Fibre Classification and Generic Names – Man-made Fibres

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Fibre Classification and Generic Names – Man-made Fibres

Fibre Classification and Generic NamesMan-made Fibres

1) Complete the table for Regenerated fibres. (1 mark for source, 2 for properties and 2 for end uses –

total of 30)

Natural Polymers Source Fibre Properties End Uses

Viscose

Modal

Acetate

Rubber

Lyocell

Cupro

2) Complete the table for Synthetic Fibres. (1 mark for source, 2 for properties and 2 for end uses – total of

40)

Synthetic polymers

Source

Fibre Properties End Uses

Fluorofibre (PTFE)

Polyamide (Nylon)

Polyvinyl (acrylic)

Polyesters

Chlorofibre (polyvinyl

chloride – PVC)

Polyurethane

(Elastomerics)

Polyolefines

(Polypropylene)

Aramid (Kevlar, Nomex)

3) Complete the table for Inorganic Fibres. (1 mark for source, 2 for properties and 2 for end uses – total of

20)

Inorganic Fibre Source Fibre Properties End Uses

Glass

Carbon

Metal

Ceramic


Fibre Classification and Generic NamesMan-made Fibres

1) Complete the table for Regenerated fibres. (1 mark for source, 2 for properties and 2 for end uses –

total of 30)

Natural Polymers Source Fibre Properties End Uses

Natural cellulose from

wood pulp from pine or

eucalyptus trees

Natural cellulose from

wood pulp

Cotton cellulose and

acetic acid

Petrochemicals, natural

rubber from latex

Viscose

Modal

Acetate

Rubber

More absorbent than

cotton, non-static,

naturally breathable, fine

with soft handle and

good drape, low warmth,

low strength, can tear

when wet, poor

elasticity, creases easily,

dyes and prints to bright

colours, biodegradable

and recyclable.

Absorbent, non-static,

naturally breathable,

silky, smooth, very soft

handle and good drape,

low ability to trap air so

low warmth, low

strength and abrasion

resistance, poor

elasticity, creases easily,

shrinks less than viscose,

biodegradable and

recyclable.

Low absorbency, fast

drying, prone to static,

naturally breathable,

subdued lustre, smooth,

very soft handle, elegant

drape, low warmth, dries

well, more elastic than

viscose but creases

easily, thermoplastic,

biodegradable and

recyclable.

Natural stretch, pliability.

Warm, soft, antistatic,

antibacterial and antislip,

sensitive to light,

oils, solvents and grease,

not breathable,

recyclable.

Wood pulp Lyocell Strong, dry or wet, tear

resistant, comfortable,

good moisture transport.

Biodegradable and

recyclable, fibres can

split to give micro-fine

surface hairs.

Curtains, lining fabrics,

shirts, dresses,

lingerie, ribbons and

trimmings.

Lustrous fabrics,

blended knitted and

woven fabrics. Bed

and table linens, terry

towelling, shirts,

jumpers, socks,

nightwear, jackets,

sportswear, soft

denim.

Silk-type fabrics for

dresses, blouses,

linings, microfiber

performance fabrics,

embroidery yarns,

trimmings, trubensing

collars and cuffs.

Flooring, waterproof

coverings, tyres,

Wellington boots,

swimwear, underwear.

Protective clothing,

work wear, sewing

threads, medical wipes

and dressings, filters,

interlinings, tea bags,

papers, envelopes.

Cellulose Cupro Absorbent, pleasant Lining fabrics


handle and drape.

Similar to viscose and

modal.

2) Complete the table for Synthetic Fibres. (1 mark for source, 2 for properties and 2 for end uses – total of

40)

Synthetic polymers Fibre Properties End Uses

Source

Petrochemicals Fluorofibre (PTFE) Flexible, durable,

breathable, easy-care,

hardly dyes, water

repellent, stain

resistant, windproof,

doesn’t harm

environment, degrades

slowly.

Petrochemicals Polyamide (Nylon) Non absorbent, prone

to static, can be made

soft or firm, flat

filaments are cool,

textured filaments trap

air and are warm, very

strong, excellent

abrasion resistance,

tear resistance and

durability, windproof,

hydrophobic,

lightweight, flammable,

soft, easy-care, good

drape, good elasticity,

thermoplastic, dyes

well, engineered to

provide breathable

comfort.

