Appendix - Internews

internews.org

Appendix - Internews

Light in the

Darkness

(Appendix III)

Internews Radio in southern Sudan and the Three Areas

Findings of Community Impact Assessment

Sonya De Masi, May 2011


III

Appendix III


128 | Light in the Darkness

APPENDIX III A

Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk

Internews Radio in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas

Impact Assessment Report

Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk

Kurmuk, Blue Nile State

November 2010

Demographics

A. Age, gender and education

The sample is comprised of 151 respondents, 59% male and 34% female. The majority of

respondents are between the ages of 16 and 45 and have either completed or received some

primary education.

Male

Female

Under 16 2.25% 1.96%

16-25 20.22% 31.37%

26-35 29.21% 39.22%

36-45 30.34% 21.57%

45+ 15.73% 3.92%

The age distribution is similar among men and women, except that the female respondents are

comparatively younger than the male respondents. Female respondents are also less educated

than their male counterparts. See table below for full breakdown.

No schooling,

illiterate

No schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary,

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary,

complete

Madrassa

Male 13.48% 8.99% 32.58% 30.34% 3.37% 7.87% 2.25%

Female 17.65% 31.37% 35.29% 13.73% 0.00% 1.96% 0.00%

B. Assets: TV set, radio, cell phone and computer

Very few respondents, 2% and 9% respectively, own a computer or television. However, a sizable

portion, 22%, owns a cell phone while almost half, 47%, owns a radio. Overall, fewer women own a

television set, radio, cell phone and computer than men.


129 | Light in the Darkness

C. Source of income

Over half of respondents, gain their income from farming or being a pastoralist another 17% gains

its income from owning a shop and carrying out small business.

Sources of Information

A. Which of the following do you use to get information?

Radio is the most popular source of information among the respondents. Churches/Mosques and

television are also used as sources of information by a sizable number of respondents. Younger

people tend to rely on radio and TV for information while people between the ages of 36-45 also

use community events as a source of information. Women, in addition to radio, use churches/

mosques as a source of information. Radio and Churches/Mosques are used as information

sources by respondents of all educational levels, while TV is used more by respondents with some

schooling. See graphs and tables below for full breakdown.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Radio 100% 94% 90% 80% 89%

TV 25% 21% 16% 17% 11%

Newspapers/Magazines 0% 9% 12% 0% 0%

Word of Mouth 0% 9% 12% 5% 0%

Internet 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%

Mobile Phone 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

Church/Mosque 0% 21% 31% 17% 11%

Police 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Billboards and Posters 0% 3% 2% 0% 0%

Community events 0% 9% 8% 20% 6%


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No

schooling,

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary,

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary,

complete

Madrassa

Radio 91% 62% 96% 97% 100% 88% 100%

TV 9% 15% 10% 28% 75% 25% 0%

Newspapers/

Magazines

Word of

Mouth

4% 0% 4% 19% 0% 13% 0%

9% 0% 6% 11% 0% 13% 0%

Internet 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Mobile Phone 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Church/

Mosque

17% 50% 18% 14% 0% 25% 0%

Police 0% 0% 2% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Billboards and

Posters

Community

events

0% 0% 2% 6% 0% 0% 0%

4% 15% 18% 8% 0% 13% 0%

B. What is the source of information that you trust the most?

Radio is by far the most trusted source of information by respondents. This was the case across

age groups, genders and education levels.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Radio 100% 85% 75% 66% 83%

Community Event 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%

TV 0% 3% 6% 12% 0%

Word of mouth/Family and friend 0% 3% 0% 5% 0%

Internet 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

Church/mosque 0% 0% 4% 2% 6%


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No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Radio 65% 46% 86% 86% 100% 88% 100%

Community

event

0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

TV 9% 8% 6% 6% 0% 0% 0%

Word of mouth

(friend and

family)

4% 4% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Internet 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Church/mosque 4% 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Missing 17% 27% 6% 6% 0% 13% 0%

C. How important do you think access to information/media is to your life?

Information is ‘very important’ or ‘important’ to a vast majority of respondents across age groups,

genders and education levels. It is the most important to younger, more educated and male

respondents.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 100% 79% 71% 44% 67%

Important 0% 15% 25% 44% 33%

A little important 0% 0% 2% 7% 0%

Not important 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 68% 12% 68% 94% 100% 88% 100%

Important 32% 72% 28% 3% 0% 13% 0%

A little important 0% 8% 4% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Not important 0% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

D. Do you have any problems accessing information?

In general, the biggest problem in accessing information is lack of money. This was true for

respondents over the age of 16, while those under 16 reported no problem. Men were divided,

40% said they encountered no problem, while another 42% said they lacked money and 20% said

it was not available. Half of women said that money was an issue or that it was not available. Only


132 | Light in the Darkness

20% said that they did not have problem as compared to 42% of men. For illiterate people with no

schooling, 43% said they had no problem while 30% said that lack of money was an issue. For

literate respondents with no schooling, 54% said it was not available while 35% said money was an

issue. For respondents with some primary education, money was an issue for 61%. People with

some education, 75% reported no problem while 50% of people with completed secondary

education or madrassa education there was no problem in accessing information.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

No Problem 75% 29% 35% 27% 33%

No money 25% 50% 43% 44% 44%

No interest 0% 0% 2% 0% 6%

Not available 0% 12% 20% 22% 6%

Not allowed 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

No Problem 43% 0% 25% 53% 75% 50% 50%

No money 30% 35% 61% 39% 25% 38% 50%

No interest 0% 4% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Not available 26% 54% 2% 3% 0% 13% 0%

Not allowed 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Radio Access Usage

A. Do you have a radio set (yourself or at home)?

Less than half, 46.1% of respondents own a radio, (56% for males and 37% for females). A greater

portion of respondents over the age of 36, own radios than their younger counterparts.

Male

Female

Yes 56% 37%

No 44% 63%

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Yes 25% 38% 41% 51% 61%

No 75% 56% 57% 44% 39%


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B. How often do you listen to the radio?

The vast majority of respondents, 70%, listen to the radio daily. Younger people, males, and

respondents who own a radio listen to the radio daily more than older people, women and

respondents who do not own a radio.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Daily 100.00% 73.53% 70.59% 65.85% 66.67%

Weekly 0.00% 8.82% 13.73% 4.88% 16.67%

Monthly 0.00% 2.94% 1.96% 4.88% 0.00%

Never 0.00% 8.82% 11.76% 21.95% 16.67%

C. Where do you listen to radio?

A vast majority of respondents listen to the radio at home.

D. With whom do you listen to the radio?

A majority of respondents listen to the radio with family.

E. Who turns on the radio or chooses the station?

Usually, the man of the household turns on the station and chooses the stations.

G. At what times do you listen to the radio?

A majority of respondents listen to the radio in the morning, this holds across genders and age

groups.

Morning Afternoon Evening Night All day

Under 16 50% 0% 0% 0% 50%

16-25 71% 3% 26% 18% 9%

26-35 61% 8% 29% 25% 16%

36-45 51% 15% 32% 24% 10%

45+ 67% 11% 22% 11% 0%

Morning Afternoon Evening Night All day

Male 67% 9% 33% 20% 12%

Female 59% 8% 25% 22% 4%


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H. What are your favorite times to listen to the radio?

Morning Afternoon Evening Night All day

Under 16 50% 0% 0% 0% 50%

16-25 59% 0% 18% 18% 6%

26-35 39% 0% 12% 31% 10%

36-45 34% 2% 29% 27% 7%

45+ 56% 0% 22% 22% 6%

Morning Afternoon Evening Night All day

Male 48% 1% 25% 26% 9%

Female 45% 0% 14% 22% 2%

I. Which of these radio stations do you listen to?

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

BBC 0.00% 38.24% 37.25% 26.83% 27.78%

Radio Al Mujtama 50.00% 41.18% 49.02% 39.02% 44.44%

SRS 50.00% 17.65% 27.45% 26.83% 0.00%

Miraya FM 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 4.88% 0.00%

Radio Omdurman 0.00% 14.71% 15.69% 17.07% 5.56%

Programming

A. Which topics are of importance to you? Please rank by order of priority.

••

Local news (Community)

Local news is ‘very important’ to a majority of respondents. This is true for both genders and

across all age groups and education levels.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 100% 71% 59% 59% 78%

Important 0% 9% 27% 15% 11%

A little important 0% 3% 2% 7% 0%

Not important 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%


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No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 56.52% 38.46% 74.51% 72.22% 100.00% 75.00% 100.00%

Important 17.39% 23.08% 15.69% 16.67% 0.00% 12.50% 0.00%

A little important 4.35% 11.54% 0.00% 2.78% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

Not important 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 2.78% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

Missing 22% 27% 10% 6% 0% 13% 0%

••

Politics

Politics is generally ‘very important’ to a majority of respondents. There is not much difference

between age groups and genders, while people with higher education levels tend to find politics

to be more important as information topic than their less educated counterparts.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 50% 47% 61% 44% 72%

Important 25% 24% 14% 22% 11%

A little important 25% 15% 12% 12% 6%

Missing 0% 12% 10% 20% 11%

Not important 0% 3% 4% 2% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 26% 38% 59% 72% 100% 75% 50%

Important 35% 4% 22% 17% 0% 13% 0%

A little important 22% 31% 4% 6% 0% 0% 50%

Not important 0% 0% 6% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Missing 17% 27% 10% 3% 0% 13% 0%

••

Women

Information on women is ‘very important’ to a majority of respondents both for men and

women.

••

Agriculture/income generation

Agriculture/income generation is a ‘very important’ topic of information to an overwhelming

majority, this holds true for both genders and across age groups and educational levels.


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No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 78% 69% 90% 94% 100% 88% 100%

important 4% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Important 100.00% 85.29% 88.24% 78.05% 88.89%

Important 0.00% 0.00% 1.96% 2.44% 0.00%

••

Health/hygiene

Male

Female

Very important 87.64% 80.39%

important 0.00% 3.92%

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Important 100.00% 88.24% 90.20% 75.61% 88.89%

Important 0.00% 0.00% 1.96% 2.44% 0.00%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 83% 62% 92% 97% 100% 88% 100%

important 0% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

B. What kind of information would you like to know about, that is not currently available to

you?

(Lots of answers unusable because they were in Arabic or said FM88)

Respondents cited news, health information, popular consultation, peace & development and

cultural/traditional programs as the kinds of information they seek. Below are some examples of

responses:

••“for instance the going of the commissioner to some area was not broadcast on the radio”

••“peace & development, community messages, learning village

••“health announcements eg Malaria”

••“sanitation information”

••

health info, news


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••“popular consultation”

••“news, traditional culture, local music”

••“duala culture, traditions, local music”

••“duala culture, duala music, duala visit to station”

Specific Programming: Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk

A. Please name your favorite programs on Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk?

Program

No. cited by respondents

Peace & Development 27

Education 27

Community messages 13

Health 11

learning villages 11

Youth 4

Local community issues 3

Call-in 2

Some exact answers given:

••“borou languge and culture, music, hygeine promotion”

••“call-in, visiting out distance”

••“community messages, tarbia wa tahim, peace & development”

••“cultural awareness, local music”

••“how people live & send children to school, good news about what happens in some areas/

countries, health”

••“local community issues, education”

••“peace & development, education, health”

••“Uduk news, Salam wa Tenmia, peace & development”

••“water, hospital, education”

B. Please name your favorite presenters on Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk?

Name of presenter

Number of times cited by respondents

Samuel 57

Aziz 54

Khadija 53

Dominic 43

Al Tayeb 54


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C. How are useful are the following programs? Please rank them.

News (Arabic)

News (Uduk)

News (Arabic)

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 63% 41% 100% 47% 61% 51% 61%

Not useful 0% 2% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

News (Uduk)

Very Useful 60% 47% 25% 53% 61% 46% 61%

Not useful 11% 20% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Breakfast Show

‘Saba Al Kher Kurmuk’

Breakfast Show

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 57% 35% 100% 53% 53% 37% 61%

Not useful 9% 12% 0% 9% 18% 7% 0%

Saba Al Kher Kurmuk’

Very Useful 73% 53% 100% 68% 69% 56% 72%

Not useful 0% 4% 0% 6% 0% 0% 0%

Listeners Live Call-in

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 53% 43% 75% 53% 55% 37% 56%

Not useful 2% 2% 0% 6% 0% 2% 0%

Learning Village (Education)

Very Useful 81% 78% 100% 76% 90% 71% 72%

Not useful 1% 2% 0% 3% 2% 0% 0%

Salam Wa Tenmia (peace and development)

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 82% 80% 82% 90% 71% 72% 81%

Don’t Listen 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 1%

Moathen Bukra (women, children and youth)

Very Useful 75% 73% 100% 79% 80% 63% 72%

Don’t Listen 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%


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Soukna (business)

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 80% 73% 100% 74% 84% 71% 78%

Don’t Listen 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%

Moatho Ta Saha (Health)

Very Useful 80% 75% 100% 79% 82% 68% 83%

Don’t Listen 1% 2% 0% 0% 0% 5% 0%

Zeraa Le Haya (Agriculture)

Very Useful 83% 78% 100% 82% 88% 73% 78%

Don’t Listen 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%

Community Messages

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 80% 67% 100% 79% 80% 63% 83%

Don’t Listen 3% 16% 0% 6% 8% 12% 0%

Let’s Talk (peace & democracy)

Very Useful 75% 57% 100% 74% 71% 56% 83%

Not useful 3% 10% 0% 3% 6% 10% 0%

Terbia Advance

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 63% 61% 100% 71% 63% 49% 72%

Not useful 1% 4% 0% 3% 2% 2% 0%

Derdesha

Very Useful 69% 57% 100% 68% 73% 56% 72%

Not useful 3% 10% 0% 3% 6% 7% 0%

Misa Al Kher Kurmuk

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 75% 63% 75% 71% 76% 63% 83%

Don’t Listen 4% 18% 0% 6% 10% 15% 0%

Religious Program

Very Useful 79% 65% 100% 74% 80% 63% 78%

Not Useful 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%


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Talim Le Kul (education)

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 78% 75% 100% 74% 78% 73% 78%

Not Useful 2% 0% 0% 3% 2% 0% 0%

Niha Minu (culture)

Very Useful 70% 61% 100% 62% 67% 66% 78%

Not Useful 6% 10% 0% 6% 14% 2% 0%

Sot Al Sharia (local community issues)

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 75% 63% 100% 71% 76% 63% 72%

Don’t Listen 4% 16% 0% 6% 10% 12% 0%

Sot Al Mara (women)

Very Useful 62% 59% 100% 68% 63% 49% 67%

Don’t Listen 4% 18% 0% 6% 10% 15% 0%

Reyada Le Ta Gayer (sport)

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very Useful 75% 45% 100% 62% 69% 59% 78%

Not useful 0% 4% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

D. Which of these presenters do you listen to on Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk?

Dominic Santo

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Always 57% 41% 75% 53% 61% 44% 61%

Sometimes 20% 20% 25% 24% 16% 17% 22%

Never 6% 25% 0% 9% 14% 20% 0%

Abdalaziz Ramadan

Always 55% 39% 75% 53% 57% 46% 39%

Sometimes 21% 25% 25% 24% 22% 12% 44%

Never 6% 20% 0% 6% 10% 20% 0%


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Khadika Abdalziz

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Always 61% 49% 75% 59% 67% 44% 56%

