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ortiz, denisse a - Department of Landscape Architecture - Rutgers ...

LATINO URBANISM:

A Case Study of the Meaning and Use of Streets as Place

in the Dominican Community of Washington Heights,

New York City

Denisse Ortiz

1


Latino Urbanism: A Case Study of the Meaning and Use of

Streets as Place in the Dominican Community of Washington

Heights, New York City.

By

Denisse Ortiz

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of Master of

Landscape Architecture in The Department of Landscape Architecture within the

School of Enviromental and Biological Sciences at

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey

April 2013

New Brunswick, New Jersey

Advisor:

Richard Alomar

2


This essay was reviewed and approved* by

the following individuals:

Laura Lawson

Professor & Chair

Department of Landscape Architecture

Richard Alomar

Assistant Professor

Department of Landscape Architecture

Kathleen John-Alder

Assistant Professor

Department of Landscape Architecture

*Signatures are on file in the Graduate School

3


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my deepest appreciation

to everyone who contributed to this

project in what often seemed like an unending

journey. My sincere gratitude to my advisor

Richard Alomar for the continuous support

of my project study and research, for his patience,

motivation and enthusiasm. Besides

my advisor, I would like to also thank the rest

of my thesis committee: Prof. Laura J. Lawson

and Kathleen John-Alder for their encouragement,

suggestions and insightful comments.

A special gratitude I give to our final project

coordinator, Holly G. Nelson, whose contribution

in stimulating suggestions and encouragement,

helped me to keep myself on track

for the completion of this project. Additionally,

the complete administrative staff at Blake

thanks you from the bottom of my heart.

Separately, I'd like to thank my parents

for raising me the way they did and teaching

me that an education is the best legacy one

can leave their children. To my little sister who

took a considerable amount of her personal

time to help and support me these past three

years - mil gracias.

Most importantly I would like to thank

little amores, Miah and Liah, for being my

source of inspiration. Lastly, I would like to

give my most profound gratitude to my husband

Dr. Julio Angel Ortiz, who played the biggest

role in this entire process. Thank you for

being supportive and understanding, and for

believing in me when I did not.

4


ABSTRACT

This study examines Latino presence

in the United States, with a focus on the Dominican

community living in Washington

Heights, New York City (Duany 1994, 2008). 1

The research reveals the struggle of this community

to claim public space (Angotti 2012),

and create place to engineer a familiar environment

to fulfill their needs for social, recreational

and commercial spaces.

The study’s objective is to show the importance

of cultural meaning, that manifested

in patterns of use, spatial practices, and material

characteristics that derived from a particular

history, time, and place. 2 The research

incorporates theories of Latino Urbanism (Rojas

2010), Placemaking (Rios et al 2012), and

concepts of streets as places (Francis 1887,

1989).

1 Latinos are people of Hispanic ancestry, commonly referred to natives

of Latin America and their descendants in the United States

(Irazabal & Farhat 2008).

2 For the purposes of this essay place is the setting for the everyday

and the location of ideas and practice that create a narrative of

meanings (Rios et al 2012)

This three-pronged approach seeks to understand

how place is constructed through everyday

practices, past experiences, attachment,

and the memories of a group’s sense of community.

The analysis extends from a study of

the physical elements of space and its relationship

to social use. This helps in generating

a demographic and experiential perspective

of the everyday space.

This study uses observation-based

studies and behavioral mapping techniques

to evaluate and explain patterns of use of

streets by the Dominican community in Washington

Heights, New York. In order to do so,

an in-depth analysis of existing site conditions

was conducted which resulted in approaching

the site in different scale contexts.

At a general level, Latino demographics in

the U.S. showed a significant increase in the

past decade, resulting in changes of how public

spaces were used. Due to these changes,

first, the transnational identity and practices

of the Dominican community became selfevident.

Second, these practices expose the

need to retrofit the current built form to adapt

it to the needs and wants of this community.

Third, there was a drastic (and quite obvious)

change that emerges forging a “new identity”

(or lack thereof) of the street character as it

merged with the area of study. This suggests

how Broadway (the main downstreet or what

others call the neighborhood) has been neglected

and arguably mistreated. The study

provides further details about the lack of accommodations

to safeguard pedestrians, designated

bike access routes and space for social

and cultural interchanges on the streets.

The study addresses the practical

question of space use, Latino placemaking,

meaning, and experience of the site through

the eyes of a Dominican culture residing in

the area. As designers continue to experiment

with new landscapes in a transformable

contexts, the study helps to merge cultural

forms and practices with design specificity

vis-à-vis territorial inhabitation of space, place

and meaningful use. The study reveals how

Latino urbanism is taking place in Washington

Heights, and how cultural preferences are

experienced in the struggle for public space

and placemaking.

5


tABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page ..........................................

Title Page ............................................

Committee Members..........................

Page 1

Page 2

Page 3

Area of Study

Washington Heights,

New York City

Abstract ...............................................

Table of Contents ...............................

Page 4

Page 5

New Jersey

WASHINTON HEIGHTS

BRONX

Introduction ........................................

Page 6

Concepts & Theories ..........................

Page 8

Methodological Approach ..................

Page 10

Site Inventory & Analysis ....................

Page 19

MANHATTAN

Discussion ..........................................

Page 22

Recommendations ..............................

Design Recommendations ................

Page 55

Page 58

QUEENS

Concluding Remarks ..........................

Page 61

References .........................................

Appendix .............................................

Page 68

Page 71

Figure 1 Location Plan

BROOKLYN

N

6


Dominicans are one of the fastestgrowing

groups of Latinos in the United States

and fastest-growing segment of the population

in New York City (Ennis et al 2011). For

Dominicans the experience, use and interactions

in public spaces means to socialize and

interact with neighbors in the public realm.

The space serve as a medium to assimilate

into mainstream American culture. The fact

that public space has not been designed to

be adaptable to support uses other than the

norm, can result in malfunction and degradation

of the urban form as well as a lack of

attachment to place. This study argues that

culture can contribute to the design of public

urban places and preserve a healthy city form

and environment.

Research shows that design is often

misguided or misused due to the subjectivity

of the designers and, more precisely, due to

the different cultural backgrounds of the users.

The lack of micro-level details not taken

into account when designing (e.g. cultural values

and timeframe elements) has the potential

to adversely affect the social and spatial

quality of the space. In an effort to fill this

void and add socio-cultural elements to the

design process, the research develops both

a theoretical and practical response to this

lack of cultural emphasis. The purpose of this

study is to get a better understanding of how

the designed landscape responds to cultural

adaptation and placemaking (or not).

Latino urbanism and placemaking approaches

can help carry cultural and social

meaning in the everyday landscape. This is

relevant in the design process as a response

to issues with users and use.

pROJECT sTATEMENT / GOALS

AND OBJECTIVES

How can the design of streets as public

open space aid in placemaking and convey

cultural meaning and use?

The goal of this study is to explore how

the Dominican community of Washington

Heights, New York City uses and interacts with

streets as public open space, and to gain insight

on how the street to cultural adaptation

and placemaking.

The goals will be accomplished by:

•Obtaining a detailed study of demographics,

pattern changes, and socio-cultural characteristics

of the Dominican community of

Washington Heights;

•Conducting observations on general and

distinctive socio-cultural patterns for this community;

•Analyzing the relationship between patterns

and use; and

•Proposing recommendations for design

implementation based on the analysis of patterns

and use.

INTRODUCTION

7


CONCEPTS & THEORIES

8


1990 Hispanic Population

The DOMINICAN

LANDSCAPE IN THE U.S.

Latinos are the largest and fastestgrowing

minority group in the United States

(Rios 2010, Rios et al 2012) and this group is

rapidly changing the nation’s ethnic diversity

at a fast pace representing more than 50% of

the population change from 2000 and 2010

(Ennis et al 2011). To many, Latino presence

in the U.S. is the latest chapter of ethnic succession

in urban America. (Figs. 2 - 5).

Latino heritage in the Americas began

with the Spanish “discovery” of the New

World and the subsequent contact with its indigenous

people. Later the infusion of other

ethnicities to the mix helped to create a distinct

Latino culture – a blend of European, African

and Native Americans. Prior to the 18th

century, this culture in North America typically

referred to Spanish colonies in what is now

the continental United States and also Mexico.

