clay minerals and nature<br />

while swelling proces. It is noted that<br />

montmorillonite volume has increased more<br />

than kaolinite and growth is higher when the<br />

adsorption of the same mineral complex cations<br />

are Na + .<br />

The particles with fraction less than 2µm are<br />

called colloidal clay or ultra clay. Hence the<br />

behaviour of fine soil fraction containing clay<br />

is influenced by properties of clay minerals.<br />

In order to track the potential inflation<br />

depending on the content in the fine fraction we<br />

have studied three clays: bentonite<br />

(montmorillonite clay type) - B, kaolin<br />

(kaolinite clay type) - C and red clay from<br />

Dobrogea - A.<br />

The swelling was monitored <strong>for</strong> mixtures made<br />

with bentonite and kaolin, in different<br />

proportions, depending on the content of<br />

fraction less than 2 μm (Figure 5). The highest<br />

value of free swell index is given by<br />

montorillonite mineral while the lowest value is<br />

assigned to kaolinite mineral.<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

10<br />

Sw elling %<br />

Bentonite<br />

Clay<br />

Kaolin<br />

0<br />

0 5 10 15 20 25<br />

t (days)<br />

Kaolin<br />

clay<br />

Bentonite<br />

Figure 4. Swelling of bentonite, kaolin, and red clay<br />

from Dobrogea<br />

70<br />

60<br />

50<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

Sw elling %<br />

B<br />

6:1-B:C<br />

1:1-B:C<br />

1:6-B:C<br />

C<br />

1:6-B:C<br />

1:1-B:C<br />

6:1-B:C<br />

B<br />

10<br />

C<br />

Fine- fraction content<br />

0<br />

0 20 40 60 80 100<br />

Figure 5. Variation of free swell index<br />

In Figure 5 we can observe the free swelling<br />

index variation <strong>for</strong> different mixtures of<br />

bentonite and kaolin.<br />

Figure 3. Swelling of montmorillonite and kaolinite<br />

For each clay, swelling behavior was monitored<br />

over time (Figure 4). It is noted that bentonite<br />

(B) has the highest swelling value and kaolin<br />

(C) has the lowest swelling value. The clay (A)<br />

has a bigger value of swelling than the kaolin<br />

because of the montmorillonite mineral clay<br />

content.<br />

FINE FRACTION CONTENT<br />

INFLUENCE ON SOIL PLASTICITY<br />

CLAY<br />

The content fraction below 2 μm influences<br />

the plasticity clay properties expressed by the<br />

plasticity index I p (%). The plasticity index I p<br />

result from the difference between the liquid<br />

limit (w L ) and plasticity limit (w P ) of these<br />

soils:<br />

I<br />

P<br />

= wL<br />

− wP ,(%) (3)<br />

107


60<br />

Sw elling<br />

35<br />

Plasticity index %<br />

50<br />

6:1-B:A<br />

30<br />

6:1-B:A<br />

25<br />

40<br />

30<br />

20<br />

1:1-B:A<br />

6:1-A:B<br />

6:1-C:A<br />

A<br />

1:1-B:A<br />

6:1-B:A<br />

20<br />

15<br />

10<br />

1:1-B:A<br />

6:1-C:A<br />

A<br />

1:1-B:A<br />

6:1-B:A<br />

A<br />

10<br />

6:1-C:A<br />

6:1-A:B<br />

0<br />

0 20 40 60 80<br />

Fine - fraction<br />

A<br />

5<br />

6:1-C:A<br />

0<br />

0 20 40 60 80 100 120<br />

-5<br />

Fine - fraction content<br />

Figure 6. Swelling of mixtures of clay with bentonite and<br />

kaolin<br />

The clays plasticity is influenced by the<br />

thickness of water layers made around the<br />

particles. Liquid limits and plasticity limits<br />

depend on the content of clay fraction as the<br />

type of mineral (Figure 7).<br />

35<br />

30<br />

25<br />

20<br />

15<br />

10<br />

5<br />

0<br />

0 20 40 60 80 100 120<br />

-5<br />

Plasticity index %<br />

A<br />

6:1-C:A<br />

6:1-B:A<br />

1:1-B:A<br />

Fine - fraction content<br />

6:1-C:A<br />

A<br />

1:1-B:A<br />

6:1-B:A<br />

Figure 7. Variation of plasticity index <strong>for</strong> bentonite and<br />

kaolin<br />

For bentonite (B) the plasticity index is higher<br />

than <strong>for</strong> the kaolin (C).<br />

For the mixtures of clay-bentonite and kaolin<br />

clays, it can be noticed that the value of<br />

plasticity index I p is a smaller increase due to<br />

the red clay of Dobrogea that was included on<br />

the mixture.<br />

In Figure 8 we can observe the variation of the<br />

plasticity index <strong>for</strong> different mixtures between<br />

red clay from Dobrogea, bentonite and<br />

kaolinite clays.<br />

Figure 8. Variation of plasticity index<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

The behavior of clayey soils in the presence of<br />

water humidity can be estimated using free<br />

swell index and plasticity index.<br />

Measured parameters are correlated to the fine<br />

fraction content (colloidal clay) and to<br />

mineralogical composition of these soils.<br />

For minimize the shrink–swell behavior these<br />

soils must be stabilized with inactive materials.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Al-Rawas, A., Goosen, M., 2006. Expansive soils.<br />

Recent caracterization and treatment. Taylor&Francis,<br />

London.<br />

Ivasuc, Tatiana, 2012. Seawater influence on the<br />

behavior of the expansive clays. Scientific papers, Series<br />

E, Vol.I, Bucharest, 105-108.<br />

Ivasuc, Tatiana, Manea, Sanda, Olinic, E., 2012 – Studii<br />

de laborator privind imbunatatirea pamanturilor<br />

argiloase. Vol. A XII-a Conferinta Nationala de<br />

Geotehnica si Fundatii, Ed. Politehnium, Iasi, 107-117.<br />

Jones, L., Jefferson, I., 2011. Institution of civil<br />

engineering. Manual series. C5 – Expansive soils.<br />

London.<br />

Nicolescu, L., 1981. Consolidarea si stabilizarea<br />

pamanturilor. Ed. Ceres, Bucuresti.<br />

Siminea, Ioana, 1986. Teza de doctorat – Contributii la<br />

studiul starii si comportarii maselor de pamant. Institutul<br />

de Constructii, Bucuresti.<br />

Siminea, Ioana, 2006. Geotehnica si fundatii. Ed. Bren,<br />

Bucuresti.<br />

Siminea, Ioana – Influenta continutului de fractiune fina<br />

asupra procesului de umflare si a plasticitatii<br />

pamanturilor argiloase. Lucrari stiintifice, Seria E<br />

XXXIV, Bucuresti, 81-86.<br />

108


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

CONCRETE SAMPLE PRISM - BENDING RESISTANCE<br />

DETERMINATION TEST<br />

Gheorghe FLOREA, Mihai NISTOR, Robert VIRLAN<br />

Scientific coordinator: Lect.PhD. Eng. Claudiu-Sorin DRAGOMIR<br />

University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty of Land<br />

Reclamation and Environmental Engineering, Marasti Blvd. 59, 011464, Bucharest, Romania,<br />

phone/fax: +(40) 21 318 30 76<br />

Abstract<br />

Email: george.florea@ymail.com; nistorminu@yahoo.com; do0om_ryder@yahoo.com<br />

Corresponding author email: george.florea@ymail.com<br />

This paper presents the results of the research that were per<strong>for</strong>med in the Laboratory of Rein<strong>for</strong>ced Concrete, Faculty<br />

of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering. The studies are based on theoretical aspects of the concrete<br />

prism bending resistance determinations. Using static analysis, the <strong>for</strong>mula <strong>for</strong> bending resistance was determined. In<br />

the laboratory, Tests were per<strong>for</strong>med on three standardized test-samples: three prisms made of concrete having the<br />

dimensions 150x150x600mm. In the first stage, non-destructive tests were made using the Schmidt sclerometer and the<br />

Pundit Lab device. Based on the <strong>for</strong>mula was measured an approximate value of the loading <strong>for</strong>ce <strong>for</strong> which the ef<strong>for</strong>t<br />

is reaching the corresponding resistance of the concrete rank; this approximate value of the loading <strong>for</strong>ce was achieved<br />

by nondestructive tests. In the final stage, results validation was per<strong>for</strong>med by effective test on three standardized testsamples<br />

concrete prisms. The samples were tested with a bending load up to 250 kN in the SERVO PLUS EVOLUTION<br />

universal pressing device. The three tests and the standardized test-samples concrete prisms were per<strong>for</strong>med and made<br />

according to the actual Romanian standards.<br />

Keywords: nondestructive testing, resistance to bending, static loads, stresses and strains.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

