Energy Efficiency in Buildings - Energy Development in Island Nations

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Energy Efficiency in Buildings - Energy Development in Island Nations

Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Miguel Quinones

Program Specialist, VIEO

Caleb Rockenbaugh

PE, LEED-AP

Mechanical Engineer,

NREL

June 15, 2010

Leading the Caribbean to a sustainable energy future. 60% by 2025


Building Energy Efficiency

Virgin Islands Path to

60% Energy Use Reduction by 2025

How?

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Energy Efficiency Wedge

Energy Use (MWh/yr)

1,400,000

1,200,000

1,000,000

800,000

600,000

400,000

200,000

-

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

RE - RDF /

Biomass

RE - Wind

RE - Solar

Water Use

Large C&I Use EE

Government Use

EE

Commercial Use EE

Residential Use EE

Transmission &

Distribution

Water Generation

Electricity

Generation

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Energy Targets

100%

Yearly Electricity Consumption (MWh)

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

248,227 244,568

Projected

466,909 469,556

Total Residential

Consumption

Total Commercial

Consumption

0%

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009  2010 2,011 2,012 2,013 2,014

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Energy Intensive Building Problems

1. Improper specification for

the humid and corrosive

environment

– HVAC condensers

disintegrate after a few

years

– Unhealthy mold growth

throughout buildings

2. Improper installation

– Unbalanced motors

3. Deferred maintenance

– Stagnant water

– Dirty gutters

– Clogged filters

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Energy Efficiency Opportunities

Commercial:

Retrofits and new housing

developments represent the

largest opportunities.

Residential:

Again retrofits are a valuable

opportunity once the financial

barriers can be overcome.

Even with a receding economy

there is growth in the residential

market.

There are 3 paths to energy efficiency:

1. Behavior modification

2. Energy conservation measures

3. On-site renewable energy generation

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Behavior Modifying Events

Energy cost increases

• Environmental awareness

• Education and training

Energy conservation competitions

• Real-time feedback

• Tiered energy rates

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Bridging the Gap

Energy supply and consumption are sociotechnical in

nature: technology and behavior interact and co-evolve

with each other over time. It is well established that

technical and physical improvements in buildings are not

enough to guarantee reduced energy consumption.

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Building Energy Efficiency

Residential

Other

Appliances and

Lighting

39%

Air-

Conditioning

37%

Large C&I, 26%

Residential, 28%

Refrigerators

9%

Water

Heating

15%

Government,

32%

Commercial,

13%

Office

Equipment

1% Computers

5% Other

10%

Refrigeration

9%

Cooling

28%

Commercial

Cooking

1%

Lighting

32%

Ventilation

11%

Water Heating

3%

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Building Energy Efficiency

700

600

2004 Benchmark

Annual Energy Intensity [kBtu/ft 2 ]

500

400

300

200

100

Large C&I

26%

Government

32%

Residential

28%

Commercial

13%

0

Small Hotel

Large Hotel

Small Office

Medium Office

Large Office

Hospital

Outpatient Care

Primary School

Secondary School

Fast Food Restaurant

Sit Down Restaurant

Supermarket

Retail

Strip Mall

Warehouse

Average

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Building Energy Efficiency

Maximize Energy Efficiency

Optimize Renewable Energy

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Building Energy Efficiency

Keep it simple…which isn’t always easy

Envelope and orientation to reduce loads

– Reflective roofs (suitable for potable water collection) and

high-performance glazing with hurricane proof shading

– Well-insulated roofs and envelope. Selective insulation for

conditioned interior areas

– Seal tight, ventilate right (ASHRAE 55, 62)

Envelope and orientation to meet loads

– Daylighting

– Natural ventilation

– Passive cooling

Lighting design to compliment daylighting, not to replace

plug loads

– Minimization, control, and education

Climate-specific HVAC to offset remaining loads

Recover energy

Commissioning

Metering, Data Collection and Evaluation

Site Specific Renewable Generation – Building, Site, Offsite

Small Amounts of RECs

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Building Energy Efficiency

Tropical Building Code

AEDGs

IGCC

Based on IECC 2009, Under Development

Developed by ASHRAE, AIA, USGBC, IESNA, and DOE

Easy to use guidance to achieve 30% energy savings

Recommendations by Climate Zone

Green building code, developed by the ICC/AIA/ASTM team

together with ASHRAE, USGBC, and IES. The ANSI/ASHRAE/

USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009 was included as an alternative

jurisdictional compliance option within the IGCC.

