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Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor

This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. X, XXX 2011 1 Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Xufei Mao, Student Member, IEEE, Shaojie Tang, Student Member, IEEE, Xiaohua Xu, Student Member, IEEE, Xiang-Yang Li, Senior Member, IEEE, and Huadong Ma, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract—Opportunistic routing [2], [3] has been shown to improve the network throughput, by allowing nodes that overhear the transmission and closer to the destination to participate in forwarding packets, i.e., in forwarder list. The nodes in forwarder list are prioritized and the lower priority forwarder will discard the packet if the packet has been forwarded by a higher priority forwarder. One challenging problem is to select and prioritize forwarder list such that a certain network performance is optimized. In this paper, we focus on selecting and prioritizing forwarder list to minimize energy consumption by all nodes. We study both cases where the transmission power of each node is fixed or dynamically adjustable. We present an energy-efficient opportunistic routing strategy, denoted as EEOR. Our extensive simulations in TOSSIM show that our protocol EEOR performs better than the well-known ExOR protocol (when adapted in sensor networks) in terms of the energy consumption, the packet loss ratio, and the average delivery delay. Index Terms—Sensor networks, opportunistic routing, energy. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION ROUTING protocol design for wireless networks is often guided by two essential requirements: minimize energy cost or maximize network throughput. The traditional routing protocols in wired networks choose the best sequence of nodes between a source and a destination, and forward each packet through that sequence. The majority routing protocols designed for multihop wireless networks have typically followed this convention, including those multipath routing protocols. However, this did not take advantages of the broadcast nature of wireless communications: a node’s transmission could be heard by any node within its transmission range. In addition, the lossy and dynamic wireless links make it difficult for traditional routing protocols to achieve stable performances. In wireless networks, various factors, like fading, interference, and multipath effects, can lead to temporary heavy packet losses [11] in a preselected good path. In contrast, opportunistic routing, like ExOR [2] and MORE [3], allows any node that overhears the transmission to participate in forwarding the packet. The routing path is selected on the fly and completely opportunistic based on the current link quality situations. However, this new design paradigm introduces several challenges. One challenge is that multiple nodes may hear a packet and unnecessarily forward the same packet. ExOR deals with . X. Mao and X.Y. Li are with the CNLIST, School of Software, Tsinghua University, Beijing, P.R. China. E-mail: xmao3@iit.edu, xli@cs.iit.edu. . S. Tang and X. Xu are with the Department of Computer Science, Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 West 31st Street, Chicago, IL 60616. E-mail: {stang7, xxu23}@iit.edu. . H. Ma is with the Beijing Key Lab of Intelligent Telecommunications Software and Multimedia, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, P.R. China. E-mail: mhd@bupt.edu.cn. Manuscript received 31 Jan. 2010; revised 25 July 2010; accepted 27 Jan. 2011; published online 18 Feb. 2011. Recommended for acceptance by I. Stojmenovic. For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to: tpds@computer.org, and reference IEEECS Log Number TPDS-2010-01-0072. Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TPDS.2011.70. this challenge by tying the MAC to the routing, imposing a strict scheduler on routers access to the medium. The scheduler goes in rounds. Forwarders transmit in order such that only one forwarder is allowed to transmit at any time. The other forwarders listen to the transmissions to learn which packets were overheard by each node. In contrast to ExOR’s highly structured scheduler, MORE [3] addresses this challenge with randomness. MORE randomly mixes packets before forwarding them. This ensures that routers which hear the same transmission do not forward the same packet. As a result, MORE does not need a special scheduler; it runs directly on top of 802.11. Both ExOR and MORE showed that this kind of opportunistic routing strategy can improve the wireless network’s performance. In this paper, we study how to select and prioritize the forwarding list to minimize the total energy cost of forwarding data to the sink node in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Observe that previous protocols, i.e., ExOR and MORE, did not explore the benefit of selecting the appropriate forwarding list to minimize the energy cost. We will investigate this problem through rigorous theoretical analysis as well as extensive simulations. We study two complementary cases: 1) the transmission power of each node is fixed (known as nonadjustable transmission model) and 2) each node can adjust its transmission power for each transmission (known as adjustable transmission model). Optimum algorithms to select and prioritize forwarder list in both cases are presented and analyzed. It is worth to mention that our analysis does not assume any special energy models. We conducted extensive simulations in TOSSIM to study the performance of proposed algorithms by comparing it with ExOR [2] and traditional routing protocols. It shows that the energy consumption of routing using Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Routing (EEOR) is significantly lower than ExOR with random forwarder list and traditional distance vector routing protocols. 1045-9219/11/$26.00 ß 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

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