During the execution of concrete structures<br />

there are made compressive and flexural<br />

destructive testing but also nondestructive<br />

testing.<br />

Practical calculation of pure bending is done by<br />

verification of the bending strength which is<br />

calculated by relations (1):<br />

(1)<br />

where:<br />

Mz - is the largest bending moment on the<br />

beam value.<br />

Wz - minimum modulus calculated without<br />

sign so without taking into account the sign of<br />

y max .<br />

fc - calculating resistance to tension and<br />

compression if the material behaves as<br />

in tension and compression. Otherwise consider<br />

both resistance calculation - the tension and<br />

compression - and thus determine σ max and<br />

Ó min in extreme fibers stretched and<br />

compressed.<br />

By passing to limit of the above relationship it<br />

results sectional dimensions and maximum<br />

load capable of bending. At dimensioning (2)<br />

(2)<br />

and after choosing size is calculated W zef and<br />

the verification is made with the relationship<br />

(3)<br />

(3)<br />

The maximum able load results from the<br />

condition (4):<br />

109


(4) (Vacarescu, 2011)<br />

These attempts at bending are both <strong>for</strong> new<br />

construction and <strong>for</strong> old buildings, <strong>for</strong> which<br />

there is no documentation on the physicmechanical<br />

properties that includes them.<br />

The nondestructive attempts will be achieved<br />

thought determination of the rebound<br />

parameter (the concrete strength) with the Digi<br />

Schimidt sclerometer (Figure 1) and by<br />

determining the propagation velocity of the<br />

ultrasonic waves through concrete using the<br />

ultrasonic concrete Pundit Lab device.<br />

METHODS AND MATERIALS<br />

The determination of the rebound parameter is<br />

based on measuring the rebound that a mobile<br />

body suffers from the impact with the concrete<br />

surface of the attempted item; this rebound is<br />

an indicator of the concrete surface hardness<br />

and can be used to estimate concrete strength,<br />

within the limited guaranteed precision. The<br />

application domain of the method is especially<br />

the phasic control (molding, transfer, delivery)<br />

into elements with small and medium relative<br />

thicknesses, usually with age under 60 days.<br />

The obtained in<strong>for</strong>mation mainly refers to the<br />

concrete quality, during the first 2-3 cm, from<br />

the concrete surface. The attempt equipment is<br />

represented by one of the Schmidt sclerometer<br />

with linear or angular rebound. The operation<br />

of the method is basically as follows: under the<br />

action of springs system, a mobile crew strikes<br />

the concrete, through a rod of percussion. After<br />

the impact the crew rebounds training a cursor<br />

which points the rebound on a scale size.<br />

The attempts technique involves the following<br />

steps:<br />

- establishing the setting elements (testsamples)<br />

over which control is required.<br />

- choosing the attempt areas on the element<br />

shall con<strong>for</strong>m to the following guidelines.<br />

- avoiding the casting face and if possible<br />

its opposite face.<br />

- avoiding the areas with surface defects<br />

(macro porous areas, cracks, joints);<br />

- avoiding the areas which corresponds<br />

fittings especially when they are close to<br />

the concrete surface (d < 3 cm);<br />

- avoiding the edge adjacent areas until at<br />

least 5 cm items;<br />

110<br />

- avoiding areas on which exists <strong>for</strong>eign<br />

inclusions(shell splinters, soil, dust etc.).<br />

- The surface preparation is attempted by<br />

friction with hardness rock will be<br />

removed thickness of 1 mm;<br />

- The hits number in an area can vary<br />

between 6-9. After selective processing<br />

of results should remain at least 4 valid<br />

measurements.<br />

- the minimum distance between the<br />

attempt points of the same area is 3 cm<br />

(between centers)<br />

- The minimum distance between attempt<br />

points and the edge of the element is 50<br />

mm <strong>for</strong> shell molded items made of wood<br />

or metal and 30 mm <strong>for</strong> test samples cast<br />

in metal casing.<br />

- The elements with different curing<br />

conditions on the two opposite sides will<br />

be tested on both sides.<br />

- It is recommended that the attempted<br />

areas to be chosen on the framing<br />

element surfaces.<br />

- During the test the sclerometer should be<br />

strictly kept perpendicular on the test<br />

surface.<br />

- The arming and the triggering of the<br />

sclerometer should be done by a slow<br />

pressing, progressive, without jerking.<br />

- The reading of the device is made on its<br />

scale, in integer, without decimals, after<br />

the outbreak hit, but be<strong>for</strong>e releasing the<br />

rod pressure of the sclerometer (Standard<br />

C26-85, 1985).<br />

Figure 1. Digit Schmidt Sclerometer<br />

Determination of the speed propagation of<br />

waves through concrete<br />

The ultrasonic pulse method on test samples,<br />

elements and concrete structures, rein<strong>for</strong>ced<br />

concrete and prestressed concrete is used to<br />

determine:


