AULOS ENSEMBLE - Center for the Performing Arts

AULOS ENSEMBLE - Center for the Performing Arts



Aulos EnsEmblE

underwritten by

Norma and Ralph Condee Chamber Music Endowment

Center for the Performing Arts

At Penn stAte


Aulos Ensemble

christophEr kruEgEr, flauto traverso and recorder

mArc schAchmAn, baroque oboe

lindA quAn, baroque violin

myron lutzkE, baroque cello

Arthur hAAs, harpsichord

With guest musicians

lAni spAhr, baroque oboe

AndrEW schWArtz, baroque bassoon

pAul hopkins And JAnEt lAntz, natural horn

John thiEssEn And cArl AlbAch, natural trumpet

And the penn state baroque Ensemble

robErt nAirn, director

Emily hAlE, AvA rAhmAn, dAvid chAvEz, yE-Eun grAcE kim,

stEffAny shock, violins

di lu, kAlindi bEllAch, violas

nEEmiAs silvA sAntos, mArcos vivEs, cellos

dAniEl turkos, bass

The Center for the Performing Arts is proud to partner with the Junior Baroque Music Festival

for the presentation of educational activities associated with the Aulos Ensemble.

7:30 p.m. saturday, march 27, 2010

schwab Auditorium


glenn and nancy gamble

The concert includes one intermission.

This performance is made possible, in part, by a partnership with the Penn State School of Music.

media sponsor


The 2009–2010 season of the Center for the Performing Arts is supported, in part, by grants from

the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, a state agency funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,

and the National Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency.

suite in f major


Adagio e staccato









suite from Les Indes Galantes

Jean-philippe rameau





Air vif pour Zéphire at la Rose

Air pour Les Guerriers

Air tendre pour la Rose

Air pour Borée et la Rose

Adoration du Soleil

Air grave pour les Incas du Perou

Air pour les Esclaves affricains



Aulos Ensemble

[ intErmission ]

Water Music

george frideric handel


suite in g major



Menuets 1 and 2

Country Dance

suite in d major


(Alla Hornpipe)




Aulos Ensemble, penn state baroque Ensemble, and guest musicians

ProgrAm notes


suite from Les Indes Galantes

“As the public has appeared less satisfied

with the recitatives of Les Indes Galantes

than with the rest of the work, I have

not thought it my duty to question their

judgment, and it is for this reason that I

here offer them the instrumental music

only, mixed with some vocal (pieces) and


This sentence, from the introduction

to the only eighteenth-century publication

of Rameau’s opera Les Indes Galantes,

reveals much, not only about the opera’s

initial reception but also about the state of

arrangements and transcriptions in Paris

at the time. This publication appears to

be for harpsichord, although some of the

pieces are beyond the reach of a harpsichordist’s

hands, and some are written on

three or four staves. Rameau suggests that

other instrumentalists could play treble

or bass parts and that bass players could

play down an octave if the part lies too

high. According to Louis de Cahusac, one

of Rameau’s librettists: “In 1735, Les Indes

Galantes seemed insuperably difficult. The

bulk of the audience came out ranting

against music overloaded with semiquavers,

nothing of which could be remembered.

Six months later, all the tunes, from

the overture to the last gavottes, were

known by everybody.” There are numerous

examples of keyboard publications

that could be played with the addition of

various instruments—Couperin’s Concerts

Royaux (1722), which were played for

Louis XIV by violin, oboe, bassoon, viola da

gamba, harpsichord, and possibly other

instruments; and Rameau’s own Pièces de

Clavecin en Concert (1741), which according

to his instructions can be played by harpsichord

or with various combinations of

flute, violin, and viola da gamba. We have

taken all this as a starting point for our arrangements

of this dramatic music.

Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century

treatises speak of the traits of the instruments:

“The musette was guileless and

rustic, the German flute tender and sad, the

hautboy merry and suitable to rustic revels,

with a tender yet martial tone,” from Abbé

Michel de Pure in 1668. With Rameau’s own

suggestions for possible instrumentation,

it was not especially difficult to come up

with orchestrations that replicate the qualities

of sound and color that are so uniquely

his. When Rameau published Les Indes

Galantes, he organized it into four grand

concerts, removed entirely from the dramatic

contour of the opera. These concerts,

organized by key, resemble the groupings

of dances and character pieces in his earlier

collections of Pièces de Clavecin from 1724

and 1728.

