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Physical Models, Resolution Methods and Real-time Interactions for ...

Physical Models, Resolution Methods and Real-time Interactions for ...

Physical Models, Resolution Methods and Real-time Interactions for

I N R I A Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control A Public French Scientific and Technological Institut under the auspices of the Ministry of Research and the Ministry of Industry Physical Models, Resolution Methods and Real-time Interactions for Soft Tissue Simulations in Medical Simulators Kenneth SUNDARAJ We focus this in: Physical Models Real-time Interactions Numerical Integration MEDICAL SIMULATIONS • Motivations – Education, training & planning – Security – Cost & ethics – Certification • Requirements for Realism – Volumetric models of the human body that capture the internals of organs, etc – Bio-mechanical descriptions of the properties of different body parts – Interactive, real-time, realistic deformation of volumetric models – Topology modifications – Haptic Interaction – Collision detection (haptic device to organs, organ to organ) – Real-time rendering of volumetric objects • Minimal invasive surgery – Less traumatism consequences – Less time in hospital after operations – Increased techniques for medical students • No more use of corpses or animals (less expensive, non-unique utilisation; non ethical problems) • Medical simulator : eternal patient; rares pathologies simulation; quantitative evaluation methods • Virtual reality techniques: visual advantages, touching sensations ORGANIZATION • Physical Models – Mass-springspring models – Finite element method (FEM) – Long element method (LEM) • Numerical Resolution – Dynamic Solution • Explicit Integration • Implicit Integration – Static Solution • Real-time Interactions – Collision Detection – Haptic Interaction – Topology Modification Mass-Spring Networks (MSN) Point masses Viscous-elastic connectors + ext Node dynamics : m x&& b x& F Internal forces : F ij + i ∑ F = ∑ = ( −λ ∆ d − µ d& ) k Rigidity factor Damping factor ij ij 1

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Real-time PPP with undifferenced integer ambiguity resolution ...
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