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FinPilot2 Final Report

User Acceptance of

Mobile TV Services

Authors:

Eija Kaasinen, Tuomo Kivinen, Minna Kulju,

Liisa Lindroos and Virpi Oksman (VTT),

Jonas Kronlund (Elisa),

Mia Uronen (Forum Virium Helsinki)

1


Report’s title

FinPilot2 Final ReportUser Acceptance of Mobile TV Services

Publisher

Forum Virium Helsinki

Project name

Finnish Mobile TV / FinPilot2

Authors

Pages

Eija Kaasinen, Tuomo Kivinen, Minna Kulju, 88

Liisa Lindroos and Virpi Oksman (VTT),

Jonas Kronlund (Elisa),

Mia Uronen (Forum Virium Helsinki)

Keywords

mobile TV, interactive services, user acceptance, field trial

Forum Virium Helsinki contact information

Radiokatu 5 D, RTI house

FI-00240 Helsinki

www.forumvirium.fi

info@forumvirium.fi

Project partners

Finnish Mobile TV:

Destia, Digita, Elisa, Forum Virium Helsinki, City of Helsinki, Hewlett-Packard,

IBM, Logica, MTV Media, Nokia, SWelcom, TeliaSonera, TietoEnator, Veikkaus, VTT, YIT,

Finnish Broadcasting Company YLE.

FinPilot2:

a

2


Summary

FinPilot2 study piloted mobile television services in Digita’s DVB-H network in the

Helsinki area with a panel of 27 users. The panel was using mobile television services

with Nokia N77 phones from July 2007 to February 2008 as a part of their normal

lives. In addition to commercially available services, the panellists were introduced

with 10 different pilot services. User feedback of the pilot services was gathered

with web surveys and interviews.

The usage was established with about half of the respondents using mobile TV at

least once a week. The users described many usage routines that they had adopted.

Mobile TV was watched in the morning when having breakfast and late in the

evening to keep from disturbing the rest of the family. Short usage sessions during

commuting and when having breaks were common. Often mobile TV was used as an

extension to primary TV and as a background noise.

The value of mobile TV was seen rather in entertainment than in useful

information. Still, news in a wider sense was the content of most interest to the

users. Taking mobile TV into use was found easy. The quality of sound and especially

the quality of image got very positive feedback. Even though the users were

informed about the limited coverage of DVB-H broadcast, coverage was mentioned

first when asked about problems in use. With the new TV channels and video on

demand, there seems to be a need for easier overview of the content and also firmer

connections to services on other media.

Familiar add-on services such as MTV3 and Nelonen teletext services were very well

accepted, and it was a positive surprise to the panellists that these services offered

some better functionalities than conventional teletext. Also the local teletext

service, Super teletext, got quite good feedback.

The panellists saw that add-on services can be made easy to access and use.

However, in the pilot setting some add-on services required extra installation

efforts and some services were introduced as separate applications. This lowered

the grades for ease of adoption and ease of use. Main problems in taking the add-on

services into use were related to knowing the existence of those services.

Mobile TV broadcasting content is already interesting and attractive to the users.

Interactive services will require learning from the users so that they will get used

to looking for those add-on services. The path to add-on interactive services should

go from familiar content such as teletext to more versatile services. The potential

of the mobile phone should be utilised to provide the users with even more topical,

even more local and even more personal content. These kinds of services would

change mobile TV from an additional TV set to a medium in its own right.

3


Preface

When the Finnish Mobile TV project was launched in 2005, the expectations for

mobile television were high. Being the first project of Forum Virium Helsinki,

it was also very important for the organisation that had recently been set up.

Many Finnish developers of mobile television signed up for the joint project. The

community website www.finnishmobiletv.com, designed and produced by Forum

Virium Helsinki, supported the project.

The Finnish Mobile TV project was launched in order to allow Finnish developers,

who already were at the forefront of mobile design in the world, to pilot the

technology, contents and new services of mobile television. The faces and voices

of the test users could also be seen and heard in the project. The comments of the

users will certainly be seen in future mobile television services to be published.

The test users’ views and opinions are presented for examination elsewhere in

this report.

Television has had its fair share of challenges in the last years. These challenges

have not necessarily directly involved mobile television, but they have presented

the mobile distribution of digital television with new questions of credibility and

liability. In the future mobile television will probably be just one of the distribution

channels for television, along with various other distribution channels. Mobile

television, however, makes it possible to use a more local, up-to-date and personal

approach, compared to the television set that is fixed in a corner of the living room.

The consumer’s opinion is the most important with the key question being:

What can I use mobile television for, and why would I use it?

Mobile television and the development work in Finland have stirred considerable

interest in the world. Several international delegations and experts have

familiarized themselves with the project. There is a good possibility that Finnish

mobile television will become a successful product with a global demand.

I would like to express my gratitude to all partners in Finnish Mobile TV: Destia,

Digita, Elisa, the City of Helsinki, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Logica, MTV Media, Nokia,

SWelcom, TeliaSonera, TietoEnator, Veikkaus, VTT Technical Research Centre of

Finland, YIT and Yleisradio. My special thanks go to the authors of this report: Eija

Kaasinen, Tuomo Kivinen, Minna Kulju, Liisa Lindroos and Virpi Oksman of VTT,

Mia Uronen of Forum Virium Helsinki, as well as Jonas Kronlund of Elisa, who has

piloted the mobile television project in its various stages.

Jarmo “Elukka” Eskelinen

Executive Director

Forum Virium Helsinki

4


The Authors’ Thanks

FinPilot2 work has been steered by a Finnish Mobile TV Working Group lead by

Jonas Kronlund from Elisa. The other working group members have been Juha

Vesaoja from the Finnish Broadcasting Company YLE, Markku Lamminluoto from

TeliaSonera, Kenneth Falck from Swelcom, Marianne Antola from Nokia, Mia Uronen

and Pekka Koponen from Forum Virium Helsinki, Tarja Rautio from Digita, and Caj

Södergård from VTT.

We would like to thank all the Finnish Mobile TV partners, and especially the

working group members for their valuable guidance and feedback. We are grateful

to Digita who allowed the pilot services to be broadcasted in their DVB-H network,

Nokia who equipped the panellists with the N77 mobile TV enabled phones and

Sofia Digital who was in charge of developing most of the pilot services. We

would also like to thank the companies and organisations who provided the pilot

services and Forum Virium Helsinki for hosting the study and taking care of the

dissemination of the results and this report.

Last but not least we wish to thank the 27 voluntary test users of our user panel.

Even if facing occasional technical problems with the pre-commercial pilot services,

they spent a lot of time evaluating them and gave us valuable feedback both by

filling in web questionnaires and by participating in face-to-face interviews. This

kind of voluntariness is urgently needed to guarantee us all better services in the

future!

6.5.2008, Tampere

Authors

5


Contents

Summary ..................................................................................... 3

Preface .....................................................................................4

The Authors’ Thanks .................................................................................... 5

1 Introduction .....................................................................................9

1.1 Evolution of mobile TV ..................................................................9

1.2 Finnish Mobile TV project ............................................................ 10

1.2.1 Forum Virium Helsinki to coordinate the FiMTV project ......... 10

1.2.2 Finnish Mobile TV project objectives .................................. 10

1.2.3 Supporting the Developer Community .................................11

1.2.4 Dissemination: Presenting FiMTV in big events .....................13

1.2.5 The road to the second phase of the project, the FinPilot2 ......13

1.3 Finpilot2 study ...........................................................................14

2 Related Research .................................................................................15

2.1 FinPilot in 2005 ..........................................................................15

2.1.1 Setup of the study ...........................................................15

2.1.2 Results ...........................................................................13

2.2 Podracing project ........................................................................18

2.3 Other studies ............................................................................. 20

2.4 The Big Picture of Mobile TV .........................................................23

3 Prestudy – Eurovision event service ........................................................25

3.1 Setup of the study ...................................................................... 26

3.1.1 The evaluated services ..................................................... 26

3.1.2 Evaluation method .......................................................... 29

3.2 The interviewees ........................................................................ 29

3.3 Results ................................................................................... 26

3.3.1 First impressions............................................................. 26

3.3.2 Video on demand .............................................................27

3.3.3 Add-on services ...............................................................31

3.3.4 Usage interests ................................................................32

3.3.5 Content production ..........................................................33

3.4 Conclusions ................................................................................33

4 FinPilot2 Study .................................................................................. 34

4.1 Aims of the study ....................................................................... 34

4.2 Technical framework ................................................................... 34

4.3 Pilot services ..............................................................................37

4.4 User panel ................................................................................. 38

4.5 Evaluation methods .................................................................... 39

4.5.1 Taking mobile television into use ....................................... 40

4.5.2 Initial impressions ............................................................41

4.5.3 Surveys of individual services .............................................41

4.5.4 Final interviews .............................................................. 42

5 Initial expectations and first impressions ................................................ 43

5.1 Before the trial .......................................................................... 43

5.2 After two weeks of use ................................................................ 45

6


6 Evaluation of Individual Services ........................................................... 48

6.1 Overall mobile TV usage ............................................................... 48

6.2 Elisa TV ................................................................................... 48

6.2.1 Description of the service ................................................. 48

6.2.2 Evaluation setup ............................................................. 50

6.2.3 Results ...........................................................................51

6.3 Stadi TV M2HZ Video on demand service .........................................55

6.3.1 Description of the service ..................................................55

6.3.2 Evaluation setup ............................................................. 56

6.3.3 Results .......................................................................... 56

6.4 StadiTV Super teletext service ..................................................... 58

6.4.1 Description of the service ................................................. 58

6.4.2 Evaluation setup ............................................................. 58

6.4.3 Results .......................................................................... 59

6.5 Stadi TV – local TV channel .......................................................... 60

6.5.1 Description of the service ................................................. 60

6.5.2 Evaluation setup ..............................................................61

6.5.3 Results ...........................................................................61

6.6 Mobile TV Infochannel ................................................................. 63

6.6.1 Description of the service ................................................. 63

6.6.2 Evaluation setup ............................................................. 63

6.6.3 Results .......................................................................... 63

6.7 Iskelmä and The Voice interactive radio channels and Radio Nova ....... 64

6.7.1 Description of the service ................................................. 64

6.7.2 Evaluation setup ............................................................. 66

6.7.3 Results .......................................................................... 66

6.8 MTV3 and Nelonen teletext services ..............................................71

6.8.1 Description of the services ................................................71

6.8.2 Evaluation setup ..............................................................71

6.8.3 Results of MTV3 teletext ...................................................71

6.8.4 Results of Nelonen teletext ................................................74

7 Overall Results ....................................................................................76

7.1 Usage situations and times ...........................................................76

7.2 Preferred channels .......................................................................78

7.3 User Acceptance of Mobile TV and Add-on Services ............................79

7.4 Broadcast vs. on demand ..............................................................81

7.5 Interactive services ......................................................................81

7.6 Locality ....................................................................................82

7.7 User generated vs. professionally made content ............................... 83

7.8 Pricing expectations ................................................................... 83

8 Conclusions ................................................................................... 84

9 References ....................................................................................87

7


1 Introduction

1.1 Evolution of mobile TV

Mobile TV has been one of the most appealing mobile services according to several

user pilots all over the world. Mobile TV integrates the major mass medium – TV,

and the most personal medium – the mobile phone. This combination could at its

best enable much more than just an additional portable TV set.

The road to richer mobile services probably started with SMS text messages, which

could contain a limited amount of text. Soon after that logos and simple ring tones

were offered. Browsable WAP pages enabled the provision of new services, but at

first the emphasis was also on textual content. MMS picture messages introduced

the possibility of building and sending presentations that even contained short

video and sound samples in addition to text and images.

Small portable TV sets that work in the traditional analogue TV network were

introduced to the market a long time ago, but the quality of the image was not

sufficiently good in mobile use. Furthermore, analogue TV broadcasting ceased

in Finland in late summer 2007. DVB-T, i.e. the terrestrial digital TV broadcasting

network, does not in its present form meet the special requirements of mobile

phones, as the reception is processing-intensive and therefore depletes batteries too

quickly. A receiver suitable for a mobile phone also suffers from different types of

interference much more than a stationary terrestrial receiver and therefore requires

improved fault tolerance. Although DVB-T reception is becoming a standard feature

of high-end laptop PCs, for example, their use context is still quite different from

mobile phones. Mobile phones have featured FM radio receivers for many years

already, and the only electronic medium really missing has indeed been TV.

With a GPRS connection it became possible to browse web pages and watch short

video clips. Increasingly fast third generation mobile networks enable the user

to download or upload sizeable files, for example allowing place independent

communication by e-mail with large file attachments or even realtime video

blogging. Most operators have already launched a mobile TV offering on the 3G side,

but this will most probably not be enough when addressing a mature mass market.

The capacity of the current 3G networks has not been seen as sufficient for massive

simultaneous viewing and there will probably be a need for a true broadcast

solution on the mobile side also.