After the 1800s; people from South and

Central America and the Caribbean were key

social actors shaping the continuously evolving

Latino culture.

Figure 2 US Hispanic Population 1970-

2050 (US Census Bureau 2010)

Although Latino heritage is primarily

linked to notable populations in the western

part of the U.S., census data reports emigration

and intermigration of Latinos settling in

new places throughout the country, with significant

increases in the Northeast and South.

According to the 2010 Census, Latinos in

NYC had become the second most numerous

race/ethnic group in this city comprising almost

30% of the total population compared

with approximately 20% for non-hispanic

blacks and about 30% for non-Hispanic white

(Ennis et al 2011, Bergad 2011). As a sizeable

group, they are beginning to have a significant

impact on the American landscape

and the character of city place from a cultural,

societal, economic and political stance (Rios

2010).

This said, however, Latinos have fought

for the “right” of the city. One example of the

long history of Latino struggle for this right is

that Latinos identity has become embedded

in New York City’s public spaces and neigh-

Figure 3 1990 Hispanic Population

(Social Explorer 2010)

2000 Hispanic Population

Figure 4 2000 Hispanic Population

(Social Explorer 2010)

2010 Hispanic Population

Figure 5 2010 Hispanic Population

(Social Explorer 2010)

9

1% to 5%

5% to 10%

10% to 15%

15% to 30%

30% to 40%

40% to 60%

60% to 75%

75% to 90%

90% to 95%

95% to 100%

2012 Social Explorer

1% to 5%

5% to 10%

10% to 15%

15% to 30%

30% to 40%

40% to 60%

60% to 75%

75% to 90%

90% to 95%

95% to 100%

2012 Social Explorer

1% to 5%

5% to 10%

10% to 15%

15% to 30%

30% to 40%

40% to 60%

60% to 75%

75% to 90%

90% to 95%

95% to 100%

2012 Social Explorer


orhoods even while they are being contested

(Angotti 2012, 2012). Dominicans as part of

this Latino group are not the exception. Their

culture, identity, appeal of merengue 1 music

and other forms of Dominican popular culture

has been captured in the city space even

though most scholars and researchers have

neglected the study of this cultural identity

in the U.S. from a design standpoint (Duany

1994, 2008).

Interestingly and somewhat surprisingly,

the first non-native American settler in

the isle of New Amsterdam was a Dominican

sailor-turned-merchant by the name of Juan

Rodriguez in 1613 . Rodriguez landed on the

island of Manhattan a year before the first

European settlers and twelve years before

the founding of the island. In order to honor

his memory and the Dominican contribution

to the City, a tribute was organized; the local

municipal government agreed to name a section

of Broadway in Washington Heights from

159th to 218th streets in his name (Fig. 6).

Juan Rodriguez Boulevard

George Washigton Bridge

Figure 6 Juan Rodriguez Boulevard at Study site

(Dominican Studies Institute - CUNY 2010)

Dominican Migration to the United States

I -95N

N

Washington Heights, New York City

Portion of Broadway to be remamed Juan Rodriguez

City, New Jersey, South Florida, Providence RI

and Philadelphia PA. A less dense population

concentrated in Chicago IL, Washington DC,

Houston, Los Angeles CA, Portland OT, Kansas

City KS, Orlando FL and New Orleans, LA

(Fig.7).

As of the 2010 Census, Dominicans

made up the largest Latino group in Manhattan,

NYC (Ennis et al 2011). New York City’s

neighborhood of Washington Heights hosts

the largest Dominican settlement in this city

as well as the United States (Duany 2008),

comprising almost 50% of the total Latino

population in NYC (Bergad 2011). Washington

Heights is often referred to as “Quisqueya

Heights” by native Dominicans - Quisqueya

being the former name of the Dominican Republic

prior to Spanish colonization (Fig. 8).

Like other immigrant clusters, many

Portland, OR

This said, the first true wave of Dominican immigration

started in earnest after the second

U.S. military occupation in the Dominican Republic

in 1965 - known as Operation Power

Pack (Labadie 1993). The Dominican diaspora

immigrated to many places in the United

States, with major concentrations in New York

1 Merengue is the national dance of the Dominican Republic.

10

Los Angeles, CA

Kansas City, KS

Houston, TX

Chicago, IL

New Orleans, LA

Figure 7 Dominican Migration to the US

(Duany 1994)

Boston, MA

Providence, RI

Philadelphia, PA New York City, NY

New Jersey

Washington, DC

South Florida

Dominican

Republic

Figure 8 Dominican Parade in Washington

Heigths, (http://islandwoo.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/dominican-day-parade-nyc.jpg)


Dominicans choose to stay together within the

same geographical location. In Washington

Heights, where they have established their

community, a distinct Dominican identity has

emerged and continues to flourish. The neighborhood

has become a hotbed of cultural diffusion

and interchange of Dominican culture.

Many restaurants offer ethnic eateries, local

stores often advertise in both Spanish and

English; church services are frequently held in

keeping with Dominican traditions, and medical

assistance is not only available in “standard”

Spanish but in the Dominican dialect

of Spanish (Fig 11,12). The language on the

street is Spanish, and the Dominican flag flies

proudly next to the American one from apartment

windows and storefronts (Fig. 9,10).

Figure 9 Latino Impact on the Character of the

City,

Distribution of Dominicans

in Washington Heights, NYC

Figure 10 Dominican Culture in Washington Heights at 169th

St. Copyright © Frances M. Roberts

Dominicans as Percentage of

all Latinos in Washington Heights, NYC

0

0.25 0.5

Mile

N

0

0.25 0.5

Mile

N

201-500 501-1000 1001-2000 2001- UP Washington Heights NYC Boroughs

Figure 11 Distribution of Dominicans in Washington Heights,

(Department of City Planning City of New York 2012)

26 - 50% 51 - 75% 76 % - UP Washington Heights NYC Boroughs

Figure 12 Percentage of Dominicans in Washington Heights,

(Department of City Planning City of New York 2012)

11


Race Distribution in NYC

40% Dominicans

Non-Hispanic

White

25.3%

Latino

65.4%

Non-Hispanic

Black

18.5%

Median Age in NYC County (Manhattan)

Dominican 31

Asian

11.8%

Latino

*

31

Figure 13 Race Distribution in Washington Heights, (US Census

Bureau 2012)

Asian

Non-Hispanic Black

37

38

Total Population in NYC County (Manhattan)

Non-Hispanic White

43

0 10 20 30 40 50

Figure 15 Median Age in Washington Heights, (US Census

Bureau 2012)

1,585,873

403,577

Dominican

155,971

Figure 14 Washington Heights Total Population, (US Census

Bureau 2012)

12


latino urbanism &

placemaking

Latino urbanism is defined as an

emerging approach to design that responds

to Latino lifestyles, cultural preferences, and

economic needs (Lara 2012). Latino urbanism

has been discussed by numerous professionals

in the field as a means to look at how

Latinos retrofit their neighborhoods to make

places unique and special. Rios defines Latino

urbanism as the expression and instrumentality

of culture in the public realm. Rios indicates:

“culture serves as a creative force to

instigate a shift in the use, identity and meaning

of public spaces”. This helps in identifying

place and related place meaning of a struggling

urban landscape. This study draws from

this concept by highlighting how the selected

site’s unique spatial history and the everyday

life practices of residents that retrofit the built

form to satisfy economic, social and cultural

needs.

Many have used the concept of Latino

urbanism in terms of urban politics (Davila

2004, Diaz 2005), and its relation to contemporary

paradigms like new urbanism (Mendez

2003). However, absent from this discourse is

the expression and instrumentality of culture

in the public realm. In other words, Latino

urbanism encompasses more than just the

political aspect of the urban form; it is a catalyst

of representing use, meaning and identity

of Latino culture. More precisely, it offers a

model for urban improvisation and reinvention

that addresses the issues of public life,

social justice, and the economic needs of the

diverse urban dwellers and embraces the everyday

acts of individuals, families and communities

(Rojas 2010). Latino urbanism does

not focus on creating and allocating for one

specific culture, rather understands how people

use space with their cultural values (Rojas

2010). It provides innovative ways for sustainably

retrofitting cities and suburbs from the

ground up through the enforcement of vibrant

urban environments, supportive, creative and

adaptive urban form, integrated public and

private space, developmental opportunities

for all social groups, and space constructed

by the people and for the people.