- Elastic dynamic propertyes of concrete<br />

- Defects of elements or structures<br />

- Mechanical strenghts of concrete<br />

especially compressive strength in work;<br />

- The modification of concrete structure<br />

during curing under the action of<br />

chemical agent or physically<br />

aggressive,or under the action of<br />

mechanical stress;<br />

- The concrete uni<strong>for</strong>mity in work;<br />

The method is based on measuring the<br />

propagation time of ultrasonic pulses in<br />

concrete, between transmitter and receiver, by<br />

transmission from this measurement is usually<br />

deducted in the first stage, the longitudinal<br />

propagation speed of ultrasound in concrete<br />

and subsequently, if the application requires,<br />

concrete strength, taking the composition into<br />

account.<br />

Inside a solid element the speed propagation of<br />

ultrasound depends on the compactness; the<br />

more the compactness is higher, the medium<br />

propagation speed will approach the<br />

corresponding value of a perfect compact body,<br />

and the higher the goals volume is the greater<br />

speed drops. In a concrete element, the<br />

propagation velocity of longitudinal ultrasound<br />

is determinate by measuring the travel time (t)<br />

of the ultrasonic pulse on the propagation<br />

length (d), it results the relation (5):<br />

V L = d / t (5)<br />

As the concrete strength is directly related to its<br />

compactness, the propagation velocity of<br />

ultrasound though concrete can give a measure<br />

of its resistance RC and can establish a relation<br />

of the <strong>for</strong>m (6):<br />

(6)<br />

There<strong>for</strong>e, using ultrasound we can detect and<br />

locate some internal defects of concrete, such<br />

as segregation areas, goals, etc. The devices <strong>for</strong><br />

determining the propagation velocity of<br />

ultrasound in concrete there are several types,<br />

but the operating principle is the same. So an<br />

ultrasonic signal with frequency 40-100 kHz is<br />

produced by a pulse generator (G). The signal<br />

is sent to a transmitter (E), into contact with the<br />

test item. The transmitter is placed in contact<br />

with the concrete piece though a thin layer of<br />

soft material. The ultrasonic signal is received<br />

by a receiver (R), then it is amplified (A)and<br />

then viewed analogue or digital (C) (Figure 2<br />

and Figure 3).<br />

Figure 2. The principle of ultrasonic measuring<br />

Figure 3. Measuring on the same side<br />

The propagation velocity calculated with the<br />

relation V L =d/t is valuable if only (7):<br />

when:<br />

d > 1,6λ (7)<br />

d – is the minimum dimension of attempt<br />

element, perpendicular on the propagation<br />

direction of ultrasounds.<br />

λ – the wavelength of vibration which is<br />

calculated with the relation (8):<br />

λ = V L /f (8)<br />

111


in witch:<br />

V L – is the propagation velocity,<br />

f – the frequency oscillations.<br />

The transverse dimension of the element<br />

(direction on which determination is made) in<br />

our case is less or more than 16 cm is not<br />

necessary any correction.<br />

If λ < d < 1,6λ disturbances occur that distort<br />

the measured speed, so it is less real then<br />

about 6-7% which can lead to an error in<br />

assessing resistance minus 30-40%.<br />

If the ratio L S / Le < 0,4 , where Ls is the<br />

cube side on which were made <strong>for</strong> calibration<br />

measurements(our case LS=16cm) and Le is<br />

the length of journey ultrasonic signal, the<br />

measured speed is lower than the standard<br />

rate and a correction must be made. The chart<br />

below gives the correction values <strong>for</strong> different<br />

ratios Ls/Le (Figure 4).<br />

Figure 4. Variation of the propagation velocity of ultrasound by LS/Le<br />

The ambient temperature in which it is the<br />

attempt element also influences the ultrasonic<br />

pulse propagation velocity. Thus, at<br />

temperatures ranging from +4 0 C and +6 0 C it is<br />

being produced cracks of the concrete, which<br />

although not lead to a decrease in resistance,<br />

they decrease the velocity pulse. At<br />

temperatures below 0 0 C the free water in the<br />

concrete pores freezes and the propagation<br />

velocity in ice is higher than the speed in water,<br />

which makes the measured speed to be higher<br />

than of concrete located at standard<br />

temperature (+20±50C). All these corrections<br />

are detailed in technical instrumentation of<br />

measurement devices and regulations<br />

(Budescu, 2011).<br />

For distructive test the test samples should be<br />

in prisms in accordance with EN 12390-1. The<br />

test samples molded into patterns must con<strong>for</strong>m<br />

to EN 12350-1 and EN 12390-2 it must be<br />

identified on test samples the mold direction.<br />

The cut test samples, which are fulfilling the<br />

requirements of EN-12390-1 can also be tried.<br />

The test samples should examine any observed<br />

irregularities and must register.<br />

It is cleaned all surfaces of the machines and<br />

removing the bearing free particles or other<br />

112<br />

materials on the test samples surfaces which<br />

will be in contact with rollers.<br />

Figure 5. Bending test diagram<br />

For the test samples stored in water, it is<br />

removed the excess moisture from the surface<br />

of the test samples be<strong>for</strong>e placing them on the<br />

test drive.


It is being placed the test samples on the<br />

machine, it is being focused correctly and with<br />

the longitudinal axis of the test sample at right<br />

angles to the longitudinal axis of the upper and<br />

lower rollers. It is being ensured that the<br />

reference test perpendicular to the direction of<br />

casting of the test sample (Figure 5).<br />

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS<br />

For determination of the rebound parameter<br />

using the Digi Schmidt sclerometer, was used a<br />

concrete prism with class C16/20, with<br />

dimensions 150X150X600 mm.The test areas,<br />

in number of 4, where chosen on <strong>for</strong>mwork<br />

surfaces of the element. The test results are as<br />

follows (Tabel 1):<br />

Figure 7. Determination of the propagation velocity of<br />

ultrasound<br />

Tabel 1. Test result using the Digi Schmidt sclerometer<br />

Încercarea<br />

nr.<br />

1 2 3 4<br />

min 43 45 34 41<br />

max 50 49 39 47<br />

S 2,4 1,6 1,7 2<br />

x̅ 46,1R 47,1R 36,3R 44,9R<br />

t [N/mm 2 ] 54,2 56,2 35,7 51,8<br />

To determine the propagation velocity of<br />

ultrasonic waves thought concrete using Pundit<br />

Lab concrete device, it was used a concrete<br />

prism with dimensions 150X150X600 mm<br />

(Fig. 6). Four test areas at a distance of 15 cm<br />

where chosen on <strong>for</strong>mwork faces. Test results<br />

are presented in Figure 7 and Figure 8.<br />

Figure 8. Determination of the propagation time of<br />

ultrasound<br />

For determination of resistance to bending, we<br />

used a concrete prism sized 150x150x600 mm.<br />

We chose a constant speed of constant ef<strong>for</strong>t in<br />

implementing of 0.04 MPa/s (N/mm 2 .s) up to<br />

0.06 MPa/s (N/mm 2 .s). After applying the<br />

initial load, which shouldn’t exceed 20% of the<br />

breaking load is applied the load on test<br />

samples, without shock is growing, at selected<br />

constant speed + - 10% until it can’t support a<br />

higher load. The result of measurement are<br />

emphasized in Figure 8 and Figure 9.<br />

Figure 6. Making determinations on the concrete prisms<br />

113


Figure 9. Bend testing on universal press SERVO PLUS Evolution<br />

Figure 10. Showed results on central display unit<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

By the obtained results it was demonstrated<br />

that the measurements efficacy made with Digi<br />

Schmidt Sclerometer, <strong>for</strong> determination of<br />

rebound parameter, with the Pundit Lab<br />

ultrasonic concrete device <strong>for</strong> propagation<br />

velocity of waves though the concrete prism.<br />

Also the theoretical <strong>for</strong>mulas were validated<br />

with the results obtained by non-destructive<br />

methods also by trying to bend on universal<br />

press which has a maximum load capacity of<br />

up to 250kN (Dragomir, 2013).<br />

REFERENCES<br />

C. S. Dragomir, 2013. Rein<strong>for</strong>ced Concrete. Laboratory<br />

notes, University of Agronomic Science and veterinary<br />

Medicine, Land Reclamation and Environmental<br />

Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Domain.<br />

D.F. Vacarescu 2011. Strenght of materials I.<br />

Fundamental elements. (In Romanian).<br />

M. Budescu, 2011. Methods and techniques of research<br />

in the field. Research planning. Training on<br />

equipment/Software per<strong>for</strong>mance. Systems and<br />

equipment <strong>for</strong> the diagnosis of construction structures. p.<br />

2-9 (In Romanian).<br />

Standard <strong>for</strong> concrete by non-destructive methods test.<br />

C26-85.<br />

114


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

Abstract<br />

JUDGING CRITERIA FOR WATER BODIES STATUS<br />

IN ROSCI 0226 – SEMENIC CHEILE CARAŞULUI SITE<br />

Cristina ILIE, Iulian Zoltan BOBOESCU, Diana ANDREI<br />

University „Politehnica” of Timisoara<br />

The paper analyzes the status of the water bodies in ROSCI 0226 site-Semenic Cheile Carasului. The analysis was<br />

per<strong>for</strong>med according to the criteria <strong>for</strong> assessing the status of water bodies specified by Water Framework Directive<br />

2000/60/EC.<br />

Key Words: Improving water, ecological status<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Improving water status is an important factor in<br />