Petrochemicals Polyvinyl (acrylic) Low absorbency, fast

drying, prone to static,

good strength, warm,

easy-care, soft handle

with good drape, nonrenewable

source,

thermoplastic, sensitive

to heat and steam.

Petrochemicals Polyesters Non-absorbent, prone

to static, can be soft or

firm, can be cool or

warmth depending on

filaments, very strong,

excellent abrasion

resistance and tear

resistance. Durable,

windproof,

hydrophobic,

lightweight, easy-care,

good heat resistance,

soft, good drape,

thermoplastic be

Used to protect all

fibres and leather,

garments, upholstery,

curtains, sportswear,

mattresses, ties, work

wear, shoes.

Carpets, curtains,

umbrellas, tights,

sewing yarns,

underwear, socks, ties,

nightwear, linings,

clothing, active

sportswear, fleece

garments, tents, ropes,

sails, parachutes, tyre

cords, seat belts.

Blankets, curtains,

furnishings, microfiber

performance fabrics,

linings, fake-fur and

fleece fabrics, fluffy

knitting yarns.

Furnishings, upholstery,

carpets, bedding,

children’s nightwear,

transport textiles,

garments, ties, scarves,

rainwear, linings, sports

and leisure wear,

microfibre fleece

garments, bed linen,

wadding, medical

textiles.


Petrochemicals

Petrochemicals

Petrochemicals

Chlorofibre (polyvinyl

chloride – PVC)

Polyurethane

(Elastomerics)

Polyolefines

(Polypropylene)

engineered to be

breathable, dyes well,

loses strength with long

exposure to sunlight,

resistant to acids,

alkalis, solvents, mildew

and fungus.

Strong, flexible,

durable, waterproof,

breathable, easy-care,

good insulation,

thermoplastic.

Can stretch to 7 times

its original length and

recover, supple fabric

with enhances drape,

adds comfort, softness

and crease-resistance,

absorbent, dryes well,

easy-care, can provide

chlorine resistance and

comfort.

Thermoplastic with low

melting point, high

strength, resistant to

chemicals, nonabsorbent,

and good

wicking properties,

crease-resistant, soft

when finely spun, nonallergenic.

Petrochemicals Aramid (Kevlar, Nomex) High strength and

resistance, strong,

lightweight, flame and

chemical resistant,

flexible, comfortable

durable, easy care, low

shrinkage.

Weatherproof coatings,

raincoats, shower

curtains, floor

coverings, underwear,

jumpers, hats, scarves,

socks, active wear,

fleece.

Body-hugging,

comfortable garments,

sports wear, ski wear,

swim wear, lingerie,

leisurewear, fashion

products, medical

products, shoes,

nappies.

Carpet backing, sacks,

webbing, twine, fishing

nets, vegetable bags,

ropes, upholstery,

awnings, sportswear

and geotextiles.

Protective wear, work

wear, high risk

sportswear, motor

racing, protective

overalls, flameretardant

wear.

3) Complete the table for Inorganic Fibres. (1 mark for source, 2 for properties and 2 for end uses – total of

20)

Inorganic Fibre Source Fibre Properties End Uses

Burning acrylic fibre to Glass

produce carbon

Powdered compounds

of mineral origin

Carbon

Very strong, lightweight,

abrasion resistant, tear

resistant, flameresistant,

resistant to

chemicals, low shrinkage

in heat, non-renewable

source.

Durable, strong,

shatterproof but poor

abrasion resistance, heat

and cold resistant, good

electrical properties,

Transport upholstery,

rocket motors, sports

products, clothing for

the emergency services

and armed forces.

Aerospace and military

industry, flame and heat

barriers, light and UV

filters, roof coverings,

sterile hospital wall


Aluminium, copper and

steel most commonly

used. Silver and gold

for more expensive

uses.

Powdered compounds

of metal oxide, metal

carbide, metal nitride

or their mixtures.

Metal

Ceramic

non-stick, non-toxic,

resistant to chemicals,

mildew and fungus.

Strong, lightweight,

abrasion-resistant,

protects against

electromagnetic

pollution, conductive,

provides anti-static

properties.

Resistant to very high

temperatures, provide

UV protection, good

insulation, resistant to

chemicals, low thermal

conductivity.

coverings, outerwear

protective garments.

Decorative textiles,

active sportswear, work

wear and protective

industrial clothing,

medical end-uses.

Swimwear, UV

protective clothing,

industrial wear,

electrical, thermal and

sound insulation,

reinforcement in some

composites.

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