Sometimes 17% 16% 25% 18% 16% 12% 28%

Never 6% 20% 0% 6% 10% 20% 0%

Samuel Chula

Always 57% 51% 75% 59% 63% 54% 39%

Sometimes 18% 14% 25% 18% 16% 5% 44%

Never 6% 20% 0% 6% 10% 20% 0%

Al Tayeb Al Jaily

Always 35% 29% 75% 38% 31% 34% 39%

Sometimes 26% 24% 25% 29% 29% 7% 39%

Never 20% 33% 0% 15% 29% 37% 6%

Interaction

A. Please indicate how often you interact with Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk?

Listen

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Never 37% 53% 0% 29% 47% 54% 44%

About once a month 16% 6% 25% 24% 10% 5% 6%

Several times a month 15% 8% 50% 9% 20% 5% 11%

About once a week 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 6%

Several times a week 12% 10% 25% 15% 4% 7% 22%

More often 4% 8% 0% 9% 12% 7% 0%

Phone-in

Never 56% 76% 100% 62% 69% 61% 61%

About once a month 4% 2% 0% 9% 2% 5% 0%

Several times a month 11% 4% 0% 6% 12% 7% 11%

About once a week 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

Several times a week 4% 4% 0% 3% 2% 2% 17%

More often 4% 0% 0% 3% 2% 5% 0%


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SMS

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Never 65% 80% 50% 74% 73% 73% 67%

About once a month 6% 2% 0% 9% 4% 0% 6%

Several times a month 9% 2% 0% 0% 16% 2% 6%

About once a week 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 3% 0% 50% 3% 0% 2% 0%

More often 2% 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 11%

Write-in

Never 62% 82% 50% 68% 73% 71% 72%

About once a month 8% 0% 25% 6% 6% 0% 11%

Several times a month 9% 0% 25% 0% 14% 2% 0%

About once a week 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 1% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

More often 4% 2% 0% 3% 0% 7% 6%

Visit

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Never 69% 84% 100% 79% 78% 66% 72%

About once a month 7% 0% 0% 3% 10% 2% 0%

Several times a month 4% 2% 0% 0% 2% 7% 6%

About once a week 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 6%

More often 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 6%

Make a Program

Never 70% 78% 50% 76% 76% 68% 72%

About once a month 3% 4% 0% 6% 6% 0% 6%

Several times a month 4% 2% 0% 3% 2% 5% 6%

About once a week 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

More often 6% 2% 50% 0% 6% 5% 6%


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Volunteer

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Never 71% 82% 75% 71% 80% 68% 83%

About once a month 1% 0% 0% 3% 2% 0% 0%

Several times a month 2% 2% 0% 3% 2% 2% 0%

About once a week 1% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

More often 8% 2% 25% 6% 4% 7% 6%

Guest on Air

Never 49% 63% 0% 47% 63% 59% 44%

About once a month 6% 4% 25% 12% 4% 2% 6%

Several times a month 8% 4% 0% 6% 10% 5% 6%

About once a week 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 6%

More often 20% 12% 75% 21% 12% 10% 28%

Interviewed

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Never 62% 73% 50% 62% 75% 71% 56%

About once a month 2% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 6%

Several times a month 3% 2% 0% 3% 4% 5% 0%

About once a week 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

More often 17% 12% 50% 18% 12% 5% 28%

Attended Event

Never 63% 73% 25% 74% 67% 68% 67%

About once a month 6% 2% 25% 3% 8% 2% 0%

Several times a month 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

About once a week 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 2% 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 11%

More often 12% 8% 50% 9% 14% 5% 11%

B. What would make you more likely to interact with your community radio station?

Respondents cited news, information and music (answers in Arabic not able to analyze)


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Mobile Phone

A. Do you have a mobile phone and have you ever sent an SMS to a radio station?

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Have a mobile Phone 28% 12% 25% 21% 31% 22% 11%

Have sent an SMS to a radio station 1% 4% 0% 0% 2% 0% 6%

Would Consider sending SMS to radio station 29% 18% 50% 26% 27% 15% 28%

B. Do you ever use your mobile phone to SMS people and would you consider sending SMS to

a radio station?

Use mobile to SMS people

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Never 60% 61% 75% 59% 63% 61% 67%

About once a month 3% 6% 0% 9% 6% 0% 0%

Several times a month 9% 2% 0% 0% 14% 5% 6%

About once a week 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5% 0%

Several times a week 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 6%

More often 4% 2% 25% 3% 2% 2% 6%

Access information on mobile phone

Never 62% 73% 75% 62% 69% 66% 72%

About once a month 7% 4% 25% 9% 2% 5% 6%

Several times a month 11% 4% 0% 0% 16% 7% 11%

About once a week 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Several times a week 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 1%

More often 6% 0% 9% 2% 2% 0% 3%

D. If information were available to you by mobile phone, would that be useful to you?

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very useful 26% 18% 50% 26% 22% 12% 28%

Useful 4% 10% 0% 3% 8% 7% 0%

Somewhat useful 3% 2% 0% 6% 4% 2% 0%

Not useful 3% 2% 0% 0% 2% 5% 6%

Don’t know 36% 45% 0% 29% 47% 44% 44%

If yes, do you know what kind of information would be useful? ( most answers in Arabic)

Respondents cited news, education and peace and development as useful information.


145 | Light in the Darkness

Civil Society and Media

Thinking specifically about Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk, please answer the following.

A. Radio is an essential source of information in my community

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 69% 53% 75% 68% 65% 51% 83%

Agree 17% 27% 25% 18% 25% 24% 6%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 6% 0% 0% 2% 5% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 65% 35% 65% 78% 100% 75% 100%

Agree 17% 27% 25% 17% 0% 13% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

B. Radio has improved my access to information

Male Female Under

16

16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 51% 49% 75% 62% 49% 39% 67%

Agree 25% 18% 25% 18% 29% 37% 11%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 6% 2% 6%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 6%

Don’t Know 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 65% 27% 43% 64% 100% 63% 100%


146 | Light in the Darkness

Agree 17% 35% 35% 19% 0% 25% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 6% 6% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 4% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

C. The radio station has helped me to be more tolerant of cultural differences

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 51% 41% 75% 53% 43% 41% 72%

Agree 25% 24% 25% 24% 39% 32% 11%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 3% 0% 3% 4% 7% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 65% 27% 43% 58% 100% 38% 100%

Agree 17% 23% 37% 33% 0% 50% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 19% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

D. My attitude/behavior towards women and girls is different because of information I hear on

the radio.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 51% 35% 75% 62% 37% 29% 61%

Agree 18% 18% 25% 9% 22% 32% 17%

Neither Agree or Disagree 1% 4% 0% 3% 4% 0% 0%

Disagree 13% 12% 0% 9% 16% 12% 11%

Strongly Disagree 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 16% 0% 3% 10% 5% 0%


147 | Light in the Darkness

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 52% 12% 35% 64% 100% 63% 100%

Agree 17% 23% 31% 17% 0% 0% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 13% 0%

Disagree 4% 12% 18% 11% 0% 13% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 4% 27% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

E. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard

on the radio.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 56% 43% 100% 59% 51% 41% 67%

Agree 0% 18% 0% 18% 33% 39% 22%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 3% 0% 3% 4% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 6% 0% 6% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 61% 23% 47% 69% 100% 63% 100%

Agree 22% 46% 39% 14% 0% 25% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 4% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 6% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

F. Radio has given me a better understanding of daily life in my community.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 53% 45% 75% 62% 47% 39% 72%

Agree 30% 31% 0% 24% 37% 37% 11%


148 | Light in the Darkness

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 6%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 8% 0% 0% 4% 5% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 61% 27% 45% 67% 100% 50% 100%

Agree 13% 35% 41% 25% 0% 38% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 4% 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

G. Radio has given me a better understanding of the events beyond my community.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 49% 45% 100% 50% 49% 37% 67%

Agree 17% 18% 0% 18% 20% 17% 11%

Neither Agree or Disagree 6% 0% 0% 3% 6% 5% 0%

Disagree 12% 10% 0% 9% 10% 15% 11%

Strongly Disagree 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 14% 0% 6% 6% 5% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 65% 19% 39% 64% 100% 63% 100%

Agree 4% 31% 25% 11% 0% 0% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 4% 11% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 4% 8% 18% 6% 0% 25% 0%

Strongly Disagree 4% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 4% 15% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0%


149 | Light in the Darkness

H. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect

my health and that of my family

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 53% 41% 100% 53% 55% 39% 56%

Agree 0% 24% 0% 24% 35% 34% 22%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 6%

Strongly Disagree 0% 3% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 5% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 61% 19% 45% 69% 100% 50% 100%

Agree 13% 46% 37% 25% 0% 25% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 4% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

I. The radio station in my community is a credible source of information.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 52% 39% 100% 53% 45% 37% 61%

Agree 29% 27% 0% 21% 33% 32% 22%

Neither Agree or Disagree 2% 4% 0% 6% 2% 0% 6%

Disagree 0% 2% 0% 6% 2% 0% 6%

Strongly Disagree 0% 2% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 2% 12% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%


150 | Light in the Darkness

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 57% 15% 43% 61% 100% 63% 100%

Agree 17% 38% 33% 25% 0% 25% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 6% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 4% 19% 4% 6% 0% 0% 0%

J. The radio station in my community provides a platform for interaction.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 46% 35% 100% 53% 39% 29% 56%

Agree 26% 25% 17% 27% 31% 25% 0%

Neither Agree or Disagree 3% 0% 0% 0% 0% 8% 0%

Disagree 6% 2% 4% 0% 4% 8% 0%

Strongly Disagree 2% 4% 0% 4% 8% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 18% 9% 23% 2% 0% 0%

0

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 52% 15% 39% 53% 100% 50% 100%

Agree 17% 27% 31% 25% 0% 38% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 8% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 4% 0% 4% 8% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 4% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 9% 23% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%


151 | Light in the Darkness

K. As citizens, we should be active in our community.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 49% 39% 100% 50% 43% 34% 67%

Agree 33% 39% 0% 29% 43% 39% 22%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 3% 0% 0% 3% 4% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 4% 0% 3% 0% 5% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 4% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 57% 12% 45% 64% 100% 38% 100%

Agree 22% 54% 41% 25% 0% 38% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 6% 0% 13% 0%

Strongly Disagree 4% 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Democracy

A. Information is essential to a peaceful and democratic society

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 72% 61% 71% 73% 54% 83% 68%

Agree 12% 18% 12% 20% 15% 0% 14%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 6% 1%

Strongly Disagree 0% 2% 3% 0% 0% 0% 1%

Don’t Know 0% 6% 0% 0% 7% 0% 2%


152 | Light in the Darkness

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 65% 31% 73% 86% 100% 75% 100%

Agree 17% 23% 14% 8% 0% 13% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

B. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 72% 61% 75% 74% 71% 59% 78%

Agree 12% 18% 25% 9% 20% 12% 11%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 1% 2% 0% 3% 2% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 6% 0% 0% 0% 7% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 65% 35% 75% 81% 100% 88% 100%

Agree 17% 23% 12% 14% 0% 0% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 4% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%


153 | Light in the Darkness

C. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPA, referendum)

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 60% 51% 100% 65% 63% 37% 61%

Agree 21% 24% 0% 12% 25% 34% 11%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 3% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 17%

Strongly Disagree 1% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 12% 0% 6% 2% 7% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 74% 12% 57% 67% 100% 75% 100%

Agree 0% 38% 29% 22% 0% 13% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 8% 2% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 9% 15% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

D. The political leadership in my community is visible and interacts with communities.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 48% 57% 100% 56% 57% 37% 61%

Agree 30% 14% 0% 24% 24% 29% 22%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 3% 0% 0% 0% 2% 2% 6%

Strongly Disagree 3% 0% 0% 0% 4% 2% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 16% 0% 6% 6% 7% 0%


154 | Light in the Darkness

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 65% 19% 55% 61% 100% 38% 100%

Agree 4% 19% 33% 28% 0% 50% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 4% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 0% 4% 0% 6% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 9% 23% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

E. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 47% 49% 100% 47% 49% 39% 56%

Agree 36% 31% 0% 35% 41% 34% 28%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 6%

Strongly Disagree 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 2% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 65% 23% 37% 67% 100% 38% 100%

Agree 13% 38% 49% 28% 0% 50% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%


155 | Light in the Darkness

Emergency Radio

A. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 51% 43% 100% 56% 45% 37% 67%

Agree 33% 35% 0% 24% 43% 34% 22%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 2% 2% 0% 3% 0% 5% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 6% 0% 3% 4% 0% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 70% 27% 39% 58% 100% 50% 100%

Agree 9% 42% 39% 36% 0% 38% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 4% 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 4% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0%

B. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 55% 43% 75% 56% 53% 39% 61%

Agree 27% 35% 25% 24% 35% 34% 17%

Neither Agree or Disagree 1% 2% 0% 3% 0% 2% 0%

Disagree 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 11%

Strongly Disagree 2% 2% 0% 3% 2% 2% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 2% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%


156 | Light in the Darkness

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 70% 23% 39% 67% 100% 63% 100%

Agree 9% 38% 47% 19% 0% 25% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 0% 2% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 8% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 4% 0% 0% 6% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

C. In a crisis, I would want the radio to stay on-air with information.

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Strongly Agree 52% 47% 100% 56% 57% 29% 56%

Agree 27% 25% 0% 24% 31% 29% 17%

Neither Agree or Disagree 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 6%

Strongly Disagree 4% 4% 0% 6% 0% 7% 6%

Don’t Know 0% 6% 0% 0% 4% 2% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Strongly Agree 70% 19% 41% 64% 100% 50% 100%

Agree 9% 35% 37% 22% 0% 25% 0%

Neither Agree or

Disagree

0% 4% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Disagree 0% 4% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Strongly Disagree 4% 0% 8% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Don’t Know 0% 12% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

E. In times of crisis, what is the most important thing to hear on radio? (lots of answers in

Arabic)

All who answered (13) said news and information, one person said “peace & development, popular

consultation issue.”


157 | Light in the Darkness

Referendum

Thinking specifically about Radio Al Mujtama fi Kurmuk, please answer the following.

During the referendum period, which topics are of importance to you? Please rank them by order

of priority.