Placemaking can be constructed individually

or by groups. Place refers to territorialized

local communities and identities,

collective memories associated with territory,

claim of authenticity by local actors, phenomenological

association with locales, and social

relationships among people in territorial communities

(Rios et al 2012, Rios 2010). Place

is the space where Latino citizenship is being

produced as they struggle to build community,

and gain social and political standing. Place-

Latino Placamaking Ideas

Latino

Urbanism

Physical

Environment

USE

Urban

Improvisation

Addaptive

City

Form

Place

Making &

Meaning

Figure 16 Placamaking Elements and Process

(Author)

Expresion

Instrumentality

Cultural

Preferences

Lifestyle

Economic

Needs

13


making is also the construction of meaning,

and is the mean of production of the locale,

space, action and identity (Fig 16). This is the

creation of a parallel identity (Rios et al 2012).

What makes a public space distinctly

Latino is the social and cultural norms that

manifest in patterns of use, spatial practices,

and material characteristics that derive from

a particle history, time, and place (Fig. 17). As

Rios exposes in his research about placemaking

in Latino communities, Latinos space making

has three types of spaces. These spaces

have implications for the planning and design

of urban space, and how spatial production

contributes to the process of affirming cultural

identity and raising group consciousness. The

three types of spaces according to Rios are

adaptive, assertive and negotiative spaces.

•Adaptive Spaces exist on unclaimed environments

that are appropriate for everyday

use including vacant properties, streets and

parking lots. These sites are also appropriate

for spontaneous, improvisational, and creative

uses. An adaptive space could provide

a space to share a “common sense” of territorial

identity with a homeland other than the

one that is currently being inhabited, like Las

Casitas. Here vacant lots are converted into

culturally specific community gardens as the

setting for playing dominos, pig roast, and salsa,

and activities (Aponte-Pares. 1997).

14

Figure 17 An oversized chess set transforms a plaza into a

place that attracts people and invites them to interact. (tetraconz

via Flick)

•Assertive Spaces emerge when space is politicized

to challenge dominant symbols and

codes. Assertive spaces express an insurgent

identity, especially when minority groups’

claims are not represented. These are spaces

that express an explicit cultural identity.

These spaces also challenge existing codes

and symbols, resulting in changing meaning

of public open space such as Los Angeles’s

Old Plaza and Olvera Street or Paseo Boricua

in Chicago’s Humboldt Park neighborhood

(Estrada 1999).

•Negotiative Spaces represent the leading

edge of cultural interchange in the public

realm. These spaces move beyond symbolic

representation of a particular group towards

the formation of polyvalent communities and

the recognition of plural understanding. This

type of space is characterized by transcultural

iconographies, hybrid aesthetics, and recombinant

cultural forms. E.g. borderlands between

Mexico and US (Herzog 2001).

The success of these spaces is measured

by personal experience of its users. In

the case of adaptive spaces, Latinos adapt

the urban fabric to produce placemaking.

For example, “The Casitas” project has been

a useful Puerto Rican effort that showcases

their identity in a subtler way without interfering

with designed environments (Aponte-

Pares 1997). Assertive spaces, on the other

hand, tend to be culture-centric. For instance

“El Paseo Boricua” is a retrofitted strip that

celebrates Puerto Rican culture excluding other

ethnicities to be represented in the space.

Lastly, negotiative spaces supports cultural

interchange where many groups could interact,

but does not showcase culture as one of

the underlying elements of identity of its inhabitants,

resulting on meaningless and unidentifiable

spaces (Fig. 18).

These characterizations of spaces

provide a foundation to understand how Latino

placemaking can be identified. In New

York City, one of the most segregated cities in

the US for blacks and even more so for Latinos,

the history of Latino placemaking has

developed as a function of the displacement

of Latino communities and other immigrants

groups (Angotti 2012).


Results

RESULTS

Examples

EXAMPLES

Rios’s Latino Space Making

Adaptive ADDAPTIVE Assertive ASSERTIVE Negotiative

NEGOTIATIVE

-Everyday Use

-Politicized space - Leading edge of

-Vacant Properties

-Streets

-Parking Lots

-Express insurgent identity

-Express explicit cultural

identity

cultural interchange

- formation of

polyvalent community

-Recognition of plural

understanding

-Culturally specific -Change of meaning of - Transcultural

space

public open space iconographies

-Shared common sense

- Hybrid aesthetics

- Recombinant cultural

forms

Casita Rincon Criollo at 157 th St.

and Brook Ave. Bronx NY 10456

Mother’s Day, 2012, Photo by Molly

Garfinkel

Humboldt Paseo Boricua Gateway,

Chicago IL. Sept 6, 2008 By Zol87

(Flickr.com)

New York City

Figure 18 Rios’ Latino Space Making (Author)

15


Streets as Places

Mark Francis states, streets can shape

public culture and provide the environment

for the social life of the city. (Francis 1987,

1989). Streets are an important part of the

landscape of everyday life. Social life occurs

along streets providing meaning to people, inviting

access for all and encouraging use and

participation. Streets are an integral part of

everyday life in myriad forms. Often Latinos

retrofit the auto-oriented built form to make

it pedestrian friendly through their behavior

pattern. For Dominicans living in Washington

Heights the street is where social life takes

place. Jane Jacobs one of the early advocates

of democratic streets made planners aware of

the “eyes on the streets” a key elements in the

process of constructing place (Jacobs 1961).

The high pedestrian volumes in Latino neighborhoods

help support and facilitate transit

use, from biking and illegal shuttle service, to

bus and subway services.

Kevin Lynch, another writer of urban

life, posits in the essay entitled “A Theory

of Good City” that we have five basic public

space rights: presence, use and action, appropriation,

modification and disposition (Lynch

1981). These rights provide an effective

measurement of the street’s publicness and

democracy rights that Dominicans have embraced

on the streets of Washington Heights.

Simple amusements like walking, talking, eating,

and performing sport activities also gives

a street a diverse life. Unfortunately, planners

have attempted to transfer these activities to

parks, restaurants, and public buildings. Many

scholars and practitioners believe that we

need to bring people back to the streets (Francis

1987, 1989). A good example of Lynch

and Francis’ ideas are found on the streets of

Los Angeles; they provide Latinos a space and

opportunity for economic survival by allowing

them to sell items or labor. Vendors temporarily

transform the urban landscape by adding a

rhythmic activity on the streets. Nowhere else

in the urban landscape of Latino Los Angeles

is the use of space so evident and celebrated

(Rojas 2010). Some argue that a public street

should have a healthy relationship between

the private and semipublic life inside buildings

and outside in the public (Fischer 1981).

Whyte (1980) also agrees with this concept

and indicates that “dead” uses such as businesses

without display windows and office,

parking garages with blank walls should not

be placed along the public street.

16


METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

17


The methodological approach to this

research study is qualitative. It relies on using

observation-based and behavioral mapping

techniques that evaluate and explain patterns

of use on streets as places of social interaction.

The focus will be on observing sociocultural

patterns of the Dominican community in

the area of Washington Heights, New York.

SCALE 2

Broadway Boulevard

at Washington Heights

The study site is Broadway from 155 St

to Dyckman Street, extending throughout the

entire strip of Washington Heights focusing

only on the front facade of each block along

Broadway. The area presents a considerable

population, and provides a base to conduct

observations on spatial quality and characteristics

of physical form, behavioral patterns

and meaning; (fig.19).

George Washington Bridge

I 95 North

Qualitative inquiries are inherently

multi-method, which reflect an attempt to

secure an in-depth understanding of the

phenomenon in question (Denzin & Lincoln,

1998). Data was collected over a seven month

period using street observation, mapping,

photographs, and document analysis. Observations

included patterns of use by block, recreational

quality, activity settings, and spatial

character of the site. Participant observation

techniques like people tracking and counting

were employed to view and engage in the Figure 19 Study Site, Broadway 155 ST. to

Dyckman ST. (Author)

18

0

N

0.25 0.5

Mile


interactions, actions, and behaviors of participants

in the sidewalks and streets where

Dominicans reside. A camera was used to

capture key features of the site. A total of over

two-hundred photos were taken and archived.