Les Indes Galantes, first performed on

August 23, 1735, speaks of love and exoticism

intermingled, and consists of four

entrées dealing with romantic dalliances

set in far-flung parts of the globe. These

were especially rich tableaux for which

Rameau supplied some of his most colorful

music. Rameau’s publication was titled

Les Indes Galantes, balet, réduit à quatre

grands concerts; avec une nouvelle entrée

complette. This nouvelle entrée, les Sauvages

contains some of the strongest and most

descriptive music in the opera, including

the final chaconne. Once again Rameau orchestrated

an earlier harpsichord piece for

the character piece mentioned in the title.

In Les Indes Galantes, Rameau presents a

number of allegories, and we’ve preserved

one of these in a sequence of pieces dealing

with la Rose and with the mythological

personifications of the west wind, Zéphire,

and the north wind, Borée. Rameau’s depictions

are inspired, and the results of the

encounters are obvious. The music, again,

provides all the drama needed.

Program notes by the Aulos Ensemble

ProgrAm notes


Water Music

The London Handel first saw in 1710 was, of

course, not today’s London. The Great Fire

of 1666 had destroyed more than 400 acres,

more than 13,000 houses, and some eightyseven

churches (including “old St. Paul’s” Cathedral).

Considerable reconstruction had

taken place during the intervening forty

years: the spires of Wren’s parish churches

pointed heavenwards from all points of the

compass; the great dome of his “new St.

Paul’s” floated over the entire city.

Only London Bridge (built of stone in

1176 and not replaced until 1831) crossed

the Thames. Watermen ferried people and

goods across and along the tidal estuary,

which, in Handel’s time, was London’s great

central thoroughfare and the focal point for

processions by the monarch or lord mayor,

pageants, and other civic ceremonies.

The story of Handel’s Water Music took

place against this background and is the

stuff of legend. It will be remembered that

Handel had been kapellmeister to Georg,

elector of Hanover. In 1710, Handel had

visited London making a resounding début

with his opera Rinaldo and returned again

late in 1712. Though he was bound to return

to Hanover, he did not do so. Imagine his

alarm when upon the death of Queen Anne

in 1714, it came to pass that this same Georg

turned out to be the legitimate (Protestant)

heir to England’s throne: George I. Handel’s

biographer, John Mainwaring (1724–1807),

takes up the tale:

“Handel, conscious how ill he had deserved

at the hands of his gracious patron,

did not dare to shew himself at court. To

account for his delay in returning to his office

was no easy matter. To make an excuse

for the non-performance of his promise was

impossible. From his ugly situation he was

soon relieved by better luck than perhaps

he deserved. It happened that his noble

friend Baron Kilmanseck was here. He, with

some others among the nobility, contrived

a method for reinstating him in the favor

of his majesty. The king was persuaded

to form a party on the water. Handel was

apprised of the design and advised to

prepare some music for that occasion. It

was performed and conducted by himself,

unknown to his majesty, whose pleasure

on hearing it was equal to his surprise.

He was impatient to know whose it was

and how this entertainment came to be

provided without his knowledge. The

baron then produced the delinquent and

asked leave to present him to his majesty

as one that was too conscious of his fault

to attempt an excuse for it; but sincerely

desirous to atone for the same by all possible

demonstrations of duty, submission,

and gratitude, could he but hope that

his majesty, in his great goodness, would

be pleased to accept him. This intercession

was accepted without any difficulty.

Handel was restored to favor, and his music

honored with the highest expressions of

the royal approbation.”

Unfortunately, Mainwaring neglects

to give the date of this charming story.

There is known to have been a great

Royal Water Party on July 17, 1717, reported

in The Daily Courant two days later:

“On Wednesday evening, at about

8, the king took water at Whitehall in an

open barge and went up the river toward

Chelsea. Many other barges with persons

of quality attended, and so great a number

of boats, that the whole river in a manner

was covered; a City Company’s barge was

employed for the music, wherein were fifty

instruments of all sorts, who played all the

way from Lambeth (while the barges drove

with the tide without rowing as far as

Chelsea) the finest symphonies, composed

express for this occasion, by Mr. Handel;

which his majesty liked so well, that he

caused it to be played over three times in

going and returning. At eleven his majesty

went ashore at Chelsea, where a supper

was prepared, and then there was another

very fine consort of music; which lasted till

two, after which his majesty came again

into his barge and returned the same way,

the music continuing to play till he landed.”