A. Where to register

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 72% 65% 75% 71% 73% 59% 89%

Important 9% 20% 0% 12% 14% 17% 0%

A Little Important 1% 2% 25% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 61% 42% 75% 83% 100% 75% 100%

Important 17% 31% 10% 6% 0% 0% 0%

A Little Important 4% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

B. Where to vote

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 72% 65% 75% 71% 75% 59% 89%

Important 10% 20% 25% 12% 12% 17% 0%

A Little Important 0% 2% 0% 3% 2% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 61% 42% 76% 83% 100% 75% 100%

Important 17% 31% 10% 6% 0% 0% 0%

A Little Important 4% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%


158 | Light in the Darkness

C. Results in other communities

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 78% 78% 100% 79% 84% 68% 89%

Important 4% 6% 0% 3% 4% 7% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 78% 58% 82% 89% 100% 75% 100%

Important 0% 15% 4% 3% 0% 0% 0%

D. North/south relations

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 37% 24% 100% 38% 25% 24% 44%

Important 16% 16% 0% 18% 16% 15% 22%

A Little Important 13% 29% 0% 12% 18% 27% 17%

Not Important 13% 16% 0% 15% 24% 10% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 30% 8% 29% 47% 75% 38% 100%

Important 22% 19% 20% 6% 0% 25% 0%

A Little Important 22% 38% 16% 14% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 4% 22% 22% 0% 13% 0%

E. Political speeches

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 45% 37% 75% 53% 37% 29% 61%

Important 24% 10% 25% 15% 24% 20% 17%

A Little Important 8% 29% 0% 9% 18% 20% 11%

Not Important 3% 10% 0% 6% 8% 7% 0%


159 | Light in the Darkness

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 26% 15% 49% 53% 100% 50% 100%

Important 30% 19% 18% 22% 0% 13% 0%

A Little Important 22% 35% 8% 11% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 4% 12% 3% 0% 13% 0%

F. Political analysis

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 43% 39% 75% 44% 45% 29% 56%

Important 24% 12% 0% 21% 22% 15% 17%

A Little Important 10% 25% 25% 15% 12% 20% 17%

Not Important 3% 8% 0% 6% 6% 7% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 35% 23% 37% 58% 100% 50% 100%

Important 17% 15% 24% 19% 0% 13% 0%

A Little Important 26% 31% 10% 11% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 0% 14% 3% 0% 0% 0%

G. Conflict

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 26% 18% 50% 26% 22% 10% 33%

Important 3% 4% 0% 0% 4% 7% 11%

A Little Important 9% 20% 0% 9% 14% 17% 6%

Not Important 42% 39% 50% 47% 45% 39% 33%


160 | Light in the Darkness

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 9% 4% 14% 42% 75% 38% 100%

Important 4% 15% 2% 3% 0% 0% 0%

A Little Important 9% 27% 14% 8% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 52% 23% 57% 33% 25% 38% 0%

H. Movement of people

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 28% 31% 50% 29% 31% 20% 33%

Important 7% 10% 0% 9% 6% 12% 0%

A Little Important 9% 10% 0% 3% 10% 10% 22%

Not Important 36% 27% 50% 29% 37% 34% 33%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 13% 15% 24% 44% 75% 38% 100%

Important 13% 15% 2% 11% 0% 0% 0%

A Little Important 13% 15% 10% 6% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 39% 23% 45% 25% 25% 38% 0%

I. Local news

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 70% 63% 75% 71% 65% 59% 89%

Important 12% 20% 0% 12% 22% 17% 0%

A Little Important 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%


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No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 65% 42% 76% 69% 100% 75% 100%

Important 9% 31% 8% 22% 0% 0% 0%

A Little Important 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Not Important 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

J. Popular consultation

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 64% 71% 75% 74% 67% 56% 72%

Important 7% 6% 0% 6% 10% 2% 6%

A Little Important 1% 2% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0%

Not Important 3% 2% 0% 0% 4% 7% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 43% 62% 65% 83% 100% 63% 100%

Important 4% 8% 6% 8% 0% 0% 0%

A Little Important 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 4% 0% 6% 3% 0% 0% 0%

K. International news

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 58% 59% 100% 65% 57% 49% 78%

Important 18% 16% 0% 9% 20% 24% 6%

A Little Important 2% 12% 0% 9% 8% 2% 6%

Not Important 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 57% 35% 65% 72% 75% 63% 100%

Important 13% 27% 14% 17% 0% 13% 0%

A Little Important 13% 12% 4% 3% 0% 0% 0%

Not Important 0% 0% 0% 0% 25% 0% 0%


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L. Non-referendum programming

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 28% 24% 50% 21% 25% 24% 39%

Important 6% 4% 0% 0% 6% 7% 6%

A Little Important 30% 43% 50% 35% 39% 34% 28%

Not Important 13% 14% 0% 24% 14% 7% 17%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 4% 23% 31% 33% 50% 25% 50%

Important 4% 0% 6% 8% 0% 0% 0%

A Little Important 26% 46% 37% 36% 25% 25% 50%

Not Important 39% 4% 8% 11% 25% 25% 0%

M. Music

Male Female Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Very important 38% 29% 100% 47% 33% 22% 44%

Important 21% 37% 0% 24% 24% 41% 0%

A Little Important 21% 12% 0% 9% 29% 10% 39%

Not Important 1% 8% 0% 6% 2% 2% 6%

No

schooling

illiterate

No

schooling

literate

Some

primary

Primary

complete

Some

secondary

Secondary

complete

Madrassa

Very important 57% 0% 31% 47% 100% 38% 100%

Important 22% 38% 27% 22% 0% 13% 0%

A Little Important 4% 27% 24% 19% 0% 25% 0%

Not Important 0% 8% 4% 3% 0% 0% 0%


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Cross Cutting Analysis

1. Radio is the most trusted source of info vs. use of Radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as Info source

Uses Radio as

Info source

Radio is most trusted info source 6.7% 84.3%

2. Radio as Info source vs. importance of information/access to media to life

Does not use Radio

as Info source

Uses Radio as

Info source

Very important 20.0% 71.6%

Important 46.7% 24.6%

A little Important 13.3% 2.2%

Not important at all 13.3%

3. Radio Ownership & who turns Radio on vs. Gender

Male

Female

Owns radio 52.8% 37.3%

Does not own Radio 41.6% 62.7%

Myself 87.6% 51.0%

Spouse 13.7%

Child 1.1% 2.0%

Parent 1.1% 11.8%

Brother/sister 2.0%

other 2.0%

4. Info sources vs. opinions on civil society and democracy

a. Radio is an essential source of information in my community vs. using radio as info source ( for

each opinion what percent of those who use radio as info source are saying this)

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 13.3% 69.4%

Agree 6.7% 22.4%

Don’t Know 13.3% 0.7%


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b. Radio has helped me be more tolerant of cultural differences vs. using radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 13.3% 53.0%

Agree 6.7% 32.1%

Neither 0.7%

Don’t Know 13.3% 3.0%

c. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard on

the radio vs. use radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 6.7% 59.0%

Agree 26.7% 28.4%

d. As citizens we should be active in community vs. use of radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 6.7% 52.2%

Agree 13.3% 35.8%

Don’t Know 13.3%

e. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPA, referendum) vs. use of

radio as info source

Does not use Radio as info

source

Uses Radio as info source

Strongly Agree 6.7% 62.7%

Agree 20.0% 21.6%

Don’t Know 3.7% 3.7%

f. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders vs. use of radio as info

source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 13.3% 52.2%

Agree 6.7% 37.3%

Don’t Know 6.7%


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5. Opinion on civil society and emergency vs. importance of Radio Kurmuk

a. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Radio Kurmuk is very important)

Strongly Agree 59.8%

Agree 30.8%

Neither 0.9%

Strongly Agree 1.9%

Don’t Know 1.9%

Radio Kurmuk

is very useful

b. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Radio Kurmuk is very important)

Strongly Agree 61.7%

Agree 28.0%

Neither 1.9%

Disagree 1.9%

Strongly disagree 1.9%

Radio Kurmuk

is very useful

c. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect my

health and that of my family information (for each opinion showing the percentage from those

who said Radio Kurmuk is very important)

Strongly Agree 61.7%

Agree 30.8%

Neither 0.0%

Disagree 1.9%

Strongly Agree 0.9%

Radio Kurmuk

is very useful


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d. Radio has given me a better understanding of daily life in my community information (for each

opinion showing the percentage from those who said Radio Kurmuk is very important)

Strongly Agree 61.7%

Agree 30.8%

Radio Kurmuk

is very useful


167 | Light in the Darkness

APPENDIX III B

Voice of Community Kauda

Internews Radio in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas

Impact Assessment Report

Voice of Community Kauda

Kauda, Southern Kordofan

January 2011

Age and Gender

1. Age

2. Gender


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Table 1 Age vs Gender

Male

Female

Under 16 Count 9 8

% within Age 52.94% 47.06%

% within Gender 12.50% 14.81%

16-25 Count 23 13

% within Age 62.16% 35.14%

% within Gender 31.94% 24.07%

26-35 Count 22 14

% within Age 61.11% 38.89%

% within Gender 30.56% 25.93%

36-45 Count 13 11

% within Age 54.17% 45.83%

% within Gender 18.06% 20.37%

45+ Count 5 8

% within Age 35.71% 57.14%

% within Gender 6.94% 14.81%

5. Do you own a TV /Radio/Cell phone/Computer?

Own Cell

Phone

OwnRadio

Yes

No

Yes OwnTV Yes % within OwnTV 98.2% 1.8%

% within OwnRadio 59.3% 50.0%

No % within OwnTV 97.4% 2.6%

% within OwnRadio 40.7% 50.0%

Total % within OwnTV 97.8% 2.2%

% within OwnRadio 100.0% 100.0%

No OwnTV Yes % within OwnTV 66.7% 33.3%

% within OwnRadio 10.5% 12.5%

No % within OwnTV 70.8% 29.2%

% within OwnRadio 89.5% 87.5%

Total % within OwnTV 70.4% 29.6%

% within OwnRadio 100.0% 100.0%


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6. What is your primary source of income?

Male

Female

Shop/Business % within Income 66.67% 28.57%

% within Gender 19.44% 11.32%

Farmer/Pastoralist % within Income 45.45% 52.27%

% within Gender 27.78% 43.40%

Labor % within Income 70.59% 29.41%

% within Gender 16.67% 9.43%

Teacher % within Income 68.75% 31.25%

% within Gender 15.28% 9.43%

Housewife % within Income 50.00% 50.00%

% within Gender 11.11% 15.09%

None % within Income 45.45% 54.55%

% within Gender 6.94% 11.32%

Sources of Information

1. Which of the following do you use to get information?


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2. What is the source of information that you trust the most?

3. How important do you think access to information/media is to your life?

4. Do you have any problems accessing information?


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Radio Access Usage

1. Do have a radio set yourself at home?

2. If no do you access to a radio?

3. How often to you listen to the radio?


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4. Where do you listen to the radio?

5. With whom do you listen to the radio?


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6. Who turns on the radio or chooses the station?

7. Do you know people who do not listen to the radio?

8. If so why don’t they listen to the radio?

No access to a radio set 59.5

No interest 19.0

No coverage 34.5

9. At what times do you listen to the radio?


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10. What are your favorite times to listen to the radio?


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11. Please the name the radio stations you listen to?

12. How important to you as an information source are BBC, Voice of the Community Kauda,

SRS, Miraya FM, Radio Omdurman


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Programming

1. Which topics of importance are of importance to you?

a. All respondents saying topic is very important

b. What percent of men women said the topics were very important?

Male

Female

Local News 75.68% 75.93%

International News 81.08% 83.33%

Politics 78.08% 75.00%

Education 87.84% 88.89%

Women 70.27% 79.63%

Agriculture/Income 87.67% 81.13%

Health/Hygiene 86.49% 87.04%

Religion/faith 72.97% 79.63%

Youth 79.73% 74.07%


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Sports 79.73% 75.93%

Arts/Culture 80.82% 79.63%

Economy 76.71% 70.37%

Entertainment 68.06% 53.70%

2. What kind of information would you like to know about that is not currently available to

you?

Write in answers, grouped by similarities.


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What percent of men and female listed this topic as the kind of information that they would like

to know amount?

Male

Female

Agricultural information 9.46% 9.43%

Information on Culture and Tradition 12.16%

Information on Culture and Tradition 6.76% 15.09%

Information on Health Matters 1.35% 7.55%

Environmental information and Weather forecasting 10.81% 11.32%

Information on peace and crisis programs 4.05% 5.66%

Information on Religion 1.35% 1.89%

Information on Sports & Games 32.43% 28.30%

Information on Politics 20.27% 9.43%

Information about Funeral 2.70% 3.77%

Information about family and community issues 9.46% 7.55%

Information on geographical matters 13.51% 15.09%

Economic and Trade Information 13.51% 13.21%

Information on Nuclear Blast 1.35%

Information on News 5.48% 9.43%

Information on Music 2.74%

Others 4.11% 3.77%

Examples of Answers given:

••

Delivering magazines daily for reading, Information about earthquake, Information about urban

& rural life

••

Educating people disadvantages of cutting down trees, HIV/AIDS Awareness

••

Arts/ Culture News Information, Politics News/Information, Religion News/Informations

••

History of Old Sudan

••

Funeral Information,Sports & Games

••

Husband and wife relationship

••

I want to know how people intract in the past, also to know illeterate in the past, know how

sports were played long time ago

••

Information import and export of goods, information on life on planet, product poisonous

••

Information about a new discovered planet, Information about UAE expansion market,

Information about trade between neighbouring state

••

Information about Earthquake/Flood, Information on wildlife protection

••

Information about economy and manage control, companies product turned, death and life

rate, poisonous


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••

Information about heavy rains, chemical improvement, Information on currencies exchange of

money

••

Information about scientist discover, Informations about lanslide/ collapse of building,

Informations on forestry conservation

••

Information about sports, Entertainment, Agricultural production

••

Information about Traditional culture, About military issues

••

Information about useful products, Information about collapse of bridge, Information about

scientific discovery planets

••

Information about weather forecasting, Information about nuclear bomblast, information about

dead life state

••

Information about young childrens, Sports

••

Information concern invention of technology, Information about wars, Information about

weather forecasting

••

Information like sports, information like life on aboradside, informaion like technology

••

Information on accusation of bankrupts, Information about kidnap, Information concern

international trade

••

Information on global prayers, information on worship, information about human right

••

Information on life on planet moon, Inforfmation about leaders meeting, Information on

economy growing

••

Information on life on planet moon,Information about curlise society, information about

scientific discover diseases

••

Information on life on planet, Information about economy issues, Informaiton on Technology

invention

••

Information on Nuclear weapon, Information about urban-rural migration, information about

virus on computer

••

Traditional dancing, Old stories to be narratives

••

Weather forecasting daily, Cellebration of child day

••

Wildlife conservation in their natural place, Old radio stores books , Economic issues

••

women Programmes in Tira Language

••

Wrestling Programmes


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Specific Programming

1. Please name your favorite programs on Voice of Community of Kauda.

Write in answers, grouped by similarities.

a. Answers broken down by percentages, of those who answered above

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Terbia A (Education) 12.50% 28.91% 33.59% 16.41% 8.59%

Terbia B (Education) 8.57% 32.38% 33.33% 16.19% 9.52%

Morning Show 8.89% 25.56% 40.00% 14.44% 11.11%

Saha (Health Program) 9.92% 28.93% 34.71% 15.70% 10.74%

Civic Education 13.39% 31.25% 29.46% 15.18% 10.71%

Rai al Shaira (Public opinion) 11.46% 29.17% 30.21% 17.71% 11.46%

Al Souk (Market) 11.76% 27.06% 36.47% 12.94% 11.76%

Mardarssna (Education) 10.00% 30.00% 32.50% 17.50% 10.00%

Barnamic Al Mara (Women) 10.62% 29.20% 34.51% 14.16% 11.50%

Barnamic Al Shabaab (youth) 11.48% 31.15% 32.79% 15.57% 9.02%

News 12.50% 28.85% 31.73% 16.35% 10.58%

Music 9.68% 31.45% 32.26% 17.74% 8.87%

Evening Show 8.79% 30.77% 32.97% 14.29% 13.19%

Karkur (Culture) 7.37% 31.58% 35.79% 18.95% 6.32%

Barnamic al Diini (Religion) 10.62% 28.32% 31.86% 18.58% 10.62%

Barnamic al Atsal (Children) 12.17% 29.57% 33.04% 16.52% 8.70%


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2. Please name your favorite presenters on Voice of Community of Kauda?