Consequently, a new digital TV technology is needed to meet the special

requirements of a small wireless device. There are currently three major standards

– ISDB-T (Terrestrial Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting) in Japan, DMB (Digital

Multimedia Broadcast) and its variations in South Korea and mainly DVB-H (Digital

Video Broadcasting for Handhelds) in Europe and parts of Asia and Africa. MediaFLO

has gained the most momentum in the USA.

9


1.2 Finnish Mobile TV project

The Finnish Mobile TV (FiMTV) project was inspired by the first Finnish mobile TV

pilot “FinPilot”, which was carried out in 2005. The pilot was considered successful

and its results indicated that there is a market for mobile TV services and that

customers are also ready to pay for them. A brief description of the first “FinPilot”

can be read in the chapter “Related research” (pages 15-18).

The steering group for this initial FinPilot, consisting of seven companies (Digita,

Elisa, MTV Media, Nokia, SWelcom, TeliaSonera and YLE) saw a need to keep up the

common efforts in this area and also broaden the scope towards a larger developer

community.

1.2.1 Forum Virium Helsinki to coordinate the FiMTV project

The Forum Virium Helsinki (FVH) cluster was founded at the end of 2005 by the

initiative of several major enterprises, among the companies who took part in

FinPilot 2005, and the City of Helsinki. Forum Virium Helsinki acts as an open

innovation environment to promote the development of digital contents and

services in the Helsinki metropolitan region. FVH brings together ideas and content

creators with high-growth and established companies as well as public sector

organizations.

Forum Virium Helsinki became a natural home for the new Finnish Mobile TV

project, which began in the end of 2005 and was estimated to last for two years.

Companies that took part in the project were Destia, Digita, Elisa, City of

Helsinki, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Logica, MTV Media, Nokia, SWelcom, TeliaSonera,

TietoEnator, Veikkaus, VTT, YIT and Finnish Broadcasting Company YLE.

1.2.2 Finnish Mobile TV project objectives

The aim for the two-year FiMTV project was to ease the beginning of innovative

and interactive mobile TV services by offering service developers DVB-H capacity

and mobile TV devices, and by organising networking events.

The vision of FiMTV was that mobile TV will become a commercial success in

Finland. The mission was to help partners build future business now. The

strategy for Phase 1 was to facilitate development of unique services and for Phase

2 to focus on end users and collect feedback on innovative and interactive services.

10


Figure 1-1. Visual image of the Finnish Mobile TV project

1.2.3 Supporting the Developer Community

In the early stage of the Finnish Mobile TV project the steering group realised that

development of innovative mobile TV services was too big a challenge for many

SMEs. Therefore FiMTV set out to provide service developers with a collaborative

framework as well as infrastructure support.

This was done by providing service developers free DVB-H network capacity

and early mobile TV devices by Nokia for a limited period of time, but also by

facilitating a developer community, which included six networking events around

various topics, and web based tools for collaboration at www.finnishmobiletv.com.

The FiMTV Community website was produced and moderated by Forum Virium

Helsinki.

The Developer Community was promoted by Mr. Esa Blomberg from the City of

Helsinki Business Development Unit. Developer Community had approximately 200

members coming from various organizations. The six Developer Forums each had

60-120 participants.

11


The topics of the six Developer Forums

Mobile TV Introduction, 21.12.2005

• Piloting experiences so far

• Glimpse at future possibilities

Technology Presentation, 7.3.2006

• Sketching near future roadmap

• Workshops around project ideas

Business Discussion, 6.6.2006

• Platform status and project presentations

• Business models and international situation

Domestic Cooperation, 07.11.2006

• FiMTV project experiences so far

• Situation in Turku, Tampere and Oulu

Media School Cooperation, 23.03.2007

• Presenting FiMTV piloting opportunity

• Idea of common university channel

Interactivity in Practice, 14.06.2007

• Presenting first results of FinPilot2

• Explaining approaches to interactivity

DVB-H network capacity

Until 30 November 2006, Forum Virium Helsinki arranged the availability of a whole

DVB-H multiplex, largely covering the Helsinki metropolitan region. The FiMTV

steering group approved requests for capacity by various projects. Capacity was

allocated to 20 projects which can be categorized under these areas:

Domestic TV Channels

Foreign TV Channels

Enhanced Radio Services

Community Communication Services

Gaming Services

Event Communication Services

Public Services

Machine-to-machine Services

In March 2006, Digita was rewarded with the DVB-H operating lisence. Digita

started its commercial DVB-H networking business in December 2006, covering 25

per cent of the population of Finland.

12


1.2.4 Dissemination: Presenting FiMTV in big events

The dissemination of Finnish Mobile TV project included for example participating

in ICT related conferences and exhibitions. The most important of those was IST

2006 Conference and Exhibition that was organized by the EU Commission in

Helsinki on 21 - 23 November 2006.

Forum Virium Helsinki and Finnish Mobile TV project were presented in the

IST 2006 exhibition, as part of the Finnish Pavilion arranged by Tekes. Besides

presenting the Finnish Mobile TV by using mobile TV devices and showing a video

presentation, there was an exceptional experiment: live broadcast from the event

produced especially for mobile TV by Arcada Polytechnic students. “DINA IST Mobile

DVB-H project” implemented in cooperation with the Finnish Mobile TV project

aroused wide interest at IST 2006 event.

DINA presented new and unique programme formats for mobile television. The

DINA channel consisted of multimedia services that were offered for different user

terminal devices during the IST 2006 Conference and Exhibition. The mobile TV

channel offered interactive video blogs, media art, tips on leisure activities, music,

reportages produced in advance — and above all — direct broadcasts recorded and

receivable with a mobile phone. The programme palette was tailored primarily to

serve foreign visitors at the fair.

The experience was good, and it aroused hopes to continue with future projects

together – both on behalf of Arcada and FiMTV. The next project to be was DINA

Host City during the Eurovision song contest in Helsinki on May 2007. More of this

in chapter 3, pages 25-34.

During IST 2006, Forum Virium Helsinki also organized in co-operation with

INCCOM two seminars which discussed mobile TV. The first session “Mobile TV

– the challenges for live interactive multimedia services” focused on lessons learned

from the mobile television trials. The afternoon session “Future perspectives of

mobile multimedia content” focused on mobile lifestyle, cross media and mobile TV

services. 4x15min active demo sessions concluded the day.

1.2.5 The road to the second phase of the project, the FinPilot2

During the first phase of Finnish Mobile TV project, it was soon discovered

interactivity to be a service area of which there still is little experience. However,

interactivity is seen as an important server of added possibilities by several service

providers and users alike.

13


The second user pilot of the FiMTV project, FinPilot2, therefore focused on

interactivity. The organisations that took part in FinPilot2 were Digita, Elisa, MTV

Media, Nokia, SWelcom, TeliaSonera, TietoEnator, YLE, VTT and Forum Virium

Helsinki.

Meanwhile FinPilot2 continued until the end of April 2008, the FiMTV steering

group at the end of December 2007 formally concluded the FiMTV project according

to plans. Finland has been at the forefront of mobile TV development for some

time and also encountered certain challenges along the way. The conclusion of the

project is nevertheless that broadcasted TV, video-on-demand and various forms

of interactivity all together will enable innovative services that eventually bring

success to the concept of mobile TV.

1.3 Finpilot2 study

FinPilot2 study piloted mobile television services in Digita’s DVB-H network in

the Helsinki area with a panel of 27 users. The panel was using mobile television

services from July 2007 to February 2008. In addition to commercially available

services, they were introduced with 10 different pilot services. User feedback of the

pilot services was gathered with web surveys and interviews.

The results give feedback on user acceptance of mobile TV and related interactive

services. The results also highlight actual mobile TV usage practises as the panellists

were using the services as a part of their normal lives for over six months.

In this report, we will start with an overview of related research to introduce the

experiences of mobile television thus far both in Finland and internationally. Special

focus is on the original FinPilot results from 2005 and on VTT’s Podracing project

results. We then describe the pre-study that was carried out in connection to the

Eurovision song contest in Helsinki May 2007 with demos and interviews at the

Helsinki Host City stand in the city centre. The FinPilot2 panel setup is described

in chapter 4: panellists, pilot services and the technical environment of the field

trial. Chapter 5 describes initial experiences of the panellists: expectations before

starting the pilot, experiences in taking into use the mobile phone with mobile TV

functionality and experiences after two weeks of use. The evaluation of the pilot

services started after 2 months usage of the commercial mobile television services.

In chapter 6 we describe the evaluation results of the individual pilot services.

Chapter 7 concludes with usage practises and overall user acceptance of mobile

television and the add-on services based on final interviews with the panellists.

14


2 Related Research

2.1 FinPilot in 2005

2.1.1 Setup of the study

The original FinPilot or the Finnish DVB-H trial was carried out in 2005 and it was

organised by the partners of Finnish Mobile TV Pilot: Digita, MTV Media, Nelonen,

YLE, Elisa, TeliaSonera and Nokia (Mäki, 2005; Internal FinPilot1 results report)

A sample of 500 test users was recruited from a random selection of operators’

customers. The sample represented both sexes (35% women) and age groups

18-70 (47% age 18-30). Nokia 7710 smart phones were used as test devices and

broadcasting covered the Helsinki metropolitan area. Pilot users paid a monthly

access fee (4,9 e) for basic services and separate fees (3,9 e for the first month,

later included in the basic fee) for additional channels and special events such as

Formula weekends. The users received phones from the mobile TV pilot project but

were using their own subscriptions.

The piloting was carried out by Research International Finland and Finnpanel during

March-June 2005. Surveys were organised before the trial, after 1-2 weeks usage

and after 3 months usage. Focus group interviews were organised in parallel to the

surveys.

2.1.2 Results

The main result was that mobile TV service was considered to have future potential,

assuming that pricing and content are in line with consumers’ expectations and

needs. Of the pilot participants surveyed, 58% thought that mobile TV will become

popular in the future. Requirements for mobile TV adoption included handset

usability and acceptance, technical performance and reliability, usability of mobile

TV service and content that suits irregular and short viewing periods.

The main usage motivations were to pass time and to stay updated. The main usage

contexts were at home alone, at work and while travelling on public transportation.

Short and easy to follow content was preferred for travelling whereas at home

mobile TV could be used as a secondary TV when the main TV was in use by others

or before going to sleep. At work mobile TV took to a great extent the role of a

radio; it was used as background entertainment.

Mobile TV usage was more spontaneous than normal TV viewing: mobile TV

was watched when time and the situation allowed. After the initial enthusiasm

TV viewing became refined to certain moments, certain channels and certain

programme formats. Of the sample surveyed, 65-70% was using mobile TV on a

weekly basis. Active users (100 users) were watching mobile TV twice a week, 30-40

min per session and “light users” (100 users) once a week, 10 minutes per session.

15


People seemed to use different content types in different locations. News and

information services were used everywhere throughout the day, and the mobile

phone was considered as a valuable channel especially when something newsworthy

suddenly happened. Live broadcasts of sports were watched anywhere if there was

no conventional TV available. Series and entertainment services were viewed in

short periods while waiting, for example, for public transportation. Music was also

listened to on the move. Films and longer programmes were only watched when the

conventional TV was not available. Mobile TV was often viewed during the daytime,

which differs from the peak viewing times of traditional television.

National channels were preferred due to the familiar content. The pilot participants

considered news, sports and entertainment as content best suited to mobile TV,

with 63% of the respondents preferring news, 27% sports and 22% entertainment.

Figure 2-1 illustrates overall customer experience during the pilot both in the trial

phase (after 1-2 weeks usage) and the adoption phase (after 3-4 months of usage).

Content offering was considered quite good, and towards the end of the trial the

grades actually improved. Usability and overall watching experience both got fairly

good grades. Technical functionality got the lowest grades in FinPilot1 but still the

grades were moderate. The touch screen and virtual keyboard on Nokia 7710 were

found difficult to use by some participants. Battery life and size of the phone also

got some critical remarks. The clarity of the screen and sound quality got positive

scores. However, there were a few complaints that the resolution was not sufficient

for fast sports programmes or reading textual information on the broadcast.

Starting the mobile TV application and updating the channel were slow. Problems

were also faced in indoor coverage.

Figure 2-1. Customer experience in FinPilot1 (Source: Research International)

16


Mobile TV often acted as a substitute for radio – users followed some programmes,

e.g. discussion programmes and documentaries, using just the sound. Also

programmes that did not require too much or too long concentration such as

morning TV, talk shows, soap operas and cartoons were found suitable for mobile

TV. Considering sports programmes, the users thought that mobile TV was a better

option than mere radio but the video quality was not sufficient for fast sports

such as ice hockey and football. Generally, films and drama series were found least

suitable for mobile TV because visual experience suffered on the small screen.

However, the multiple media possibility was utilised e.g. by starting to watch a

movie on the mobile when travelling home and then continuing on the main TV

when arriving at home.