These images were used for data inventory

analysis and patterns classification and interpretation.

Photographs of built form, store

fronts, outdoor activities, and materials were

taken. Document analysis included diagrams

of circulation, land use, environmental quality,

physical character and components of the

site, charts, and observation questionnaires;

developed to assess uses on the site.

All the project data and observations

provided a foundation for developing meaning

and use diagrams of streets as places. Observations

were analyzed based on Rios’ concept

of Latino space and placemaking, Rojas’ Latino

Urbanism, and Francis’ public street for

public use (see Fig. 20). Observations were

coded to relate to the research goals. Next,

the texts and diagrams with similar codes

were grouped together for more focused analysis.

During this phase of focused coding and

grouping, different study scales emerged, giving

way to three scales with rich descriptions

and commentary. The write up of the results

and the analysis was addressed in a macro

to micro scale fashion, and integrated in the

discussion followed by the key recommendations.

The site was visit five times during

different seasons, including weekdays and

weekends. The visits were between five/to/

six hours in length. During each visit, notes

were taken of how people used the space (i.e.

behavioral mapping). Information on traces

left behind by users, flow and movement,

and people counting were used to determine

which were the most used and populated areas

on the site.

In addition to the observations, a variety of

documents were gathered from the public domain

as well as from organizational records,

including newspaper articles, magazine articles,

census data, videos and photographs,

minutes from meetings, conference, organization

charts, bulletin boards, and web sites.

Meaning & Use

Urban

Improvisations

Cultural

Preferences

Streets

as

Places

Concepts and Theories

Latinos

Figure 20 Research Approach (Author).

Expressions

Public

Life

Meaning of

Everyday Life

Latino

Urbanism

Placemaking

Economic

Needs

Dominicans

Place

Meaning

Planning

Practices

Research Approach

Gentrification

Discussion

Social

Justice

Placelessness

Latino

Urbanism

as response to

Placemaking

Alternative

19


SITE INVENTORY & ANALYSIS

20


The site inventory was divided into

three scales. The first scale comprised the

general identification of location, zoning, accessibility

and spatial elements that were

found within the community. The second scale

is a result of the previous scale. The focus was

on Broadway and its key city elements. It extended

along the neighborhood from 155th

Street to Dyckman Street The third scale centered

on the core of this community; from

168th Street to 181st Street.

The site inventory was conducted with

physical maps, photographs, sections, and

use patterns to identify use, spatial characteristics,

experience and meaning.

Figure 21 Aerial View of Washington Heights, New

York (www.nyc.gov)

21


STUDY SCALE 1

22


General Identification

of Washington Heights

WASHINTON HEIGHTS,

New York City

Inwood

Access

Washington Heights is 2.5 miles long

by 0.5 miles wide, bordered by parkland (Fig.

22). Neighborhood parks are within a 10

minute walking distance from most residential

areas. It hosts one of the most important

transportation facilities of the northeast the

George Washington Bridge Bus Station, providing

connections to numerous transportation

hubs, terminals, corridors and junctions.

Its location allows for easy accessibility to and

from New Jersey, the Bronx and downtown

Manhattan (Fig. 23).

New Jersey

George Washington Bridge

Figure 22 Washington Heights District,

Study Scale 1 (nyc.gov)

0

I 95

BRONX

N

0.25 0.5

Mile

Site Bounderies

SCALE 1

Expressways Vehicle Only Street

City Streets with Sidewalks

Major Arteries

George Washington Bridge

Riverside Dr.

Broadway

Broadway

Amsterdam

Broadway

St. Nicholas

Amsterdam

Figure 23 Access, Study Scale 1 (nyc.gov)

155 St

181St

179St

178St

St. Nicholas

0

Amsterdam

I 95

N

0.25 0.5

Mile

Site Bounderies

SCALE 1

Approximately 65% of the land is built

up and zoned as mid-rise apartment buildings.

Preserved parkland represents about

20% of the total area (Fig. 24). The remaining

area is designated for transportation. Parallel

to Broadway are Saint Nicholas and Amsterdam

Avenues which provide mixed uses

to its residents. Commercial overlay districts

also take place along residential zones (Fig.

25). These are small retail and service shops

districts that serve the immediate needs of

surrounding residential communities. In most

cases, this commercial overlay districts take

only two stories for commercial activities.

WASHINTON HEIGHTS

Zoning

Site Bounderies

Commercial Districts by Major Arteries

Residential District Apartment Buildings Mid-rise

Parkland

George Washington Bridge

Figure 24 Zoning, Study Scale 1 (nyc.gov)

0

I 95

Inwood

N

0.25 0.5

Mile

SCALE 1

Comercial Overlay Districts

George Washington Bridge

Figure 25 Commercial Overlay District, Study

Scale 1 (nyc.gov)

I 95

Commercial Districts in Residential Districts C1-4

Commercial Districts in Residential Districts C2-4

0

Site Bounderies

23

N

0.25 0.5

Mile

SCALE 1


Site Analysis

scale 1

This scale analyzed circulation, accessibility,

zoning and land use. At this level,

residential and commercial land use contributed

to a sense of vibrancy on the streets.

Commercial overlays districts were located on

three out of the four main arteries that connected

southern portions of Manhattan to

Washington Heights and Inwood, particularly

on Broadway, Saint Nicholas and Amsterdam

Avenues.

There were separations and barriers in

the neighborhood due to components of the

urban form or physical barriers. Entering the

neighborhood at 155th Street, the presence

of Trinity Cemetery offered an edge where

the site started. The number of people on the

streets was less in comparison to other areas

of the neighborhood, but the quality of the

street space was considerably better in terms

of accommodations for users to stay and socialize

for longer periods of time. Broadway

Mall, a key identity of Broadway starts at Columbus

Circle in midtown Manhattan and extends

north to Washington Heights where it

is the center artery of the neighborhood and

where people have the opportunity to interact.

24

Washington Heights’s

General Spatial

Analysis

New Jersey

George Washington Bridge

Main Street / Downtown

area of the Neighborhood

New York Presbyterian

Hospital

Residential- light

commercial Oriented

Trinity Cementery

Residential Oriented

Figure 26 Analysis Diagram Study Scale 1 (Author)

Multi-facilities Oriented

0

Inwood

182 nd Shopping

District

George Washington Bridge

Bus Station

I 95

Parkland

BRONX

Site Bounderies

N

Commercial Zones

0.25 0.5

Mile

SCALE 1


At 168th Street, New York Presbyterian

hospital was the Broadway Malls end and the

more populated and vibrant zone began. At

178th Street, the George Washington Bridge

and Bus Terminal literally cuts through the

neighborhood separating what can be called

the north and south parts of Washington

Heights. Here, the character of the area became

more transit oriented, traffic and safety

was a major issue. On the north side of the

station a few more blocks shared the same

characteristics and the commercial and transit

oriented pattern ended. The last element

was the 181st St. shopping district connector

to Interstate 95 and the Bronx. North of the

181 St. Shopping district marked the beginning

of a more residential area (Fig.26).

The use of public recreational space

and playgrounds was affected by access to

these facility and gender and age of users.

Based on behavioral mapping in neighborhood

recreational spaces, mothers with toddlers,

kids under the age of 12, elderly, and

dog owners had preference for recreational

open space. Teenagers, young adults and

some adults prefered an immediate social

space to be accessed from their place of

work, residence or school. Here they socialized.

Store fronts along Broadway, residential

buildings entrance and sidewalks; specifically

from 168th to 182nd St, were places where

socialization happened.

The inventory showed the preference

of users to open space oriented towards facilities

and access. These physical barriers were

all related to Broadway. Trinity Cemetery, New

York Presbyterian, George Washington Bridge

& Bus Terminal and the 181st shopping districts

were facilities and areas that were service

oriented, with an expected major inflow

and outflow of users. 182nd Street and above

was more residential and community oriented

with less street and commercial activity. Access

to neighborhood parks, government institutions

and churches along Broadway were

in this area.

25


STUDY SCALE 2

26


Scale 2

Broadway from 155th

St. – Dyckman St.