Write in answers.

Presenters

# of people

saying favorite

Nasreldin 77

Ahmed Kuwa 96

Walid 103

Musa 128

3. Which of these programs on Voice of Community Kauda is useful to you?

Al Souk (Market) 60.1

Morning Show 62.8

Evening Show 63.5

Karkur (culture) 67.6

Rai al Shaira (Public Opinion) 67.8

News 73.5

Terbia B (Education) 74.1

Civic Education 77.3

Barnamic Al Mara (Women) 78

Barnamic al Atsal (Children) 79.9

Barnamic al Dini (Religion) 80.1

Barnamic AlShabaab (Youth) 83.3

Saha (Health Program) 83.9

Music 85.9


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Madarssna (Education) 86.1

Terbia A (Education) 88

4. Which of these presenters do you listen to on Voice of Community Kauda?

Always Sometimes Never

Walid Ali Akbar 49.7 29.9 19.7

Musa John Atebera 52.3 41.6 6.0

Nasreldin Ali Akbar 42.9 49.7 6.8

Ahmed Kuwa Abdurrahman 38.3 47.5 14.2

Tarig Andugul 52.4 34.7 12.9

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45 45+

Always

Walid Ali Akbar 4.23% 25.35% 40.85% 19.72% 9.86%

Musa John Atebera 10.53% 26.32% 32.89% 15.79% 14.47%

Nasreldin Ali Akbar 5.00% 28.33% 41.67% 16.67% 8.33%

Ahmed Kuwa Abdurrahman 15.38% 21.15% 32.69% 21.15% 9.62%

Tarig Andugul 6.58% 25.00% 39.47% 18.42% 10.53%

Never

Walid Ali Akbar 17.86% 28.57% 17.86% 21.43% 14.29%

Musa John Atebera 22.22% 22.22% 44.44% 11.11%

Nasreldin Ali Akbar 33.33% 33.33% 11.11% 22.22%

Ahmed Kuwa Abdurrahman 25.00% 25.00% 15.00% 25.00% 10.00%

Tarig Andugul 36.84% 36.84% 5.26% 21.05%


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Interaction

1. Please indicate how often do you interact with Voice of Community Kauda

a. Listen

Never 18.7%

About once a month 38.7%

Several times a month 10.7%

About once a week 8.0%

Several times a week 14.7%

More often 8.0%

b. Phone-in

Never 55.7%

About once a month 17.4%

Several times a month 12.8%

About once a week 6.0%

Several times a week 3.4%

More often 4.7%

c. SMS

Never 57.4%

About once a month 16.9%

Several times a month 5.4%

About once a week 10.1%

Several times a week 4.1%

More often 3.4%

d. Write

Never 50.3%

About once a month 23.4%

Several times a month 9.0%

About once a week 6.2%

Several times a week 6.2%

More often 3.4%


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e. Visit

Never 43.2%

About once a month 27.7%

Several times a month 6.1%

About once a week 7.4%

Several times a week 8.8%

More often 6.1%

f. Make a program

Never 58.1%

About once a month 21.6%

Several times a month 4.7%

About once a week 10.1%

Several times a week 2.7%

More often 2.7%

g. Volunteer

Never 61.6%

About once a month 17.1%

Several times a month 5.5%

About once a week 4.1%

Several times a week 7.5%

More often 4.1%

h. Guest on Air

Never 60.8%

About once a month 13.5%

Several times a month 10.1%

About once a week 5.4%

Several times a week 3.4%

More often 6.8%

i. Interviewed

Never 60.8%


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About once a month 13.5%

Several times a month 10.1%

About once a week 5.4%

Several times a week 3.4%

More often 6.8%

j. Attended event

Never 43.2%

About once a month 33.1%

Several times a month 3.4%

About once a week 8.8%

Several times a week 6.8%

More often 4.1%

2. What would make you more likely to interact with your community radio station?


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Mobile Phone

1. Do you own a mobile phone?

2. Do you ever use your mobile phone to SMS people?


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3. Have you ever sent an SMS to a radio station?

4. Would you consider sending SMS to a radio station?

5. Do you ever access information on your mobile phone?


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6. If information were available to you by mobile phone, would that be useful to you?

7. If yes, what kind of information?

Civil Society and Media

1. Radio is an essential source of information in my community.

Strongly agree 79.2%

Agree 18.8%

Neither agree or disagree 1.3%

Disagree 0.7%

2. Radio has improved my access to information

Strongly agree 65.5%

Agree 27.7%

Neither agree or disagree 2.7%

Disagree 2.0%

Strongly disagree 1.4%

Don’t know 0.7%


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3. The radio station has helped me to more tolerant of cultural differences

Strongly agree 67.8%

Agree 21.5%

Neither agree or disagree 3.4%

Disagree 2.7%

Strongly disagree 3.4%

Don’t know 1.3%

Total 100.0%

4. My attitude/behavior towards women and girls is different because of information I hear on

the radio.

Strongly agree 53.1%

Agree 34.7%

Neither agree or disagree 6.8%

Disagree 4.1%

Don’t know 1.4%

Total 100.0%

5. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard

on the radio.

Strongly agree 50.7%

Agree 33.3%

Neither agree or disagree 7.3%

Disagree 4.0%

Strongly disagree 2.7%

Don’t know 2.0%

Total 100.0%

6. Radio has given a better understanding of the events beyond my community.

Strongly agree 72.7%

Agree 22.7%

Neither agree or disagree 0.7%

Disagree 1.3%

Strongly disagree 0.7%

Don’t know 1.3%


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7. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect

my health and that of my family.

Strongly agree 62.0%

Agree 27.3%

Neither agree or disagree 4.7%

Disagree 1.3%

Strongly disagree 1.3%

Don’t know 3.3%

Total 100.0%

8. The radio station in my community is a credible source of information.

Strongly agree 79.9%

Agree 16.1%

Neither agree or disagree 1.3%

Disagree 2.7%

Total 100.0%

9. The radio station in my community provides a platform for interaction.

Strongly agree 74.7%

Agree 21.3%

Neither agree or disagree 1.3%

Disagree 2.0%

Strongly disagree 0.7%

10. As citizens, we should be active in our community.

Strongly agree 59.5%

Agree 31.8%

Neither agree or disagree 3.4%

Disagree 2.7%

Strongly disagree 2.0%

Don’t know 0.7%

Total 100.0%


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11. Information is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly agree 61.3%

Agree 30.7%

Neither agree or disagree 2.7%

Disagree 4.0%

Don’t know 1.3%

Total 100.0%

Democracy

1. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly agree 66.7%

Agree 25.3%

Neither agree or disagree 4.7%

Disagree 1.3%

Strongly disagree 0.7%

Don’t know 1.3%

Total 100.0%

2. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly agree 69.3%

Agree 20.0%

Neither agree or disagree 3.3%

Disagree 3.3%

Strongly disagree 3.3%

Don’t know 0.7%


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3. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPAs, referendum)

Strongly agree 73.8%

Agree 19.5%

Neither agree or disagree 0.7%

Disagree 1.3%

Strongly disagree 4.0%

Don’t know 0.7%

Total 100.0%

4. The political leadership in my community is visible and interacts with communities,

Strongly agree 45.3%

Agree 36.5%

Neither agree or disagree 8.8%

Disagree 0.7%

Strongly disagree 7.4%

Don’t know 1.4%

Total 100.0%

5. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Strongly agree 81.1%

Agree 15.5%

Neither agree or disagree 1.4%

Strongly disagree 0.7%

Don’t know 1.4%

Total 100.0%


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Emergency Radio

1. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45% 45+%

Strongly Agree 10.81% 31.53% 27.93% 19.82% 9.91%

Agree 6.90% 20.69% 48.28% 10.34% 13.79%

Neither 100.00%

Disagree 100.00%

Strongly disagree 100.00%

Don’t Know 100.00%

2. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information.


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Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45% 45+%

Strongly Agree 13.54% 29.17% 33.33% 12.50% 11.46%

Agree 7.50% 27.50% 25.00% 30.00% 10.00%

Neither 50.00% 50.00%

Disagree 50.00% 50.00%

Strongly disagree 100.00%

Don’t Know 25.00% 50.00% 25.00%

3. In a crisis, I would want the radio to stay on air with information.

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45% 45+%

Strongly Agree 10.75% 30.11% 32.26% 21.51% 5.38%

Agree 5.56% 36.11% 25.00% 8.33% 25.00%

Neither 16.67% 33.33% 33.33% 16.67%

Disagree 66.67% 33.33%

Strongly disagree 100.00%

Don’t Know 33.33% 66.67%


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4. In times of crisis, which would you turn to for information?

Under 16 16-25 26-35 36-45% 45+%

Strongly Agree 14.89% 27.66% 31.91% 19.15% 6.38%

Agree 50.00% 50.00%

Neither 50.00% 50.00%

Disagree 75.00% 25.00%

Strongly disagree 50.00% 50.00%

Don’t Know 100.00%


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Elections

1. During the Popular Consultation, which topics are of importance to you? Please rank them

by the order of priority.

% Respondents saying topic is very important during Popular Consultation

a. Where to register

Very important 96.6

Important 2.7

Not important .7

Total 100.0


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b. Where to vote

Very important 95.9

Important 4.1

Total 100.0

c. Results in my community

Very important 95.3

Important 2.7

Little important 1.4

Total 100.0

d. Results in my other communities

Very important 82.3

Important 14.3

Little important 2.0

Not important .7

Total 100.0

e. North/south relations

Very important 65.5

Important 18.2

Little important 12.8

Not important 3.4

Total 100.0

f. Political speeches

Very important 75.0

Important 21.6

Little important 2.0

Not important .7

g. Political analysis

Very Important 80.5

Important 16.8


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Little important 1.3

Not important .7

Total 100.0

h. Conflict

Very important 52.1

Important 20.8

Little important 5.6

Not important 21.5

Total 100.0

i. Movement of people

Very important 69.7

Important 21.4

Little important 5.5

Not important 3.4

Total 100.0

j. Local news

Very Important 75.0

Important 13.5

Little important 8.8

Not important 2.0

Total 100.0

k. Popular consultation

Very important 91.1

Important 7.5

Little important .7

Not important .7

Total 100.0


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l. International news

Very important 75.0

Important 18.9

Little important 4.7

Not important 1.4

Total 100.0

m. Non-referendum programming

Very important 34.7

Important 21.3

Little important 34.0

Not important 10.0

n. Music

Very important 49.3

Important 25.7

Little important 18.2

Not important 6.8

Total 100.0

Cross Cutting Analysis

1. Use of Radio as info source vs. radio is the most trusted source of info

Does not Use Radio as info source 66.67%

Uses Radio as info source 87.59%

Radio is most

trusted source

2. Radio as Info source vs. importance of information/access to media to life

Very

important

Important

Does not Use Radio as info source 66.67% 33.33%

Uses Radio as info source 94.41% 5.59%


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3. Radio Ownership & who turns Radio on vs. Gender

Male

Female

Does not own Radio 37.50% 58.33%

Owns Radio 61.32% 37.74%

Turn radio myself 61.90% 36.51%

Spouse - -

Child 100.00%

Parent 63.64% 36.36%

Brother/Sister 66.67% 33.33%

Other 50.00% 50.00%

4. Info sources vs. opinions on civil society and democracy

a. Radio is an essential source of information in my community vs. using radio as info source ( for

each opinion what percent of those who use radio as info source are saying this)

Strongly Agree 78.87%

Agree 19.72%

Neither 0.70%

Disagree 0.70%

b. Radio has helped me be more tolerant of cultural differences vs using radio as info source

Strongly Agree 66.90%

Agree 22.54%

Neither 3.52%

Disagree 2.82%

Strongly disagree 2.82%

Don’t Know 1.41%

c. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard on

the radio vs. use radio as info source

Strongly Agree 51.75%

Agree 34.27%

Neither 5.59%

Disagree 4.20%

Strongly disagree 2.10%

Don’t Know 2.10%


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d. As citizens we should be active in community vs. use of radio as info source

Strongly Agree 63.64%

Agree 28.67%

Neither 2.10%

Disagree 4.20%

Strongly disagree

Don’t Know 1.40%

e. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPA, referendum) vs. use of

radio as info source

Strongly Agree 73.94%

Agree 19.72%

Neither 0.70%

Disagree 1.41%

Strongly disagree 3.52%

Don’t Know 0.70%

f. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Strongly Agree 80.85%

Agree 15.60%

Neither 1.42%

Disagree

Strongly disagree 0.71%

Don’t Know 1.42%


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5. Opinion on civil society and emergency vs. importance of Voice of Community Kauda

a. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Radio of Voice of Community is very important)

Strongly Agree 78.46%

Agree 17.69%

Neither 0.77%

Disagree 0.77%

Strongly disagree 1.54%

Don’t Know 0.77%

b. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Radio of Voice of Community Kauda is very important)

Strongly Agree 69.23%

Agree 24.62%

Neither 0.77%

Disagree 1.54%

Strongly disagree 1.54%

Don’t Know 2.31%

c. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect my

health and that of my family information (for each opinion showing the percentage from those

who said Radio of Voice of Community Kauda is very important)

Strongly Agree 83.72%

Agree 11.63%

Neither 1.55%

Disagree 3.10%

d. Radio has given me a better understanding of daily life in my community information (for each

opinion showing the percentage from those who said Radio of Voice of Community is very

important)

Strongly Agree 75.38%

Agree 19.23%

Neither 0.77%

Disagree 1.54%

Strongly disagree 0.77%

Don’t Know 1.54%


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e. Radio has given a better understanding of events beyond my community.

Strongly Agree 63.08%

Agree 26.92%

Neither 3.85%

Disagree 1.54%

Strongly disagree 1.54%

Don’t Know 3.08%


205 | Light in the Darkness

APPENDIX III C

Mayardit FM

Internews Radio in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas

Impact Assessment Report

Mayardit FM

Turalei, Warrap State

February 2011

Demographics of Sample

1. Age

Under 16 3.3%

16-25 29.3%

26-35 38.0%

36-45 18.7%

45+ 10.7%

2. Gender

Male 65.4%

Female 34.6%

3. Education

No Schooling/illiterate 28.5%

No schooling/literate 13.2%

Some primary 14.6%

Primary complete 8.6%

Some secondary 14.6%

Secondary, complete 15.9%

In college/university 2.6%

Completed college 2.0%


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4. Do you own a TV /Radio/Cell phone/Computer?

TV 0.67%

Radio 86.58%

Cell Phone 60.93%

Computer 5.44%

Sources of Information

1. Which of the following do you use to get information?

Radio 78.52%

TV 11.41%

Newspapers/magazines 15.44%

Word of mouth 46.31%

Internet 12.75%

Mobile Phone 8.72%

Church/Mosque 28.86%

Police 4.03%

Billboards/posters 8.05%

Community events 22.15%

2. What is the source of information that you trust the most?

Radio 62.3%

TV 2.0%

Newspapers/magazines 0.7%

Word of mouth 23.8%

Church/mosque 3.3%

Community events 0.7%

3. How important do you think access to information/media is to your life?

Very important 80.0%

Important 14.7%

A little important 4.0%

Not important 1.3%


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4. Do you have any problems accessing information?

