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Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal<br />

Copyright © 2012 ASCR Publishing House. All rights reserved.<br />

ISSN: 1224-8398<br />

Volume XVI, No. 1 (March), 107-119<br />





Felicia Rodica BALTEŞ * , Mircea MICLEA & Andrei C. MIU<br />

Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology,<br />

Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania<br />


The present study investigated the affective space of the entire twelve movements of<br />

Vivaldi’s Four Seasons, and compared music-induced affect between musicians<br />

and non-musicians. The participants listened to each of the movements of the<br />

concertos, in shuffled order, and rated the emotional arousal and valence of each<br />

movement immediately after listening to it. We controlled for the affective mood<br />

before the experiment, and the familiarity with each movement of the concertos. All<br />

the movements of the concertos were perceived as pleasant, but with varying<br />

degrees of emotional activation. Emotional valence varied between the peaceful<br />

Adagio Molto Autumn and the joyful Allegro Spring 1. The movements with slow<br />

tempos were perceived as the least activating, whereas the most emotionally<br />

activating was the Tempo Impetuoso D’Estate. The comparison between musicians<br />

and non-musicians indicated that the former perceived the Adagio Molto Autumn<br />

as more activating and the Allegro Non Molto Summer as less pleasant than the<br />

latter. We suggest that these differences may be related to the increased focus of<br />

musicians’ aesthetic judgments on the originality and novelty of musical structures.<br />

These results support the view that there are only discrete differences in musicinduced<br />

affect between musicians and non-musicians.<br />

KEYWORDS: music, affectt, affective space, musical training, Vivaldi’s Four<br />

Seasons<br />

* Corresponding author:<br />

E-mail: rodicabaltes@gmail.com

108<br />

F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />


Music fascinates us in so many ways. The power of music may lie within its ability<br />

to induce or modulate precious emotional states. Indeed, using various methods<br />

such as written reports, interviews or experience sampling, psychologists have<br />

shown that music can evoke a wide range of strong, self-relevant emotions<br />

(Gabrielsson & Lindström, 1993). Some of these emotions (e.g., wonder or feeling<br />

moved and admiring, transcendence or feeling overwhelmed and inspired) are more<br />

often induced by music compared to words or images (Zentner, Grandjean, &<br />

Scherer, 2008). Music can also be an agent of change or a promoter of the<br />

intensification or release of the existing emotions (Sloboda, 1992). For instance,<br />

music can intensify positive affect, vigilance and focus in the present, or facilitate<br />

emotion regulation functions (DeNora, 1999; Juslin, Liljestrom, Vastfjall, Barradas,<br />

& Silva, 2008; Sloboda, O'Neil, & Ivaldi, 2001).<br />

In line with similar efforts focused on the standardization of emotional<br />

words or pictures, Vieillard et al. (2008) have created the first archive of musical<br />

stimuli with affective norms. Such normatively-rated affective stimuli allow better<br />

experimental control in the selection of emotional stimuli, and facilitate the<br />

comparison of results across different studies conducted in the same or different<br />

laboratory (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005). The archive of Vieillard et al. (2008)<br />

includes short (mean 12.4 s), computer-generated musical stimuli. Such short<br />

stimuli have already been useful in describing the minimal time that is necessary for<br />

the successful classification of music according to emotional content. For instance,<br />

listeners without musical training were able to distinguish between cheerful and sad<br />

music in less than half a second from the beginning of the audition (Peretz, Gagnon,<br />

& Bouchard, 1998). However, the use of short stimuli in the study of music-induced<br />

emotions may be limited by several factors. The processing of emotional valence<br />

may be difficult in the case of short musical stimuli with low dynamics (Bigand,<br />

Vieillard, Madurell, Marozeau, & Dacquet, 2005). In addition, familiarity and the<br />

level of musical training influence the recognition of tunes, and these effects may<br />

be less obvious when short stimuli are used (Dalla Bella, Peretz, & Aronoff, 2003).<br />