areas proposed <strong>for</strong> the protection of habitats or<br />

species. Law no. 49/2011 on the regime of<br />

protected natural habitats, flora and fauna<br />

represent the most current Romanian legislation<br />

transposing Directive 92/43/EEC, relating to<br />

this problem .<br />

ROSCI 0226 - Semenic Cheile Carasului was<br />

designated on 02.07.2008 as site of community<br />

importance, part of European ecological<br />

network Natura 2000.<br />

This site is situated in south-west of the<br />

country, Caras-Severin county south, south-est<br />

of Resita town and along with ROSPA 0086<br />

Semenic Mountains -Cheile Carasului site of<br />

National Park Semenic -Cheile Carasului .<br />

Geographically, the site is located at 48°8'7'' N<br />

latitude, 21°25'34'' E longitude and stretches on<br />

a surface of 37729.79 ha. Minimum altitude is<br />

105 m, and maximum altitude 1445 m, also<br />

average altitude is 816 m. (Figure 1).<br />

Figure 1 The geographic position of ROSCI0226 –<br />

Semenic Cheile Carasului site<br />

corresponding to ROSCI0226 – Semenic<br />

Cheile Carasului site is complex, including<br />

both surface water courses and underground<br />

courses. The most important rivers are Timis,<br />

Caras, Barzava, Nera, Semenic, Trei Ape<br />

reservoire, Gozna reservoire. The hydrographic<br />

network in limestone is disorganized with<br />

numerous catchments and emergement's.<br />

Analysis of water bodies<br />

a. Ecological status – biologic elements –<br />

phytoplankton – Rivers.<br />

To assess the status of water bodies by<br />

phytoplankton, 5 indexes were selected <strong>for</strong> lotic<br />

systems, to which a list of corresponding<br />

species was added.<br />

The ranges size <strong>for</strong> the ecological status was<br />

determined on a statistical basis of quality<br />

classes. The limits among ecological status<br />

were established by reference conditions<br />

method. Twenty types of rivers limitswere<br />

established. For unsteady river courses values<br />

were not proposed. In some cases, where data<br />

was not sufficient, we resorted to proposal<br />

values via aggregation of types, by realization<br />

of an average between the adjacent types or<br />

substitution. For every type of river course<br />

guideline values <strong>for</strong> referencestate were<br />

proposed.<br />

As a first step of the quality evaluation of lotic<br />

aquatic systems (rivers) were selected the<br />

following indices:<br />

• Saprobity index<br />

• Clorophyl concentration<br />

115


• Simpson diversity index<br />

• Taxon number<br />

• Numerical abundance<br />

(Bacillariophyceae)<br />

• Species list<br />

b. Ecological Status – biological elements –<br />

macro invertebrates benthic – Rivers.<br />

The evaluation of water bodies on the basis<br />

of macroinvertebrates communities is<br />

per<strong>for</strong>med upon the list of species from a<br />

station and calculation of<br />

every one of the 7 proposed indexes.<br />

1. Saprobity index(IS)<br />

2. EPT_I index ( individuals) (IEPT_I)<br />

3. Shannon-Wiener index (ISH)<br />

4. Number of families (FAM)<br />

5. OCH index (Oligochaeta-Chironomidae)<br />

(IOCH/O)<br />

6. Functional group index (IGH)<br />

7. Water cours preference index (reofil 7.A<br />

orlimnofil 7.B) (REO/LIM).<br />

c. Ecological status – biological elements –<br />

fish fauna – Rivers<br />

For evaluating and classifying water bodies on<br />

the basis of fish fauna EFI+ method was used.<br />

To achieve this index over 10 000 cases were<br />

processed in most EU countries. There have<br />

been considered 254 fish species which were<br />

grouped in 15 categories of guilds, every one<br />

having between 3 and 7 groups of species. Data<br />

was processed using fish typology<br />

model resulted from FAME project.<br />

The selected matrices <strong>for</strong> EFI+ are:<br />

• salmonid water bodies<br />

• Cyprinid water bodies<br />

Field collected data were registered on a sheet<br />

which permits data processing through<br />

automated software and contributes to achieve<br />

a national data base.<br />

d. Ecological status – hydro<br />

morphologicalelements – Rivers<br />

Hydromorphological elements used to assess<br />

the status of water bodies are:<br />

• Discharge<br />

• Connectivity with underground water<br />

bodies<br />

• Continuity of river flow<br />

Morphological parameters<br />

• River depth and width variation<br />

• Cross section modification<br />

• Alteration of reduction coefficient –<br />

major riverbed<br />

• Major riverbed bed structure and<br />

substrate<br />

• Structure and substrate of riverbed bed<br />

• Riveran area structure<br />

e. Ecological status – physic-chemical<br />

elements: general physic-chemical elements<br />

Rivers<br />

For assessing ecological status the following<br />

physic-chemical elements were taken into<br />

account:<br />

Thermo conditions water temperature<br />

In order to evaluate the ecological status<br />

temperature limits <strong>for</strong> the following surface<br />

water types are defined: salmonid water,<br />

cyprinid waters.<br />

Acidification status – pH<br />

Ecological status data, <strong>for</strong> assessment, are<br />

obtained by analysis of pH indicator, P90<br />

percentile is calculated <strong>for</strong> a number of 12<br />

measurements a year.<br />

Oxygen regime – dissolved oxygen in<br />

concentration terms<br />

Data is obtained on the basis of analysis made<br />

on dissolved oxygen indicator, P10 percentile is<br />

calculated <strong>for</strong> a number of 12 measurements<br />

per year.<br />

Nutrients – N-NH 4 , N-NO 2 , N-NO 3 , P-PO 3 , P t<br />

f. Ecological status – physic chemical<br />

elements: specific pollutants<br />

An analysis of synthetic and non-synthetic<br />

pollutants (organic and metals) is per<strong>for</strong>med <strong>for</strong><br />

surface waters – natural bodies, artificial water<br />

bodies, as well <strong>for</strong> heavily modified water<br />

courses.<br />

For this, a few steps must be made: use the<br />

monitoring software which ensures minum 12<br />

of concentration values per year <strong>for</strong> the<br />

followed substances; calculate the yearly<br />

average, which is the arithmetic average, then<br />

the yeraly average is evaluated in relation to<br />

limit values which delimitates the 3 ecological<br />

states, namely: very good status, good status,<br />

116


moderate status.<br />

For evaluating of the chemical status of<br />

hazardous and priority hazardous substances,<br />

both synthetic (organic) and non-sinthethic<br />

(metals), <strong>for</strong> surface water bodies (rivers,<br />

natural lakes, ponds) – natural bodies and<br />

modified bodies (modified in terms of hydro<br />

morphological) the specific software is run –<br />

which must ensure a minimum 12<br />

concentration values per year <strong>for</strong> every<br />

followed chemical substance. Every primary<br />

statistical monitored parameter of a substance<br />

will be calculated/determined especially:<br />

- Yearly average concentration<br />

(arithmeticaverage);<br />

- Yearly maximum concentration of those<br />

substances that EQS are provided <strong>for</strong> that<br />

value.<br />

Case study- ROSCI 0226 Semenic Cheile<br />

Caraşului site<br />

In this study, the ecological status/ecological<br />

potential as to chemical status of surface water<br />

bodies was determined on a number of 14 river<br />

water bodies (of which 13 natural water bodies<br />

and one heavily modified water bodies).(Figure<br />

2).<br />

Station<br />

RORW5.2.2_ Semenic<br />

(Păroasa)-B1<br />

Table 1 Grade on sections corresponding to water bodies<br />

density<br />

Indicators<br />

Oligo O<br />

117<br />

Figu<br />

re 2<br />

–<br />

Wat<br />

er bodies ROSCI 0226 Semenic Cheile Caraşului site<br />

Average indicators <strong>for</strong> macrozoobentos<br />

Indicatoes<br />

beta β<br />

Indicators alfa<br />

α<br />

Indicatorspoli<br />

p<br />

Index<br />

Saprob<br />

Grade<br />

1,83 0,75 2,71 11,00 0,00 0,50 Very Good<br />

RORW5.2.38.1_B (Secul) 1,99 0,74 2,43 7,00 0,00 0,53 Good<br />

Gozna-RORW5.2.38.a_B1 1,40 0,59 2,78 20,00 0,05 0,41 Very Good<br />

Bârzava - am. Ac. Gozna-<br />

RORW5.2.38_B1<br />

TIMIŞ - izvoare-Ac. Trei<br />

Ape-RORW5.2_B1<br />

1,89 0,79 2,77 13,00 0,00 0,47 Very Good<br />

1,40 0,59 2,78 20,00 0,05 0,41<br />

Dognecea-RORW5.3.5_B1 2,03 0,71 2,43 7,50 0,00 0,53<br />

Very<br />

Good<br />

Very Good<br />

RW5.3.6_B1 (Jitin) 1,93 0,67 2,72 11,67 0,03 0,51 Very Good<br />

RW5.3.6a_B1 (Nandraş) 2,25 0,00 1,58 6,00 0,00 0,10 Good<br />

RW5.3_B1 (CARAŞ - Izv. -<br />

cf. Gârlişte + afluenţi) - Loc. 1,99 0,58 2,78 11,00 0,00 0,54 Good<br />

Carasova (MZB)<br />

RW5.3_B1 (CARAŞ - Izv. -<br />

cf. Gârlişte + afluenţi) - 1,86 0,61 2,54 11,67 0,02 0,48 Very Good<br />

Am.cf.Caraş pe râul Gîrlişte<br />

Poneasca – am. Ac. Poneasca<br />

– RORW6.1.7.1_B1<br />

1,89 0,79 2,77 13,00 0,00 0,47 Very Good<br />

Poneasca - av. ac.Poneasca –<br />

RORW6.1.7.1_B2<br />

1,74 0,80 2,77 10,00 0,00 0,42 VeryGood<br />

RORW6.1_B1, NERA - Izv.<br />

- cf. Prigor (Putna) + afluenţi<br />

1,94 0,71 2,57 9,50 0,00 0,50 Good


RORW6.1_B1, NERA - Izv.<br />

- cf. Prigor (Putna) + afluenţi<br />

1,79 0,63 2,65 10,00 0,00 0,35 VeryGood<br />

In Table 1 indicator values calculated from<br />

ROSCI 0226 Semenic Cheile Caraşului site are<br />

presented.<br />

In table 1 the results from application of<br />

classical method based on saprobity system<br />

developed by Kolkwitz and Marsson, revised<br />

by Liebmann, which covers a large number of<br />

species that characterizes different grades of<br />

water loading with organic substances .<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