The words “composed express for this

occasion” had initially led historians to the

conclusion that this event was, in fact, the

same related by Mainwaring and thus the

first performance of the Water Music. But

the subsequent discovery of other “water

parties” held in 1715 and 1716, and the belief

that Handel and King George I must have

been reconciled earlier than July 1717, have

cast doubt on this conclusion.

Mystery also surrounds the musical

text. While the great majority of Handel’s

autograph manuscripts have been preserved,

the autograph of the Water Music is

lost, with the exception of two movements

in the British Museum. Scholars are unable

to account for the lacuna; the 300-year

hope that it might ever be discovered has

largely been abandoned. Moreover, there is

no other “definitive source” contemporary

with the Water Music’s composition. Handel’s

usual publisher, John Walsh, included

the F-Major Overture (only) in a collection

of overtures dated 1725. Other individual

movements appeared in subsequent

prints, and in 1734, Walsh issued a set of

orchestral parts that included only half the

movements. In 1743, he printed nearly all

the movements, but in a transcription for

solo harpsichord.

The first published version of the

complete Water Music as we have come

to know it did not appear until 1788 as

sections twenty-three and twenty-four

of Samuel Arnold’s monumental edition

of Handel’s works. Bearing the title The

Celebrated Water Music in Score Composed

in the Year 1716 by G. F. Handel, the music is

given in full score, the first edition to do so.

(Arnold’s 1716 date of composition is also

a better fit for what is now known of royal

water parties.)

During the nineteenth century, the

Water Music seems to have faded largely

from view. It was restored to popularity

in the six-movement arrangement for full

symphony orchestra (including clarinets

and piccolo) by Sir Hamilton Harty in 1934.

The recent revival of interest in “authentic

performance practice” has resulted in more

sympathetic readings of Handel’s music,

and tonight’s concert provides a highly

accurate sound picture of what Handel and

his contemporaries heard.

In all of Handel’s orchestral writing,

the body of strings (plus basso continuo)

is the core upon which everything else is

founded. While in the operas and oratorios

Handel does not always employ four string

parts, virtually all of the Water Music is

scored in this way (the single exception

being the Menuet of the G-Major suite

where all the violins play in unison). To this

string texture, especially in forte passages,

Handel frequently adds the reinforcement

of a pair of oboes (doubling the violins I

and II) and bassoon (doubling the bass

line). However, these wind instruments

may also emerge from the texture in “solo”

parts from time to time. One of the most

important discoveries resulting from the

so-called “authentic instruments movement”

is the integrity of this strings-plusoboe

tone color, which blends much more

gracefully than with modern instruments.

To these forces, in the operas and

oratorios as well as the G-Major Suite of

the Water Music, were sometimes added

“common flutes” (recorders or flûtes à bec)

and flauti traversi (or German flutes) which,

being of wood, had little of the penetrating

power of the modern instrument. The

flauto piccolo called for occasionally was

almost certainly a soprano recorder. Only

very rarely (never in the Water Music) does

Handel call for the flutes and oboes at the

same time, leading to the conclusion (supported

by anecdotal evidence) that these

parts were most frequently “doubled” by

the oboists.

In the operas and oratorios, brass

instruments—trumpets and horns, as well

as the occasional tympani—were associated

largely with the portrayal of military

events. In the Water Music (and the Music

for the Royal Fireworks of 1749), trumpets

and horns provide not only an air of regal

pomp and circumstance, but were also

loud enough to be heard out-of-doors.

An amusing sidelight is the ink spilled

in scholarly journals over the question of

the basso continuo in the original performance

of the Water Music. One side asserts

that there would have been no room on

the barge for the harpsichord and that it

would have been inaudible. The other side

offers the evidence of a Zoffany painting

(1781) of the Sharp family (wealthy

musical amateurs) on their barge Apollo

with a harpsichord clearly in sight and the

observation that it was the musicians that

needed to hear the harpsichord, especially

if Handel was directing from it.