Moreover, although studies using short musical stimuli emphasized that the<br />

recognition of basic emotions happens rapidly, several seconds may not be enough<br />

time for the full-blown psychophysiological responses associated with musicinduced<br />

emotions to develop. For instance, listening to a musically-complex and<br />

dramatically-coherent excerpt from Tosca induced positive emotion and autonomic<br />

arousal, seen in faster heart rate, but slower respiration rate and reduced skin<br />

conductance in comparison to baseline (Baltes, Avram, Miclea, & Miu, 2011). It<br />

has been argued that the complex arrangement of musical elements that is<br />

characteristic of everyday life music inspires a global affective response<br />

(Altenmuller, Schurmann, Lim, & Parlitz, 2002), and the use of entire musical<br />

pieces has a greater external validity when one investigates the emotional responses<br />

Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal<br />

16 (2012) 107-119

F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />

109<br />

to music (Baltes et al., 2011; Levitin, 2006; Rickard, 2004). Therefore, the aim of<br />

the present study was to explore the affective space of an entire musical<br />

composition. We chose to use Vivaldi’s Four Seasons because we suspected that<br />

the extensive popularity of this composition may be related to its emotional content.<br />

The Four Seasons has been previously used in cognitive research that investigated<br />

the effects of music on memory or categorization tasks in older adults<br />

(Mammarella, Fairfield, & Cornoldi, 2007; Thompson, Moulin, Hayre, & Jones,<br />

2005). Clearly, in light of the rapidly developing literature on music and cognition,<br />

mapping the affective space of everyday music will become increasingly necessary.<br />

The affective space of select musical stimuli has started to be mapped on<br />

the two dimensions of emotional arousal and valence (Grewe, Nagel, Kopiez, &<br />

Altenmuller, 2007; Vieillard et al., 2008). In Russell’s circumplex model, the<br />

conceptual distance between different emotions and the structure of affective<br />

experience are represented by a circle that has pleasure and displeasure (i.e.,<br />

valence) on the extremes of the left-right axis, and activation and sleepiness (i.e.,<br />

arousal) on the extremes of the upper-lower axis (Russell, 1980). Using the<br />

multidimensional scale method, which allows for emotions to be investigated<br />

without the use of linguistic labels, another study confirmed that emotional<br />

activation and valence are representative dimensions of music-induced emotions<br />

(Bigand et al., 2005). For instance, excerpts from Bach and Mahler were both<br />

perceived as pleasant, but they were distinguished by different degrees of emotional<br />

arousal (Flores-Gutierrez et al., 2007). Therefore, the present study used self-report<br />

measures of music-induced emotional arousal and valence.<br />

Another important aim of this study was to investigate whether there are<br />

differences in music-induced emotions between musicians and non-musicians. The<br />

traditional view is that in comparison to non-musicians, musicians have subtler and<br />

more complex knowledge about the musical tonalities typical to their culture, and<br />

they use it in order to improve their musical perception and memory (Dowling,<br />

1978; Krumhansl & Shepard, 1979). This perspective has been supported by studies<br />

from cognitive neuroscience, which identified various neuroanatomical and<br />

neurophysiological differences between musicians and non-musicians. For instance,<br />

musicians displayed increased grey matter density in Heschl’s gyrus (i.e., primary<br />

auditory cortex) and early auditory N19-P30 evoked potentials; these differences<br />

correlated with the musicality score on the Advance Measures of Music Audiation<br />

test (Hutchinson, Lee, Gaab, & Schlaug, 2003; Schlaug, Jancke, Huang, Staiger, &<br />

Steinmetz, 1995). However, non-musicians are also able to learn the tonal<br />

principles of their cultural musical idiom, and they accurately use this knowledge in<br />

music processing tasks in order to differentiate tonal from atonal melodies, for<br />

instance (Bartlett & Dowling, 1980; Frances, 1988). The emerging view is that all<br />

music listeners, whether musicians or non-musicians, may share a certain form of<br />

musical knowledge, which gives meaning to the music that they listen to (Halpern,<br />

Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal<br />

16 (2012) 107-119

110<br />

F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />

Bartlett, & Dowling, 1995). However, it is unclear whether music-induced affect is<br />

similar in musicians and non-musicians.<br />

Comparisons between musicians and non-musicians suggested that<br />

aesthetic judgments are also grounded on a common conceptual content that may be<br />

somewhat modified by musical expertise (Ystok et al., 2009). Using a verbal<br />

association task, it was shown that non-musicians generated more adjectives<br />

connected to the mood or emotional balance related to music, whereas musicians<br />

appreciated the inciting features of music, its novelty and originality (Ystok et al.,<br />