After all interpretation and determinations<br />

per<strong>for</strong>med on monitored sections of water<br />

bodies in ROSCI 0226 Munţii Semenic –<br />

Cheile Caraşului site according to Saprobity<br />

System, the following results were obtained:<br />

Of a total of 14 characteristic sections<br />

corresponding of water bodies of ROSCI 0226<br />

Munţii Semenic – Cheile Caraşului site<br />

2 sections class I<br />

11 sections class II<br />

1 section class III<br />

1 section without monitoring<br />

Of a total of 2 hydrotechnical catchments:<br />

1 hydrotechnical catchment fits<br />

mesothrophycqualityclass according to<br />

eutrophication degree indicators, and pursuan<br />

to physic-chemicalindicators/specific pollutants<br />

in global class I.<br />

1 hydrotechnical catchment fits Eutrophic<br />

quality class according to eutrphicationgrade<br />

indicators<br />

pursuanttophysic-chemic<br />

indicators/specific pollutants in global class I.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

[1] Diana Andrei , 2011. Studiul stării corpurilor de apă<br />

aflate în situl ROSCI 0226-Semenic Cheile Caraşului.<br />

Lucrare de disertaţie . Universitatea “Politehnica” din<br />

Timişoara, Facultatea de Hidrotehnică.<br />

[2] Adrian Carabeţ, Vasile Gherman, Mircea Vişescu,<br />

Iulian Boboescu, 2012. Criterii de apreciere a stării<br />

corpurilor de apă din situl ROSCI 0226-Semenic Cheile<br />

Caraşului. Buletinul Ştiinţific al Universităţii<br />

“Politehnica” din Timişoara, Seria Hidrotehnica,<br />

fascicola 1.<br />

[3] Directiva 2000/60/EC a Parlamentului şi Consiliului<br />

European care stabileşte un cadru de acţiune pentru ţările<br />

din Uniunea Europeană în domeniul politicii apei, 2000.<br />

Jurnalul Oficial al Comunităţii Europene.<br />

[4] Directiva 79/409/CEE privind conservarea păsărilor<br />

sălbatice (Directiva Păsări).<br />

[5] Directivei 92/43/EEC privind conservarea habitatelor<br />

naturale, a florei şi faunei sălbatice(Directiva Habitate).<br />

[6] HG 1284/2007 - actul normativ de desemnare a<br />

ariilor de protecţie specială avifaunistică (SPA) ca parte<br />

integrantă a reţelei Natura 2000.<br />

[7] OM 1964/2007 - actul normativ privind instituirea<br />

regimului de arie naturală protejată a siturilor de<br />

importanţă comunitară (SCI) ca parte integrantă a reţelei<br />

Natura 2000.<br />

[8] Planul de Management al Spaţiului Hidrografic<br />

Banat, 2009 . Direcţia Apelor Banat şi INHGA.<br />

[9] Registrul Zonelor Protejate din Spatiul Hidrografic<br />

Banat, 2011. Administraţia Bazinală de Apă Banat.<br />

[10] Sinteza anuală, 2010 . Administraţia Bazinală de<br />

Apă Banat.<br />

[11] Studiu pentru elaborarea sistemului de clasificare şi<br />

evaluare globală a potenţialului corpurilor de apă<br />

artificiale şi puternic modificate în con<strong>for</strong>mitate cu<br />

prevederile Directivei Cadru , 2008. Institutul Naţional<br />

de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentru Protecţia Mediului,<br />

ICIM Bucureşti.<br />

118


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

Abstract<br />

EXPERIMENTAL MODULAR EQUIPMENT<br />

FOR NUTTY FRUITS HARVESTING<br />

Mihai MIREA<br />

Scientific Coordinator: Conf. dr. ing. Adrian ROŞCA<br />

University of Craiova, Faculty of <strong>Agriculture</strong> and Horticulture, 15, Libertăţii Street, 200404,<br />

Craiova, Romania, Phone: 0251.414.541, Fax : 0251.414.541, adrosca2003@yahoo.com<br />

Corresponding author email: adrosca2003@yahoo.com<br />

The paper presents experimental modular equipment <strong>for</strong> nutty fruits harvesting in any orchard size. The main part of<br />

the equipment consists in pneumatically shock wave generator that realizes short air shock wave that replaces high<br />

velocity wind blast. The described procedure is a non-contact method that determines no damage of the tree trunk/<br />

branches (well-known on tree vibration shaking system). The paper presents the technical possibility to extend this<br />

procedure, with an adequate equipment adaptation <strong>for</strong> nutty fruits harvest in small or larger farms.<br />

Key words: nutty fruits harvesting, pneumatically shock wave, small farms.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Nut harvesting operations have to begin with the<br />