The Suite in F Major is scored for pairs

of horns and oboes, bassoon, strings, and

continuo. It opens with a French Ouverture

derived from the operas and ballets de

cour of Lully. A stately slow introduction in

dotted rhythms with rapid scale-passages

called tirades is followed by a sprightly

fugal Allegro. Handel makes sly reference

to the Italianate concerto grosso style by

scoring for two concertino violins, as well as

the larger string ripieno. The brief Adagio e

staccato offers a cantilena for the oboes followed

by an extended “point of imitation”

for the violins and oboes. The Allegro-

Andante-Allegro is one of the great “set

pieces” of the Water Music, playing two solo

horns off against the strings and oboes

in a variety of echo effects. In the central

Andante (in the relative minor), the hornplayers’

lips get a rest as Handel brings the

double reeds into the spotlight. The horns

reclaim center stage in the following Presto

in rapid triple meter.

The Air reveals Handel in his beloved

“stately” mood; the entry of the solo horn

(halfway through) is one of music’s great

moments. The Minuet’s central section is in

F-minor, whose scale is not available to the

natural horns, so they rest, as do the oboes.

The familiar Bourrée is a prime

example of Handel’s ability to create a

masterpiece in only twenty-two measures;

another is the ensuing Hornpipe, which

contains only sixteen. Handel indicates

that both are to be played three times with

different orchestrations. The concluding

Andante (in D minor) brings the doublereeds

to the forefront in a movement

strongly reminiscent of the concerto grosso.

The Suite in G Major is the shortest of

the three suites. Its relative lack of structure

suggests that it may represent music

to extend the two larger suites; the inclusion

of flutes (both traverso and piccolo)

possibly indicates indoor performance

(perhaps at the on-shore Banquet of 1717).

The opening slow Sarabande featuring a

solo flauto traverso is followed by a quick

Rigaudon for the strings and oboes, whose

second section is in G minor, also the key

of the pair of Minuets that follows, the first

scored for strings alone, the second adding

the flauto piccolo. The suite concludes with

a pair of Passepieds, the first in C minor, the

second in G Major. It is surely not coincidental

that, in French operatic tradition,

the rigaudon and passepied were frequently

associated not only with each other, but

with maritime scenes as well.

The Suite in D Major calls for the largest

orchestra of the three suites: pairs of

trumpets, horns, oboes, bassoon, strings,

and continuo. The opening Allegro pits

trumpets, horns, and oboes against each

other in a riot of antiphonal effects. The ensuing

Alla Hornpipe is an ebullient sailors’

dance, one of the most famous of all Handel

tunes. Judging from its appearance in

numerous keyboard arrangements, the socalled

“Trumpet” Minuet must have been

a hit tune in Handel’s time. The following

Lentement is in fact a loure. Again, Handel

plays antiphonal games. In the sprightly

Bourrée, all the forces join together in a

full orchestral tutti, which brings the Water

Music to a spirited and joyous conclusion.

© 2006 by Princeton University Concerts

All rights reserved




Formed in 1973 by five Juilliard graduates,

the Aulos Ensemble was at the

forefront of a movement that was to

capture the imagination of the American

listening public. With the 1978 release of its

recording Masterpieces of the High Baroque,

the ensemble’s reputation for exhilarating

performances was firmly established. In

those groundbreaking years, the group’s

innovative programming featured a blend

of flute, oboe, violin, cello, and harpsichord,

later adding a viola da gamba. With its

conservatory-based training, the ensemble

brought an uncompromising standard of

excellence in performance that resulted in

invitations from virtually all of the United

State’s major chamber music presenters.

This exposure helped create a new audience

awareness for the rich rewards of repertoire

performed on period instruments and comments

such as “scintillating,” “virtuosic,” and

“authentic baroque performance at its best”

from critics.

In the 1980s, the ensemble began

two projects that brought the joy of its

music-making to an ever-widening public

and for the first time attracted international

critical attention. The group’s first recording

for the Musical Heritage Society—Original

Telemann—was released in 1981 in connection

with the composer’s tercentenary and

was universally hailed as one of the most

accomplished and significant observances

of the Telemann year, receiving the Critic’s

Choice Award of High Fidelity from Musical

America magazine. Since then, the group

has released more than a dozen CDs on

the same label, including CD sets of Bach,

Handel, Vivaldi, and the complete Essercizii

Musici of Telemann. This discography is

unique among American period-instrument

chamber groups.