No problem 85.3%

No money 6.7%

No time 0.7%

Not available 7.3%

Radio Access Usage

1. Do have a radio set yourself at home?

Yes 14.7%

No 85.3%

2. How often to you listen to the radio?

Daily 86.2%

Weekly 6.5%

Monthly 0.7%

Less than once a month 0.7%

Never 5.8%

3. Where do you listen to the radio?

Home 88.64%

Work 31.06%

At friends/family 17.42%

collective places 9.85%

NGO 0.76%

At school 1.52%

In the fields 1.52%

Everywhere 6.06%


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4. With whom do you listen to the radio?

Alone 9.1%

Family 83.3%

Friends 39.4%

Colleagues 28.0%

Anyone 18.2%

5. Who turns on the radio or chooses the station?

Myself 87.1%

Spouse 10.6%

Child 0%

Parent 0.8%

Brother/sister 0.8%

Other 0.8%

6. Do you know people who do not listen to the radio?

No one 73.5%

1 to 5 12.1%

5 to 10 4.5%

10 + 9.8%

7. If so why don’t they listen to the radio?

No access to a radio 39.34%

No interest 9.84%

No coverage 1.64%

other 46.43%

8. At what times do you listen to the radio?

Morning 82.44%

Afternoon 3.82%

Evening 51.15%

Night 33.59%

All day 16.03%


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9. What are your favorite times to listen to the radio?

Morning 65.38%

Afternoon 1.54%

Evening 65.38%

Night 49.23%

All day 0.00%

10. Please the name the radio stations you listen to?

BBC 38.46%

Mayardit FM 100.00%

SRS 22.31%

Miraya FM 19.23%

Radio Omdurman 30.77%

11. How important to you as an information source are BBC, Mayardit FM, SRS, Miraya FM,

Radio Omdurman

Very important Important A little important Not important

BBC 42.15% 9.92% 23.97% 21.49%

Mayardit FM 90.70% 6.20% 0.00% 3.10%

SRS

Miraya FM

Radio Omdurman 19.83% 18.18% 21.49% 40.50%


210 | Light in the Darkness

Programming

1. Which topics of importance are of importance to you?

a. % of All respondents saying topic is very important

Local News 84.73%

International News 51.91%

Politics 46.15%

Education 70.77%

Women 56.49%

Agriculture/income generation 75.19%

Health/hygiene 88.55%

Religion/faith 75.19%

Youth 70.23%

Sports 68.99%

Arts/Culture 75.00%

Economy 70.08%

Entertainment 65.12%

b. What percent of men women said the topics were very important?

Male

Female

Local News 82.9% 84.6%

International News 52.6% 46.2%

Politics 46.7% 46.2%

Education 73.3% 66.7%

Women 57.1% 59.0%

Agriculture/income generation 76.6% 73.0%

Health/hygiene 88.3% 89.7%

Religion/faith 75.3% 75.7%

Youth 75.3% 69.2%

Sports 72.4% 63.2%

Arts/Culture 73.7% 81.1%

Economy 75.7% 65.8%

Entertainment 65.3% 71.8%


211 | Light in the Darkness

Specific Programming

1. Which of these programs on Mayardit FM is useful to you?

Terbia A (Education) 46.2%

Terbia B (Education) 36.7%

Terbia C (Education) 41.4%

Ciwebak! (Good Morning) 72.3%

Morning Talkshow 51.2%

Puuor ee piir piath (Agriculture) 70.0%

Pial Guop (Health) 93.1%

Chachol Warrap (Good Afternoon Warrap) 41.6%

Sports News 60.3%

Piooc ee baae (Education) 78.5%

Let’s Talk (Dinka) 65.9%

Let’s Talk (Arabic) 65.9%

News 65.4%

Music 75.6%

Cien Monjang (Culture) 86.7%

Akut Thueec Itueg ku dhor (Sports) 58.1%

Terbia A (Education) 47.3%

Terbia B (Education) 85.5%

Terbia C (Education) 63.4%

Ciwebak! (Good Morning) 75.6%

Morning Talkshow 84.0%

2. Which of these presenters do you listen to on Mayardit FM?

Always Sometimes Never

Deng Bol David 50.8% 47.6% 1.6%

John Thuc Madut 42.0% 54.6% 3.4%

Christine Akuol 44.3% 51.5% 3.1%

Monica Nyayai 34.3% 58.8% 5.9%


212 | Light in the Darkness

Interaction

1. Please indicate how often do you interact with community radio Mayardit FM

a. Listen

Never 4.7%

About once a month 1.6%

Several times a month 6.2%

About once a week 4.7%

Several times a week 71.3%

More often 11.6%

b. Phone-in

Never 52.0%

About once a month 4.8%

Several times a month 5.6%

About once a week 12.8%

Several times a week 23.2%

More often 1.6%

c. SMS

Never 84.1%

About once a month 8.7%

Several times a month 2.4%

About once a week 0.8%

Several times a week 4.0%

d. Write

Never 85.0%

About once a month 3.1%

Several times a month 1.6%

About once a week 7.9%

Several times a week 2.4%


213 | Light in the Darkness

e. Visit

Never 72.2%

About once a month 13.5%

Several times a month 5.6%

About once a week 4.0%

Several times a week 4.0%

More often 0.8%

f. Make a program

Never 82.7%

About once a month 7.1%

Several times a month 2.4%

About once a week 5.5%

Several times a week 2.4%

g. Volunteer

Never 89.6%

About once a month 3.2%

About once a week 3.2%

Several times a week 1.6%

More often 1.6%

h. Guest on Air

Never 74.8%

About once a month 9.4%

Several times a month 1.6%

About once a week 10.2%

Several times a week 3.1%

More often 0.8%


214 | Light in the Darkness

i. Interviewed

Never 73.0%

About once a month 15.9%

Several times a month 4.8%

About once a week 2.4%

Several times a week 4.0%

j. Attended event

Never 65.4%

About once a month 29.1%

Several times a month 2.4%

About once a week 1.6%

Several times a week 1.6%

Mobile Phone

1. Do you own a mobile phone?

Yes 21.1%

No 78.9%

2. Do you ever use your mobile phone to SMS people?

Yes 65.6%

No 33.6%

3. Have you ever sent an SMS to a radio station?

Never 66.4%

About once a month 10.9%

Several times a month 5.0%

About once a week 0.8%

Several times a week 8.4%

More often 8.4%


215 | Light in the Darkness

4. Would you consider sending SMS to a radio station?

Yes 48.4%

No 51.6%

5. Do you ever access information on your mobile phone?

Never 58.2%

About once a month 6.6%

Several times a month 20.5%

About once a week 4.1%

Several times a week 4.9%

More often 5.7%

6. If information were available to you by mobile phone, would that be useful to you?

Never 35.6%

About once a month 7.6%

Several times a month 1.7%

About once a week 5.9%

Several times a week 48.3%

Civil Society and Media

1. Radio is an essential source of information in my community.

Strongly Agree 85.4%

Agree 13.8%

Neither 0.8%

2. Radio has improved my access to information

Strongly Agree 68.0%

Agree 31.3%

Neither 0.8%


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3. The radio station has helped me to more tolerant of cultural differences

Strongly Agree 72.9%

Agree 23.3%

Neither 2.3%

Disagree 1.6%

4. My attitude/behavior towards women and girls is different because of information I hear on

the radio.

Strongly Agree 48.8%

Agree 41.1%

Disagree 7.0%

Disagree strongly 1.6%

Don’t know 0.8%

5. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard

on the radio.

Strongly Agree 68.0%

Agree 23.4%

Neither 0.8%

Disagree 4.7%

Disagree strongly 3.1%

6. Radio has given a better understanding of daily life in my community

Strongly Agree 76.2%

Agree 23.1%

Disagree strongly 0.8%

7. Radio has given a better understanding of the events beyond my community.

Strongly Agree 76.2%

Agree 23.1%

Disagree strongly 0.8%


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8. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect

my health and that of my family.

Strongly Agree 68.2%

Agree 31.0%

Don’t know 0.8%

9. The radio station in my community is a credible source of information.

Strongly Agree 69.0%

Agree 29.5%

Neither 1.6%

10. The radio station in my community provides a platform for interaction.

Agree very strongly 64.3%

Agree 30.2%

Neither 3.1%

Disagree 0.8%

Don’t know 1.6%

11. As citizens, we should be active in our community.

Agree very strongly 73.1%

Agree 25.4%

Disagree 1.5%

Democracy

1. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly Agree 81.4%

Agree 17.1%

Neither 0.8%

Don’t know 0.8%


218 | Light in the Darkness

2. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly Agree 79.8%

Agree 18.6%

Neither 0.8%

Don’t know 0.8%

3. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPAs, referendum)

Strongly Agree 70.5%

Agree 29.5%

4. The political leadership in my community is visible and interacts with communities,

Strongly Agree 53.9%

Agree 41.4%

Neither 3.1%

Don’t know 0.8%

5. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Strongly Agree 67.2%

Agree 32.0%

Neither 0.8%

Emergency Radio

1. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information.

Strongly agree 87.5%

Agree 10.9%

Neither 1.6%

2. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information.

Strongly agree 74.2%

Agree 25.0%


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3. In a crisis, I would want the radio to stay on air with information.

Strongly agree 70.1%

Agree 28.3%

Neither 0.8%

Disagree 0.8%

4. In times of crisis, which would you turn to for information?

Radio 84.92%

TV 13.49%

Newspapers & Magazines 15.08%

Word of Mouth 33.33%

Internet 7.14%

Mobile Phone 1.59%

Church/Mosque 15.08%

Police 14.29%

Billboards/posters 7.94%

Community Events 14.29%

Elections

1. During the referendum period, which topics are of importance to you? Please rank them by

the order of priority.

% Respondents saying topic is very important during Referenedum period

a. Where to register

Very important 91.5%

Important 5.4%

A little important 3.1%

b. Where to vote

Very important 77.5%

Important 22.5%


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c. Results in my community

Very important 89.9%

Important 10.1%

d. Results in my other communities

Very important 40.3%

Important 31.8%

A little important 27.1%

Not important 0.8%

e. North/south relations

Very important 59.4%

Important 25.8%

A little important 11.7%

Not important 2.3%

f. Political speeches

Very important 50.0%

Important 25.8%

A little important 15.6%

Not important 8.6%

g. Political analysis

Very important 67.5%

Important 24.6%

A little important 7.1%

Not important 0.8%

h. Conflict

Very important 35.4%

Important 15.0%

A little important 11.8%

Not important 36.2%


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i. Movement of people

Very important 65.3%

Important 8.1%

A little important 12.1%

Not important 14.5%

j. Local news

k. Popular consultation

l. International news

Very important 62.8%

Important 25.6%

A little important 11.6%

m. Non-referendum programming

Very important 27.9%

Important 20.9%

A little important 32.6%

Not important 18.6%

n. Music

Very important 36.4%

Important 31.0%

A little important 23.3%

Not important 9.3%

Cross Cutting Analysis

1. Use of Radio as info source vs. radio is the most trusted source of info

Do not use radio as info source 6.25%

Use radio as info source 77.78%

Radio most

trusted source


222 | Light in the Darkness

2. Radio as Info source vs. importance of information/access to media to life

Very important Important A little Important Not important

Do not use radio as info source 28.13% 50.00% 15.63% 6.25%

Use radio as info source 94.83% 4.31% 0.86% 0.00%

3. Radio Ownership & who turns Radio on vs. Gender

Male

Female

Owns Radio 15.12% 15.22%

Does not own Radio 84.88% 84.78%

Myself 84.21% 89.74%

Child 13.16% 5.13%

Spouse 1.32% 0.00%

Parent 0.00% 2.56%

Other 0.00% 2.56%

4. Info sources vs. opinions on civil society and democracy

a. Radio is an essential source of information in my community vs. using radio as info source ( for

each opinion what percent of those who use radio as info source are saying this)

Strongly Agree 85.71%

Agree 14.29%

Neither -

b. Radio has helped me be more tolerant of cultural differences vs. using radio as info source

Strongly Agree 70.27%

Agree 26.13%

Neither 1.80%

Disagree 1.80%


223 | Light in the Darkness

c. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard on

the radio vs. use radio as info source

Strongly Agree 68.47%

Agree 21.62%

Neither 0.90%

Disagree 5.41%

Strongly disagree 3.60%

d. As citizens we should be active in community vs. use of radio as info source

Strongly Agree 79.46%

Agree 19.64%

Disagree 0.89%

e. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPA, referendum) vs. use of

radio as info source

Strongly Agree 80.36%

Agree 19.64%

f. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Strongly Agree 75.68%

Agree 23.42%

Neither 0.90%

5. Opinion on civil society and emergency vs. importance of Mayardit FM

a. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Mayardit FM is very important)

Very important Important Not important

Strongly Agree 91.82% 4.55% 3.64%

Agree 76.92% 23.08%

Neither 100.00%


224 | Light in the Darkness

b. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Mayardit FM is very important)

Very important Important Not imporant

Strongly Agree 90.43% 5.32% 4.26%

Agree 90.00% 10.00%

c. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect my

health and that of my family information (for each opinion showing the percentage from those

who said Mayardit FM is very important)

Very important Important Not important

Strongly Agree 92.94% 3.53% 3.53%

Agree 85.00% 12.50% 2.50%

Don’ Know 100.00%

d. Radio has given me a better understanding of daily life in my community information (for each

opinion showing the percentage from those who said Mayardit FM is very important)

Very important Important Not important

Strongly Agree 89.29% 5.95% 4.76%

Agree 95.00% 5.00%

Disagree 100.00%

e. Radio has given a better understanding of events beyond my community vs. (for each opinion

showing the percentage from those who said Mayardit FM is very important)

Very important Important Not important

Strongly Agree 92.78% 4.12% 3.09%

Agree 82.76% 13.79% 3.45%

f. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPA, ref) (for each opinion

showing the percentage from those who said Mayardit FM is very important)

Very important Important Not important

Strongly Agree 91.11% 5.56% 3.33%

Agree 88.89% 8.33% 2.78%


225 | Light in the Darkness

APPENDIX III D

Nhomlaau FM

Internews Radio in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas

Impact Assessment Report

Nhomlaau FM

Malualkon, Northern Bahr el Ghazal

February 2011

Demographics of Sample

1. Age

Under 16 7.4%

16-25 34.2%

26-35 34.9%

36-45 17.4%

45+ 6.0%

2. Gender

Male 58.6%

Female 41.4%

3. Education

No Schooling illiterate 41.1%

No schooling, literate 2.1%

Some primary 24.7%

Primary, complete 9.6%

Some secondary 9.6%

Secondary, complete 8.2%

In college/university 1.4%

completed college/university 1.4%


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4. Do you own a TV /Radio/Cell phone/Computer?