Regarding payment, the users found a fixed monthly fee complemented with pay

per view for special content as a well accepted pricing model. The main value of

mobile TV was the possibility to watch TV anywhere. More than half of the test

users believed that mobile TV has future potential and 41% of the participants were

potential buyers of future Mobile TV services.

Interactivity was experimented on a very small scale in the original FinPilot study in

2005, mainly by Elisa, and it was not possible to draw many conclusions on the user

experience from those mostly technical tests. The interactivity possibilities mainly

consisted of a banner with links to the left of the TV screen (see Figure 2-2), which

then lead to more advanced interactive functions in the web browser, in this case

synchronized on the server side to the broadcast transmission (see Figure 2-3).

Figure 2-2.Screen capture from the broadcast part of an interactive service of the original FinPilot.

17


Figure 2-3. Screen capture from the online part of an interactive service of the original FinPilot.

2.2 Podracing project

VTT together with the University of Tampere and Technical University of Helsinki

studied different delivery and content types for mobile television in the Podracing

project (2005-2007). Different delivery paradigms: broadcast, on-demand and

download were evaluated in three field trials in 3G, DVB-H and Wi-Fi networks.

Special focus was on studying news delivery in different formats. To explore the

use of different delivery methods and content consumption, a mobile TV service

prototype, called Podracing was developed (Ollikainen, 2008). Podcasted content

was delivered to the user’s mobile by subscriptions using the same metaphor as

subscribed RSS feeds on the Web. The subscriber could choose among the available

feed channels. Stored locally on the handset, podcasted content could then be

viewed without network connection. Each field trial lasted for one month and

involved 10 users.

Figure 2-4. Podracing project studied 3G television (Photo: Elisa), DVB-H broadcasting and Podcasting

Mobility and real time effect were considered the most important characteristics

of mobile news. Only the latest news had high demand, as real time feeling was

considered important. Compared to earlier studies on mobile video content (Repo

et al., 2003), the use of earpieces with the mobile phone had become especially

18


common. This made it more convenient to follow media content, for instance, in

public transport without disturbing others.

In Podracing trials the quality of reception was one of the major technical

problems perceived in mobile TV use. Users perceived a significant difference

between different delivery methods, i.e. 3G and DVB-H and pre-downloading, and

the difference affected the length of watching sessions of mobile TV. Although

podcasting via the mobile phone was quite a new concept for the test users,

after the trial they all thought that this delivery method was a major addition

for mobile TV. Podcasting as a delivery method was considered most suitable for

loading entertainment content such as TV series, but also news broadcasts were

downloaded for later watching. Although typical mobile use is spontaneous, most

users did not consider it inconvenient to subscribe and download podcasts at home

for later watching elsewhere (Oksman et al., 2008).

Similar to some earlier mobile television studies, the results of the Podcasting

project indicate that news is very often the most popular mobile television content,

and news viewers prefer to have live feeds. Entertainment is popular podcasted

or loaded content. The findings of the trial confirmed many previous studies

concerning the contexts of using mobile TV. Mobile television was mostly used in

the public sphere. The test users mainly picked the content and channels which

were already familiar (Oksman et al., 2007).

The test users expected mobile TV to offer additional services compared to

conventional TV and media. There was a demand for additional services, and the

test users especially wished for more real-time and specially tailored content for

mobile TV. The users stated that a mobile television service should be able to give

a feeling that a user actually knows and receives more than others. Users hoped

that a mobile service would match up to their real needs and use situations. Whilst

the use of mobile television is usually very spontaneous and low commitment, just

surfing around and viewing meaningless program flow is not necessarily enough.

Mobile television in itself was new to the users and thus it is understandable that

the broadcast was considered the most interesting feature of the service. Three out

of eleven test users said they expect mobile television to carry interactive elements.

The test users seemed to understand interactivity mostly in connection with buying

or advertising purposes. None of the test users were interested in chat, where users

could discuss the programmes with each other. They also disliked the idea of voting

for something trivial, just for fun. Four users said that they would like to give

feedback. Of the test users surveyed, 68% preferred professional made content and

32% preferred amateur made. Professional content was appreciated for editorial and

technical quality whereas user generated content was considered funny, surprising

and life-like. Half of the test users said that they would be interested in uploading

their own video clips to the service.

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2.3 Other studies

The usage of mobile phones evolves in three general user spheres of home, work and

public. Quite typically, mobile phones are regarded as devices for use in the public

sphere, for example while waiting or commuting. They are used to kill time and to

keep their users entertained or up-to-date (Oksman et al., 2007). Some studies have

shown that mobile services are measurably used in the private area. For example

a mobile television pilot in Oxford, UK, revealed that about 50 percent of the test

users viewed mobile television at home and didn’t move anywhere while viewing. A

typical time for using mobile television was late night, in bed, just before one was

falling asleep. (Dowell, 2006).

Cui, Chipchase and Jung (2007) carried out a qualitative study of eight young

early adopters of mobile TV in Seoul, South Korea four months after the launching

of mobile TV service. With these users, the average weekly use was over 6 hours.

The novelty value was the main motivation of adopting mobile TV, and the users

felt that this was one more gadget to try. Typical usage situations were killing time

while commuting, personal use at home, secret use at school and macro breaks. Cui

et al. emphasize that breaks needed to be long enough to have time to set up the

device, e.g. changing channel took up to ten seconds. That is why they introduce

the concept of macro breaks. The most popular content in this trial were radio

channels. Cui et al. suggest that mobile TV should rather be called personal TV,

even if in their trial shared watching with up to three friends was usual. However,

the value of mobile TV seemed to be in personal use rather than mobility.

The use of mobiles in the public sphere has certain limitations. For example users

have been worried about becoming absorbed in mobile multimedia content, which

requires their visual attention. They fear increased risks of accidents and lapses.

The possibility of listening to music or the radio while on the move is thus highly

valued, because it doesn’t need visual attention. Also text legibility may be difficult

when on the move (Knoche, 2005). Digital music is one of the most popular forms

of mobile entertainment and it is supposed to be a key driver for customer adoption

of new 3G services. According to a Siemens survey, the most attractive applications

for American consumers are mobile email, mobile music and mobile TV (Siemens

Communications, 2006).

The findings of a number of studies made on mobile TV show that the most popular

content is news. (Södergård, 2003; Knoche & McCarthy, 2004; Mäki, 2005). News

is well suited to mobile phones, because the use of mobile TV bursts often lasts

less than 10 minutes. Knoche and McCarthy (2004) list mobile television content

types by their popularity as 1. news, 2. music, 3. sports, 4. cartoons, 5. movies, 6.

soap operas, and 7. sitcoms. Although short watching sessions are typical to mobile

TV, longer durations (20-40 min) were also observed in the trials by Oksman et al.

(2008).

20


News channels are also quite easily re-broadcasted over the mobile phone, because

the content of the channel is continually new: if the user selects the mobile news

channel (s)he is most likely to get what (s)he expected. Other channels may have

to think how well their broadcasting is fitting to the mobile environment. For

example, if a mobile TV user selects a music channel, it’s disappointing if there

isn’t music in the agenda during her/his short period of viewing. The limited time

of mobile television use affects both the type of content and the way that people

consume it (Södergård, 2003; 4, Mäki, 2005). Grobel (2006) predicts that most

likely, customized services which address specific interests of the individual user

will probably become more important.

The mobile phone as media is suitable for many different situations. Mobility,

diversity and real time effect are considered to be the most important

characteristics of the service and that combination distinguishes the use of the

news service from other media use. In the Podracing project users appreciated

updated information and information-rich media forms for mobile news delivery

as well as the ability to select the media format suited for the situation. There was

high demand for the latest news in mobiles. Users also appreciated fast functions

and ease of use (Oksman et al., 2007).

As personal communication devices are turning into multimedia communication

devices delivering news and other mass media content, new questions about user

experience challenges will emerge (Oksman et al., 2007). In the study by Oksman

et al. (2007) new scrolling user interface implementation signified the service

providers’ investment and commitment to developing a good service, and this

increased the users’ positive attitude towards the service (Oksman et al., 2007).

User generated podcasting – audio and video file sharing to a portable device – is

also a significant phenomenon and regarded as one of the most important content

types for mobile TV (Oksman et al., 2007). There are plenty of amateur podcasters

all over the world, which is seen for example in the enormous success of YouTube.

The whole podcasting or mobcasting phenomenon may affect the forms of present

media supply. For example the Finnish Broadcasting Company, YLE, which started

its podcasting experiment in autumn 2005, has recounted that one of the most

wished-for podcast content is a radio play. The popularity of podcasting certainly

challenges traditional media and their business models. Overall, user generated

content multiplies the whole media supply, and users have countless of channels to

get content just to their liking.

Clearly, user choices and preferences will determine the success of mobile TV

services. For media companies and consumers, mobile media is nothing new. Print

media such as newspapers or magazines are mobile; the same holds true for media

such as the car radio, or Walkman (Feldmann, 2005). Thus, if new mobile broadcast

services are to be successful, questions regarding the relevance of the service to

21


consumers need to be asked. The research needs to ask questions such as: How does

the service improve users’ lives or help them? Why it is valuable to them? It is also

important to consider the issues of when and where the usage will take place, as

the mobile broadcasting services will most likely be used in different locations and

times than fixed media (Picard, 2005).

Schatz et al. (2007) point out that social mobile TV has future potential and it

will require both verbal and non-verbal interactive elements for joint TV watching

experience. They prioritize chat as the verbal element and suggest Joint zapping,

Sharemarks, Presence and Emotions as non-verbal elements. Joint zapping

synchronises the current channel of two receivers whereas Sharemarks enables

seeing which channels peers are watching.

Hübel et al. (2007) emphasize that interactivity features in mobile TV have several

possibilities extending from changing channels to creating and distributing one’s

own content. The mobile phone is a promising platform for interactive services as

people are already accustomed to engage actively with the device. The combination

of mobile telecom networks and broadcast networks offers several application

possibilities. As mobile TV usage is characterised by short usage sessions and less

intensive usage, Hübel et al. claim that mobile interactive applications shouldn’t be

just transferred from other medium but they need to be developed for or adapted

to mobile environments. They suggest that the mobile EPG (Electronic Programme

Guide) could be equipped with several add-on features such as reminders, reviews

of programmes by other users, remote recording, voting, chatting and shopping.

The mobile phone is especially suitable for shopping as it enables authenticating

the user. Hübel et al. also emphasize personalisation e.g. in the form of personalized

advertisements.

Hübel et al. (2007) stress familiarity: “Anchors” from other media create a familiar

environment where users can gradually adopt new interactive features. They

suggest that market development of interactive mobile TV applications should

be a process of mutual learning involving all stakeholders and also end users.

Oksman et al. (2008) also point out that people are often drawn to new services

and mobile TV itself with the help of established brands and channels. Still, in the

Podracing project the test users expected mobile TV to offer additional services to

conventional TV and media. Expectations were specially related to getting more

real time, more personal, diverse and mobile-tailored content, giving the user the

feeling that (s)he actually knows more than others.

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2.4 The Big Picture of Mobile TV

With a global television penetration of almost 90% there is no questioning the

popularity of TV as a medium. As mobile phone penetration in Western Europe is at

similar figures, the urge to broadcast prescheduled programmes to handheld devices

becomes inevitable.

Pilots offering different technologies for broadcasting content to mobile devices

have made it quite clear that a majority of the consumers feel mobile TV to be

an interesting service, for which they even would be willing to pay a reasonable

monthly fee. Rapidly reaching a big enough market penetration of mobile TV

enabling devices is nevertheless crucial for business to take off.

The DVB-H network providers and the handset manufacturers are facing

considerable investments before there is even a chance of making a profit, but on

the other hand they are the ones that start earning even while mobile TV device

penetration is low. Public broadcasting companies may have the mandate to

become visible on as many networks as possible, but advertisement based channels

have to weigh the additional costs for transmission capacity towards the benefit

of reaching just slightly larger number of viewers before the market has matured.

The market for pay-TV has recently taken off in a promising direction in Finland and

this will eventually be reflected also on the mobile side.

It is increasingly evident that digital convergence will blur the distinctions between

traditional technologies and media formats. This is reflected in the following theses

by Paul Saffo, from his essay Consumers and Interactive Media: A Hierarchy of

Desires (2002):

• Winning products will satisfy multiple desires. The most successful products will

probably combine entertainment and communications.

• Different players will be experts at satisfying particular desires. The most

successful products of the players will probably relate to their core competence.

• The biggest wins may come from cross-industry alliances. The biggest novelties

may come from alliances that leverage the best understanding of each area.

It is clear that mobile TV will create new opportunities for partnerships and value

networks between various industries. As the appetite of mobile consumers for new

types of media grows, various opportunities for new kinds of crossover products are

emerging.

Mobile video and TV, broadcasted, streamed on-demand, downloaded or in the form

of video phone calls, should support each other in creating new habits of media

consumption where the consumer interacts and orders on-demand services over

23


cellular networks parallel to using broadcasted mobile TV. Then mobile TV will surely

find its niche in the competition for the end user’s time budget.