Broadway from 155th St. to Dyckman

St. was selected as the area of study for this

scale 2. Broadway is considered the “Main

Street” or “Downtown” area of the neighborhood

and is one of the most transited streets

in the area; this street’s connection with other

key points in the community makes it highly

used by its residents and visitors (Fig. 28).

Broadway has become a global brand

and defining feature of New York City. Broadway

is also important for Washington Heights.

In the past decade, areas along

Broadway have been converted to pedestrian

zones under Major Michael Bloomberg to optimize

traffic efficiency (Ballon 2012). However,

north of 155th Street where Washington

Heights begins, traffic is chaotic, noisy and

largely unregulated.

The focus at this scale was to identify

physical characteristics on Broadway and its

relationships to use. Observations where conducted

in sets of five blocks resulting in seven

areas of study (see appendix).

Figure 27: Promenading and biking on the Boulevard, Byron Company,

Broadway and 60th Street, ca. 1905. Gelatin silver print. Museum

of the City of New York, Byron Collection, Gift of Percy Byron,

93.1.1.17940)

Following this process, four sections

emerged based on physical components described

on the prevoius study scale found

along Broadway. At this scale the study viewed

streets as places to identify elements in the

process of placemaking. In each section, observations

were conducted based on Lynch’s

public space rights: presence, use and action,

appropriation, modification, and disposition

(Lynch 1981).

The mapping process consisted in

observing each of the seven portions for 40

minutes to identify the volume of people on

the street, how the sidewalk space was used

and traffic patterns, width of the sidewalks,

settings for users to stay, street planting and

other accommodations were also observed

and documented (Figs 29 - 33).

This scale identified which places were

used the most and categorized them based

on the concept of street as place. The mapping

technique was used as a way to assess

the presence, use, appropriation and disposition

of the public space.

The sections for this scale were:

Section 1

155th St. – 168th St.

Section 2

169th St. – 178th St.

Section 3

179th St. – 182nd St.

Section 4

183rd St. – 190th St.

27


Broadway Blvd

at Washington Heights

George Washington Bridge

I 95 North

N

0

0.25 0.5

Mile

SCALE 2

Figure 28 Broadway, Study Scale 2 (Author)

28


Spatial Aspect of Broadway Blvd

at Washington Heights

181 st

178 st

175 st

172 st

George Washington Bridge

171 st

I 95 North

169 st

168 st

166 st

155 st

N

Figure 29 Broadway’s Spatial Inventory (Author)

0

0.25 0.5

Mile

Sections not to scale

SCALE 2

29


Space Composition & People

First Section 155th St. to 168th St.

Light Traffic

Volume

168 St

155 St

West

Payan Park

}

Sidewalk

16’ - 20’

Broadway

East

Mitchel Square

Park

168 St

167 St

166 St

165 St

164 St

163 St

162 St

161 St

160 St

159 St

158 St

157 St

156 St

155 St

Light Traffic

Volume

30

Street Trees

People 1 = 3

Bus Stop accommodations

Bus Stop

Subway

People Space

Street Parking Space

New York City

Green Street Program

Figure 30 People and Space Composition Section 1 Study Scale 2 (Author)

N

SCALE 2

Diagram not to scale


Space Composition & People

Second Section 169th St. to 178th St.

Heavy Traffic

Volume

Charity Services

Church

178 St

169 St

Broadway

West

}

Sidewalk

12’ - 16’

East

Park

178 St

177 St

176 St

175 St

174 St

173 St

172 St

171 St

170 St

169 St

Street Trees

People 1 = 3

Bus Stop accommodations

Flea Market

Cultural Center

Theater

Heavy Traffic

Volume

Bus Stop

N

Subway

People Space

Street Parking Space

New York City

Green Street Program

Street Vending

Traffic Directions

SCALE 2

Diagram not to scale

Figure 31 People and Space Composition Section 2 Study Scale 2 (Author)

31


Space Composition & People

Third Section 179th St. to 182th St.

Heavy Traffic

Volume

169 St

Shopping District

182 St

}

Sidewalk

12’ - 20’

182 St

181 St

180 St

179 St

Heavy Traffic

Volume

Street Trees

People 1 = 3

Bus Stop accommodations

Bus Stop

Subway

People Space

Street Parking Space

New York City

Green Street Program

Street Vending

Traffic Directions

N

SCALE 2

Figure 32 People and Space Composition Section 3 Study Scale 2 (Author)

32

Diagram not to scale


N

Space Composition & People

Fourth Section 183th St. to 190th St.

Poplice Department

182 St

Light Traffic

Volume

190 St

Broadway

West

Fort Tryon Park

} Sidewalk

16’ - 20’

East

Gorman Park

Street Trees

People 1 = 3

182 St

Social Security

Administration

183 St

Bus Stop accommodations

184 St

185 St

Elementary School

187 St

Fairview Ave.

Hillside Ave.

Light Traffic

Volume

Bus Stop

Subway

People Space

Street Parking Space

New York City

Green Street Program

Street Vending

SCALE 2

Benches

Diagram not to scale

Figure 33 People and Space Composition Section 4 Study Scale 2 (Author)

33


34

This page was intentionally left blank


SITE ANALYSIS

scale 2

The study of Broadway showed that its

character changed throughout the neighborhood.

The first section of Broadway offered

a relaxed ambiance. The density of buildings

was moderate, sidewalks and the streets

themselves were ample enough for people

to sit, stay, and experience the environment,

small squares and the mall. It allocated space

for walking, going to school, waiting at the bus

stop, bringing goods to customers, and getting

people from place to place. Although it

accommodated sitting and staying, the social

aspect of these spaces was very low. The

quality of space to socialize and meet was

very low since they were located on the tips of

the mall.

On the second and the third sections of

Broadway, more vibrant activities took place.

This portion was a reflexion of placemaking

and Latino urbanism. The number of users

increased due to the Latino-themed stores

along the streets, access to subways and interstate

transportation. The street changed

to a two-way street that increased traffic and

reduced safety for pedestrians. Users transformed

the sidewalks to accomodate people

watching, seating and lingering for longer periods

of time.

Based on the activities taking place

on street sidewalks, one can assume that the

existing buildings’interior and exterior layout

did not foster social interaction, like the open

space to which Dominicans are accustomed

in their home country. Social activities were

intrinsically tied to Dominican culture and

raised fundamental questions about what it

means for a Dominican to take ownership of a

place. In order to take ownership of a space,

it has to be modified by its users and stamped

with personal appreciation for aesthetics, elements,

and activities. As the literature stats,

the meaning of a place is defined by the values

embedded within it. The users of this area

have implanted their ideas of what a public

space should be given the limitations of space

that they have encountered. The appropriation

of sidewalks in this portion becomes more

aggressive with stronger presence of street

vendors selling Dominican foods like “empadas,

sweet beans and a Dominican version of

Italian ices called frio frio”. These traces are

a demonstration of how this community took

action and used the space and how it was

appropriated for their cultural and economic

needs (Fig 34 - 36).

The fourth section was mostly residential

with some commercial overlay districts.

The character of Broadway remained the

same with some minor variations in sidewalk

width. Street planting was more evident and

younger when compared with previous sections.

Park areas in this section were accessible

through Broadway. Space for seating

and socializing was also found along access

points to Gorman and Fort Tryon parks. Street

vending was rarely found, and opportunities

for optional activities increased.

35


Space Composition & People

Analysis

Section 2

169 St

168 St

155 St

West

Broadway

East

Mitchel Square

Park

More People

Section 1

Figure 34 Analysis Space Composition and People Study Scale 2 (Author)

36


N

Section 3

178 St

179 St

182 St

192 St

Sidewalk

Street

Sidewalk

Section 4

SCALE 2

Diagram not to scale

37


Space Composition & People

Analysis

Street Setting

Section 2

Payan Park

West

Broadway

East

Park

Mitchel Square

Park

Section 1

Higher Volume of Act

Less accomodations

Street Trees

People Space

New York City

Green Street Program

Street Vending

Benches

Figure 35 Analysis Street Presence and Setting Study Scale 2 (Author)

38


N

Section 3

Sidewalk

Fort Tryon Park

Street

Gorman Park

Sidewalk

ivities,

Section 4

SCALE 2

Diagram not to scale

39


Space Composition & People

Analysis

Circulation

Section 2

West

Broadway

East

Most Transited Area

Section 1

C

Traffic Direction

High Intensity

Low Intensity

Figure 36 Circulation Analysis Study Scale 2 (Author)

40


N

Section 3

Sidewalk

Street

Sidewalk

ongested Intersections

Section 4

SCALE 2

Diagram not to scale

41


STUDY SCALE 3

42


Scale 3

Broadway Boulevard

From 169th St. to 181st St.