TV 14.7%

Radio 68.5%

Cell Phone 57.4%

Computer 13.8%

5. What is your primary source of income?

Shop/business 20.1%

Farmer/pastoralist 24.6%

Labor 1.5%

Teacher 0.7%

Housewife 14.9%

None 25.4%

Sources of Information

1. Which of the following do you use to get information?

Radio 68.0%

TV 15.3%

Newspapers/magazines 18.0%

Word of Mouth 93.3%

Internet 6.0%

Mobile Phone 46.0%

Church/mosque 78.0%

Police 17.3%

Billboards/posters 2.7%

Community events 38.0%

Other 0.7%


227 | Light in the Darkness

2. What is the source of information that you trust the most?

Radio 59.7%

Newspapers/magazines 0.7%

Word of mouth 30.9%

Internet 0.7%

Mobile Phone 2.7%

Church/mosque 2.0%

Community Events 0.7%

3. How important do you think access to information/media is to your life?

Very important 91.9%

Important 6.0%

A little important 1.3%

4. Do you have any problems accessing information?

No problem 71.0%

No money 20.0%

No time 2.1%

Radio Access Usage

1. Do have a radio set yourself at home?

Yes 33.8%

No 66.2%

2. How often to you listen to the radio?

Daily 79.8%

Weekly 7.0%

Monthly 1.8%

Less than a month 3.5%

Never 7.9%


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3. Where do you listen to the radio?

Home 91.3%

Work 7.8%

At Friend’s or family’s place 8.7%

Collective places 1.0%

NGO 0.0%

At school 1.9%

In the fields 2.0%

Everywhere 1.0%

4. With whom do you listen to the radio?

Alone 15.7%

Family 76.5%

Friends 17.6%

Colleagues 2.9%

Anyone 6.9%

5. Who turns on the radio or chooses the station?

Myself 86.4%

Spouse 1.0%

Child 8.7%

Parent 7.8%

Brother/sister 14.7%

Other 1.0%

6. Do you know people who do not listen to the radio?

No one 53.0%

1 to 5 29.0%

5 to 10 10.0%

More than 10 8.0%


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7. At what times do you listen to the radio?

Morning 84.6%

Afternoon 24.0%

Evening 38.5%

Night 64.4%

All day 7.7%

8. What are your favorite times to listen to the radio?

Morning 63.5%

Afternoon 14.4%

Evening 27.9%

Night 56.7%

All day 7.7%

9. Please the name the radio stations you listen to?

NhomlaauFM 92.3%

MerbeiFM 7.7%

MirayaFM 85.6%

SRS 18.3%

BBC 51.0%

Omdurman 24.0%

BentinFM 2.9%

Dabanga 1.0%

WeerbaiFM 22.1%

MaryarditFM 8.7%

LeerFM 1.9%

RubekFM 2.9%


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10. How important to you as an information source are BBC, Nhomlaau, SRS, Miraya FM, Radio

Omdurman

BBC 46.5%

Nhomlaau FM 84.2%

SRS 25.7%

Miraya 61.4%

Radio Omdurman 28.7%

Programming

1. Which topics of importance are of importance to you?

a. % of All respondents saying topic is very important

Local news (community) 96.7%

International news 72.2%

Politics 46.5%

Education 82.6%

Women 70.9%

Agriculture/Income generation 54.7%

Health/ Hygiene 96.7%

Religion/Faith 87.8%

Youth 75.6%

Sports 74.4%

Economy 57.1%

Entertainment 85.4%


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b. What percent of men women said the topics were very important?

Male

Female

Local news (community) 1.0% 1.0%

International news 0.8% 0.5%

Politics 0.5% 0.3%

Education 0.8% 0.7%

Women 0.7% 0.8%

Agriculture/Income generation 0.5% 0.6%

Health/ Hygiene 1.0% 1.0%

Religion/Faith 0.9% 0.8%

Youth 0.9% 0.5%

Sports 0.8% 0.5%

Arts/ Culture 0.6% 0.4%

Economy 0.9% 0.8%

2. What kind of information would you like to know about that is not currently available to

you?

Write in answers, grouped by similarities.

Agricultural information 22.4%

Information on History of Sudan 10.6%

Information on Culture and Tradition 17.6%

Information on Health Matters 10.6%

Information on Environmental Information and Weather Forecasting 5.9%

Information on Peace and Crises programs 11.8%

Information on Religion 8.2%

Information on Sports & Games 3.5%

Information on politics 23.5%

Information about Funeral 28.2%


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Specific Programming

1. Which of these programs on Nhomlaau FM is useful to you?

a. % of all saying program is very useful?

Terbia Market (Education) 75.9%

Education 82.6%

Health 91.1%

Morning Talkshow 70.5%

Let’s Talk (Democracy and Governance) 79.8%

Culture 73.3%

Women’s Issues 84.1%

Youth 80.2%

Agriculture 63.1%

Business and Economy 68.6%

2. Which of these presenters do you listen to on Nhomlaau FM?

Chris Marol Maker 70.0% 28.9% 1.1%

James Keer Noon 72.2% 26.7% 0%

Gabriel Deng Majok 71.6% 27.3% 1.1%

Hou Akot Hou 68.2% 27.3% 2.3%

Angelina Achol Piol 67.4% 27.0% 4.5%

Interaction

1. Please indicate how often do you interact with Nhomlaau FM?

a. Listen

Never 3.2%

About once a month 5.4%

Several times a month 20.4%

About once a week 18.3%

Several times a week 28.0%

More often 24.7%


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b. Phone-in

Never 65.9%

About once a month 4.4%

Several times a month 1.1%

About once a week 13.2%

Several times a week 15.4%

c. SMS

Never 89.0%

About once a month 3.3%

Several times a month 1.1%

About once a week 2.2%

Several times a week 4.4%

d. Write

Never 83.5%

About once a month 4.4%

Several times a month 1.1%

About once a week 7.7%

Several times a week 3.3%

e. Visit

Never 72.8%

About once a month 13.0%

Several times a month 3.3%

About once a week 9.8%

Several times a week 1.1%

f. Make a program

Never 94.6%

About once a month 2.2%

Several times a month 1.1%

About once a week 2.2%


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g. Volunteer

Never 94.5%

About once a month 3.3%

Several times a month 1.1%

About once a week 1.1%

h. Guest on Air

Never 94.5%

About once a month 2.2%

Several times a month 2.2%

About once a week 1.1%

i. Interviewed

Never 95.7%

About once a month 2.2%

Several times a month 2.2%

j. Attended event

Never 92.2%

About once a month 1.1%

Several times a month 2.2%

About once a week 4.4%

Mobile Phone

1. Do you own a mobile phone?

Yes 80.0%

No 20.0%


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2. Do you ever use your mobile phone to SMS people?

Never 68.2%

About once a month 2.3%

Several times a month 2.3%

About once a week 18.2%

Several times a week 2.3%

More often 5.7%

3. Have you ever sent an SMS to a radio station?

Yes 19.8%

No 79.1%

4. Would you consider sending SMS to a radio station?

Yes 33.3%

No 66.7%

5. Do you ever access information on your mobile phone?

Never 66.7%

About once a month 5.6%

Several times a month 14.4%

About once a week 1.1%

Several times a week 6.7%

More often 5.6%

6. If information were available to you by mobile phone, would that be useful to you?

Very useful 72.2%

Useful 4.4%

Somewhat useful 2.2%

Not useful 1.1%

Don’t know 20.0%


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Civil Society and Media

1. Radio is an essential source of information in my community.

Strongly Agree 88.2%

Agree 10.8%

Don’t Know 1.1%

2. Radio has improved my access to information

Strongly Agree 89.1%

Agree 10.9%

3. The radio station has helped me to more tolerant of cultural differences

Strongly Agree 81.5%

Agree 17.4%

Don’t Know 1.1%

4. My attitude/behavior towards women and girls is different because of information I hear on

the radio.

Strongly Agree 77.4%

Agree 19.4%

Neither 1.1%

Disagree 1.1%

Don’t know 1.1%

5. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard

on the radio.

Strongly Agree 75.8%

Agree 13.2%

Neither 1.1%

Disagree 1.1%

Don’t know 8.8%


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6. Radio has given a better understanding of the daily life in my community.

Strongly Agree 86.0%

Agree 12.9%

Don’t Know 1.1%

7. Radio has given a better understanding life beyond my community.

Strongly Agree 81.7%

Agree 18.3%

8. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect

my health and that of my family.

Strongly Agree 90.3%

Agree 8.6%

Neither 1.1%

9. The radio station in my community is a credible source of information.

Strongly Agree 80.4%

Agree 13.0%

Don’t Know 6.5%

10. The radio station in my community provides a platform for interaction.

Strongly Agree 74.7%

Agree 20.9%

Disagree 1.1%

Don’t Know 3.3%

11. As citizens, we should be active in our community.

Strongly Agree 90.1%

Agree 9.9%

Democracy

1. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly Agree 90.3%

Agree 9.7%


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2. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly Agree 87.1%

Agree 12.9%

3. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPAs, referendum)

Strongly Agree 89.2%

Agree 10.8%

4. The political leadership in my community is visible and interacts with communities,

Strongly Agree 78.5%

Agree 11.8%

Disagree 1.1%

Strongly Disagree 2.2%

Don’t Know 6.5%

5. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Strongly Agree 90.3%

Agree 7.5%

Don’t Know 2.2%

Emergency Radio

1. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information.

Strongly Agree 92.3%

Agree 7.7%

2. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information.

Strongly Agree 90.0%

Agree 10.0%


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3. In a crisis, I would want the radio to stay on air with information.

Strongly Agree 92.2%

Agree 7.8%

4. In times of crisis, which would you turn to for information?

Radio 97.8%

TV 77.2%

Newspapers and magazines 18.5%

Word of mouth 4.3%

Internet 46.7%

Mobile phone 59.8%

Church/mosque 16.3%

Police 1.1%

Billboards/posters 30.4%

Community events 1.1%

Elections

1. During the referendum period, which topics are of importance to you? Please rank them by

the order of priority.

% Respondents saying topic is very important during Referendum period

a. Where to register

Very important 96.8%

Important 3.2%

b. Where to vote

Very important 96.8%

Important 3.2%

c. Results in my community

Very important 95.6%

Important 4.4%


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d. Results in my other communities

Very important 80.5%

Important 17.2%

A little important 2.3%

e. North/south relations

Very important 40.9%

Important 17.0%

A little important 9.1%

Not important at all 33.0%

f. Political speeches

Very important 66.7%

Important 27.6%

A little important 5.7%

h. Conflict

Very important 29.4%

Important 23.5%

A little important 15.3%

Not important at all 31.8%

i. Movement of people

Very important 60.9%

Important 25.3%

A little important 3.4%

Not important at all 10.3%

j. Local news

Very important 95.7%

Important 4.3%


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k. Popular consultation

Very important 66.3%

Important 31.4%

A little important 2.3%

l. International news

Very important 77.3%

Important 13.6%

A little important 5.7%

Not important at all 3.4%

m. Non-referendum programming

Very important 75.6%

Important 12.2%

A little important 6.7%

Not important at all 5.6%

n. Music

Very important 90.1%

Important 8.8%

A little important 1.1%

Cross Cutting Analysis

1. Use of Radio as info source vs. radio is the most trusted source of info

Does not use Radio as info source 4.49%

Uses Radio as info source 95.51%

Radio is most

trusted sourced

2. Radio as Info source vs. importance of information/access to media to life

Very

important

Important

A little

important

Not important

at all

Does not use Radio as info source 27.0% 88.9% 100.0% 100.0%

Uses Radio as info source 73.0% 11.1% 0% 0.0%


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3. Radio Ownership & who turns Radio on vs. Gender

Male

Female

Owns Radio 32.1% 48.3%

Does Not own radio 67.9% 51.7%

Myself 85.0% 66.7%

Spouse 0% 0%

Child 0% 3.7%

Parent 0% 3.7%

Brother/sister 1.7% 7.4%

other 0% 0.0%

4. Info sources vs. opinions on civil society and democracy

a. Radio is an essential source of information in my community vs. using radio as info source ( for

each opinion what percent of those who use radio as info source are saying this)

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio

as info source

Strongly Agree 75.0% 88.8%

Agree 25.0% 10.1%

Don’t Know 0.0% 1.1%

b. Radio has improved my access to information.

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 75.0% 89.8%

Agree 25.0% 10.2%

c. Radio has helped me be more tolerant of cultural differences vs. using radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio

as info source

Strongly Agree 75.0% 81.8%

Agree 25.0% 17.0%

Don’t Know 1.1%


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d. My attitude/behavior towards women and girls is different because of information I hear on the

radio.

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio

as info source

Strongly Agree 75.0% 77.5%

Agree 25.0% 19.1%

Neither 1.1%

Disagree 1.1%

Don’t Know 1.1%

e. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard on

the radio vs. use radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 75.0% 75.9%

Agree 25.0% 12.6%

Neither 1.1%

Disagree 1.1%

Don’t Know 9.2%

f. As citizens we should be active in community vs. use of radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 75.0% 90.8%

Agree 25.0% 9.2%

g. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPA, referendum) vs. use of

radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 75.0% 89.9%

Agree 25.0% 10.1%


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h. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio

as info source

Strongly Agree 75.0% 91.0%

Agree 25.0% 6.7%

Don’t Know 2.2%

5. Opinion on civil society and emergency vs. importance of Nhomlaau FM

a. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Nhomlaau FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 91.7%

Agree 8.3%

Neither 0.0%

Disagree 0.0%

Strongly Disagree 0.0%

Don’t Know 0.0%

Nhomlaau FM is

very important

b. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Nhomlaau FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 89.2%

Agree 10.8%

Neither 0.0%

Disagree 0.0%

Strongly Disagree 0.0%

Don’t Know 0.0%

Nhomlaau FM is

very important


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c. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect my

health and that of my family information (for each opinion showing the percentage from those

who said Nhomlaau FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 89.5%

Agree 9.3%

Neither 1.2%

Disagree 0.0%

Strongly Disagree 0.0%

Don’t Know 0.0%

Nhomlaau FM is

very important

d. Radio has given me a better understanding of daily life in my community information (for each

opinion showing the percentage from those who said Nhomlaau FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 86.0%

Agree 12.8%

Neither 0.0%

Disagree 0.0%

Strongly Disagree 0.0%

Don’t Know 0.0%

Nhomlaau FM is

very important

e. Radio has given a better understanding of events beyond my community (for each opinion

showing the percentage from those who said Nhomlaau FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 81.4%

Agree 18.6%

Neither 0.0%

Disagree 0.0%

Strongly Disagree 0.0%

Don’t Know 0.0%

Nhomlaau FM is

very important


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APPENDIX III E

Leer, Unity State

Internews Radio in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas

Impact Assessment Report

Naath FM

Leer, Unity State

February 2011

Demographics of Sample

1. Age

2. Gender

3. Language


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4. Education

No Schooling, illiterate 45.3%

No schooling, literate 5.3%

Some primary 8.7%

primary, complete 14.0%

some secondary 8.0%

secondary, complete 13.3%

in college, university 2.7%

completed college/university 2.7%

5. Do you own a TV/radio/cell phone/computer?

6. What is your primary source of income?

Shop/business 13.9%

Farmer/pastoralist 34.0%

Labor 0.7%

Teacher 15.3%

Housewife 10.4%

None 22.2%

other 2.8%


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Sources of Information

1. Which of the following do you use to get information?

% of all male and females saying they use the following as info sources

Male

Female

Radio 78.6% 63.8%

TV 2.4% 1.7%

Newspapers and magazines 7.1% 3.4%

Word of mouth 61.9% 63.8%

Internet 7.1% 1.7%

Mobile phone 36.9% 15.5%

Church/mosque 61.9% 65.5%

Police 0.0% 0.0%

Billboards/posters 13.1% 10.3%

Community events 31.0% 29.3%


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2. What is the source of information that you trust the most?