Leading the Caribbean to a sustainable energy future. Innovation for Our Energy 60% Future by 2025


Climate Zone Considerations

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Climate Zone Considerations

250

2004 Benchmark

Annual Energy Intensity [kBtu/ft 2 ]

200

150

100

50

90.1-2007

189.1P

0

1A

2A

2B

3A

3B:CA

3B:Other

3C

4A

4B

4C

5A

5B

6A

6B

7A

8A

All

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Climate Zone Considerations

250

2004 Benchmark

200

90.1-2007

8%

Annual Energy Intensity [kBtu/ft 2 ]

189.1P

150

100

50

0

1A

2A

2B

3A

3B:CA

3B:Other

3C

4A

4B

4C

5A

5B

6A

6B

7A

8A

All

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Climate Zone Considerations

250

2004 Benchmark

200

90.1-2007

8%

33%

Annual Energy Intensity [kBtu/ft 2 ]

189.1P

150

100

50

0

1A

2A

2B

3A

3B:CA

3B:Other

3C

4A

4B

4C

5A

5B

6A

6B

7A

8A

All

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Climate Zone Considerations

250

2004 Benchmark

200

90.1-2007

?%

?%

?%

Annual Energy Intensity [kBtu/ft 2 ]

189.1P

150

100

50

0

1A

2A

2B

3A

3B:CA

3B:Other

3C

4A

4B

4C

5A

5B

6A

6B

7A

8A

All

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Moving Forward

Existing Buildings

Where are we now?

– Understand Inventory

– Establish Existing EUIs

– Evaluate Impact potential

Where are we going?

– Establish Goals

– Evaluate Options

– Plan Development and

Implementation

New Buildings

Where are we now?

– Where does the current

process come from?

– Evaluate Potential Barriers

– Evaluate Impact Potential

Where are we going?

– IECC 2009 Amendments to

become Tropical Code

– Tropical Code Adoption

– Set Energy Use Targets

– Code development workgroup

– Plan Development and

Implementation

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Moving Forward

Existing Commercial Buildings

– Identify types + quantify

• Office, retail, health care, educational, hospitality, industrial

– Identify occupancy, health and thermal comfort issues

• Hours of operation, indoor air quality, air temperature, humidity and air flow

– Identify end uses

• HVAC, computers, water heating, lighting, equipment, process, etc.

– Analyze and implement energy conservation measures

Existing Residential Buildings

– Identify types + quantify

• Single family, condominiums, apartments

– Identify end uses

• Cooling, lighting, electronics, appliances, water heating, etc.

– Analyze and implement energy conservation measures

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Moving Forward

New Commercial Buildings

– Analyze, identify + quantify opportunities

• Office, retail, health care, educational, hospitality, industrial

– Understand restrictions

• Product availability/costs

– Enforcement, implementation + incentivization

• Raise awareness, encourage implementation, incentivize participation

New Residential Buildings

– Analyze, identify + quantify opportunities

• Single family, condominiums, apartments

– Understand restrictions

• Awareness, user/payer disconnect

– Enforcement, implementation + incentivization

• Raise awareness, encourage implementation, incentivize participation

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Building Energy Efficiency

Virgin Islands Path to

60% Energy Use Reduction by 2025

Thank You!

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Tropical Energy Code

IECC 2009, IGCC v.1, ASHRAE 90.1 2007, 55-

2004, 62.1 2010, and beyond for the Caribbean

environment.

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Building Envelope

• Cool Roofs or Solar

Panels (meeting NSF

P151 standard)

• Radiant Barriers

• Shading

• Low Solar Heat Gain

Coefficient Windows

• Reflective Wall

Coatings

• Building Orientation

• Natural Ventilation

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Innovation for Our Energy Future


Mechanical Systems

• Solar water heating

• Daylighting

• Thermal comfort

• Indoor air quality

• Corrosion protection

• Solar pool pumps

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Next Steps

Energy simulations

• Cost optimization

• Codification of technical requirements

• Public hearings

• Code adoption

• Community commitment!

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Thank you!

If you have additional questions, please contact

Miguel Quinones at mquinones@vienergy.org

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Virgin Islands Energy Alliance

Comprehensive building retrofits for the current building stock

through aggregated energy saving performance contracting

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Innovation for Our Energy Future

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