The ensemble’s other project in the

1980s was the establishment of its own

concert series in New York City. The series

featured collaborations with guest artists

from Europe and the United States who had

made major reputations in this field. These

collaborative concerts, exploring a highly

unusual repertoire that was impossible to

perform in other contexts, provided audiences

with cutting-edge performances,

as well as gave the musicians vital artistic

stimulation. Among the stars of the original

instrument movement who appeared with

the ensemble were harpsichordists Trevor

Pinnock and Albert Fuller; violinists Jaap

Schroeder and Stanley Ritchie; cellist Anner

Bylsma; oboist Michel Piguet; and vocalists

Jan de Gaetani, Bethany Beardslee, Charles

Bressler, and Julianne Baird.

The 1980s also saw the beginning of

what has become a tradition for New York

City concertgoers—the ensemble’s Christmas

concerts in front of the Neapolitan

Christmas Tree at the Metropolitan Museum

of Art. These concerts, described by The New

York Times as “one of the most charming musical

celebrations of the season,” have been

performed in the Medieval Sculpture Court

and have featured a variety of guest artists,

including vocalists Dawn Upshaw, Sanford

Sylvan, and Derek Lee Ragin.

In the 1990s, the ensemble began

performing “one-on-a-part” performances

of some of the best-known and favorite

Baroque suites and concerti, including the

Bach Fifth Brandenburg Concerto and the

Concerto for Oboe and Violin, along with

Vivaldi’s concerti The Four Seasons. These

programs, referred to as The Baroque Big

Band, are performed by eight to ten artists.

An all-Bach CD, part of the continuing discography

on the Musical Heritage Society,

features the ensemble in this configuration.

The group began giving master classes

and lecture demonstrations on seventeenth-

and eighteenth-century performance

practice at colleges and universities

throughout the country. With its members

serving on faculties of various schools of

music and institutes specializing in historically

informed performance, the ensemble

is responsible for training a new generation

of American early music performers. Concerts

are frequently broadcast by National

Public Radio from venues such as The Frick

Collection in New York City, Live at Wolf Trap,

and the Library of Congress in Washington,

D.C. Its instrumental Christmas program

Joyeux Noel was played repeatedly on NPR’s

Performance Today.

Now in its fourth decade, the ensemble

continues to explore new projects and

develop outlets for its music-making. The

2006–2007 season saw its first presentation

of Handel’s masque Acis and Galatea,

done in a version approximating the size of

the composer’s vision for the piece—five

singers and eight instrumentalists without a

conductor. It was a huge hit with presenters,

audiences, and critics. The New York Times

wrote, “In all, it was an utter delight.” The

group has developed a true chamber orchestra

program as well, featuring Handel’s

complete Water Music in a performance

with between seventeen and twentythree

players. The musicians have created

residencies where the group and its guests

teach and coach young professionals and

join them in performances. The ensemble

and Baird collaborated on In Dulci Jubilo,

a recording featuring much of the new

material uncovered in those many years of

Christmas concerts. The CD was released in

fall 2006 to critical acclaim and is the first in

a series of recordings with Centaur Records.

The second recording—released in October

2008—was the ensemble’s version of two of

Rameau’s opera suites—Les Indes Galantes

and Les Fêtes d’hébé—based on suggestions

of the composer in short-score manuscripts.

Flutist christophEr kruEgEr received

his formative musical training in Boston

and graduated from the New England

Conservatory of Music. He is principal flutist

with the Handel and Haydn Society, Boston

Early Music Festival Orchestra, the Bach

Ensemble, Smithsonian Chamber Players,

and Boston Baroque. He has been featured

as soloist on the Great Performers Series and

Mostly Mozart Festival at Lincoln Center,

the City of London Festival and Lufthansa

Festival in London, the Berlin Bach Festival,

and at Tanglewood and Ravinia. Krueger

has also performed with the Drottningholm

Theatre Orchestra, Aston Magna, Tafelmusik,

Orpheus, and the Boston Symphony. He is

assistant professor of music at the University

of Massachusetts at Amherst and is on the

faculties of the New England Conservatory

and the Longy School of Music. He has recorded

for the DG, Sony, L’Oiseau-Lyre, RCA,

Centaur, Nonesuch, and Telarc record labels.