Radio 70.5%

TV 0.7%

Word of Mouth 4.7%

Internet 2.7%

Mobile Phone 1.3%

Church/mosque 13.4%

Billboards/posters 0.7%

Community events 6.0%

% of all male and females saying the following are most trusted info sources

Male

Female

Radio 78.3% 59.6%

Word of mouth 3.6% 7.0%

Church/mosque 7.2% 21.1%

Community events 6.0% 7.0%

3. How important do you think access to information/media is to your life?

% of all male and females describing the importance of access to info/media to their lives

Male

Female

Very important 81.0% 74.1%

Important 11.9% 13.8%

A little important 4.8% 10.3%

Not at all important 2.4% 1.7%

4. Do you have any problems accessing information?

No Problem 58.0%

No money 19.3%

No time 4.7%

No interest 1.3%

Not available 9.3%

Not allowed 7.3%


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Radio Access Usage

1. Do have a radio set yourself at home?

2. How often to you listen to the radio?

3. Where do you listen to the radio?

Home 65.3%

Work 19.8%

At friends/family 46.3%

Collective places 14.9%

NGO 3.3%

At school 9.9%

In the fields 2.5%

Everywhere 11.6%


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4. With whom do you listen to the radio?

Alone 0.8%

Family 66.4%

Friends 39.3%

Colleagues 23.0%

Anyone 23.0%

5. Who turns on the radio or chooses the station?

Myself 60.0%

Child 12.5%

Brother/sister 9.2%

Spouse 2.5%

Parent 9.2%

Other 26.1%

6. Do you know people who do not listen to the radio?

No one 19.7%

1 to 5 9.8%

5 to 10 10.7%

More than 10 59.0%

7. If so why don’t they listen to the radio?

No access to a Radio 66.7%

No interest 7.6%

No coverage 25.7%

Other 15.5%

8. At what times do you listen to the radio?

Morning 36.1%

Afternoon 27.7%

Evening 33.6%

Night 17.6%

All day 51.3%


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9. What are your favorite times to listen to the radio?

Morning 33.6%

Afternoon 10.1%

Evening 62.2%

Night 20.2%

All day 21.8%

10. Please the name the radio stations you listen to?

BBC 34.5%

Naath FM 98.3%

SRS 31.1%

Miraya FM 17.6%

Radio Omdurman 13.4%

11. How important to you as an information source are BBC, Naath FM, SRS, Miraya FM, Radio

Omdurma

Very important Important A little important Not important

BBC 22.7% 11.8% 20.2% 43.7%

Naath FM 88.5% 6.6% 4.9%

SRS 8.5% 20.5% 24.8% 46.2%

Miraya FM 1.8% 9.8% 31.3% 57.1%

Radio Omdurman 3.6% 8.0% 27.7% 60.7%


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Programming

1. Which topics of importance are of importance to you?

a. All respondents saying topic is very important

Very important

Local News 91.8%

International news 61.2%

Politics 36.9%

Education 86.9%

Women 55.7%

Agriculture/income generation 71.3%

Health/hygiene 76.2%

Religion/faith 81.1%

Youth 54.9%

Sports 53.3%

Arts/Culture 85.1%

Economy 78.7%

Entertainment 84.2%

b. What percent of men women said the topics were very important?

Very important

Male

Female

Local News 93.2% 88.1%

International news 66.7% 52.4%

Politics 37.0% 28.6%

Education 89.0% 81.0%

Women 53.4% 64.3%

Agriculture/income generation 76.7% 69.0%

Health/hygiene 78.1% 78.6%

Religion/faith 82.2% 83.3%

Youth 56.2% 59.5%

Sports 50.7% 61.9%

Arts/Culture 86.1% 81.0%

Economy 80.8% 76.2%

Entertainment 90.1% 73.8%


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Specific Programming

1. Which of these programs on Naath FM is useful to you?

Very useful Somewhat useful Not useful Don’t listen

a Wake Up I can See you 50.4% 35.5% 7.4% 6.6%

b Community Announcements 89.9% 3.4% 1.7% 5.0%

c News (Nuer) 95.0% 1.7% 0.8% 2.5%

d Religious Program 84.2% 9.2% 2.5% 4.2%

e Let’s Talk 50.8% 33.3% 11.7% 4.2%

f Education Program 86.8% 5.8% 2.5% 5.0%

g News (English) 65.0% 15.0% 12.5% 7.5%

h Terbia Market 52.9% 23.1% 17.4% 6.6%

i Call-in programs 73.3% 20.8% 0.8% 5.0%

j Health (MSF Holland) 75.6% 16.0% 2.5% 5.9%

k Children (Save the Children UK) 52.9% 35.5% 5.8% 5.8%

l Animal Health (VSF Swiss) 70.2% 15.7% 8.3% 5.8%

2. Which of these presenters do you listen to on Naath FM?

Always Sometimes Never

a Rica Taker Machoak 81.8% 11.6% 4.1%

b Jacob Ruai Maluai 65.3% 28.9% 3.3%

c Luca Nhial Magock 52.9% 38.8% 5.8%

d John Gatluak Manguer 71.9% 19.8% 5.0%

e Deborah Nyauong Tap 33.1% 43.8% 11.6%

Interaction

1. Please indicate how often do you interact with Naath FM?

a. Listen

Never 10.7%

About once a month 11.6%

Several times a month 9.1%

About once a week 9.1%

Several times a week 32.2%

More often 27.3%


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Listen

Male

Female

Never 8.3% 16.7%

About once a month 12.5% 7.1%

Several times a month 6.9% 14.3%

About once a week 12.5% 4.8%

Several times a week 36.1% 31.0%

More often 23.6% 26.2%

b. Phone-in

Never 38.8%

About once a month 19.8%

Several times a month 6.6%

About once a week 5.8%

Several times a week 23.1%

More often 5.8%

Phone-in

Male

Female

Never 33.3% 45.2%

About once a month 25.0% 11.9%

Several times a month 5.6% 7.1%

About once a week 5.6% 7.1%

Several times a week 25.0% 21.4%

More often 5.6% 7.1%

c. SMS

Never 71.9%

About once a month 9.1%

Several times a month 5.0%

About once a week 5.0%

Several times a week 5.8%

More often 3.3%


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SMS

Male

Female

Never 72.2% 69.0%

About once a month 11.1% 7.1%

Several times a month 4.2% 7.1%

About once a week 4.2% 4.8%

Several times a week 6.9% 4.8%

More often 1.4% 7.1%

d. Write

Never 72.7%

About once a month 14.0%

Several times a month 3.3%

About once a week 1.7%

Several times a week 5.8%

More often 2.5%

Write

Male

Female

Never 66.7% 78.6%

About once a month 18.1% 9.5%

Several times a month 2.8% 4.8%

About once a week 1.4% 2.4%

Several times a week 8.3% 2.4%

More often 2.8% 2.4%

e. Visit

Never 80.0%

About once a month 7.5%

Several times a month 1.7%

About once a week 5.0%

Several times a week 5.8%


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Visit

Male

Female

Never 76.1% 83.3%

About once a month 9.9% 4.8%

Several times a month 1.4% 2.4%

About once a week 5.6% 4.8%

Several times a week 7.0% 4.8%

f. Make a program

Never 68.3%

About once a month 20.0%

Several times a month 0.8%

About once a week 1.7%

Several times a week 6.7%

More often 2.5%

Make a program

Male

Female

Never 52.8% 54.8%

About once a month 27.8% 16.7%

Several times a month 2.8% 2.4%

About once a week 1.4% 4.8%

Several times a week 13.9% 16.7%

More often 1.4% 4.8%

g. Volunteer

Never 68.6%

About once a month 22.3%

Several times a month 0.8%

About once a week 2.5%

Several times a week 5.8%


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volunteer

Male

Female

Never 61.1% 65.9%

About once a month 19.4% 14.6%

Several times a month 0% 2.4%

About once a week 1.4% 4.9%

Several times a week 18.1% 12.2%

h. Guest on Air

Never 54.5%

About once a month 24.0%

Several times a month 2.5%

About once a week 2.5%

Several times a week 14.0%

More often 2.5%

Guest on Air

Male

Female

Never 52.8% 54.8%

About once a month 27.8% 16.7%

Several times a month 2.8% 2.4%

About once a week 1.4% 4.8%

Several times a week 13.9% 16.7%

More often 1.4% 4.8%

i. Interviewed

Never 63.3%

About once a month 17.5%

Several times a month 1.7%

About once a week 2.5%

Several times a week 15.0%


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Interviewed

Male

Female

Never 61.1% 65.9%

About once a month 19.4% 14.6%

Several times a month 2.4%

About once a week 1.4% 4.9%

Several times a week 18.1% 12.2%

j. Attended event

Never 55.5%

About once a month 21.8%

Several times a month 1.7%

About once a week 4.2%

Several times a week 15.1%

More often 1.7%

Attended Event

Male

Female

Never 54.9% 48.8%

About once a month 18.3% 31.7%

Several times a month 2.8%

About once a week 4.2% 4.9%

Several times a week 19.7% 9.8%

More often 4.9%

Mobile Phone

1. Do you own a mobile phone?

Yes 60.3%

No 39.7%


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Do you ever use your mobile phone to SMS people?

Never 71.6%

About once a month 8.6%

Several times a month 1.7%

About once a week 4.3%

Several times a week 11.2%

More often 2.6%

2. Have you ever sent an SMS to a radio station?

Yes 21.7%

No 78.3%

3. Would you consider sending SMS to a radio station?

Yes 41.4%

No 56.0%

Do you ever access information on your mobile phone?

Never 80.0%

About once a month 1.7%

Several times a month 11.3%

About once a week 2.6%

Several times a week 2.6%

More often 1.7%

If information were available to you by mobile phone, would that be useful to you?

Never 24.2%

About once a month 13.7%

Several times a month 13.7%

About once a week 20.0%

Several times a week 28.4%


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Civil Society and Media

1. Radio is an essential source of information in my community.

Strongly Agree 81.8%

Agree 13.2%

Neither 0.8%

Don’t Know 4.1%

2. Radio has improved my access to information

Strongly Agree 76.0%

Agree 19.0%

Strongly disagree 0.8%

Don’t Know 4.1%

3. The radio station has helped me to more tolerant of cultural differences

Strongly Agree 67.2%

Agree 20.2%

Neither 5.0%

Disagree 2.5%

Strongly disagree 1.7%

Don’t Know 3.4%

4. My attitude/behavior towards women and girls is different because of information I hear on

the radio.

Strongly Agree 52.1%

Agree 31.4%

Neither 3.3%

Disagree 3.3%

Strongly disagree 4.1%

Don’t Know 5.8%


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5. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard

on the radio.

Strongly Agree 57.0%

Agree 19.0%

Neither 2.5%

Disagree 9.1%

Strongly disagree 7.4%

Don’t Know 5.0%

6. Radio has given a better understanding of the events beyond my community.

Strongly Agree 69.4%

Agree 24.0%

Neither 1.7%

Disagree 0.8%

Strongly disagree 0.8%

Don’t Know 3.3%

7. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect

my health and that of my family.

Strongly Agree 60.3%

Agree 25.6%

Neither 2.5%

Disagree 5.8%

Strongly disagree 2.5%

Don’t Know 3.3%

8. The radio station in my community is a credible source of information.

Strongly Agree 66.7%

Agree 27.5%

Neither 0.8%

Disagree 0.8%

Strongly disagree 0.8%

Don’t Know 3.3%


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9. The radio station in my community provides a platform for interaction.

Strongly Agree 61.7%

Agree 16.7%

Neither 5.0%

Disagree 7.5%

Strongly disagree 2.5%

Don’t Know 6.7%

10. As citizens, we should be active in our community.

Strongly Agree 80.0%

Agree 15.8%

Don’t Know 4.2%

Democracy

1. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.


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2. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

3. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPAs, referendum)

4. The political leadership in my community is visible and interacts with communities.


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5. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Emergency Radio

1. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information.

2. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information.


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3. In a crisis, I would want the radio to stay on air with information.

4. In times of crisis, which would you turn to for information?


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Elections

1. During the referendum period, which topics are of importance to you? Please rank them by

the order of priority.

% Respondents saying topic is very important during Referendum period

Non-referendum programming 34.7%

Conflict 36.4%

North/South relations 44.6%

Political analysis 52.5%

Popular Consultation 55.0%

Political speeches 57.0%

International news 62.0%

Results in other communities 73.3%

Movement of people 75.2%

Music 83.2%

Local news 89.3%

Where to register 90.1%

Where to vote 90.1%

Results in my community 90.9%

a. Where to register

Very important 90.1%

Important 3.3%

A little important 5.8%


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Not important at all 0.8%

b. Where to vote

Very important 90.1%

Important 3.3%

A little important 5.8%

Not important at all 0.8%

c. Results in my community

Very important 90.9%

Important 1.7%

A little important 7.4%

d. Results in my other communities

Very important 73.3%

Important 17.5%

A little important 7.5%

Not important at all 1.7%

e. North/south relations

Very important 44.6%

Important 24.0%

A little important 22.3%

Not important at all 9.1%

f. Political speeches

Very important 57.0%

Important 28.9%

A little important 12.4%

Not important at all 1.7%


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g. Political analysis

Very important 52.5%

Important 31.7%

A little important 13.3%

Not important at all 2.5%

h. Conflict

Very important 36.4%

Important 26.4%

A little important 14.0%

Not important at all 23.1%

i. Movement of people

Very important 75.2%

Important 14.9%

A little important 5.0%

Not important at all 5.0%

j. Local news

Very important 89.3%

Important 5.8%

A little important 4.1%

Not important at all 0.8%

k. Popular consultation

Very important 55.0%

Important 27.5%

A little important 15.8%

Not important at all 1.7%

l. International news

Very important 62.0%

Important 30.6%

A little important 5.8%

Not important at all 1.7%


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m. Non-referendum programming

Very important 34.7%

Important 39.7%

A little important 24.0%

Not important at all 1.7%

n. Music

Very important 83.2%

Important 10.9%

A little important 5.0%

Not important at all 0.8%

Cross Cutting Analysis

1. Use of Radio as info source vs. radio is the most trusted source of info

Does not use Radio as info source 2.9%

Uses Radio as info source 97.1%

Radio is most

trusted source

2. Radio as Info source vs. importance of information/access to media to life

Very

important

Important

A little

important

Not important

at all

Does not use Radio as info source 9.3% 85.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Uses Radio as info source 90.7% 15.0% 0.0% 0.0%


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3. Radio Ownership & who turns Radio on vs. Gender

Male

Female

Owns Radio 32.1% 48.3%

Does Not own radio 67.9% 51.7%

Myself 44.9% 41.0%

Spouse 1.4% 2.6%

Child 2.9%

Parent 1.4% 5.1%

Brother/sister 8.7% 7.7%

other 21.7% 25.6%

4. Info sources vs. opinions on civil society and democracy

a. Radio is an essential source of information in my community vs. using radio as info source

(for each opinion what percent of those who use radio as info source are saying this)