Broadway from 169th

St. – 181 St

This scale studied Broadway from

169th St. to 181st St and showed how Dominicans

adapted the urban fabric to produce

placemaking as well as urban improvisation

models (Fig. 37). As Rojas previously stated,

reinvention was implemented to address the

issues of public life, social justice, and the

economic needs of the everyday acts (Rojas

2010).

George Washington Bridge

181st.

180 st.

179 st.

178 st.

177 st.

I 95 North

The analysis was based on the relationship

between open space, edges and people

space (Fig. 38). To document this relationship,

an inventory of building use, store fronts

/ location and pedestrian use and circulation

was conducted (Figs. 39, 41-46, 48-53). The

inventory provided new insight into the type

of place and allowed for the analysis of the

physical components of the space. Then, relationships

between traces found along the

way, people tracking and appropriation as well

as disposition and modification of the space

were found. All of these observations provided

data to support or dispel the notion of

placemaking.

Site Bounderies

Broadway

Figure 37 Location Study Scale 3 (Author)

176 st.

175 st.

174 st.

173 st.

172 st.

171 st.

170 st.

169 st.

0

N

0.25

Mile

SCALE 3

43


People Space

172 St.

172 St 10’ 8’ 60’

8’ 10’

N

Figure 38 People Space Study Scale 3 (Author)

SCALE 3

44


Building Use

182 St

169 St

Broadway

182 St

181 St

180 St

179 St

178 St

177 St

176 St

175 St

174 St

173 St

172 St

171 St

170 St

169 St

Residential

Mixed Residential & Commercial

Commercial

Institutional

Recreational

Transportation & Utility Services

Other Uses

Figure 39 Building Use Study Scale 3 (Author)

N

SCALE 3

Diagram not to scale

45


• activities, edge and

street relationship

Social

Recreational

Commerce

Figure 41 Meeting (Author)

Figure 42 Recreational Use (Author)

Figure 43 Playing Dominos (Author)

Figure 44 Biking on Sidewalks (Author)

Figure 40 Biking on Street (Author)

46

Figure 45 Vending (Author)

Figure 46 Flea Market (Author)


• edge condition

Uninviting - Deteriorated

Obstacles

Boring

Active

Figure 48 Uninviting edge (Author)

Figure 49 Uninviting edge (Author)

Figure 50 Uninviting edge (Author)

Figure 51 Uninviting edge (Author)

Figure 47 Obstacle (Author)

Figure 52 Unappealing edge (Author)

Figure 53 Active sidewalk (Author)

47


• traces

Dominicans transfered symbolic power

and ownership of space by naming streets

(Fig. 56), claiming space (Figs. 55, 57-59, 61)

and celebrating their heritage in the neighborhood

(Figs. 54, 60).

Figure 54 Latino Identity (http://katiaboleroroma.wordpress.com/)

Figure 55 Appropriation (Author)

These traces are signs of Latino placemaking

that showcase their values and interest

as well as the need for other ammenities

in their space.

Figure 56 Ownership (http://katiaboleroroma.wordpress.com/)

Figure 57 Territorial (http://katiaboleroroma.wordpress.com/)

Figure 58 Territorial (Author)

Figure 59 Appropriation (Author) Figure 60 Latino Identity (Author) Figure 61 Disposition (Latino.foxnews.com)

48


SITE ANALYSIS

scale 3

This scale focused on the site where

most conflict occured and stressed the analysis

of physical elements and social qualities

where Latino placemaking was being produced.

This occured on Broadway from 168th

St – 181nd St (Fig. 62-64).

The edge of the sidewalk played a

big role in what kind of activities take place.

On this site, there were 177 stores including

medical offices, delicatessens, supermarkets,

banks, multiservice agencies, hair and

nail salons and restaurants, from which 85

(or 50%) were Latino related businesses. The

greatest number of Latino stores were found

in the northern portion of this site, specifically

from 174th St. to 181st St. In this section,

improvisation and reinvention of the built form

was most frequently encountered.

children out on strollers, shopped at the local

bodegas (i.e. delicatessens), and talked

to their neighbors in front of their buildings.

Teenagers walked in groups, listened to music,

and performed on the streets. This said,

however, other user groups could not enjoy

their “front yard”, like children, the disabled

and and/or the elderly.

This was a busy commercial and heavily

traffic area with many residential buildings.

It was the core of this busy Broadway Street

where most people passed by and ran errands.

During the summer time, fire hydrants

were opened and kids played with water on

the sidewalks. Male adults were speaking

Spanish with peers, listened to merengue

or bachacta music, played dominos, talked

about offshore Dominican politics, and read

Dominican newspapers like “El National”, “El

Siglo” or “El Listin Diario”. Women took their

49


181st.

181 st

ANALYSIS

Recommendations

George Washington Bridge

Highest volume of people

lack of spaces to stay, seat and socialize

180 st.

Major traffic issues

Uninviting Edge condition

Problematic Intersections

Indistinct People’s Space

I 95 North

178 st.

179 st.

178 st

16’ Vending 16’

Pedestrian Space

177 st.

Appropiation and disposition

of streets as culltural and

production space

175 st.

176 st.

175 st

14’ 12’

Pedestrian Space

174 st.

16’

173 st.

Pedestrian Space

20’

Uninviting Ground floor

More Congestion -

Problematic Intersections

Narrow / deteriorated Sidewalks

Residential

Mixed Residential & Commercial

Commercial

Institutional

Recreational

Transportation & Utility Services

Other Uses

172 st.

171 st.

Vending

N

169 st.

170 st.

0

0.25

Mile

SCALE 3

Figure 62 Analysis Study Scale 3 (Author)

50


Activity Setting, Space & Accommodation

BLOCKS

Necessary

Optional

Social

Commercial

Cultural

Standing

Seating

Cafe

Intimate

Personal

Social

Public

Total Stores

Latino Stores

Total

Notes

Intervention

Sites

169th

7 0

9

170th

10 4

8

Park

171st

13 3

5

McDonald indoor Playground

172nd

12 2

5

173rd

17 11

4

174th

19 11

5

2

Gas Station / Church

175th

13 10

6

2

Flea Market / Theather

176th

177th

178th

14 4

18 17

28 14

6 3

5 3

5 3

179th

7 3

George Washington Bridge Station

180th

17 10

5 4

181st

3 9

5 4

Shopping District

ACTIVITY ACCOMMODATION SPACE DISTANCE

EXISTING

CLAIM BY USER

INTERVENTION SITE

BLOCKS PROTOTYPES

TOTAL= Number of Accommodations

Exxisting and Buy Users

Figure 63 Activites Setting, Space & Accomodation Table (Author)

51


181st.

Analysis

Sites for Intervention

Support - Integrate

Commercial and Social

Spaces

George Washington Bridge

180 st.

Support a mixture of Use

Social, Production & Transit

179 st.

I 95 North

178 st.

177 st.

176 st.

Support Cultural and

Social Activities

175 st.

174 st.

173 st.

172 st.

N

171 st.

169 st.

170 st.

0

0.25

Mile

SCALE 3

Figure 64 Analysis Study Scale 3, Sites for Interventions (Author)

52


DISCUSSION

53


The Dominican population in Washington

Heights has shown cultural persistence,

ethnic identity, interethnic relations, language

safeguarding and has reshaped city form in response

to its “alien” environment. The social

aspects of the space were the most important

part of public open space for this community.

It was used for cultural diffusion between their

peers which the site was thoroughly lacking.

This neighborhood has become a

transnational space, an American landscape

reshaped by Dominican culture (Duany 1994,

2008) as a result of the need for social and

cultural space. The observations from this

research study revealed that site was in constant

friction as people struggle to claim public

space, sought alternative opportunities to

socialize and relax, competing with stores for

sidewalk space, and strove to make a living

between tradition and modernization.