2009). The emotional categorization of short musical stimuli was equally reliable in<br />

musicians and non-musicians (Bigand et al., 2005). Using positron emission<br />

tomography, Blood and Zatorre (2001) found that the intensity of music-induced<br />

chills is associated with increased cerebral blood flow in reward areas (e.g., ventral<br />

striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex).<br />

This study included only musicians, on the assumption that this population is more<br />

likely to experience strong emotional responses to music, although the authors<br />

acknowledged that music training is not necessary to experience these responses<br />

(Blood & Zatorre, 2001). Clearly, further studies are required in order to clarify<br />

whether musical training impacts music-induced emotions.<br />

The objectives of the present study were: (1) to explore the affective space<br />

of Vivaldi’s Four Seasons; and (2) to compare the emotional arousal and valence of<br />

the Four Seasons between musicians and non-musicians. Although Vivaldi’s<br />

masterpiece is widely known, we expected differences in familiarity between<br />

musicians and non-musicians, and consequently we controlled for this variable in<br />

the comparisons of emotional responses. We hypothesized that the movements of<br />

Vivaldi’s Four Seasons would cover the entire affective space (i.e., positive and<br />

negative valence with varying degrees of emotional arousal), considering the<br />

composer’s intention to suggest the features of different seasons in his music.<br />

Another hypothesis was that, although we controlled for differences in familiarity<br />

with this particular composition, musicians would perceive the Four Seasons as less<br />

emotionally activating and pleasant than non-musicians, due to their knowledge of<br />

baroque music style.<br />


Participants<br />

N = 16 musicians and N = 14 non-musicians with ages from 22 to 40 years (mean<br />

age = 28 years), with good hearing abilities and no neurological disease records,<br />

have taken part in this experiment. The musicians group included instrument<br />

players and choir members from the National Opera House from Cluj-Napoca,<br />

Romania. The musicians benefited of an average of ten years of musical education<br />

and they were actively involved in musical activity at the time of this study. The<br />

non-musicians were recruited from the population of students in psychology from<br />

Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal<br />

16 (2012) 107-119

F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />

111<br />

Babes-Bolyai University. They did not report any specific musical education, but<br />

they all stated (i.e., inclusion criterion for this study) that they frequently listened to<br />

music and appreciate classical music.<br />

Materials<br />

The musical stimuli comprised the twelve movements of the Four Seasons by<br />

Antonio Vivaldi, performed by the Concerto Amsterdam orchestra conducted by<br />

Jaap Schröder (Hmf Musique D'abord, 2000). The movements, with durations<br />

between 1’30’’ and 5’30’’, were presented randomly (i.e., shuffled playlist) to the<br />

participants using a laptop and Logitech amplifying system set to a comfortable<br />

volume level.<br />

Immediately after the arrival at the laboratory, the participants filled in the<br />

general affect part of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-I) (Watson &<br />

Clark, 1994), which measures affective mood in the past few weeks until present.<br />

Emotional responses to music were measured on two 5-point Likert scales for<br />

arousal and valence. A third similar Likert scale measured the familiarity with the<br />

music. The extremes of the scales (e.g., whether 1 on the valence scale denoted<br />

“pleasant” or “unpleasant”) were counterbalanced between the concertos’ †<br />

movements. Each scale was explained to the participants, and they were warned<br />

that the extremes of the scales change from one movement to another, so they<br />

should pay attention to this aspect.<br />

Procedure<br />

After they completed PANAS-I, all the participants were taken to the laboratory<br />

where they listened to the musical stimuli in group. Before the first musical<br />

stimulus was played, the participants were informed that they will listen to<br />

Vivaldi’s Four Seasons, and were asked to attentively listen to the music no matter<br />

how familiar it was. The order in which the parts were presented was the following:<br />

1. Adagio Summer;<br />

2. La Caccia: Allegro Autumn;<br />

3. Tempo Impetuoso D’Estate Summer;<br />

4. Allegro Non Molto Winter;<br />

5. Allegro Winter;<br />

6. Largo e Pianissimo Sempre Spring;<br />

7. Adagio Molto Autumn;<br />

8. Largo Winter;<br />

9. Allegro Spring 1;<br />

10. Allegro Autumn;<br />

† Although usually presented together nowadays, each of the Four Seasons were written as<br />

individual violin concertos that were part of a larger set of twelve concertos (Vivaldi’s Opus 8)<br />

entitled The Contest between Harmony and Invention.<br />

Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal<br />

16 (2012) 107-119

112<br />

F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />

11. Allegro Spring 2;<br />

12. Allegro Non Molto Summer.<br />

Immediately after each part, the participants were instructed to use the<br />

scales that had been handed to them at the start of the experiment, in order to<br />

evaluate how activated the music made them feel (i.e., emotional arousal), how<br />

much they liked it (i.e., emotional valence), and how familiar the music was to them<br />