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 50.0% 86.0%

Agree 14.3% 13.1%

Neither 0.9%

Don’t Know 35.7%

b. Radio has helped me be more tolerant of cultural differences vs. using radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 28.6% 72.4%

Agree 28.6% 19.0%

Neither 5.7%

Disagree 7.1% 1.9%

Strongly Disagree 7.1% 1.0%

Don’t Know 28.6%


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c. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard on

the radio vs. use radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 35.7% 59.8%

Agree 21.4% 18.7%

Neither 7.1% 1.9%

Disagree 0% 10.3%

Strongly Disagree 0% 8.4%

Don’t Know 35.7% 0.9%

d. As citizens we should be active in community vs. use of radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 57.1% 83.0%

Agree 7.1% 17.0%

Don’t Know 35.7% 0%

e. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPA, referendum) vs. use of

radio as info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 50.0% 84.9%

Agree 0% 10.4%

Neither 7.1% 0%

Disagree 0% 3.8%

Strongly Disagree 0% 0.9%

Don’t Know 42.9% 0%

f. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders vs. use of radio as info

source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 64.3% 95.3%

Agree 14.3% 4.7%

Strongly Disagree 14.3% 0%

Don’t Know 7.1% 0%


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g. Information is important is essential to a peaceful and democratic society vs. use of radio as

info source

Does not use Radio

as info source

Uses Radio as

info source

Strongly Agree 42.9% 89.7%

Agree 28.6% 10.3%

Strongly Disagree 7.1% 0%

Don’t Know 21.4% 0%

5. Opinion on civil society and emergency vs. importance of Naath FM

a. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Naath FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 89.7%

Agree 8.4%

Neither

Disagree 0.9%

Don’t Know 0.9%

Naath FM is

very important

b. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Naath FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 88.8%

Agree 10.3%

Don’t Know

Naath FM is

very important

c. In the event of a crisis I would want the radio to stay on Air, (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Naath FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 97.2%

Agree 1.9%

Disagree 0.9%

Don’t Know

Naath FM is

very important


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d. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect my

health and that of my family information (for each opinion showing the percentage from those

who said Naath FM is very important)

Strongly Agree 64.5%

Agree 25.2%

Neither 1.9%

Disagree 6.5%

Strongly Disagree 1.9%

Don’t Know

Naath FM is

very important

e. Radio has given me a better understanding of daily life in my community information (for each

opinion showing the percentage from those who said Naath FM is very important), radio has

given a better understanding of events beyond my community.

Strongly Agree 73.8%

Agree 23.4%

Neither 0.9%

Disagree 0.9%

Strongly Disagree 0.9%

Don’t Know 0%

Naath FM is

very important

f. Radio has given me a better understanding of the events beyond my community. (for each

opinion showing the percentage from those who said Naath FM is very important)Radio has

given a better understanding of events beyond my community.

Strongly Agree 71.0%

Agree 25.2%

Neither 1.9%

Strongly Disagree 0.9%

Don’t Know 0.9%

Naath FM is

very important


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g. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect my

health and that of my family (for each opinion showing the percentage from those who said

Naath FM is very important)Radio has given a better understanding of events beyond my

community.

Strongly Agree 64.5%

Agree 25.2%

Neither 1.9%

Disagree 6.5%

Strongly Disagree 1.9%

Don’t Know

Naath FM is

very important


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APPENDIX III F

Cross analysis (all stations)

Internews Radio in Southern Sudan and the Three Areas

Impact Assessment Report

Cross analysis (all stations)

May 2011

Demographics of Sample

1. Age

2. Gender


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3. Education

No Schooling illiterate 25.0%

No schooling, literate 12.9%

Some primary 18.4%

Primary, complete 11.6%

Some secondary 9.5%

Secondary, complete 11.8%

In college/university 7.2%

completed college/university 1.2%

Madrassa 2.3%

Sources of Information

1. Which of the following do you use to get information?

Radio 63.1%

TV 17.4%

Newspapers/magazines 18.8%

Word of mouth 48.6%

Internet 10.7%

Mobile Phone 24.2%

Church/Mosque 48.3%

Police 8.8%

Billboards/posters 10.4%

Community events 26.6%

2. What is the source of information that you trust the most?

Radio 70.28%

TV 1.62%

Newspapers/magazines 1.62%

Word of mouth 12.42%

Church/mosque 4.8%

Internet 1.08%

Community events 1.62%


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3. How important do you think access to information/media is to your life?

Very important 81.84%

Important 13.68%

A little important 3.04%

Not important 0.92%

4. Do you have any problems accessing information?

No problem 64.2%

No money 21.4%

No time 5.3%

Not available 4.4%

No interest 0.5%

Not allowed 1.9%

Radio Access Usage

1. How often to you listen to the radio?

Daily 75.4%

Weekly 8.9%

Monthly 2.2%

Less than once a month 1.8%

Never 10.9%

2. Where do you listen to the radio?

Home 81.6%

Work 20.7%

At friends/family 24.9%

collective places 9.6%

NGO 5.0%

At school 6.3%

In the fields 5.5%

Everywhere 6.9%


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3. With whom do you listen to the radio?

Alone 18.48%

Family 67.56%

Friends 27.36%

Colleagues 17.84%

Anyone 15.24%

4. Who turns on the radio or chooses the station?

Myself 77.7%

Spouse 8.74%

Child 4.64%

Parent 9.54%

Brother/sister 11.48%

Other 6.26%

5. At what times do you listen to the radio?

Morning 65.1%

Afternoon 23.4%

Evening 34.9%

Night 29.3%

All day 22.9%

6. What are your favorite times to listen to the radio?

Morning 49.4%

Afternoon 8.2%

Evening 46.2%

Night 33.3%

All day 8.6%

7. How important to you as an information source are BBC, Internews Radio, SRS, Miraya FM,

and Radio Omdurman? % saying Radio station is very important

BBC 46.2%

Internews Radio 84.1%

SRS 36.6%

Miraya FM 39.7%


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Radio Omdurman 28.3%

Programming

1. Which topics of importance are of importance to you, % respondents saying topic is very

important

Interaction

1. Please indicate how often do you interact with community radio

a. Listen

Never 21.8%

About once a month 12.8%

Several times a month 10.1%

About once a week 10.0%

Several times a week 29.8%

More often 14.7%

b. Phone-in

Never 27.8%

About once a month 8.9%

Several times a month 10.5%

About once a week 8.4%

Several times a week 27.5%

More often 13.8%


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c. SMS

Never 74.8%

About once a month 8.9%

Several times a month 3.6%

About once a week 3.6%

Several times a week 4.2%

More often 1.7%

d. Write

Never 72.3%

About once a month 10.2%

Several times a month 4.1%

About once a week 5.9%

Several times a week 4.2%

More often 1.3%

e. Visit

Never 68.6%

About once a month 13.3%

Several times a month 4.4%

About once a week 6.6%

Several times a week 4.3%

More often 2.7%

f. Make a program

Never 75.3%

About once a month 11.24%

Several times a month 2.6%

About once a week 4.875%

Several times a week 3.02%

More often 1.3%

g. Volunteer

Never 77.8%

About once a month 9.4%


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Several times a month 2.5%

About once a week 2.0%

Several times a week 4.1%

More often 3.4%

h. Guest on Air

Never 67.6%

About once a month 13.3%

Several times a month 4.6%

About once a week 4.8%

Several times a week 6.6%

More often 2.9%

i. Interviewed

Never 71.9%

About once a month 12.7%

Several times a month 4.4%

About once a week 3.4%

Several times a week 5.9%

More often 2.5%

j. Attended event

Never 64.64%

About once a month 19.28%

Several times a month 2.86%

About once a week 4.2%

Several times a week 6.2%

More often 2.9%

Mobile Phone

1. Do you own a mobile phone?

Yes 58.72%

No 38.76%


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Do you ever use your mobile phone to SMS people?

Never 64.5%

About once a month 8.2%

Several times a month 4.1%

About once a week 5.8%

Several times a week 6.9%

More often 5.7%

2. Do you ever access information on your mobile phone?

Never 65.0%

About once a month 6.7%

Several times a month 12.7%

About once a week 4.2%

Several times a week 3.7%

More often 4.1%

3. If information were available to you by mobile phone, would that be useful to you?

Very useful 45.2%

Useful 8.84%

Somewhat useful 4.48%

Not useful 6.8%

Don’t know 29.2%

Civil Society and Media

1. Radio is an essential source of information in my community.

Strongly Agree 79.8%

Agree 15.4%

Neither 1.0%

Disagree 0.7%

Don’t know 3.1%


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2. Radio has improved my access to information

Strongly Agree 74.3%

Agree 19.0%

Neither 2.7%

Disagree 2.7%

Strongly disagree 1.2%

Don’t know 2.0%

3. The radio station has helped me to more tolerant of cultural differences

Strongly Agree 67.7%

Agree 22.4%

Neither 2.9%

Disagree 2.3%

Strongly disagree 2.6%

Don’t know 2.5%

4. My attitude/behavior towards women and girls is different because of information I hear on

the radio.

Strongly Agree 55.2%

Agree 29.7%

Neither 3.3%

Disagree 5.5%

Strongly disagree 2.1%

Don’t know 2.9%

5. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard

on the radio.

Strongly Agree 60.9%

Agree 23.6%

Neither 2.7%

Disagree 4.0%

Strongly disagree 3.5%

Don’t know 4.1%


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6. Radio has given a better understanding of the events beyond my community.

Strongly Agree 71.2%

Agree 22.5%

Neither 1.2%

Disagree 0.9%

Strongly disagree 1.2%

Don’t know 1.9%

7. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect

my health and that of my family.

Strongly Agree 65.8%

Agree 22.3%

Neither 3.7%

Disagree 5.9%

Strongly disagree 1.5%

Don’t know 3.7%

8. The radio station in my community is a credible source of information.

Strongly Agree 73.9%

Agree 20.3%

Neither 1.2%

Disagree 2.2%

Strongly disagree 0.7%

Don’t know 2.0%

9. The radio station in my community provides a platform for interaction.

Strongly Agree 60.7%

Agree 21.66%

Neither 2.625%

Disagree 3.4%

strongly disagree 1.3%

Don’t know 6.6%


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10. As citizens, we should be active in our community.

Strongly Agree 64.3%

Agree 24.9%

Neither 2.8%

Disagree 2.2%

strongly disagree 2.7%

Don’t know 3.2%

11. Information is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly Agree 70.3%

Agree 23.2%

Neither 3.5%

Disagree 2.5%

Stongly disagree 2.0%

Don’t know 1.3%

Democracy

1. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly Agree 78.2%

Agree 15.7%

Neither 2.1%

Disagree 1.0%

strongly disagree 1.2%

Don’t know 1.5%

2. Participation is essential to a peaceful and democratic society.

Strongly Agree 76.7%

Agree 15.1%

Neither 2.1%

Disagree 2.3%

Strongly disagree 2.3%

Don’t know 1.9%


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3. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPAs, referendum)

Strongly Agree 74.1%

Agree 18.3%

Neither 0.8%

Disagree 2.4%

Strongly disagree 1.8%

Don’t know 3.2%

4. The political leadership in my community is visible and interacts with communities,

Strongly Agree 52.0%

Agree 25.8%

Neither 9.0%

Disagree 6.4%

Strongly disagree 5.2%

Don’t know 4.6%

5. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Strongly Agree 75.7%

Agree 19.0%

Neither 1.1%

Disagree 0.7%

strongly disagree 1.0%

Don’t know 1.3%

Emergency Radio

1. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information.

Strongly Agree 78.2%

Agree 16.2%

Neither 1.1%

Disagree 0.8%

strongly disagree 1.7%

Don’t know 1.7%


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2. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information.

Strongly Agree 73.5%

Agree 20.5%

Neither 1.3%

Disagree 1.3%

Strongly disagree 1.7%

Don’t know 2.0%

3. In a crisis, I would want the radio to stay on air with information.

Strongly Agree 68.5%

Agree 22.3%

Neither 3.5%

Disagree 1.5%

Strongly disagree 1.8%

Don’t know 2.0%

4. In times of crisis, which would you turn to for information?

Radio 91.4%

TV 45.3%

Newspapers & Magazines 16.8%

Word of Mouth 18.8%

Internet 26.9%

Mobile Phone 30.7%

Church/Mosque 15.7%

Police 7.7%

Billboards/posters 19.2%

Community Events 7.7%


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Cross Cutting Analysis

1. Info sources vs. opinions on civil society and democracy

a. Radio is an essential source of information in my community vs. using radio as info source ( for

each opinion what percent of those who use radio as info source are saying this)

Strongly Agree 81.8%

Agree 15.9%

Neither 0.8%

Disagree 0.7%

Don’t Know 0.9%

b. Radio has helped me be more tolerant of cultural differences vs. using radio as info source

Strongly Agree 70.5%

Agree 22.0%

Neither 2.9%

Disagree 2.2%

Strongly Disagree 1.9%

Don’t Know 2.2%

c. People in my community are more respectful of each other as a result of information heard on

the radio vs. use radio as info source

Strongly Agree 64.2%

Agree 24.0%

Neither 2.8%

Disagree 6.6%

Strongly Disagree 4.7%

Don’t Know 1.4%

d. As citizens we should be active in community vs. use of radio as info source

Strongly Agree 71.2%

Agree 24.0%

Neither 7.7%

Disagree 21.6%

Strongly Disagree 1.1%

Don’t Know 7.0%


290 | Light in the Darkness

e. Radio has increased my understanding of political processes (CPA, referendum) vs. use of

radio as info source

Strongly Agree 75.56%

Agree 16.79%

Neither 0.60%

Disagree 2.10%

Strongly Disagree 4.54%

Don’t Know 1.47%

f. As citizens, we should be active in questioning the actions of our leaders.

Strongly Agree 78.97%

Agree 18.04%

Neither 1.16%

Strongly Disagree 0.71%

Don’t Know 1.42%

2. Opinion on civil society and emergency vs. importance of Internews Radio

a. In times of crisis, radio is a critical source of information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Internews radio is very important)

Strongly Agree 79.92%

Agree 16.30%

Neither 0.56%

Disagree 0.89%

Strongly Disagree 1.15%

Don’t Know 0.56%

b. In the event of crisis, I would turn to the radio for information (for each opinion showing the

percentage from those who said Internews radio is very important)

Strongly Agree 77.23%

Agree 18.43%

Neither 0.89%

Disagree 1.15%

Strongly Disagree 1.15%

Don’t Know 1.16%


291 | Light in the Darkness

c. As a result of information I hear on the radio, I am better able to make decisions to protect my

health and that of my family information (for each opinion showing the percentage from those

who said Internews Radio is very important)

Strongly Agree 83.0%

Agree 13.4%

Neither 0.9%

Disagree 1.5%

Strongly Disagree 0.5%

Don’t Know 0.0%

d. Radio has given me a better understanding of daily life in my community information (for each

opinion showing the percentage from those who said Internews radio is very important)

Strongly Agree 71.9%

Agree 22.0%

Neither 0.9%

Disagree 2.7%

Strongly Disagree 0.9%

Don’t Know 0.8%

e. Radio has given a better understanding of events beyond my community (for each opinion

showing the percentage from those who said Internews radio is very important)

Strongly Agree 72.8%

Agree 23.0%

Neither 1.6%

Disagree 0.8%

Strongly Disagree 0.8%

Don’t Know 1.0%

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