Familiar TV channel brands are the ones that will carry over the trust for quality

content to mobile TV. It does not take much effort to simulcast regular TV channels

in mobile TV networks, but it does require clearance from both a legislative and

rights owner perspective. The nationally operating TV channels will feature strongly

among the programmes offered on mobile TV, but it can also be expected that

numerous payable international and foreign channels will be available.

It would be a waste of bandwidth to not make available broadcasted content for

customers of all service operators, but exclusive content rights may on the other

hand give an edge in a very competitive market. Simulcast TV doesn’t consider

mobile TV prime time and some users may soon want something new and different.

Many players already understand that opportunities will be lost if they fail to offer

desirable content especially made or at least customised for mobile TV.

User identification, subscription and invoicing functions, decoding of encrypted

data and interactive services require the use of a separate return channel, i.e. the

mobile phone network. Mobile phone operators have a natural role as providers of

the return channel and in management of invoicing activities. However, it is also

be important to search for additional services that would give access to innovative

new incoming channels and would also complement the existing mobile products.

Interactivity for regular TV already depends on the mobile phone. As the interactive

set top box remains a flop in most countries, interactive programme formats rely

on showing phone numbers and keywords for SMS voting on screen. SMS based

games and chats have become popular as they provide a lucrative way to fill up

non-prime-time. Interactivity in mobile TV will probably in the beginning imitate

these conventional formats, but in a more user friendly way as the interactions can

be added as metadata to the programme stream and accessed through menus in the

viewing application.

The next steps could be to add links to purchase and download unique material

that relate to the programmes. Advertising may trigger larger scale deployment of

this kind of interactivity, for example the sponsor offering a unique music video

download in exchange for a more profiled contact.

Programme formats that support user generated content will need functions for

easy uploading of content. Using the small screen in parallel to regular TV could also

create new programme formats.

Media consumption is becoming more and more fragmented, but niche content can

unlikely afford limited broadcast capacity. Therefore it becomes important to offer

broadcast DVB-H and unicast 3G mobile TV services in parallel. Light regulation for

24


mobile TV could empower clusters of non-typical players though, making shared

broadcast capacity affordable.

Interactivity is important in Mobile TV as it activates the consumer, preferably

learning from the start to expect interactive functions in some form in all

programmes - even if it in many cases just would mean a link to the home pages of

the TV channel.

The vision is to create a positive feedback cycle of interactivity, where mobile TV

triggers new interactive services, which in their turn add value to the mobile TV

channels (Figure 2-5).

Figure 2-5. Positive feedback cycle of interactivity.

3 Prestudy – Eurovision event service

During the Helsinki Eurovision Song Contest week, 9. - 12.5.2007, the Finnish

Mobile TV project realized a user study to evaluate the DINA Host City mobile TV

channel. The aim of the study was to get user feedback on mobile TV, especially

local and topical content as well as interactive services.

The programme flow of the DINA Host City channel was a vivid part of the “Host

City Helsinki” multimedia event service. The Host City Helsinki service brought

Eurovision content to multiple platforms including mobile television and Second

Life. Forum Virium Helsinki implemented the Host City Helsinki multimedia service

in order to assist the Finnish Broadcasting Company and the City of Helsinki

in making the Eurovision experience one of a kind. The service was developed

in cooperation with Greater Helsinki Promotion, the City of Helsinki and other

members and partners.

25


Coordinated by Arcada, the DINA channel produced 12 hours of daily broadcast

featuring the hundreds of events during the Eurovision Song Contest in Helsinki.

The channel presented the carnevalistic atmosphere of downtown parties,

interwieved fans, tourists and performers, and reported on the official ESCpreparations

live from the Hartwall Arena.

The DINA Host City service entity was evaluated with field interviews and a survey

during the event 9. - 12.5.2007. The aim was to study first impressions and to get

feedback from potential users to this kind of local and topical mobile TV service and

related interactive services. The mobile version of the service was demonstrated to

the interviewees at the Host City Helsinki stand in the city centre of Helsinki.

3.1 Setup of the study

3.1.1 The evaluated services

The DVB-H-broadcasted service, DINA Host City, could be received on DVB-Hsupported

mobile phones. The new Nokia N92 phone, was used in this study as the

demonstration platform (Figure 3-1). N92 was released into the market in Finland

during the study (11.5.2007).

Figure 3-1. Nokia N92

26


The DINA Host City channel programme gave the users a sense of the Eurovision

event atmosphere from around the city and in the studio. In addition to DVB-H

mobile TV, the programmes could be seen on the internet at the Host City Helsinki

– web site, from Sonera Mobile TV (3G service), on Second Life – web virtual world,

from DINA-channel on Welho cable TV network and on YLE Extra –TV channel.

The service was implemented and maintained by media students from Arcada and

students from University of Art and Design Helsinki, Stadia, Tampere University of

Applied Sciences and Swedish School of Social Sciences in Helsinki. The broadcasted

video material was produced by the students.

Figure 3-2. DINA Host City production group working.

In addition to the DVB-H broadcast programme, DINA Host City included interactive

services that were accessibly in two ways. Firstly, the services could be accessed

while watching the mobile television by selecting Options/Services. Secondly,

parts of the services were also accessible via the mobile Internet on the phone by

accessing the DINA Host City mobile web site. Table 3-1 describes the available

services.

There were some technical problems with the prototype services during the test

period. Most problems were faced with Video-on-Demand service where selected

videos could not always be opened. There were also differences in Video-on-Demand

functionality with individual devices. Often resetting the phone or changing data

transfer settings helped. There were occasional problems with web links not always

working. Some problems were faced with broadcast as the services were tested

partially in VTT’s test DVB-H network that was being set up during the trial. In

Digita’s network the broadcast worked fine.

27


Sub service

DVB-H-broadcast

Video-on-Demand

Uploading own videos

Contact service provider

Voting and viewing results

Web links

Description

Broadcast programme included both live and

video material.

Three alternatives

1. Video archive

2. Editor’s selection (an interesting video

selected by the editorial staff)

3. Artist of the day (a different artist was

selected for each day)

Users could upload their own videos to the

service to be shared with others. The link took

the user to a mobile web site where detailed

instructions were given.

Three alternatives:

1. Call (preset phone number)

2. SMS (preset phone number)

3. Email (preset mail address) – not working

during the evaluation

User selected from given alternatives (e.g. I

like/dislike Helsinki). The selection activated a

preset SMS. Results of the voting were available

via mobile Internet. Results could be viewed

without voting yourself.

Links to DINA Host City mobile site and promo

sites of cooperation partners were available

from mobile TV service menu.

Table 3-1. Evaluated service entity.

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3.1.2 Evaluation method

During the Eurovision Song Contest event week, the service entity was evaluated

in field interviews at the Host City Helsinki stand in the city centre, organised by

Forum Virium Helsinki (Figure 3-3). Interviewees were picked from the people who

came to see the offerings at the stand. All interviewees participated in a lottery

where prizes were tickets to the Eurovision Contest dress rehearsal and movie

tickets.

Figure 3-3. Interviewing at the stand.

First the interviewees familiarised themselves with the DINA Host city service,

guided by the researchers. They were shown the broadcast service and then the

interactive services. The interviewee could try the services (s)he wanted. After

seeing and trying the services, the researchers held the interview, and wrote the

answers down on a web form. As a whole, seeing and trying the services as well as

the interview took about 10-15 minutes per interviewee.

3.2 The interviewees

A total of 123 persons were interviewed, 70% women and 30% men. Most

interviewees were from Finland but there were also occasional interviewees from

other countries across the world, including Australia and Canada. The interviewees

represented different age groups from under 18 to over 64. The interviewees were

quite experienced mobile phone users, on the average they had been using mobile

phones for 10 years. Only two interviewees did not own a mobile phone. The

interviewees were not very familiar with media features on the mobile phone: half

of them had not used the camera on the phone and 73% had not used the video

29


camera on the phone. 68% had not used mobile Internet and 93% had not used

mobile TV before.

3.3 Results

3.3.1 First impressions

After seeing and possibly trying the services the interviewees were asked to

assess their first impression of the appearance, ease of use, entertainment value

and usefulness of the service (1 = very bad .. 5 = very good). Table 3-2 represents

average grades for these attributes.

Attribute

Grade

Appearance 4,0

Ease of use 3,8

Entertainment value 3,8

Usefulness 3,0

Table 3-2. First impressions

The comments were mainly positive. Positive comments were given about topical

content, image quality and small size of the device. On the other hand, small size

of the device also got some negative comments. The interviewees also doubted

whether they would really have use for the new service.

”Cool, the kind of development that mobile requires”

“Quite nice. Fine service but I do not find usage for it”.

“Really good image quality. High tech, high design. Really cool!”

3.3.2 Video on demand

When asked about preferred content providers, 68 % of the interviewees favoured

content produced by professionals and 32% content produced by users themselves.

From respondents aged 55-64, 85% favoured professional content whereas

respondents aged 18-24 60% favoured user-produced content. Women favoured

professional content more than men (73% / 56 %).

30


Content by professionals was favoured because of the technical quality. Userproduced

material was assessed fresh, genuine and different from mainstream but

the technical quality and the quality of the content were doubted:

“Different viewpoints, something that professionals would not come to think about”

Half of the respondents said that they would be interested in uploading their own

content to the service. Men were more interested in this possibility than women

(71% / 41%):

“Sure. If I would catch a 10 kg salmon, I would be pleased to tell others”

Respondents who were not interested in uploading their own content to the service

preferred professional content more then other respondents (81%).

3.3.3 Add-on services

Going from voting to viewing voting results required opening mobile Internet

which was a bit complex. Also, following web links took interviewees away from

mobile TV service and they needed to activate mobile TV again.

The main broadcast was selected by 61% of respondents as the most interesting

part of the service entity (Figure 3-4). The age groups 35-44, 25-34 and under 18

considered it especially interesting (71%, 70% and 67% respectively considered it

most interesting). The age group over 64 was the only group that did not consider

DVB-H broadcast as the most interesting part. This group favoured uploading own

content and video on demand (both sub services were considered most interesting

by 27% of the respondents). The interests varied also by sex: 65% of women

considered DVB-H broadcast as the most interesting feature compared to 51% of

male respondents; 27% of men were most interested in video on demand compared

to 17% of female respondents.

The least interesting sub services were taking part in voting (considered most

interesting only by 5 % of the respondents) and contacting service providers (6%).

However, 18% of respondents aged over 64 considered contacting service provider

as the most interesting sub service.

31


Figure 3-4. Most interesting features of the service entity

When asked the other way around, 34% of the respondents considered uploading

own content to the service as the least interesting feature. Also studied in this way,

DVB-H was the most interesting feature - only 5% of the respondents said that DVB-

H was the least interesting feature.

3.3.4 Usage interests

Off those interviewed, 61% said that they would be using mobile television in the

future if it was available:

“Especially now during the Eurovision week I would definitively have liked to use.

Looks so good already..”

Of those interviewed, 30% were uncertain whether they would use mobile TV in

the future. These interviewees emphasised the need for more information:

”What would be the price, will there be disconnections in the broadcast? I would like to

see more advertisements of the subject.”

Of those interviewed, 9% said that they were not interested in using mobile TV in

the future:

Mobile should be kept as a phone, TV can stay separate at home.”

Men were a bit more interested in taking mobile TV into use (figure 3-5).

32


Intentions to use mobile television

55 %

76 %

Yes

Maybe

No

36 %

16 %

9 % 8 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Women

Men

Figure 3-5. Intentions to use the service if it was available.

3.3.5 Content production

The students who were responsible for producing the video material said that it felt

natural to take video in the Eurovision Arena, where people knew that videotaping

was part of the event organisation. In the city centre, videotaping was not felt as

a natural way to approach people. “But in there, I was just some weird guy running

towards people with my cell phone and they were like go away please!” As a whole,

videotaping with a mobile phone was considered as spontaneous and flexible way

to work as radio reporter’s work. “ -- it’s very quick and it’s just you, you don’t need

an extra crew there at all. In that way working with a mobile phone was similar to

radio work because you needed just one person there, the reporter can do anything

by himself.”

3.4 Conclusions

As a whole the attitudes of the interviewees toward mobile TV were positive

and excited. Interactive services did not seem to be the main reason for taking

mobile TV into use. However, due to technical problems and incompleteness in

implementation, interactive services could not be illustrated in the best possible

way. That is why user feedback to interactive services should be taken only as

preliminary.

Mobile TV in itself was a new thing to the interviewees. This hindered their

thinking of the possible role of the interactive services and partially explains why

DVB-H broadcast was considered the most interesting part of the service entity.

Generally, the interviewees accepted mobile TV quite well as 61% were ready to use

mobile TV if it would be available. Men were a bit more interested than women.

33


Image quality received many positive comments but part of the interviewees

thought that the display size was too small. On the other hand, the respondents

gave positive comments of the size of the mobile phone itself (Nokia N92).