verification of maturity’ degree. The nuts (both<br />

the fruit and the pericarp) gradually reach<br />

maturity and fall. The fall of the nut type fruit is<br />

accelerated by rain, cool nights and wind. The<br />

harvesting has to begin at the moment when the<br />

nut reaches full maturity and has optimal<br />

commercial and alimentary value. Nowadays, in<br />

Romania and in other Eastern European<br />

countries, the harvesting of the nut type fruit is<br />

manually realized. The harvest is obtained by<br />

tree branches shaking with a long stick, method<br />

that to 25 - 30% broken branches, with significant<br />

production decrease <strong>for</strong> the following years.<br />

This harvesting method is considered unproductive,<br />

thus is no longer recommended. (Botu, 2001)<br />

Large plantations should use the mechanized<br />

harvesting method which requires special<br />

machines and very expensive devices consisting<br />

of hydraulic or mechanical shaking vibrators.<br />

Depending on the size and productivity, these<br />

kinds of specialized machines are very expensive.<br />

Such a harvesting system is efficient only <strong>for</strong><br />

nut or hazelnut plantations of 40 ÷ 60 hectares.<br />

To harvest middle size orchards with drop<br />

fruits (apples, pears, plums, cherries, walnuts)<br />

Mechanic Rope Shaker Device is used. This<br />

device can be easy assembly at front or rear PTO<br />

on every tractor (power starting from 15HP) with<br />

tree-point linkage category 1 (Figure 1). Compared<br />

to the conventional ladder principle, tree shaking is<br />

more than 50% faster when using the patented<br />

telescopic handle <strong>for</strong> fixing the rope onto a branch.<br />

Figure 1. Mechanic rope shaker device<br />

A Multi Purpose Orchard Shaker Power Plant is<br />

well-known <strong>for</strong> large orchards fruits harvest.<br />

(United States Patent; Patent Nr.: 5 .247.787)<br />

This harvesting machine <strong>for</strong> nuts and stone fruits<br />

includes an articulated body with a front part<br />

and a back part. A tree shaker head is detachable<br />

and couples to the front part of the harvesting<br />

machine by a C - frame mount. The articulated<br />

body with a low clearance provides necessary<br />

maneuverability in an orchard environment,<br />

while permitting the harvesting machine with the<br />

shaker head detached, to function as a general<br />

purpose orchard machine <strong>for</strong> mowing, spraying,<br />

brush clearing and other associated tasks. Specialized<br />

machinery <strong>for</strong> these tasks is no longer necessary.<br />

Actual machines or modular equipment <strong>for</strong> large<br />

orchard fruits harvesting are based on this patent.<br />

119


For middle size orchards cider fruits, <strong>for</strong> small rows<br />

upper 4m, or small trees, a Hydraulic Trunk Shaker<br />

is recommended (www. Feucht - obsttechnik.de).<br />

This modular equipment can be mounted on any<br />

tractor with minimum power 50HP (Figure 2).<br />

Its easy handling is based on his small weight and<br />

big clamps with 180 0 grippers revolving and<br />

maximum operational diameter up to 220mm; no<br />

protection insurance of the trunk’ surface is<br />

necessary; small shaking moment on tree-ground.<br />

(www. Feucht - obsttechnik.de)<br />

For larger orchards is recommended Hydraulic<br />

Telescopic Shaker (Figure 4). To operate this<br />

modular equipment a tractor with minimum<br />

power 60HP is necessary. Suspended by 4<br />

chains, the shaker head is independent from the<br />

tractor’ frame; the omnidirectional vibration<br />

masses are driven by two hydraulic engines<br />

which offers a full dynamism at the starting up.<br />

The telescopic shaker drives straight down the<br />

tree row shaking each tree as it goes, this<br />

provides more efficiency and avoids damaging<br />

the field. (www. Feucht - obsttechnik.de)<br />

Figure 2. Hydraulic Trunk Shaker<br />

For middle or large size orchards a Hydraulic<br />

trunk shaker <strong>for</strong> half standard trees (Figure 3) is<br />

widely recommended. To operate this modular<br />

equipment minimum tractor power 60HP is<br />

necessary. Suspended by 2 chains, the shaker<br />

head is independent from the tractor frame; two<br />

support points of the shaker head are mounted<br />

on a parallelogram so it reaches a maximum<br />

2,5m swerve; the tightening of the tree’s trunk<br />

can be modified from 0,3m to 1,3m high; Due<br />

to very low amplitude vibration movement,<br />

young trees shaking is possible, and the shaker<br />

head protect the trees and their roots. It is<br />

possible to shake trees with a wide range of<br />

diameter, the adjustment being done by the<br />

operator, depending on orchard specifications<br />

(www. Feucht - obsttechnik.de).<br />

Figure 3. Hydraulic trunk shaker <strong>for</strong> half standard trees<br />

120<br />

Figure 4. Hydraulic Telescopic Shaker<br />

For each modular equipment or specialized<br />

machine described above, a harvester umbrella<br />

must be a necessary accessory (Figure 5). (www.<br />

Feucht - obsttechnik.de)<br />

Figure 5. Umbrella harvester with shaker<br />

During harvesting with these machines, the<br />

vibrations cause severe damage to the roots of the<br />

tree, and the scratching of the tree trunk causes<br />

the premature drying of the tree. (Botu, 2001)<br />

An important role in nuts harvest is held by<br />

wind action, whose intensity determines the<br />

falling of the nuts. (Botu, 2001)<br />

Unconventional and ecological experimental<br />

equipment Modular Equipment <strong>for</strong> Nuts<br />

Harvesting by Pneumatic Impulses – MEHPI<br />

was designed and made. The prototype tests<br />

proved that this experimental equipment can<br />

replace the effect of strong winds blasts, with<br />

orientated air shock waves (Figure 6).<br />

This equipment realizes nuts harvest by branches<br />

shaking with no direct contact with the tree.<br />

MEHPI is mounted on a rigid metallic support


placed on the front side of a tractor U650M,<br />

that permits operator’ to control and to correct<br />

the tractor’s position to the trees that must be<br />

harvested. The MEHPI’s main operational<br />

component is represented by 4 pneumatic<br />

impulses device (PID), whose relative direction<br />

can be modified according to tree’s branches<br />

position.(Roşca, 2003)<br />

2<br />

2<br />

k p v0<br />

k po<br />

, (1)<br />

v<br />

2<br />

k 1 <br />

2<br />

k 1<br />

<br />

where p o and ρ o are the initial parameter of<br />

the gas; p and ρ are the final parameter of<br />

the gas; k is the adiabatic coefficient; v o is the<br />

initial gas velocity (in the storage vessel v o = 0).<br />

When the compressed gas is discharged from a<br />

storing vessel (initial parameter p o , ρ o , T o )<br />

through a nozzle in the atmosphere (final<br />

parameter p at , ρ at , T at ), the gas velocity is obtained<br />

with relation:<br />

o<br />

Figure 6. Modular Equipment <strong>for</strong> Nuts Harvesting<br />

by Pneumatic Impulses - MEHPI<br />

In principle, each PID consists in 8dm 3 capacity<br />

vessel with a special fast pneumatic valve due to<br />

the compressed air (initially stocked in the<br />

vessel) is discharged in sonic velocity range.<br />

The PID operation needs 3…10bar compressed<br />

air supply source (tractor's compressor or<br />

supplementary compressor <strong>for</strong> pressure supply<br />

up to 10bar).(Roşca, 2003; Roşca et Roşca,<br />

2005; Roşca et al., 2006)<br />

MATERIAL AND METHOD<br />

PID equipment operation, usually called air<br />

cannon / air blaster, is based on the effect of the<br />

compressed gas wave shock discharged with<br />

high velocity from a storage vessel.(Big Blaster<br />

- Martin Engineering; Airchoc - Standard Industrie)<br />

During this fast process, the gas flow has high<br />

rate pressure variation; there<strong>for</strong>e there is no<br />

heat exchange with the outside environment,<br />

and the flow process is considered adiabatic.<br />

For compressible fluids, the Bernoulli equation<br />

<strong>for</strong> adiabatic process is (Roşca et Roşca, 2005;<br />

Roşca et al., 2006; Roşca et Roşca, 2009):<br />

121<br />

<br />

2k po<br />

p<br />

v 1<br />

<br />

k 1 o<br />

p<br />

<br />

<br />

at<br />

o<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

k1<br />

k<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

1 / 2<br />

(2)<br />

Because the ratio value (p at / p o < 0,5283), in the<br />

minimum cross section of the convergent<br />

nozzle the critical regime is realized.<br />

In critical regime, the maximum flow passing<br />

through the cross section Q max is obtained, and<br />

can be determined with relation (Roşca et<br />

Roşca, 2005; Roşca et Roşca, 2009):<br />

Q<br />

max<br />

0,04042 S<br />

p<br />

p<br />

o<br />

/ T<br />

o<br />

(3)<br />

where S p is cross section area of the convergent<br />

nozzle (the convergent nozzle/pipe D p = 44mm).<br />

For the experimental equipment presented in this<br />

paper, it was considered the initial and the final<br />

parameters of the compressed air: p o = 2 - 5 bar;<br />

p at = 1 bar; T o = T at = 293°K; k = 1,4.<br />

The velocity of the discharged pressured air<br />

v disc from the storing vessel, and the maximum<br />

flow Q max passing through the cross section are<br />

given in Table 1.<br />

Table 1. Velocity and maximum flow<br />

of the discharged air<br />

p o<br />

[bar]<br />

ρ o<br />

[kg/m 3 ]<br />

v disc [m/s] Q max<br />

[kg/s]<br />

2 2,84 340,2 0,914<br />

3 3,42 365,8 1,010<br />

4 4,53 407,6 1,364<br />

5 5,72 436,7 1,709<br />

For the experimental equipment presented in this<br />

paper, four vessel capacity (C v = 5, 6, 7, 10 dm 3 )<br />

were considered.<br />

Knowing the compressed air mass in the storage<br />

vessel m vo = C v · ρ o , with Q max values given in<br />

table 1, the vessel’s discharging time values<br />

(t disc = 14,3…27,2ms) confirm the high velocity<br />

impulsive phenomenon.


The theoretical considerations concerning the<br />

gas discharge from the stocking vessel take into<br />

account the similitude with the flow process<br />

into round free jet.<br />

This free jet is a gas current that freely<br />

penetrates (with small friction <strong>for</strong>ces restriction)<br />

into an environment with the same or different gas.<br />

The jet's range is the distance where the kinetic<br />

energy of gas is not greater then the viscosity<br />

<strong>for</strong>ces and no more swirling flow occur.(Roşca<br />

et Roşca, 2005; Roşca et al., 2006; Roşca et<br />

Roşca, 2009)<br />

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of<br />

characteristic dimensions of the round free jet<br />

permit to determine the main dimensional<br />

parameters of convergent - divergent nozzle that<br />

is orientated to tree’s branches: α - angle of jet<br />

action; x lim - jet range; R gr - jet radius (Figure 7).<br />

Figure 7. Circular jet geometry<br />

The circular jet’s characteristic dimensions are:<br />

initial velocity v o ; shape and diameter of the<br />

initial discharge nozzle d o ; length of the initial<br />

zone x o ; jet range x lim ; convergence angle of the<br />

initial zone α o ; the enlarging jet border angle α;<br />

gas flow in initial section Q o ; jet pole b; jet<br />

radius R gr . The initial section of the discharging<br />

nozzle is the circular section in which the<br />

medium velocity of the jet is realized (the<br />

environment velocity v env can be equal to zero,<br />

bigger or smaller than v o ; <strong>for</strong> v env = 0, the jet is<br />

considered to be free).<br />

The velocity in the jet's axe v x depends on the<br />

initial velocity v o and by the distance: <strong>for</strong> x <<br />

x o , the velocity v x = v o ; <strong>for</strong> x > x o the velocity v x<br />