(i.e., degree of familiarity). There was no time limit, and each stage of the<br />

experiment (i.e., music listening followed by questionnaires) continued only when<br />

all the participants had finished completing the scales and unless they asked for a<br />

break.<br />


Affective space. Repeated measure ANOVAs indicated that there were significant<br />

differences between the movements of the concertos on emotional arousal (F[11,<br />

18] = 30.65, p < 0.0001, partial η 2 = 0.82), valence (F[11, 18] = 2.69, p < 0.002,<br />

partial η 2 = 0.064), and familiarity (F[11, 18] = 10.57, p < 0.0001, partial η 2 = 0.16).<br />

An inspection of the affective space (Fig. 1) indicates that all the movements were<br />

perceived as pleasant (i.e., emotional valence scores above three), with the Adagio<br />

Molto Autumn having the smallest (score = 3.63) valence score (i.e., least pleasant)<br />

and the Allegro Spring 1 having the highest valence score (score = 4.67). The<br />

emotional arousal of the movements varied from the least activating part, the Largo<br />

e Pianissimo Sempre Spring (score = 1.63), to the most activating one, the Tempo<br />

Impetuoso D’Estate Summer (score = 4.47).<br />

The comparison of affect between musicians and non-musicians. In order to control<br />

for differences in familiarity with the musical stimuli, we first compared the<br />

familiarity scores between musicians and non-musicians. The results of the Student<br />

t-tests indicated that in comparison to non-musicians, musicians were more familiar<br />

with all the parts (t[10] = 13.08, p < 0.0001, Cohen’s d = 1.36). The sole exception<br />

was the Allegro Spring 1, which was equally familiar to both musicians and nonmusicians.<br />

Therefore, we included the familiarity scores in the ANCOVA analyses<br />

that compared emotional arousal and valence between musicians and nonmusicians,<br />

for all musical stimuli except the Allegro Spring. It is worth mentioning<br />

that there were no differences in previous affective mood between musicians and<br />

non-musicians (i.e., PANAS scores’ mean ± SEM: 27.63 ± 2.81 for musicians, and<br />

29.07 ± 6.59 for non-musicians), and consequently this variable was not included as<br />

a covariate in the following statistical analyses.<br />

Musical education had a significant effect on the emotional arousal scores<br />

of the Adagio Molto Autumn (F[1, 28] = 7.25, p < 0.01, partial η 2 = 0.2), with<br />

musicians having perceived this movement as more activating than non-musicians.<br />

Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal<br />

16 (2012) 107-119

F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />

113<br />

There were also significant differences between emotional valence scores of the<br />

Allegro Non Molto Summer (F[1, 28] = 5.63, p < 0.02, partial η 2 = 0.13), with<br />

musicians having perceived this movement as less pleasant than non-musicians.<br />

5.00<br />

Allegro Spring 1<br />

Largo E Pianissimo Sempre Spring<br />

Alegro Spring 2<br />

4.00<br />

Alegro Non Molto Summer<br />

Adagio Summer<br />

Tempo Impetuoso D'estate Summer<br />

Allegro Autumn<br />


3.00<br />

2.00<br />

Adagio Molto Autumn<br />

La Caccia: Alegro Autumn<br />

Allegro Non Molto Winter<br />

Largo Winter<br />

Allegro Winter<br />

1.00<br />

0.00<br />

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00<br />


Figure 1.<br />

The affective space of Vivaldi’s Four Seasons.<br />

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F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />


This study explored the affective space of Vivaldi’s Four Seasons, as well as the<br />

potential differences between musicians and non-musicians on the affect induced by<br />

this musical composition. In line with others who argued that the use entire musical<br />

pieces or at least musically and dramatically coherent excerpts has a greater<br />

external validity when one investigates the affective responses to music (Baltes et<br />

al., 2011; Levitin, 2006; Rickard, 2004), the aim of the present study was to map<br />

the affective space of all the twelve parts of the Four Seasons. It has also been<br />

argued that the effects of musical training on music processing is discrete and may<br />

be less obvious when short, artificial stimuli are used (Dalla Bella et al., 2003).<br />