4 FinPilot2 Study

4.1 Aims of the study

The aim of FinPilot2 study was to support the Finnish Mobile TV developer

community in developing successful mobile television services. FinPilot2 set up a

common user panel and common field test environment where service developers

could put their pilot services to be evaluated in real everyday use and as a part of

a mobile television service entity. As FinPilot2 gathered user feedback from several

different services, the main aim of the study was to identify good design practises

based on analysis and synthesis of the overall results. The research focus was

planned to be on local and topical content especially and on interactive services.

VTT was in charge of organising the pilot study and the evaluations. Companies

from the Finnish Mobile TV Project took care of technical setups. Digita was in

charge of the DVB-H environment and Sofia Digital was in charge of developing

most of the services. Nokia provided the user panel with N77 mobile TV phones.

Companies from the Finnish Mobile TV Project participated in the steering group of

the project, lead by Jonas Kronlund from Elisa.

4.2 Technical framework

As the project was planned in early 2007, it seemed that commercial DVB-H

networks would not allow pilot services in the networks. That is why the project

decided to set up a DVB-H test environment hosted by VTT. Towards the start of the

project in summer 2007, it became obvious that Digita’s commercial DVB-H network

could host most of the pilot services after all. This guaranteed a better field test

environment as well because the panellists could see the pilot services in the same

service portfolio as the commercial services. Also the geographical coverage of the

network was wider in Digita’s network, covering most the Helsinki area as well as

the surrounding cities (Figure 4-1).

34


Figure 4-1. Coverage of Digita DVB-H network during the trial [Digita]

The panellists were using the Nokia N77 phone as their mobile television device

(Figure 4-2). All panellists took Nokia N77 into use as their personal mobile phone.

In N77 mobile TV can be started from the phone menu or with a dedicated button

on the side of the phone. Channels are changed with the navigation key or by

typing the channel number with the keypad. An add-on service menu can be

accessed by pressing the navikey or selecting “Services” from the menu connected

to the left soft key. Only the currently available services are displayed.

Figure 4-2.

Nokia N77

(Source: Nokia)

Figure 4-3. Nokia N77 mobile tv channel with a selection of

interactive services

35


Due to technical problems all the pilot services could not be put as add-on TV

channel related services to be selected from the TV service. Those services (Stadi

TV’s Super teletext and M2Hz video on demand service) were installed and used

as ordinary phone applications, available from the phone application menu. Some

services (Jukebox of Elisa TV, MTV3 teletext and Nelonen teletext services) were

installed over-the-air by filecasting. In this method the installable application is

implemented to the DVB-H broadcast. As the user accesses the service menu of the

channel, (s)he sees the available services. When selecting the service, if the service

has not yet been installed, the user is asked whether (s)he wants it to be installed.

After confirming, the service is downloaded from the filecast. After the installation,

the service is available from the same channel’s service menu. The application also

appears in the phone menu in the “Applications” view (like in Figure 4-4).

Figure 4-4. Some services were available as mobile phone applications

In addition to installing applications through filecasting, MTV3 and Nelonen text

television add-on services also received their content through the DVB-H broadcast

and didn’t need to use 3G or GPRS data transfer to fetch their content.

36


4.3 Pilot services

The following pilot services were evaluated within FinPilot2:

1. Elisa TV – a television channel together with interactive services: jukebox, quiz,

chat, lottery

2. Stadi TV – local television where content is produced by different user

communities

3. M2HZ – video on demand service that includes Stadi TV material

4. Super teletext – local teletext including local news and information on local

events and attractions

5. Enhanced radio The Voice – radio channel with visual information on ongoing

programme and scheduled interactive services: call/SMS to the studio, lotteries

6. Enhanced radio Iskelmä with similar features to The Voice

7. Mobile Radio (Nova) – mobile radio channel with visual information on ongoing

programme and entertainment news ticker

8. MTV3 teletext – teletext of a popular commercial TV channel

9. Nelonen teletext – teletext of a popular commercial TV channel

10. Info channel – information to the users about network coverage and other

usage guidance

The services were released to the users in four phases:

October 2007 : Elisa TV (1)

December 2007: M2Hz and Super teletext (3 , 4)

January 2008: Stadi TV, the radios and Info channel (2, 5, 6, 7 and 10)

February 2008: MTV3 and Nelonen teletext (8 and 9)

Two weeks after each launch the panellists were asked to give feedback in a web

survey. All services except Elisa TV remained available after the evaluation.

M2Hz and Super teletext service were released as mobile phone applications as

due to technical problems they could not be included in Stadi TV’s add-on services.

MTV3 and Nelonen teletext services required an update of the phone firmware. First

the panellists had to add a memory card to the phone to make a backup of their

personal information (like address book and messages). Then the panellists updated

the phone’s firmware by connecting the phone to their home pc via a cable and

using a software updater application. The panellists received memory cards together

with setup guidance by mail in the beginning of February 2008.

The individual pilot services are described in more detail in chapter 6 together with

individual evaluation results.

37


4.4 User panel

The users were recruited from an advertisement in a free delivery magazine in July

2007. From 70 volunteers who responded to the advertisement 27 were selected as

panellists. The selection was made based on users’ age, gender and profession.

Of the 27 panellists, 14 were male and 13 female. The average age was 39.5

years, while the youngest panellist was 19 years old and the oldest was 63. The

panellists had been using mobile phone on an average of 12 years and had owned

approximately 8 mobile phones. The mobile phone was used mainly for basic

functions like calls, calendar and SMS; only a few panellists used any other phone

function daily (see Figure 4-5).

Figure 4-5. Different functions of mobile phone and how often the panellists were using them.

38


The panellists were watching TV on an average 15 hours per week and were

listening to radio also about 15 hours per week. Figure 4-6 shows watching

frequency of different programme categories.

Figure 4-6. Watching frequency of different TV programmes.

Panellists were using the Internet during their leisure time 8.5 hours per week on

an average, and 15 users had produced some content for the Internet, mainly their

own home pages or content related to their work.

4.5 Evaluation methods

The field trial lasted from July 2007 to March 2008. In July the users were given the

N77 devices and taking the mobile television into use was evaluated individually

with each user. After two weeks of mobile television usage, the panellists answered

a web survey that studied their initial impressions of usage. In August 2007, an

information evening was organised for the panellists as a common kick-off event.

The first actual pilot service was launched to the panellists in October 2007, due to

delays in implementations. The rest of the services were launched in December 2007

and January-February 2008. As each set of pilot services was launched, they were

briefly introduced to the users by email or by SMS. After two weeks of usage the

panellists were asked to answer a web survey. In March 2008, the panellists were

invited to final interviews in focus groups. In the following sub chapters the test

methods are described in more detail.

39


4.5.1 Taking mobile television into use

Each panellist was personally guided to take the mobile TV phone N77 into use.

First they filled in a questionnaire that studied initial attitudes. The questionnaire

covered their experience in using a mobile phone and related services and their

general media usage. Then the user could take the device into use on his/her own.

Taking the phone into use was carried out as a usability test where VTT’s usability

expert observed the situation and guided the user if needed.

Figure 4-7. The user set up the phone as a part of the initial interview.

After taking the phone into use, both the user and the usability expert assessed

how easy or difficult each individual function was. After taking the service into use

and briefly making him/herself familiar with the service, the user assessed different

attributes of mobile TV such as ease of use, usefulness and how entertaining the

service was. Finally the user was asked about preferred pricing policies as well as

anticipated amount and type of usage. The users agreed to answer to web surveys

about once a month during the trial. The users were using their own phone

subscriptions during the trial and they paid their own phone bills.

After all the users received their phones, a common kick-off meeting was organised.

The users were further guided to use mobile TV and they were informed about

forthcoming pilot services and pricing policies related to the use of interactive

services. They could also freely ask questions from the representatives of

teleoperators and companies implementing the pilot services.

40


4.5.2 Initial impressions

Initial impressions of mobile TV usage were gathered in a web survey after two

weeks of usage. At that time the panellists had been using commercial mobile TV

services but not yet any of the pilot services. The survey covered the amount, type

and purpose of mobile TV usage as well as changes in using conventional TV. The

panellists were also asked to describe any positive or negative experiences related

to using mobile TV.

4.5.3 Surveys of individual services

The main evaluation method was a web survey where the panellists evaluated each

individual service after about two weeks of usage. The survey covered one or more

services, depending on the test phase (Table 4-1). The survey started each time

with user perception of his/her amount of mobile TV usage during the period. This

facilitated comparing how the usage changed over time during the trial.

Survey # Evaluated

services

Aired Survey Nr of

respondents

1 Elisa TV 25.-31.10.2007 7.11-3.12.2007 26/27

2 M2Hz

21.12.2007- 11.1.-

27/27

Super teletext

24.1.2008

3 Stadi TV 22.1.2008 - 1.2.-13.2.2008 25/27

Infochannel

Radios:

The Voice

Iskelmä

Radio Nova

4 Teletexts

MTV3

Nelonen

18.2.2008 - 29.2-11.3.2008 27/27

Table 4-1. Schedule of the surveys

For each individual service to be evaluated, the user was first asked whether (s)he

had been using the service. If not, the user gave a reason for not using the service.

If the panellist had been using the service, the survey proceeded to the general

part of the service evaluation. First the panellist was asked to grade eight qualities

of the service. These grades measured user acceptance of the service according to

the Technology Acceptance Model for Mobile Services (Kaasinen, 2005). The model

covers perceived value, ease of use, trust and ease of adoption (Figure 4-8). The

general part of the service evaluation also included questions regarding problems in

use, comments and suggestions for content, typical and foreseen usage situations

as well as ideas for future development of the service.

41


Figure 4-8. Technology Acceptance Model for Mobile Services (Kaasinen, 2005)

In addition to the general part, the survey also included service-specific questions.

These questions were defined in cooperation with service providers. The questions

dealt with issues such as media quality, value of the content provided and problems

with installation.

4.5.4 Final interviews

Final interviews were organised in the beginning of March 2008 in focus groups

of 5-7 panellists. First the interviewers filled in a questionnaire that studied the

amount of mobile TV usage, usage practises and usage contexts, preferred channels

and preferred interactive services as well as different qualities of mobile TV and

interactive services. The same issues were studied in the initial interviews, so this

facilitated comparing user attitudes before using mobile TV to attitudes after

settled usage.

A usability expert from VTT conducted focus groups that discussed issues related

to usage practises, affects of mobile TV in media usage, usability of mobile TV

environment, preferred content and services as well as suggestions for further

developments. Another researcher was observing the interviews. Finally the

panellists were rewarded with small gifts for their valuable contributions.

42


5 Initial expectations and first impressions

5.1 Before the trial

When the users were given the test phones they were asked about their

assumptions of where and to what purposes they would be using mobile TV. Almost

all panellists thought that they would be using mobile TV during free time or when

commuting. Less than half of the panellists assumed that they would be using

mobile TV in their hobbies or at home (see Figure 5-1). The limited coverage area

was seen as the main limitation for use. Some users doubted that the image quality

would be good enough given the small size of the device screen (at this phase they

had not yet been using mobile TV).

In which places are you going to watch Mobile TV

hobby

spare time

vehicle

work

home

0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 %

yes

no

Figure 5-1. Where the users assumed to be watching mobile TV.

The users expected that they would be using mobile TV mostly for entertainment,

relaxation and killing time especially while travelling from home to work or vice

versa. Some users felt that having mobile TV might make them more addicted and

dependent on television. Using mobile TV as a secondary television at home was

seen as a minor reason for watching mobile TV (Figure 5-2).

Why use Mobile TV

killing time

secondary tv

having own space

background

often

sometimes

not at all

relaxation

information

entertainment

0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 %

Figure 5-2. For which purposes the users assumed to use mobile TV.

43


After the users were given the test devices they were asked to start mobile TV and

to carry out some test tasks with it. After the tasks users were asked to rate each

task with the Likert scale (1-5, 1=difficult and 5=easy). Mobile TV was seen quite

easy to use. Changing between the programme guides (Digita-Otadigi) was seen as

the most difficult task with mobile TV. Figure 5-3 shows the ratings by the users.

Using Mobile TV

closing

inserting head set

changing program guide

setting volume

changing channel

searching program guide

starting up

0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 %

Easy Quite easy Not difficult nor easy Quite difficult Difficult

Figure 5-3. User ratings for ease of use of different functions with mobile TV.

Users were also asked about their very first impressions of mobile TV (Figure 5-4.).

Mobile TV was seen as very topical and the users were positively surprised about the

image and sound quality. After the short introduction period the content got lowest

grades, presumably as mobile TV only included 2 of the main television channels

(MTV3 and Nelonen).

First impressions of Mobile TV

voice quality

picture quality

content

topicality

appearance

ease of use

Best (5)

4

3

2

Worse (1)

entertainment value

usefulness

0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 %

Figure 5-4. First impressions of Mobile TV

44


The panellists had high expectations that mobile TV would make it possible to

watch TV regardless of time and place. This was considered important for people

who are moving a lot from one place to another and still want to know what

is happening. Also mobile TV makes it possible to watch TV outside, which was

considered important especially during summer time.