depends of distance x.<br />

122<br />

The velocity in the transversal jet section v y is<br />

the velocity at distance x and at the level y; this<br />

velocity depends by the velocity v x and level y,<br />

according relation (Roşca et al., 2006; Roşca et<br />

Roşca, 2008; Roşca et Roşca, 2009):<br />

<br />

<br />

<br />

3 / 2 <br />

v y / vo 1<br />

y / Rgr<br />

<br />

, (4)<br />

<br />

where R gr is the jet’s radius limit <strong>for</strong> x > x o .<br />

Due to the symmetric axial jet law, the impulse<br />

has the same value in any section.<br />

Using the notation v y the velocity in a certain<br />

point, the impulse I, and m o the masse passing<br />

through an elementary surface of the jet’s<br />

section in the unit of time, it is obtained:<br />

I<br />

Rgr<br />

2<br />

2 2<br />

2<br />

v<br />

o y<br />

ydy ovo<br />

Ro<br />

<br />

, (5)<br />

where the jet’s radius limit R gr is obtained with<br />

relation:<br />

gr o o x<br />

<br />

<br />

R 3,3 R v / v , (6)<br />

where R o is the jet’s source radius (R o = d o /2).<br />

The medium velocity of jet v m is determined<br />

knowing that the medium flowing velocity in a<br />

section A is obtaining from the continuity equation:<br />

v<br />

2<br />

2<br />

Q/<br />

A Q/(<br />

) . (7)<br />

m<br />

R gr<br />

Because in the initial section the velocity value<br />

is obtained with relation<br />

v<br />

2<br />

Q / A Q /( ),<br />

o R o<br />

using relation (7), it can be obtained<br />

m o x o<br />

<br />

<br />

v / v 0,2 v / v<br />

(8)<br />

According circular jet geometry theory (no gas<br />

viscosity effect and no shock wave effect), <strong>for</strong><br />

initial compressed air pressure p o = 2 - 5 bar, were<br />

obtained theoretical results: medium speed in<br />

the jet transversal section with equivalent values<br />

<strong>for</strong> wind velocity v w = 25 - 60 km/h; jet’s range<br />

x lim = 0,5 - 2,4m; jet border angle α = 50 o - 62 o .<br />

Similar values were obtained by using FEM.<br />

(Năstăsescu, 2005 ;Roşca et al., 2006; Roşca et<br />

Roşca, 2008; Roşca et Roşca, 2009)<br />

An experimental method to determine medium<br />

velocity in the jet transversal section with equivalent<br />

values <strong>for</strong> wind velocity (v wind ), jet’s range (x lim )<br />

and jet border angle (α) was set by using Fastec<br />

Imaging high speed camera.<br />

To determine these parameters, a fine powder<br />

contrast colored was introduced into convergent


nozzle of PID’s fast speed discharge pneumatical<br />

valve. A white panel with 0,1m horizontal and<br />

vertical grids was used.<br />

According to the theoretical values average of<br />

the shock wave velocity, the image capturing<br />

sequence was set <strong>for</strong> 500 fps.<br />

The high speed camera MiDAS 4.0 Express<br />

Control Software start was simultaneous<br />

triggered with the PID’s fast discharge<br />

pneumatical valve. (Roşca et Roşca, 2008;<br />

Roşca et Roşca, 2009)<br />

Shock wave velocity values experimentally<br />

determined were 5…11% smaller then the<br />

values obtained by theoretical method.<br />

These smaller values confirm that due to high<br />

velocity discharge, the gas’ viscosity fast<br />

increasing determines supplementary friction<br />

aerodynamically <strong>for</strong>ces.<br />

pressure redactor that realize low pressure<br />

supplying up to 5 bar.<br />

It must be noticed that during the equipment<br />

testing, due to CO 2 detention, the pressure<br />

redactor was freezing.<br />

Thus, pressured CO 2 supplying device has to be<br />

utilized with special precautions.<br />

There<strong>for</strong>e, <strong>for</strong> safety operation of this modular<br />

equipment, recommended pressured gas supply<br />

device are motocultivator or small tractor end<br />

shaft, and an independent 6 bar moto-compressor.<br />

RESULTS AND DICUSSIONS<br />

Experimental modular equipment <strong>for</strong> nutty fruits<br />

harvesting presented in this paper, consists in a<br />

metallic frame and a pneumatically shock wave<br />

generator (Figure 8).<br />

The metallic frame is special designed to resist<br />

both statically loads during transport and<br />

positioning stages, and during harvest operation<br />

when impulsive dynamical occurred. (Roşca,<br />

2001; Roşca, 2010)<br />

The metallic frame is composed in mobile<br />

carrying device provided with a vertical mobile<br />

support (that permits to set operational position<br />

up to 5m in high) and a horizontal support (that<br />

permits two PID mounting).<br />

For nutty harvest in small farm, the mobility of<br />

the experimental equipment is realized due to<br />

two wheels.<br />

For middle nutty orchards, the metallic frame<br />

can be mounted on a 9-15 HP motocultivator,<br />

or on a small tractor structure. On the metallic<br />

frame can be mounted the pressured gas<br />

supplying device (small motor-compressor or<br />

pressured gas vessel).<br />

Pneumatically shock wave generator realizes<br />

short air shock wave that replaces high velocity<br />

wind blast.<br />

Pneumatically shock wave generator is composed<br />

in: pressured gas supplying device; a modular<br />

compressed gas command circuit; two special PID.<br />

In figure 8 is presented experimental modular<br />

equipment with an independent compressed gas<br />

source consisting in CO 2 pressured vessel, and<br />

123<br />

Figure 8. Experimental modular equipment<br />

<strong>for</strong> nutty fruits harvesting<br />

Modular compressed gas command circuit consists<br />

in a 3/2 pneumatical valve and Φ8 and Φ12<br />

Gilson pipes that realizes the connections<br />

between the compressed gas source and PID.<br />

Rilsan pipe is a versatile plastic material that<br />

supports pressured gas or liquid up to 10 bar, at<br />

temperature up to 90 o C, and it resists in mineral<br />

oil prolonged contact.<br />

To realize the necessary modular functions <strong>for</strong><br />

transport, mounting and maneuverability of the<br />

experimental equipment, all the connections are<br />

realized by using fast connections fittings.<br />

It must be noticed that only this 3/2 pneumatical<br />

valve type is able to command the PID’ in less<br />

then 20ms, thus to realize the fast discharge of<br />

the PID vessel in sonic velocity range.<br />

Previously it was mentioned that in principle,<br />

PID consists in small capacity vessel with a fast


pneumatic valve due to the compressed gas<br />

(initially stocked in the vessel) is discharged in<br />

sonic velocity range.<br />

For experimental equipment described in this<br />

paper, was designed a new PID that consists in<br />

a plastic material small capacity vessel, and a<br />

special fast pneumatic valve (FPV).<br />

To increase the maneuverability during harvest<br />

operations, this experimental equipment needs<br />

lighter weighting of the compressed gas vessel.<br />

There are well-known the mineral uncarbonated<br />

water bottles made in PET.<br />

An innovative idea presented in this paper<br />

consists to recover and to recycle any type of<br />

mineral water bottles, to be used as compressed<br />

gas storage vessel <strong>for</strong> this experimental<br />

equipment PID.<br />

During the tests, four vessel capacity (5, 6, 7,<br />

10 dm 3 ) were pressurized to determine the<br />

maximum pressure and maximum cycles filling<br />

that can be supported.<br />

According to the wall thickness, bottle shape<br />

and producer’ PET specifications, there are<br />

types of bottles that resist up to 9bar, and more<br />

than 200 cycles with compressed air filling.<br />

During the harvest operations, the bottles are<br />

protected by a metallic light panel (Figure 8).<br />

To increase the maneuverability during harvest<br />

operations, a special fast pneumatic valve (FPV)<br />

was realized.<br />

The special FPV permits both compressed air<br />

storage into the vessel, and fast discharge from<br />

the vessel when 3/2 pneumatical valve is actuated.<br />

During the season this experimental equipment<br />

was made, no fruits harvest is possible.<br />

There<strong>for</strong>e, the functional tests were per<strong>for</strong>med<br />

indoor.<br />

During these tests, the special PID made <strong>for</strong> this<br />

experimental equipment worked with identical<br />

per<strong>for</strong>mances with MEHPI’ PID, confirming<br />

the correctness of the new technical design.<br />

CONCLUSIONS<br />

Experimental modular equipment <strong>for</strong> nutty fruits<br />

harvesting presented in this paper, in principle<br />

consists in a pneumatically shock wave generator<br />

that replaces high velocity wind blast.<br />

This procedure is a non-contact method that<br />

determines no damage of the tree’ trunk and<br />

branches (well-known on tree when vibration<br />

shaking harvest systems are used).<br />

Another innovative idea presented in this paper<br />

consists to recover and to recycle any type of<br />

mineral water bottles, to be used as compressed<br />

gas storage vessel <strong>for</strong> this experimental<br />

equipment PID.<br />

During nutty fruits harvest season, further tests<br />

are necessary to optimize the operational<br />

per<strong>for</strong>mances of the experimental modular<br />

equipment. Experimental modular equipment<br />

was special designed to be used <strong>for</strong> nutty fruits<br />

harvesting in small and middle orchards farms.<br />

REFERENCES<br />

Botu I., 2001. Modern walnut plantation. Phoenix Publisher<br />

House, Braşov.<br />

Năstăsescu V., 2005. Finite Element Method. Military<br />

Academy Publisher House, Bucharest.<br />

Roşca A., 2001. Metals De<strong>for</strong>mability De<strong>for</strong>med by<br />