Therefore, using the entire Four Seasons in the present study offered an appropriate<br />

experimental setting for us to observe the effects of musical education on musicinduced<br />

emotions.<br />

Vivaldi wanted to suggest the features of different seasons in his four<br />

concertos, which he also appended by explicatory sonnets. Each of the Four<br />

Seasons includes a central largo preceded and followed by two fast movements,<br />

alternating tutti and solo passages – the tuttis express the dominant mood of the<br />

piece (e.g., joyfulness of the first movement of the Spring, frightfulness of the first<br />

movement in the Winter), and the solos describe the pictorial details or allusions<br />

(e.g., songs of birds, a tumble on glare ice) (Pincherle, 1957). In light of the<br />

composer’s intention to express different feelings associated with the Four Seasons,<br />

and considering the differences between the movements of each concerto, which<br />

range in dynamics (i.e., from piano at the softest points to forte at the loudest parts)<br />

and tempo (i.e., from slow to fast), we expected that the concertos would cover the<br />

entire affective space, with movements that represent positive and negative valence<br />

with varying degrees of emotional arousal.<br />

A visual inspection of the affective space presented in Fig. 1 clearly<br />

indicates that the slow movements had the lowest arousal scores. The Largo e<br />

pianissimo sempre from the Spring was the least activating movement from all the<br />

concertos. Therefore, the present results suggest that the differences in tempo were<br />

the major influence on the perceived emotional arousal of the movements in<br />

Vivaldi’s Four Seasons, and extend previous observations on the relationship<br />

between music tempo and emotional arousal (Holbrook, 1990; Husain, Thompson,<br />

& Schellenberg, 2002; Scherer & Zentner, 2001). The valence scores were<br />

exclusively distributed in the right half of the affective space, that is, all the<br />

movements were perceived as pleasant. However, there were significant differences<br />

between the valence scores of various movements, with the Adagio molto from the<br />

Autumn being perceived as the least pleasant, and the first Allegro from the Spring<br />

being the most pleasant. Whereas the former movement suggests the peacefulness<br />

of outdoor sleep that follow the celebration of the harvest, the second suggests the<br />

joyfulness associated with the happiness of birds, the flowing of streams and the<br />

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F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />

115<br />

gentle blow of the zephyr. Therefore, the difference in valence between these<br />

movements seems to distinguish between the peacefulness and joyfulness that the<br />

composer wanted to suggest. The Allegro spring is also the most popular and best<br />

known movement of Vivaldi’s Four Seasons, with no differences in familiarity<br />

between musicians and non-musicians in this study. Not surprisingly, excerpts from<br />

this movement have also been used in previous psychophysiological research as<br />

happy music. For instance, using several second excerpts from this movement,<br />

(Krumhansl, 1997) found that it induced emotions of happiness, amusement and<br />

contentment that were associated with faster breathing rate and decreased<br />

respiration depth. The pleasant and activating affect associated with this movement<br />

from Vivaldi’s Four Seasons may have contributed to its popularity among<br />

listeners.<br />

The literature on the effects of musical training on music processing<br />

indicates that the differences between musicians and non-musicians may be more<br />

subtle than originally expected. Persons without formal musical education, but<br />

sufficiently exposed to their cultural musical idiom are “experienced listeners” who<br />

are able to use the same grammatical musical structuring principles as the expert<br />

musicians, although “in a more limited way” (Lerdhal & Jackendoff, 1983). For<br />

instance, non-musicians effectively use the tonal principles of the Western music in<br />

order to differentiate tonal from atonal melodies (Bartlett & Dowling, 1980;<br />

Frances, 1988). Does this extend to music-induced affect and what would in this<br />

case limit of similarities between experienced listeners and formally-trained<br />

musicians mean?<br />

By comparing between groups of musicians and non-musicians, the present<br />

study found only two significant differences related to the emotional arousal<br />

triggered by the Adagio molto autumn and the emotional valence induced by the<br />

Allegro non-molto summer. We believe that these movements may not be<br />

incidentally associated with affective differences between musicians and nonmusicians.<br />