”Freedom to move increases, you don’t have to go home to watch the news.”

“The attitude that TV should be certain size or in certain place, may change. TV may becomes

more a tool, which is positive development.”

5.2 After two weeks of use

After two weeks of use the panellists were asked to fill in a Web questionnaire. This

questionnaire included some general questions about mobile TV usage like: how

often, where and when panellists had been watching mobile TV, what channels they

had been watching and how mobile TV had affected their conventional TV use.

All the panellists had been watching mobile TV during these two weeks and over

half of them (19/27) had been watching it daily or almost daily (see Table 5-1). The

average watching time per one session was 19 minutes while the maximum was 75

minutes and minimum 3 minutes.

Table 5-1. Frequency of watching mobile TV during first two weeks

Response Number Percent 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Not at all 0 0,00%

Couple of times 8 29,63%

Daily or almost daily 15 55,56%

Several times per day 4 14,81%

Afternoon and evening were the most popular times of day when panellists had

been watching mobile TV (Table 5-2).

Table 5-2. Times of day for watching mobile TV

Never Sometimes Often

Morning 48% 32% 20%

Forenoon 46% 42% 12%

Afternoon 4 68% 28%

Evening 15% 41% 44%

Night 68% 32%

45


Almost all panellists felt that mobile TV had not affected their conventional TV use

(Table 5-3).

Table 5-3. How mobile TV has affected conventional TV use? My TV watching has…

Response Number Percent 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Decreased 2 7,41%

Stayed the same 23 85,19%

Increased 2 7,41%

The panellists had been using mobile TV most often at home and in vehicles while

travelling from home to work or vice versa (Table 5-4). Some panellists had been

using mobile TV also at their workplace. Mobile TV had been used the least in

hobbies.

Table 5-4. In which places panellists had been using mobile TV

Never Sometimes Often

Home 7% 58% 35%

Work place 54% 35% 11%

Vehicles 27% 38% 35%

Hobbies 79% 21%

Leisure time 8% 65% 27%

Some other places 89% 11%

The most watched mobile TV channel among the panellists after two weeks of use

was MTV3; 12 panellists out of 27 responded that they had been watching MTV3

channel most (Table 5-5). MTV3 was considered to be a channel which includes

familiar content and it is also popular on conventional TV. The Voice channel was

watched on mobile TV when the panellists did not want to watch TV intensively

but the TV was used in the background.

Table 5-5. Which mobile TV channel panellists had been watching most often

Channel Number Percent 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

1. The Voice 8 29,63%

2. The Voice Radio 0 0,00%

3. MTV3 12 44,44%

4. Nelonen 7 25,93%

5. Other 0 0,00%

46


Mobile TV was mostly used for entertainment, relaxation and killing time (see table

5-6). Mobile TV was especially used in vehicles for having one’s own space and for

killing time.

Table 5-6. Reasons for using mobile TV

Never Sometimes Often

Entertainment 50% 50%

Information 56% 24% 20%

Relaxation 15% 62% 23%

In the background 48% 36% 16%

Having own space 48% 24% 28%

As a secondary TV at home 54% 35% 11%

Killing time 30% 55% 15%

Other 58% 34% 8%

After two weeks of use the main problem with mobile TV was the limited coverage

area. Over half of the panellists mentioned this problem. As the trial started in

summer, many panellists would have liked to watch mobile TV in their cottage, but

usually it was not in the coverage area. Also the image might get blurred when the

signal was weak. Some users also commented that the battery consumption was

very high when watching mobile TV and this restricted their use.

The panellists were positively surprised by the very good image and sound quality

of mobile TV. They also liked the possibility to watch TV anytime and any place and

not being dependent on the TV at home. It was easy to start watching programmes

on mobile TV when travelling to home and then continue watching on conventional

TV. The panellists felt that mobile TV was easy to use.

TV is familiar and easy to use. If I need entertainment, I would much more prefer opening

mobile TV than opening net, having Nokia N77 in use. The image quality is very good, even

subtitles of movies are readable. Pocket-TV has novelty value, cool thing. Positive point also

that watching does not cause data transfer costs.”

47


6 Evaluation of Individual Services

6.1 Overall mobile TV usage

The piloted services were evaluated in four separate surveys from October 2007

to February 2008. Each survey included one or more pilot services as described

in Chapter 4.5.3. Figure 6.1. illustrates the amount of mobile TV usage in the

beginning, after two weeks of use and during the three last surveys. After the

initial enthusiasm, the usage settled to a level where around half of the respondents

were using mobile TV at least weekly, three to four users were still using mobile

TV daily whereas 2 panellists had totally given up. One of the two non-users had

repeated problems with his device. The other non-user preferred other features of

the mobile phone.

Mobile television usage

Number of respondents

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

After two weeks

of use

Survey 2 Survey 3 Survey 4

Not at all

A few times

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

Several times a day

Time

Figure 6-1. Mobile TV usage during the pilot study (No usage data available from Survey 1, weekly

usage not included as an alternative after two weeks of use).

6.2 Elisa TV

6.2.1 Description of the service

Elisa TV was a mobile television broadcast channel which aired from 25th of

October 2007 to 31st of October 2007 (one week). The channel included four

different interactive services; Jukebox, Quiz, Chat and a competition to win a Nokia

N77 DVB-H mobile phone. The Jukebox and N77 competition services were present

in the channel’s service menu for the whole airing period but the Quiz and Chat

only for four hours on 31.10.2007 from 12am to 16pm.

48


Figure 6-2. On the left is the service menu of Elisa TV channel and on the right is the main view of the

Jukebox service

The Jukebox service was a prototype of a music store from which the user could buy

songs by different artists. During the test period, the service was not functioning in

any other way than browsing through the pages, no real buying was implemented.

The Jukebox service, as all the other services, was launched from the service menu

of Elisa TV channel by pressing the phone’s navikey. When using the service for the

first time the Jukebox service was downloaded and installed in the phone memory

as it was filecasted over the DVB-H broadcast. After the installation the service was

launched from the service menu.

Figure 6-3. Elisa TV SMS & MMS Chat view

Using the service was quite straightforward - navigating and selecting with the

navikey and using the menu and additional commands like Cancel with the soft

keys.

The Chat service was implemented with pre-filled SMS & MMS messages (the

correct number where to send it and some templates for MMS messages).

49


As the user sent a message, it appeared on the rolling text field of the broadcasted

channel. The picture or video attached to a MMS message was shown on the upper

part of the screen. The user could also register a nickname with an SMS message or

be given one automatically by the system.

The Quiz service worked quite the same way as Chat. The questions were shown on

the broadcasted channel and the answering options were in the service menu as

pre-filled text messages (as shown in Figure 6-4). Both Chat and Quiz services cost

the panellists the price of normal SMS or MMS messages and were not charged at

the premium rate.

Figure 6-4. Quiz answering options were chosen from the service menu

The competition to win a Nokia N77 mobile phone was a hyperlink from the Elisa

TV service menu to a web page where the user could fill in a form and submit it to

enter the competition.

6.2.2 Evaluation setup

Elisa TV channel and the add-on services were the first pilot services to be

evaluated. The channel was aired at the end of October 2007 for one week. The

panellists were well acquainted with mobile TV itself as the trial had started in July.

The panellists were informed about the services and given some instructions on

how to obtain and install the Jukebox application as it was filecasted over the DVB-

H broadcast.

After one week usage of the channel, users were asked generic questions about

all the evaluated pilot services in the field trials and some additional questions

proposed by Elisa.

50


6.2.3 Results

Of those responding, 81% (21/26) had watched Elisa TV mobile television channel.

Three of the five respondents who had not watched Elisa TV channel had had

technical issues and were unable to view the channel properly, and the last two had

not had time to view the channel as it was airing only for one week.

Table 6-1. How often have you been watching Elisa TV channel with your mobile phone during the last

month?

Response Number Percent 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

1. Several times a day 1 3,85%

2. Daily 2 7,69%

3. Weekly 5 19,23%

4. A few times 13 50,00%

5. Not at all 5 19,23%

The users were informed about the add-on interactive services one day before

the last services, Quiz and Chat, were made available. Of the 26 respondents,

only 31% (8/26) had noticed the add-on interactive services of the channel prior

to this notice. Of the individual services, the Jukebox was used by 46% (12/26),

Quiz by 15% (4/26), Chat by 12% (3/26) and the N77 competition by 46% (12/26).

The biggest reason for the low usage percentages of Quiz and Chat services

was the timeframe the services aired (only for four hours after noon) so nearly

all respondents were at work and unable to try them. In addition, six of the

respondents had technical problems with Jukebox, four with Quiz and six with Chat

service, which also explains the low usage rate.

Of the 12 respondents who had used the Jukebox service, 50% (6/12) said that

they would be using the service again if it was available. The same figures for other

services are 75% (3/4 respondents) for Quiz, 33% (1/3 respondents) for Chat and

83% (10/12 respondents) for the N77 competition.

Table 6-2 illustrates user acceptance of the Jukebox service. The service was

considered to be effortless or almost effortless to discover and take into use by over

half of the respondents. The appearance of the service was also considered to be

quite nice.

The usefulness of the service was not given good grades and the written comments

indicated that this kind of a service did not meet the needs of the panel.

”When I want to buy music, I have other ways to do it.”

51


A couple of users wrote they had problems in the beginning of use and had to try

many times to get the filecast to load to the phone and the Jukebox application

installed. The pilot applications were also criticized for being too unfinished and

for having too little content. As the pilot services were provided as parts of the

mobile TV service entity that also included ready made commercial services, the

requirement level seemed to be quite high. One respondent also questioned why

the applications needed to use data transfer if the service was part of mobile TV.

Table 6-2. User acceptance of Jukebox service.

User Acceptance of Jukebox Service

The service w as easy to find

1

8

3

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

4

7

1

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

1

4

6

1

The service is easy to take into use

1

6

3

1

1

The appearance of the service is

appealing

1

6

2

3

The service provides me w ith

useful information

1

1

6

4

The use of the service is

entertaining

1

2

6

2

1

The service is easy to use

1

7

2

2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Number of respondents (n=12)

The Quiz service was used by only four of the respondents. On the average the

respondents did not have a clear opinion about the service except for taking into

use which was considered to be quite easy. One of the four respondents reported

not being able to send a message to the service. Two respondents had used the predefined

answers from the service menu when entering the competition.

The Chat service was also used by just a few respondents (3/26). According to the

three respondents the Chat service was easy to find, easy take into use and easy to

use.

One of the respondents reported that the service was not working properly

and when he/she finally managed to send a message it did not show up in the

broadcast.

52


City and traffic information were proposed as additional content as well as current

cultural, sports or other events. One respondent also suggested that this would be a

nice way to show mobile phone camera art.

“Could be quite nice a place for mobile art. Excellent place also for city or traffic information

or advertisements of topical events (culture, sports,..).

Two of the three respondents used the available MMS templates and one of the

three would be using the service again if it was available in the future.

Table 6-3. User acceptance of N77 competition service

User Acceptance of N77 Competition Service

The service w as easy to find

6

4

1

1

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

5

4

3

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

3

4

5

The service is easy to take into use

6

4

1

1

The appearance of the service is

appealing

4

4

4

The service provides me w ith

useful information

1

3

7

1

The use of the service is

entertaining

2

7

3

The service is easy to use

4

3

5

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Number of respondents (n=12)

Table 6-3 shows the user acceptance of the N77 competition. According to the

respondents the service was easy to find, easy to take into use and easy to use. The

service was also considered to work reliably and the appearance was appealing.

As mentioned before, the panellists were also asked more general questions about

mobile television and current usage habits (questions proposed by Elisa). Half

of the respondents (13/26) said they had used television and mobile phone in

collaboration to take part in voting or chat services during the past year. 85% of the

respondents (22/26) though the current way of participating was easy enough to

use (sending a certain code to a certain number by SMS).

53


Table 6-4. Broadcast vs. On-demand

I am interested in watching mobile TV

Agree

Watching when

suitable for me (ondemand,

may cost)

4

7

9

6

Somewhat agree

Neither agree or

disagree

Watching when the

show is on

(broadcast)

8

13

2

2

1

Somewhat

disagree

Disagree

0 5 10 15 20 25

Number of respondents (n=26)

Of those responding, 81% agreed or somewhat agreed being interested in broadcast

mobile TV and 42% in on-demand mobile TV (shown in Table 6-4).

Table 6-5. Interest in add-on services

As add-on services I am interested in

Competitions &

lotteries

7

10

2

4

3

Agree

Somewhat agree

Neither agree or disagree

Somewhat disagree

Buying products

3

9

7

7

Disagree

Chats

6

6

7

7

Past episodes

11

9

4

2

0 5 10 15 20 25

Number of respondents (n=26)

Table 6-5 illustrates how interested the respondents were in different kinds of

add-on services in mobile television. The most interesting ones were past episodes

(77% agreed or somewhat agreed) and competitions & lotteries (65%). Chatting

and shopping weren’t that interesting with 54% of the respondents disagreeing or

somewhat disagreeing.