Throughout this study, all the ideas

center on the concept of placemaking and

Latino urbanism vis-à-vis culture and identity.

In the process of creating place, culture and

meaning were the primary ingredients of user

needs as well as territorial identity and transcultural

policies .

Place is the revelation of a rich historical

evolution leading to current conditions. It

54

derives from insight into personal meaning

from long-term participants in the landscape

who may not be the decision-makers in current

urban development. It also emanates

from patterns of use that reveal the landscape

as a multi-functioning resource that

people modify and adapt to meet their daily

needs. This is what the Dominican community

of Washington Heights portrayed in the urban

form of this site. The integration of Dominican

cultural assets provided a competitive advantage

over other city neighborhoods. Planners

should consider ethnic neighborhoods as city

assets rather than liabilities (Loukatoiu-Sideris

1993, 2005).

One could ask, “why is this relevant to

our field?” Or similarly, “why develop a design

or a set of recommendations for one specific

culture if these are becoming transcultural

identities?” 1 One reason worth considering

is the trajectory of Latinos in the continental

U.S. The American landscape is becoming increasingly

more Latino. Additionally, Dominicans

as a sub-group of U.S. Latinos have developed

a transnational identity as opposed

to a transcultural identity, where they maintain

their customs as well as the adaptation

to the new one (Duany 2008). The informal

practice of the everyday life of Dominicans

1 Transcultural suggests that cultures are assemblages of imaginings

and meanings and are constructed to communicate and create

community (Lewis 2007). They produce common sites that have multiple

identities and meanings.

was the primary expression of a transnational

identity. As for the case of Dominicans residing

in Washington Heights, this neighborhood

is the hub and the place where they feel at

home, where they can relate to each other

and participate in cultural activities.

Hutchinson expressed the following

thought: “an identifiable set of activities result

from distinctive subcultures- a set of cultural

patterns which are somehow different from

that of the majority” (Hutchinson 2001). The

identification of these cultural patterns is a key

element in understanding space users and

programming. The meaning and use of public

space differ from other culturally different

groups (Marcus & Francis 1997). Meanings

are by-products of location, attachment, association,

facilities as well as services. These

statements were clearly observed in Washington

Heights, where the meaning of this place

to its people was connected to its location –

because there were other Latinos and other

fellow Dominicans specifically - so they associated

and developed attachment to this place.

Research studies by Dr. Ramona Hernandez

from City University of New York’s Dominican

Studies Institute analyzed the everyday life

of the New York City Dominican community

that resided in the boroughs of the Bronx and

Manhattan. Their study was instrumental as

it proved that the home and place of work appeared

as spaces where it was more impor-


tant to socially interact than in a university or

other formal educational setting. (Hernandez

& Acevedo 2011).

In New York City, Latino placemaking

developed as a function of displacement as

it has been the case for Puerto Ricans (Angotti

2012). Struggle for social justice served

as an important backdrop for placemaking

and shape the collective memory in Latino

communities. Professionals must learn to go

beyond the existing formal mechanism for

citizen participation and decision making and

seek new forms of dialogue that are developing

across ethnic and class boundaries, especially

among the youngest generation. These

were aspects that supported the implementation

of Latino urbanism as a placemaking approach

for this community.

As presented in the analysis at each

scale, place was being produced at all time,

but the setting did not support placemaking.

An example of this was the use of public

parks. The lack of access and integration of

the culture and identity of this community resulted

in placeless space used only by certain

groups of users.

Gentrification was another issue. Developers

were renovating rent-controlled

buildings displace the low-income populace.

Social equity and who has the right to public

space is the most prevalent issue. Latinos

are constantly making sure that their voices

are heard by city planners. Their response to

this is the appropriation and disposition of the

public space in which they interact. Streets as

well as its elements were considered space

for public use.

Broadway is known as the “people’s

strip” in many portions of Manhattan, and

the same was true for Washington Heights

although for different reasons. Space and

street composition did not support other uses

other than traffic flow. The analysis showed

how densely used it was. A great portion of it

was used as the social and cultural space for

this community.

“The cultural hub” of the neighborhood

extended from 169th to 181st Street.

Social and cultural activities occurred in spite

of less accommodation and more traffic conflicts.

Sidewalks as sites of interaction defined

common use areas and provided places for

people to unite.

Latino urbanism provides a better approach

on how to integrate immigrants, given

that sidewalks – public space- conflicts that

arose around vending and day labor sites.

Another goal of this study was to understand

why this happened here. Latino stores represented

a sense of ownership and place for the

community. Most of the activities took place

at store fronts where space was being claimed

and often adapted to accommodate social activities.

Some of these activities and interest

at the street level were walking, talking, looking

around, sitting, standing and people going

about their business in a setting where they

felt like they belonged. Unfortunately seating

space was rarely found around this area unless

brought out by users. Sidewalks lacked

room for activities other than walking or sidewalk

café seating. The overall image was oriented

towards traffic movement and circulation,

not taking in consideration that place

was being produced. The number of people

on the streets as well as these activities made

this area a place that could welcome people.

In summary, the observations of the 3

scales showed a variety of activities and uses

at street level, most of which were directly related

to groups and individuals adapting to

existing conditions to current needs. Areas

with the greatest activity and use were also

the most heavily trafficked and commercial.

In this spaces, conflicts between pedestrians,

residents, vendors and business owners, in a

limited sidewalk space, required the review of

and recommendations for alternative design

based on placemaking recommendations.

55


RECOMMENDATIONS

56


Three main concepts were discussed

in this essay: Latino urbanism, placemaking

and streets as places.

In the Dominican community examined,

people claimed public space and exercised

their rights. The result was the beginning

of a placemaking process that brought

vitality to place important to the community.

Latino urbanism and placamaking was already

on going in this community, but needed

to be rethought at street level.

Streets and sidewalks served a social

functions.They transported people from point

to point and provided opportunity for purposeful

walks with options to stay, experience and

comfort. Streets are people spaces that require

the balance between vehicular and pedestrian

use to create a friendly street environment.

1

The study suggested the need to improve

the physical and visual quality of the

space and enrich the edge condition. One

idea was to open up the edges to create a better

public and private relationship between

the city and the buildings so that these two

spaces can work together. These modifica-

1 Outdoor play takes place not necessarily on playgrounds or in traffic-free

areas, but more often on the street, in parking lots or in front

of entrance doors (Gehl 2010).

tions would help enhance the user’s experience

in the activities that took place in the city

public space like walking, standing, sitting,

seeing, talking, hearing, and self-expression

(Gehl 2010). This can be accomplished by:

•Having activities and interest at the

street level: people talking, walking, standing,

and feeling like they belong,

•A comfortable scaled street with slow

moving traffic. Implement traffic calming devices

like raised crosswalks and sidewalk extensions.

•Ample sidewalks,

•Image; the street has a personality

that identifies it as a special place.

This study showed that patterns

ocurred in certain locations: Latino storefronts,

shopping areas, landmarks, and “cultural”

spaces. Areas for placemaking can be

designated to build:

•Vibrant urban environments. Allow

for a mixture of activities in a defined space;

e.g. George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal.

•Supportive, creative and adaptive urban

form. e.g. “The plaza element” at 175th

St.

•Integration of public and private

space. Treat edges according to their designated

specific functions.

•Developmental opportunities for all

social groups in designated areas. e.g. the

Flea Market at the 175th St. plaza and vending

areas on certain sidewalks.

These recommendations can help existing

Latino placemaking in a coordinated

and organized manner based on existing patterns

and the creation of a pattern use system

that could be implemented in similar context

on the site (Fig. 65).

Rios’ concept of space making in Latino

communities provided a base to understand

how space in this Dominican community was

created. Adaptive, assertive and negotiative

spaces were helpful in identifying how space

was used. However, this conceptual framework

could not be implemented. Prior to

analysis, anecdotal evidence suggested that

the site had assertive and adaptive features,

and no presence of negotiave features. The

study revealed that the implementation of an

adaptive or assertive space in this community

could not be applied due to the site location,

varied cultures and multiple services present

in the site. The study revealed the need for

“an improvisational space” that understand

existing spatial use and landscape value. Improvisational

space, an idea popularized by

landscape architect Walter Hood, emphasized

creating versatile places for individuals and

communities by combining a traditional design

approach dependent on form, composition,

and scale within an individual, social, environmental

and political context (Lee 2004).