Oboist mArc schAchmAn was

born in Berkeley, California, and attended

Stanford University and The Juilliard School,

where he earned bachelor of science,

master of science, and doctor of musical

arts degrees. He has performed as soloist

and principal oboe with original-instrument

orchestras throughout the United States,

including Philharmonia Baroque in San

Francisco, Handel and Haydn Society and

Boston Baroque in Boston, and Mostly Mozart

and The American Classical Orchestra in

New York City. He is a founding member of

Amadeus Winds and performs with groups

such as Aston Magna, Helicon, Orchestra

of St. Luke’s, and the New York Chamber

Soloists. His recordings can be heard on the

Musical Heritage Society/MusicMasters,

Harmonia Mundi, Sony, L’Oiseau-Lyre, Telarc,

and Centaur record labels. He is on the faculty

of Boston University, where he teaches

oboe and baroque chamber music in the

historical performance division.

Violinist lindA quAn was born in Los

Angeles and graduated from The Juilliard

School with bachelor of music and master of

music degrees. She has appeared as soloist

with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and

the Contemporary Chamber Ensemble and

has served as concertmistress with various

American original instrument orchestras,

including the Handel and Haydn Society,

Smithsonian Chamber Orchestra, Mostly

Mozart, and the American Classical Orchestra.

She is a member of the Bach Ensemble,

the New York New Music Ensemble, and the

Atlantic Quartet, and appears frequently

with groups such as Aston Magna, Orchestra

of St. Luke’s, and Helicon. Quan has recorded

for the Sony, L’Oiseau-Lyre, Musical

Heritage Society/MusicMasters, CRI, Nonesuch,

Centaur, and Opus One record labels,

and is on the faculty of Vassar College.

Cellist myron lutzkE is a member

of the St. Luke’s Chamber Ensemble, the

Mozartean Players, and the Bach Ensemble,

and is the principal cellist for many

American period instrument ensembles,

including the Handel and Haydn Society,

the Boston Early Music Festival Orchestra,

the Mostly Mozart Original Instrument

Orchestra, and the Orchestra of St. Luke’s.

He is an artist-in-residence at the Caramoor

Festival and teaches at the Mannes School

of Music in New York City. His recordings

can be heard on the Harmonia Mundi,

Musical Heritage Society/MusicMasters,

Sony, L’Oiseau-Lyre, Nonesuch, Centaur,

and Arabesque record labels.

Harpsichordist Arthur hAAs was

born in New York City but grew up in

Los Angeles. He attended The Juilliard

School and the University of California at

Los Angeles, where he received a master’s

degree in historical musicology. In 1975, he

received the highest prize from the second

International Paris Harpsichord Competition

and was appointed professor of harpsichord

and Baroque performance practice at

L’Ecole Nationale de Musique in Angoulême,

France. In 1983, he returned to the United

States to teach at the Eastman School of

Music and at the State University of New

York at Stony Brook. He has performed with

Orpheus and the Orchestra of St. Luke’s, and

has appeared as soloist at the Mostly Mozart

and Caramoor festivals. Haas has recorded

for the EMI, Harmonia Mundi, Centaur, and

Musical Historical Society/MusicMasters

labels, and has given harpsichord recitals

and master classes throughout the United

States and Europe. He is a faculty member

at the State University of New York at Stony

Brook and the Mannes College of Music in

New York City.

The pEnn stAtE bAroquE EnsEmblE

is the newest of Penn State’s performing

ensembles. Consisting of mostly

graduate string students, the ensemble,

directed by Robert Nairn, is dedicated to

the historically accurate performance of

music from the Baroque period. Rehearsals

reinforce Baroque performance techniques

and stylistic interpretation. The ensemble is

regularly coached and directed by leading

early music groups and performers from

Europe and America, such as the Orchestra

of the Age of Enlightenment, the King’s

Consort, Florilegium, the Aulos Ensemble,

Purcell Quartet, Fitzwilliian quartet, and

Modern Musik. The baroque ensemble

performs two concerts per semester both

on and off the University Park campus

from opera, cantatas, and works with solo

voices, to a variety of baroque orchestral

and chamber music programs.

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