The last set of questions by Elisa was about the future of mobile television and

interactivity. The panellists were asked if interactive services in mobile television,

starting from simple links to additional information, could change their viewing

habits and how. Of those responding, 68% (17/25) did not think that their viewing

habits would change. Eight respondents thought that the habits might change and

54


three of them said it would increase mobile television viewing. One respondent

commented that if the interactive links were easy enough to use he/she would

be using them. Another one told he/she could occasionally search for information

through mobile television if the Internet was out of reach by that time.

“If the links would be easy, and I do not need to use time in fussing, I might

occassionally fetch information from mobile TV, given that the net would not be

available in that situation.”

The next question asked if mobile television will bring new interactive services to

the public. Almost all (24/26) of the respondents said yes which clearly shows that

interactivity in mobile television is anticipated. They were also asked if mobile

television channels with interactivity are more appealing than the ones without

to which 81% (21/26) of the respondents agreed. Of those responding, 81% (21/26)

also thought that mobile television broadcast itself is enough, when asked if

mobile television should have at least some level of interactivity in the beginning.

These answers point out that interactivity is clearly considered as part of mobile

television but it is not necessary, at least in the beginning, to attract new viewers.

The final question concerned user generated content and if it will have a major role

in mobile television in the future. Of those responding, 42% (11/26) thought it

would.

6.3 Stadi TV M2HZ Video on demand service

6.3.1 Description of the service

M2Hz is part of the Stadi TV service entity that includes local TV services. M2Hz

includes short videos that describe e.g. different parts of the city, people living

in the city and videos from past occasions in the city. The videos are produced

by Arcada. M2Hz users can see a list of available videos and by selecting a link,

Realplayer application starts and the video streaming starts.

55

Figure 6-5. M2Hz

front page and the

scrollable list of

available videos


6.3.2 Evaluation setup

M2Hz was piloted together with another Stadi TV add-on service (Super teletext)

in December 2007 – January 2008. As the main Stadi TV broadcast service, Stadi TV,

was not yet on air at that time, the services were provided as individual services.

M2Hz was accessed via mobile Web where the users got the link from the evaluator

in an SMS. The user was asked to set M2Hz as a bookmark to his/her browser.

All the 27 panellists answered the web survey that included generic user acceptance

questions and specific M2Hz questions planned together with Arcada.

6.3.3 Results

Of the panellists surveyed, 59% (16/27) had tried out M2Hz service. Five panellists

did not manage to use the service because of technical problems and four panellists

said that they did not have time to use the service.

Of those panellists who had been using the service, 59% (10/16) said that they

would use the service again if it was available.

Table 6-6. User acceptance of M2Hz service.

User Acceptance of M2HZ Service

The service w as easy to find

6

4

2

3

1

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

4

6

3

3

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

2

3

11

The service is easy to take into use

5

5

3

2

1

The appearance of the service is

appealing

2

6

3

3

2

The service provides me w ith

useful information

1 1

5

5

4

The use of the service is

entertaining

2

1

5

6

2

The service is easy to use

4

6

3

2

1

0 5 10 15

Number of respondents (n=16)

Table 6-6 illustrates user acceptance of the service. Over half of the respondents

considered service discovery and taking into use effortless or almost effortless.

56


Most panellists also gave good scores for ease of use, reliability and appearance.

In the written comments the panellists pointed out problems in waiting for

downloads. The panellists would have liked to get information on the size of the

video before starting downloads both because of the time involved to download

and because they wanted to control the amount of data transferred due to costs.

As they had to download the whole video even if they just glanced it, they thought

that the service did not encourage trying out content. The panellists also would

have liked to get more information about the programme before starting the

download.

“Length of the videos should definitely be shown! Also more description of the content so

that you do not need to select blindfolded.”

Video and sound quality was assessed quite good, on the scale 1-5, 76% of the

panellists assessed video quality 3 or more and 82% assessed sound quality 3 or

more. Occasional problems were faced with videos freezing, batteries drying out,

and successfully downloading some videos.

Most negative scores were related to the content that was not found to be

especially useful or entertaining. The panellists also doubted the reliability of

the information provided via the videos. The panellists were asked to assess how

interesting they considered individual videos that were available in M2Hz. From

the selection of 12 programmes, only three programmes had been watched by more

than half of the respondents. It seems that the link titles were not very descriptive:

the most-watched programmes seemed to include the most descriptive titles

(Tapahtumien kaupunki (City of Events), Kaupunkikuva (Views of the city), Kallio

kukkii (Kallio flourishes). The least watched programmes included the most obscure

titles (Saurofonia, Pirtola, MUNDO:Digitales). However, almost all programmes

found audience that considered the programme interesting. Only one of the 12

programmes had no grades over 2 on the scale 1-5 and 9 programmes had at least

one 4-5 grade.

”On one hand, content produced by these kinds of smaller groups is a good idea, but I was not

interested in these clips.”

“For a person who needs this kind of service, and for elderly people certainly a very useful

service.”

In the written comments most panellists told that they would like to see more

videos of current local events. Also information about local attractions, districts,

and local politics as well as the history of the city were suggested as interesting

content.

“Info channel type of services: tourism, events, schedules, topical local issues.”

57


In quite a few comments the panellists doubted the price of the service and pointed

out that the current content or the content they would have liked to get in the

future was not so interesting that they would be willing to pay for it. The most

commonly anticipated usage situation for this kind of content was killing time.

“To kill time, waiting, on the tram etc. I could watch what new there is, and if something

interesting has become available. “

Considering suitability of the content for mobile, the programmes including local

attractions and events (Kaupunkikuva, Tapahtumien kaupunki) and local people

(MUNDO: Digitales and OOBS:Teknikkonurkka) got more high grades (3-5) than low

grades (1-2).

6.4 StadiTV Super teletext service

6.4.1 Description of the service

Super teletext is part of the Stadi TV service entity that includes local TV services.

Super teletext includes local information in textual format. The menu allows

the user to select pages that include local news, event information, information

about city sights and information about the service itself. Because of a delay in

broadcasting the Stadi TV local TV channel, Super teletext was introduced to the

panellists as a separate service.

Figure 6-6. Super teletext menu and the news page

6.4.2 Evaluation setup

Super teletext was evaluated together with M2Hz. The users received an SMS from

the evaluator that included a web link to the installation package. Once the user

followed the link and confirmed that (s)he approved installation, the application

was installed. Super teletext was then shown on the phone’s application menu. See

chapter 6.3.2 for other details of the evaluation setup.

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6.4.3 Results

Of the panellists surveyed, 78% (21/27) had tried out Super teletext. Four panellists

reported that technical problems prevented the usage. Of those panellists who had

been using the service, 90% (19/21) said that they would use the service again if it

was available.

Table 6-7. User acceptance of Super teletext.

User Acceptance of Super teletext service

The service w as easy to find

6

11

1 2 1

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

6

10

2

3

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

5

11

5

The service is easy to take into use

6

7

5

3

The appearance of the service is

appealing

3

8

6

4

The service provides me w ith

useful information

5

6

6

4

The use of the service is

entertaining

1

5

9

6

The service is easy to use

7

7

4

3

0 5 10 15 20

Number of respondents (n=21)

Table 6-7 illustrates user acceptance of the service. Most respondents considered

service discovery easy although three panellists thought that it was not easy. Over

half of the panellists considered taking the service into use effortless or almost

effortless. The service as well the information content were found reliable by most

of the respondents. In the written comments some of the respondents complained

about occasional technical problems due to bad connections or other reasons. Half

of the respondents considered the service useful but less than one third considered

the service entertaining. Half of the panellists liked the appearance of the service

and two third of the panellists considered the service easy to use.

Almost half of the respondents considered the content of teletext interesting, news

and information of attractions being a bit more interesting than event information.

However, event information seemed to divide the respondents as it got both

most low scores (five panellists scored it 2 on scale 1-5) and most high scores (five

respondents scored it 5 on scale 1-5). Of those responding, 64% considered the

59


content well suitable for a mobile service, with event information (71%) and local

news (66%) getting the highest scores. The respondents proposed that current

information could be wider, more detailed and more topical.

”TODAY type of content is OK, often you need such information when you are already on the

move.”

For instance opening hours were suggested as important complementing

information on attractions. The respondents proposed real-time traffic information,

sports news and content produced by local sport clubs and other associations as

possible future content. Also location-based information on city districts and on

their history was proposed. One respondent pointed out that current news was

more like announcements and he would like to have received actual local news like

“an elk at Kamppi shopping centre” or “drunken driver drove to a metro tunnel”.

Some respondents suggested that the layout of the service on a small screen should

be redesigned to better utilise the screen space. The current two column layout

does not leave enough room for news headlines, as they were not wholly visible at a

glance. The panellists also commented that they had difficulties in separating where

one headline ends and another starts.

The respondents said that they would most probably use the service when

they need some topical information on the move. Another commonly proposed

usage situation was being on the move, having some spare time and looking for

something to do.

“Downtown, the service would be handy to check when the Korkeasaari Zoo is open or if you

are very bored, you could browse attractions and events where to go.”

6.5 Stadi TV – local TV channel

6.5.1 Description of the service

Stadi TV is a local television channel that includes programmes of local events,

local people, districts of the city of Helsinki and so on. The content is produced by

Arcada, a local school of media production.

Figure 6-7. Programme for children on Stadi TV

60


6.5.2 Evaluation setup

Stadi TV was evaluated together with the radio channels (The Voice, Iskelmä and

Radio Nova) as well as the Info channel in January-February 2008. The interactive

services related to Stadi TV (M2HZ and Super teletext, previous chapters 6.3 and

6.4) had been evaluated already earlier in December. Stadi TV was shown among the

available TV channels on the phone. M2Hz and Super text TV were included as addon

service to the channel.

Of the 27 panellists surveyed, 25 answered the web survey that included generic

user acceptance questions and specific Stadi TV questions planned together with

Arcada.

6.5.3 Results

Of the panellists surveyed, 88% had been using Stadi TV during the evaluation

period. The three non-users said that they were not interested in the content or

that they had no time to watch it. Of those panellists that had been using the

service, 64 % would use the service again. Uninteresting content was the main

reason why panellists would not use the service again.

“If my own hobby group was there, then maybe.”

“Usually it is easier to find my kind of information and entertainment on conventional TV and

on the Web.”

Table 6-8 shows user acceptance grades of Stadi TV. As an ordinary TV channel,

finding the service, taking it into use and using it were deemed easy. The problems

that the panellists reported were related to finding and using the interactive

services or problems with the phone or DVB-H coverage.

“I could not have found access to M2Hz service on my own.”

“What on earth is super teletext?”

The opinions of the panellists were most negative regarding the usefulness and

entertainment value of the content. As individual programmes the panellists

mentioned watching programmes for the children (Evening Fairytale), music

programmes (Music Box) and local programmes from their own city district. Some

panellists pointed out that the content was not so interesting that they would

purposely look for it.

Only half of the panellists considered the content reliable or quite reliable. The

reason for this might be that the content provider was not familiar to them.

61


Table 6-8. User acceptance of StadiTV.

User Acceptance of DinaTV Service

The service w as easy to find

14

4

4

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

3

8

8

2 1

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

3

4

15

The service is easy to take into use

9

8

3

11

The appearance of the service is

appealing

3

8

8

3

The service provides me w ith

useful information

2

10

8

2

The use of the service is

entertaining

1

4

7

9

1

The service is easy to use

8

7

4

1 2

0 5 10 15 20

Number of respondents (n=22)

During this evaluation period the panellists could use the interactive services:

video on demand M2Hz and super teletext as parts of the Stadi TV service. Of the

panellists surveyed, 40% had tried M2Hz and 15% had tried Super teletext. Table

6-9 illustrates the opinions of the panellists regarding the interactive services. Over

40% think that interactive services make Stadi TV more interesting. Of course we

have to keep in mind that they did not consider Stadi TV in itself very interesting.

Table 6-9. The panellists were asked to assess the claim: “Interactive services make Stadi TV more

interesting”

Response Number Percent 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

1. Agree 1 4,55%

2. Somewhat agree 8 36,36%

3.

Neither agree or

disagree

12 54,55%

4. Somewhat disagree 1 4,55%

5. Disagree 0 0,00%

The panellists emphasised that it should be easier to find the interactive services,

and seemed to doubt that they managed to find the easiest routes.

“navigation to the add-on services should be easier available and to find (perhaps it is

already?).

62


The most commonly mentioned usage situation was killing time. The panellists

suggested movie and theatre reviews, comments, and criticism as potential user

generated interesting content. They also pointed out that community-based

services might be interesting, e.g. services targeted to a certain hobbyist group:

“for instance a chorus could send their weekly training session online on mobile TV to those

who are “ill” – the same in other hobbies – weekly tricks and accusations to truants by the

coach.”