57


181st.

Recommendations

Sites for Intervention

Integrate

Commercial and Social

Spaces

George Washington Bridge

Reclaim

people space

I 95 North

179 st.

180 st.

Improve overall appearance

Reduce Speed,

Repel traffic

Friendly Ground floor

Invite users to stay

Integration of

Traffic calming

devices

177 st.

178 st.

Improve ground floor

Designate,Deliniate

Production, Social

Cultural spaces

175 st.

176 st.

Designate, welcome users

The Plaza Element

174 st.

173 st.

172 st.

N

171 st.

Figure 65 Recommendations (Author)

169 st.

170 st.

0

0.25

Mile

SCALE 3

58


DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

59


Use Pattern System

Space for commerce

Cultural Space

Figure 66 Implementation of the System, Conceptual Design Recommendations (Author)

60


N

Space to Stop

Space to

meet and talk

Design recommendations consisted of

implementing a system based on existing use

patterns. The study identified three types of

spaces common in this community: space to

socialize, cultural space and space for commerce.

The conceptual design mapped these

spaces where they happened, thus designating

a place for each group of activity (Fig. 66).

Space to socialize was distributed through

Broadway. It allows for people to stop, sit and

interact with others without interrupting street

and sidewalk functions (Fig. 67). Space for

commerce was only present on certain blocks

and was dependent on the relationship between

the edge and the designated social

space around it (Fig. 68). Cultural space was

designated at one location and acted as a

versatile space adapted to different functions

and activities (Fig. 69).

Conceptual Design Recommendation

61


Safety

Social Spaces

Space for Public Use

Pedestri

The design consisted of designating

people space and its relationship to

other functions of street and sidewalks. It

allowed for parking, bus stops and transit

without interrupting pedestrian activities

and safety. This was achieved by reclaiming

people space of streets and sidewalks

and designing them in a way that supports

placamaking with it (Fig. 67).

Sidewalk Vending

Figure 67 Social Space (Author)

62

Conceptual Desi


N

an Safety

Street Vending

Recommendations

Unlicensed Vendors

18’’

10’

3’

8’

5’

2’

The inventory of the site showed the

presence of three types of street vendors that

followed the characterization of unlicensed

vendors, general vendors and truck vendors.

Their presence on the site contributed to the

vibrancy of this neighborhood. The design proposed

a designated location for each characterization

and specifications on size and distance

in relationship to pedestrian use (Fig.

68).

General Vendors

3’

Truck Vendors

REclaiming People

SPACE

gn Recommendation

Assigned Parking Spot

Conceptual Design Recommendation

Figure 68 Commercial Space

63


N

Cultural Space

The Plaza

The cultural space was conceived

as a versatile space that could be adapted

to different social functions depending on

the need of the community. It was a designated

space where all components could

be moved and rearrange to accommodate

for appropriation and disposition of the

space (Fig. 69).

Cultural Space

Flea Market

Movable Patio Umbrella

Improvisation

Figure 69 Cultural Space (Author)

Conceptual Design Recommendation

64


CONCLUDING REMARKS

65


More often than not, the urban landscape

is embedded with qualities that serve

the majority or ruling social class and thereby

rendering itself superficial or meaningless for

other key societal actors (Loukaitous-Sideris

1993, 2005). Considering the context of this

study, this was crucial as it enabled a relevant

analysis that generated new insights into

community use. This context was not a void

or anonymous place. The research proposed

that these seemingly anonymous places were

repositories for community values and meaning.

Latinos have put in question design

and planning practices in New York City

where the population continues to increase

and space is very limited. Unlike some other

social groups, their presence is highly noticeable.

Latinos are transforming inner-city

neighborhoods and inner-city suburbs into vibrant,

reinvigorated places just different from

other cultures. Dominicans, as the second

largest Latino group in New York City, have

impacted the landscape.

This study argued for a need to retrofit

elements of the built form to satisfy the

needs of this Dominican community. It highlighted

where Dominicans used the streets as

their preferred open space and landscape to

66

socialize. This study showed that placemaking

happened with or without professional

planners and designers as suggested by Rios

(Rios, 2010).

This study addressed how street design

as public space aided in placemaking

and conveyed cultural meaning and use. The

study highlighted the importance of streets as

public space to socialize, cultural space and

space for commerce. It revealed how the existing

conditions do not support Dominican

placemaking in this community.

The study showed the need for space in

which users could appropriate for their needs

given that appropriation and disposition are

characteristics of Dominican placemaking.

The proposed design addresseed this issue

by proposing a system in which designated

spaces allocated for the different aspects of

placamaking found in this community.

The design intent was to designate

where spaces could occur along this neighborhood.

Places where identified based on

the inventory and analysis of the site. The

study showed designated places were programmatic

and activity driven, allowing users

to take disposition of the space.

The design was conceptual and developed

as a potential solution for people to

claim space. Most importantly, it hoped to

show how this particular community could use

it in a positive way. Conversely, this study did

not adress issues like cross-cultural segregation

and gentrification. This investigation did

raise some very interesting questions for future

analysis. Additional research questions

that could be explored in other studies were.

* What is the value of improving the physical

structure of the site when placemaking is being

produced given its existing conditions?

* Should the design be permanent or temporary?

* Could programmatic activities be implemented

under the existing conditions of the

site?

* Is it a question of programming or design?

* How can traffic issues be mitigated when at

major arteries? Does it affect placemaking?

* What is the long term role of Dominicans in

this community?

* Is gentrification affecting placemaking practices

in the community?

Understanding and measuring these

questions both quantitatively and qualitatively

could help in developing a model for implementation

in varied settings with similar contexts.


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69


APPENDIX

70


155-160

# pl on st

Social

Activities Safety

Activity

Setting

Bl #

Formal

Informal

Vehicular

Pedestrian

Individual

Group

Private

Recreational Qualities

Sunlight

Shade

Shelter

Quietud

Benches

Trees

Trashcans

STORE NUMBER

LATINO

Circulation

Ped. Heavy

Ped. Light

Ped. Random

Veh. Heavy

Veh. Light

Parking

Transit

P

T

Other Activities

Appendix 1 Inventiry Sheet Sample (Author)

71


Inventory and Obeservation Sheet Blocks 155-160 (Author)

Inventory and Obeservation Sheet Blocks 160 - 165 (Author)

Inventory and Obeservation Sheet Blocks 168-173 (Author)

72

Inventory and Obeservation Sheet Blocks 174-178 (Author)


Inventory and Obeservation Sheet Blocks 179-184 (Author)

Inventory and Obeservation Sheet Blocks 184-188 (Author)

Inventory and Obeservation Sheet Blocks 188 - Inwood (Author)

73


APPENDIX

Technique: Behavior Mapping

Behavior Mapping

Data Collection Form

Behavior mapping, also known as activity mapping, allows you to study

people’s activities in a specific area for a predetermined amount of time.

Document stationary activities such as sunbathing, sitting, talking, and

reading, as well as activities involving motion: walking, jogging, biking, etc.

Counting

Location: _____________ Observer: ____________________

Date: ___________ Time: ___________

ACTIVITIES

Group #

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

TOTAL

Male

Female

0-6

7-14

15-20

21-40

41-6

Over 60

Sitting - on bench

Sitting - on grass

Talking/Socializing

Watching sports

Eating

Sleeping

Reading

Soccer

Basketball

Handball

Baseball

Biking/roller blading

Playing - not in playground

Playing - playground

SEX

AGE

NOTES

74

Behavior mapping data collection form used to

determine group and type of stationary activities.


APPENDIX

Technique: Counting

Pedestrian Count Form

Counting is a systematic method of gathering numerical data about people,

vehicles, or anything else in a specific location. Use counts to determine

such things as how many people enter at a particular place, how vehicles

use the streets, and whether or when a particular path actually is crowded.

Counts also can be useful in identifying area demographics (e.g. the percentage

of people over the age of 60).

Time

Date:

Location:

Pedestrian Counting Form

Duration :

Observer:

North South Total

People counting form used to track and count

people throught the site and temporary activities.

75

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