Musicians’ aesthetic judgments may be focused on the novelty and<br />

originality of music (Ystok et al., 2009) – with them being more familiar with the<br />

features of the baroque musical style, the Adagio movement from the Autumn may<br />

have stood out as more original and thus more inciting. Intriguingly, probably<br />

Vivaldi also found this movement particularly original since he returned to it, by<br />

simply transposing it and making it the middle movement (Il Sonno) of Opus 10,<br />

no. 2 (Pincherle, 1957). Perhaps for the same reasons of novelty and originality, the<br />

musicians in the present study found the Allegro Non-Molto Summer as less<br />

pleasant than non-musicians. Quoting from Picherle’s (1957, p. 192) musical<br />

analysis, this movement “fall[s] back into a more conventional realm with restless<br />

figuration intended to depict […] the summer thunderstorm”. In summary, we<br />

found discrete differences in affect between musicians and non-musicians, and we<br />

suggest that these differences are related to the formal training in musical grammar<br />

that gives musicians an advantage in appreciating the originality of a musical piece,<br />

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F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />

and detecting fine changes in musical structure (e.g., dynamics, intensity,<br />

instrumentation, tonal norms).<br />

The main limit of this study is related to the rather small sample size.<br />

Although this sample is appropriate by traditional statistical standards for<br />

comparing between the affect of musicians and non-musicians, it may be too small<br />

to support the present arousal and valence scores as affective norms. Although<br />

admittedly exploratory, these scores represent the first attempt of mapping the<br />

affective space of an entire musical composition. We also speculate that the present<br />

observations of positive affective valence reported for all the movements in<br />

Vivaldi’s Four Seasons may at least partially explain the high popularity of these<br />

concertos. People may look for exposure to such music as a form of selfadministered<br />

psychotherapy (Sloboda, 1985), considering that a common reason<br />

that people invoke for listening to music is related to its positive effects on emotion<br />

regulation and vigilance (DeNora, 1999; Juslin et al., 2008; Sloboda et al., 2001).<br />

The present study may also have implications for clinical research. Such activating<br />

and pleasant music has been shown to reduce burn-out symptoms and alleviate the<br />

quality of life in burnout patients (Brandes et al., 2009), as well as enhance recovery<br />

of verbal memory and focused attention, and prevent negative mood in early poststroke<br />

stage (Sarkamo et al., 2008). The present results inform the potential use of<br />

Vivaldi’s Four Seasons in these interventions.<br />

Another limit of this study may be related to the possibility that we<br />

underestimated the differences between musicians and non-musicians by using<br />

simple linguistic measures of arousal and valence, based on Russell’s circumplex<br />

model of affect. Multidimensional measures of music-induced emotions such as the<br />

Geneva Emotional Music Scales (Zentner et al., 2008) are increasingly used, and<br />

we have used it ourselves in other studies (Baltes et al., 2011; Miu & Baltes, 2012).<br />

However, we chose here the simpler measure of affect because it was easy to apply,<br />

reliable, and allowed the direct comparison of different emotions based on the<br />

representative dimensions of emotional arousal and valence (Bigand et al., 2005;<br />

Flores-Gutierrez et al., 2007; Scherer, 2004). Nonetheless, musicians may be<br />

trained to identify and express a greater variety of emotions associated with music,<br />

and consequently the use of global measures of affect may underestimate<br />

differences in music-induced affect between musicians and non-musicians.<br />

In conclusion, the present study found that all the movements of Vivaldi’s<br />

Four Seasons are perceived as pleasant, with slower movements inducing less<br />

emotional arousal than faster movements. In addition, we found discrete differences<br />

in the affect that this music induced in musicians and non-musicians, and suggest<br />

that these differences are related to the increased focus of musicians on original<br />

features of certain movements in relation to the others. This study encourages<br />

efforts to map the affective space of entire musical compositions, which would be<br />

useful in behavioral interventions aimed at supporting emotion regulation in<br />

everyday life, and enhancing cognitive recovery in clinical populations.<br />

Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal<br />

16 (2012) 107-119

F. R. Balteş, M. Miclea, A. C. Miu<br />

117<br />


We are grateful to Diana Lungu for help with questionnaire scoring.<br />


Altenmuller, E., Schurmann, K., Lim, V. K., & Parlitz, D. (2002). Hits to the left, flops to<br />

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