Pneumatically Shock Waves, ICMET Craiova Publishing<br />

House, ISBN 973-85113-1-3, 23-34.<br />

Roşca A., 2003. Research concerning an ecological and<br />

unconventional method <strong>for</strong> nut type fruit harvesting,<br />

Research Grant financed by the Romanian Ministry of<br />

Education and Research (CNCSIS).<br />

Roşca A., Roşca D. 2005. Modular equipment <strong>for</strong> walnut<br />

and hazelnut trees shake harvesting. Annals of University of<br />

Craiova, Biology, Horticulture, Food Industry, <strong>Agriculture</strong><br />

Environmental Engineering Series, Vol. X (XLVI), 123-126.<br />

Roşca A. 2005. Research concerning an ecological and<br />

unconventional method <strong>for</strong> nut type fruit harvesting,<br />

Final Synthesis Research Grant (CNCSIS 732/2003).<br />

Roşca A., Roşca D., Năstăsescu V., 2006. Contributions on<br />

new ecological fruit harvesting method using pressured<br />

gases shock waves, Advanced Technologies Research -<br />

Development - Applications. Advanced Robotic System<br />

International, Pro Literatur Verlag, Mammendorf, Germany,<br />

ISBN 3-86611-197-5, 737-744.<br />

Roşca A., Roşca D., 2008. Consideration concerning<br />

compressed air shock waves applications in environment<br />

engineering. 3rd IASME-WSEAS International Conference<br />

on Continuum Mechanics, Cambridge, UK, Proceedings<br />

ISBN 978-960-6766-38-1, 42-47.<br />

Roşca A., Roşca D., 2009. Shock wave velocity analyze<br />

of modular equipment <strong>for</strong> nuts trees shake-harvesting.<br />

The 3rd International Conference on Computational<br />

Mechanics and Virtual Engineering COMEC 2009, 29- 30<br />

October 2009, Brasov, Romania, ISBN 978 – 973 - 598-<br />

572-1, 637-642.<br />

Roşca A., 2010. Mechanics. Materials Strength. Machines<br />

Elements. Universitaria Publishing House, Craiova.<br />

Multi -Purpose Orchard Shaker / Power Plant. United<br />

States Patent; Patent Number: 5.247.787/Sept. 28, 1993.<br />

www. Feucht-obsttechnik.de<br />

www. Martin Engineering - Big Blaster.<br />

www. Standard Industrie - Airchoc.<br />

124


Journal of Young Scientist. Volume I, 2013<br />

Abstract<br />

EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT FOR BULK GRAIN<br />

AERATION IN SMALL FARMS<br />

Nicolae OLARU<br />

Scientific Coordinator: Conf. dr. ing. Adrian ROŞCA<br />

University of Craiova, Faculty of <strong>Agriculture</strong> and Horticulture, 15, Libertăţii Street, 200404,<br />

Craiova, Romania, Phone: 0251.414.541, Fax: 0251.414.541, adrosca2003@yahoo.com<br />

Corresponding author email: adrosca2003@yahoo.com<br />

The paper presents experimental equipment <strong>for</strong> bulk grain aeration in small farms. The operation of this equipment is<br />

based on the kinetically energy produced by pneumatically shock wave. The pneumatically shock waves are produced<br />

by short impulses that are discharged into the bulk grain. Due to the impulse sonic velocity the wave energy is able to<br />

move large bulk grain quantity, and to realize the bulk material aeration, too. The paper presents the technical<br />

possibility to extend this procedure, with adequate equipment <strong>for</strong> bulk grain aeration in small or larger farms.<br />

Key words: aeration, bulk grain, equipment, pneumatically shock wave, small farms.<br />

INTRODUCTION<br />

Actual preventive method <strong>for</strong> pest and insects<br />

control consists in environmental conditions<br />

monitoring (temperature, humidity, chemical and<br />

biological conditions) inlet silos bulk grains, to<br />

combat or interrupt the biologic cycle of pest/<br />

insects. For medium or longer period of grains’<br />

storage in silos, usual method recommends more<br />

often energicaly manual or mechanical aeration<br />

realized by spooner equipment. Due to the<br />

intensive impact and friction phenomena<br />

between grain particles during mechanical<br />

spooner, the sensible life stage of insects (eggs,<br />

larva) are almost inactivated or killed. In the<br />

same time, during the mechanical spooner the<br />

bulk grain a short natural ventilation is realized.<br />

The traditional method <strong>for</strong> bulk grain ventilation<br />

stored into large silos in larger farms is<br />

based on artificial ventilation, but no mechanical<br />

spooner is possible. (Banu, 2001; Rosca, 2010)<br />

Many years ago, in USA and west European<br />

countries, to prevent any problem in bulk<br />

materials stored in bunker or silos, discharging<br />

equipment (technical and commercial well-known<br />

as Air Cannon, or Big Blaster), were used. (Big<br />

Blaster - Martin Engineering; Airchoc - Standard<br />

Industrie). The Big Blaster Air Cannons are<br />

pneumatic systems (Figure 1), bulk material<br />

moving that quickly release compressed air into<br />

a storage vessel to restore flow to material that<br />

is clinging, rat-holing, bridging (a) or arching<br />

125<br />

(b). Air Cannon System consists of one or more air<br />

cannons mounted on the storage vessel. (Martin<br />

Engineering - BIG Blaster M3404 -01/ 08)<br />

a<br />

Figure 1. In bunker bulk material problems solved by<br />

Air Cannons Systems (a - bridging; b -arching)<br />

In Romania there are known several technical<br />

applications <strong>for</strong> solid or powder bulk materials<br />

(large electro-thermal plants, cement plants,<br />

raw materials <strong>for</strong> metallurgy, dust filtering<br />

system <strong>for</strong> belt conveyors), and <strong>for</strong> viscous<br />

materials in food industries (Figure 2). (ICMET<br />

Craiova Catalogue)<br />

There are known research works concerning<br />

the effect of impulsive kinetically energy of the<br />

shock waves on plastic de<strong>for</strong>mation of thin<br />

metallic parts (Roşca, 2001; Roşca et al., 2006),<br />

on metallic bunker stability (Năstăsescu, 2005;<br />

Roşca, 2004; Roşca et al., 2008), and <strong>for</strong> nuts<br />

fruits harvesting (Roşca, 2005; Roşca et al., 2005),<br />

respectively.<br />

b


In principle, FDD is composed 8 dm 3 capacity<br />

storage vessel with a special fast discharge<br />

pneumatic valve (Figure 4).<br />

Figure 4. Fast discharge device<br />

Figure 2. Pneumatic shock wave system on metallic<br />

bunker <strong>for</strong> malt viscous milling in beer plant<br />

MATERIAL AND METHOD<br />

The experimental equipment consists in a fast<br />

discharge device mounted a small bunker wall<br />

(Figure 3). Considering visual / demonstrative<br />

considerations, the bunkers’ walls were made<br />

in transparent high density polypropylene (end<br />

of life use recyclable plastic material).<br />

Figure 3. Experimental equipment <strong>for</strong> bulk grain aeration<br />

in small farms<br />

Be<strong>for</strong>e recycling, the plastic parts were tested to<br />

determine static and impulsive dynamic stability.<br />

In a previous project, experimental equipment<br />

(Modular Equipment <strong>for</strong> Nuts Harvesting by<br />

Pneumatic Impulses - MEHPI) was designed to<br />

replace the effect of the wind blasts, with<br />

orientated air blaster shock waves, which<br />

replace the velocity and orientation of strong<br />

winds. (Roşca, 2005; Roşca et al., 2005). The<br />

main operational component of MEHPI consists<br />

in a fast discharge device (FDD).<br />

The same FDD was used <strong>for</strong> the presented paper.<br />

The FDD operation is based on the effect of the<br />

compressed gas discharge with high velocity<br />

from a storage vessel. During this fast process,<br />

the gas flow is characterized by high rate<br />

pressure variation. There<strong>for</strong>e there is no heat<br />

exchange with the outside environment, and the<br />

flow process can be considered adiabatic.<br />

When the compressed gas is discharged from a<br />

storing vessel (initial parameter p o , ρ o , T o )<br />

through a nozzle in the atmosphere (final<br />

parameter p at , ρ at , T at ), the gas velocity is<br />

determined with relation (Roşca and Roşca, 2008;<br />

Roşca et al., 2010):<br />

1/ 2<br />

⎧<br />

k−1<br />