6.6 Mobile TV Infochannel

6.6.1 Description of the service

Mobile TV Info channel is a channel that includes information related to mobile TV,

like coverage areas, terminals, help desk information, available channels etc. The

content is produced by Digita.

6.6.2 Evaluation setup

Figure 6-8. Info channel

Info channel was evaluated together with Stadi TV and the radio channels (The

Voice, Iskelmä and Radio Nova) in January-February 2008. Info channel is included

as one TV channel on mobile TV service.

Out of the 27 panellists, 25 answered the web survey that included generic user

acceptance questions and specific Info channel related questions.

6.6.3 Results

Of the panellists surveyed, 92 % (23/25) got acquainted with Info channel during

the evaluation period. One of the two non-users said that (s)he was not interested

in the content of the channel. Of those panellists that had watched the channel,

74% (17/23) would be using the Info channel again. The main reasons why some of

the panellists would not use the service again were the uninteresting content and

the fact that the same content is also available on the Web.

“I would imagine that it would be easier to find the same information from the net”.

63


Users thought that finding the Info channel, taking it into use and using it were

relatively easy. Also the content of the Info channel was found to be reliable even

though panellists felt it was not very useful for them. Also the panellists responded

that using the Info channel is not entertaining, but this is not a surprise since the

main role of this service is to provide mobile TV related information for the users.

The panellists had no specific problems using the Info channel. The proposals for

improvements that the panellists reported were related to presentation of the

information; the panellists commented that they would like to select or somehow

interact with the content that Info channel offers instead of waiting for the

information they were looking for to appear.

”Looks very odd that mobile TV info is static and voiceless.”

Table 6-10. User acceptance of Info channel

User Acceptance of Info channel Service

The service was easy to find

17

3

3

Agree

Somewhat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service worked reliably

4

12

6

1

Somewhat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

10

9

4

The service is easy to take into use

14

6

3

The appearance of the service is

appealing

3

9

9

1 1

The service provides me with useful

information

1

3

9

8

2

The use of the service is entertaining

2

5

9

3

4

The service is easy to use

11

7

5

0 5 10 15 20

Number of respondents (n=23)

6.7 Iskelmä and The Voice interactive radio channels and

Radio Nova

6.7.1 Description of the service

Iskelmä and The Voice channels had been on the air already before the actual test

period but they were renewed and launched to be evaluated in January 2008.

Both channels broadcasted their respective radio channels as the channels’ audio.

64


The video image of both channels consisted of some basic elements: the brand of

the channel, an image placeholder which displays a slideshow of bands, artists and

other images, a scrolling text bar which shows the currently playing song and a text

box advertising interactive services at the bottom of the screen.

The interactive services included the following: calling the studio, sending an SMS

to the studio and participating in competitions. The services were bound to time

as not all radio programmes have the option to contact the studio or take part in

a competition all the time. Only the currently available services were shown to the

user in the service menu. Using the services was charged at the premium rate.

Figure 6-9. On the left is Iskelmä and on the right The Voice channel. The layout is the same for both

channels.

The third radio channel in the trial was Radio Nova. Radio Nova had a slightly

different design layout and didn’t have any of the add-on interactive services. The

layout consisted of the channel brand on the top, currently ongoing show, currently

playing song in a scrolling text bar, upcoming shows, an entertainment news ticker

on the bottom and an advertisement on the right side.

Figure 6-10. Radio Nova channel.

65


6.7.2 Evaluation setup

The radio channels were evaluated together with Stadi TV and Info channel in

January – February 2008. The survey consisted of general questions and specific

questions proposed by SBS Finland Oy, the broadcaster of Iskelmä and The Voice

radio channels.

6.7.3 Results

Of the individual channels, The Voice was watched by 84% (21/25), Iskelmä by 80%

(20/25) and Radio Nova by 88% (22/25) of the respondents. The respondents who

didn’t watch the channels were either not interested in the channels or did not

listen to radio during leisure time. One respondent thought the channel to be a real

radio channel needing to use the phones’ own radio application with headphones

as the antenna and didn’t try it because he/she didn’t carry the headphones along

with him/her.

Table 6-11. User acceptance of The Voice radio channel.

User Acceptance of Voice radio Service

The service w as easy to find

16

5

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

8

11

2

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

6

8

7

The service is easy to take into use

13

7

1

The appearance of the service is

appealing

5

10

5

1

The service provides me w ith

useful information

1

5

8

5 2

The use of the service is

entertaining

4

7

7

3

The service is easy to use

9

9

3

0 5 10 15 20

Number of respondents (n=21)

66


Table 6-12. User acceptance of Radio Nova channel

User Acceptance of Nova radio Service

The service w as easy to find

15

6

1

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

9

10

3

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

6

11

4

1

The service is easy to take into

use

14

6

2

The appearance of the service is

appealing

4

11

5

2

The service provides me w ith

useful information

5

5

6

4

2

The use of the service is

entertaining

4

10

4

3

1

The service is easy to use

12

9

1

0 5 10 15 20

Number of respondents (n=22)

All of the radio channels were considered easy to find, take into use and finally to

use. Good scores were also given to reliability, appearance and entertainment value.

The lowest grades were given to the content not being useful enough. The Voice

radio’s user acceptance is illustrated in Table 6-11 and Radio Nova’s in Table 6-12.

All three radio channels’ user acceptances were closely graded, even though Radio

Nova’s implementation differed from Iskelmä and The Voice.

The questions concerning the add-on services (SMS sending, entering a competition

and phone call to the studio) were asked about all of the channels, in error,

despite the fact that Radio Nova didn’t offer any of these services. Still two of the

respondents claimed to have used these non-existant services (two had taken part

in a competition and one of the two had called the studio and sent SMS to the

studio). The web survey was quite extensive as it included five separate services, so

these mistakes are understandable.

The only actual service reported to be used was Iskelmä channel’s competition and

only by one respondent. One respondent also commented that if (s)he was a person

who liked to contact the studio, this would be an easy way to do it, with just a few

button presses.

67


“I might sometimes listen to Iskelmä channel, still I never contact the studio. But I tried that

much that it looked really easy, it is a real add-on service that with a couple of buttons you

can send SMS or call to the studio.”

Of the respondents who watched The Voice radio channel, 52% (11/21) thought

that add-on services made or somewhat made the channel more interesting to

them. The same figure for Iskelmä channel was 45% (9/20 of the respondents).

The survey also included open questions about what kind of add-on services the

respondents would like to use and in what kinds of situations they had been using

or would use the services. Questions about the content of the services, further

development ideas and comments about visual radio in general were also asked.

One respondent would be keen to see the lyrics of the currently playing song like in

karaoke. Another respondent suggested customizable channels where the user could

choose, for example, a mood that he/she is in and the programme would change

accordingly, so that (s)he would not have to listen to “some nonsense radio show

talk”. One idea was to buy the currently playing song or get information on local

gigs. The scrolling text bar was said to be too slow by one user.

”A possibility to skip boring bridging sessions – programme sets to select according to current

personal mood.”

Mostly the channels were watched to fill in time and in public transport for

entertainment. The channels were mostly listened to like traditional radio rather

than watched like television. It was also reported that DVB-H reception was

sometimes better than radio reception and because of that the user switched from

radio to mobile television.

“Quite soon you start to miss live video.”

A couple of respondents wondered why broadcasting radio channels should be

in mobile television and didn’t see any additional value in the services. One

particularly liked the upcoming program info and the news ticker in the Radio Nova

channel which distinguished it from the other two channels.

”It really does not differ from the ordinary radio, you have to have a good reason to “watch”

radio.”

When asked whether the respondents are likely to use the service (radio channel)

again if available the answers were the following; The Voice 71% (15/21), Iskelmä

60% (12/20) and Radio Nova 77% (17/22).

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Table 6-13. Add-on services in visual radio make mobile television more entertaining and more useful.

Response Number Percent 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

1. Agree 3 12,00%

2. Somewhat

agree

Neither agree

3.

or disagree

4. Somewhat

disagree

11 44,00%

7 28,00%

1 4,00%

5. Disagree 3 12,00%

The respondents were asked their opinion on whether or not add-on services in

visual radio make mobile television more entertaining and more useful (shown in

Table 6-13). Of those responding, 56% (14/25) agreed or somewhat agreed to this

with only 16% (4/25) disagreeing or somewhat disagreeing.

Table 6-14. What visual elements would you like to see in a visual radio service?

Visual Elements

New s about

artists and bands

8

9

5

2

1

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

Artist images

4

10

6

2

3

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

Other music

new s

9

8

6

1 1

Weather

forecasts

12

10

1 1 1

Traffic

information

11

9

3

2

New s

13

6

4

1 1

What's on in the

city

8

8

7

2

Adult content

4

5

6

10

0 5 10 15 20 25

Number of respondents (n=25)

Table 6-14 illustrates how the respondents liked proposed visual elements in a visual

radio service. The most wanted elements were weather forecasts, traffic information

and news (each with over 75% agreeing or somewhat agreeing). News about

artists and bands, other music news, what’s on in the city and artist images were

a little less interesting (from 56% to 68% agreeing or somewhat agreeing). Adult

content was the least interesting element with only 16% somewhat agreeing (64%

disagreeing or somewhat disagreeing).

69


Table 6-15. What kind of add-on services would you like in visual radio or in mobile television?

Additional services

Agree

Somew hat agree

Competitions

5

9

4

5

2

Neither agree or disagree

Somew hat disagree

Quizzes

7

5

6

6

1

Disagree

Buying music

5

7

4

6

3

Picture riddles

2

2

4

9

8

0 5 10 15 20 25

Number of respondents (n=25)

The respondents were also asked which add-on services they would like in visual

radio or in mobile television: competitions, quizzes, buying music and image

riddles. Almost half of the respondents chose all the three first-mentioned (56% in

competitions and 48% in both quizzes and buying music) leaving picture riddles last

with just 16% agreeing or somewhat agreeing.

Finally the respondents were asked how much they would be willing to pay for

visual radio services. The choices and figures are illustrated in Table 6-16. Of those

responding, 48% (12/25) wouldn’t pay anything, 32% (8/25) would pay under one

euro per month and 20% (5/25) would be willing to pay one to five euros per month

for the service. None of the respondents would be willing pay over 5 euros per

month.

Table 6-16. How much would you be willing to pay, in a month, for using visual radio?

Response Number Percent 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

1.

Under one euro per

month

8 32,00%

2. 1-5 euros per month 5 20,00%

3.

over 5 euros per

month

0 0,00%

4. Nothing 12 48,00%

The problems that the respondents had during the trial were not related to the

radio services. The occasional problems were phone or mobile television application

issues like batteries drying out and memory getting overload. Some respondents

commented that they did not find any add-on services. They did not realize that

the services were not present all the time but only during certain radio programmes

even though the panellists had been informed about this feature when launching

the services.

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6.8 MTV3 and Nelonen teletext services

6.8.1 Description of the services

MTV3 teletext was provided as an add-on service on the MTV3 television channel,

and Nelonen teletext respectively on the Nelonen channel. Both teletext services

included the same content as conventional teletext services on the channels and

even the appearance was similar to the conventional teletext service. Similar to the

TV user interface, the user could navigate in the service by inputting page numbers

with the phone keyboard. The navikey on the phone could be used to go to next/

previous page (down/up) or to next/previous sub page (right/left). The user could

also change to pointer mode where navikey was used to navigate on the page and

to select links.

Figure 6-11. Left: MTV3 teletext and right: Nelonen teletext

6.8.2 Evaluation setup

MTV3 teletext together with Nelonen teletext were the last ones to be evaluated

by the user panel. To get access to the service, the panellists had to update their

phone firmware. The panellists were mailed updating instructions as well as memory

cards for backup copying their personal data from the phone before updating the

software. As the new phone software was installed, the teletext service appeared in

the service menus of the channels. When the teletext service was selected for the

first time, it was installed on the phone. Later on it was available from the service

menu.

The evaluation took place in February 2008. All 27 panellists answered the web

survey that included generic user acceptance questions and specific teletext related

questions planned together with the MTV3 television company.

6.8.3 Results of MTV3 teletext

Of the panellists surveyed, 52% (14/27) had been using MTV3 teletext during the

evaluation period. Four panellists did not manage to update their phone software,

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three panellists did not manage to access the service and three panellists said they

had been too busy.

Of those panellists that had been using the service, 86 % would use the service

again.

“Because soon I do not any more have a device to watch mobile TV with. Otherwise yes!”

The reliability and usefulness of the content got very high grades (Table 6-17). All

users mentioned news as the content that they had been using (news, sports news,

entertainment news, financial news). TV schedules were also mentioned by a few

users. The panellists could not point out any additional content that they would

miss.

”Domestic news, international news, entertainment news, sports news”

Taking into use was not found very easy which is understandable as this trial

required upgrading the phone firmware. The panellists reported different problems

that they had faced in installation. The installation of the software over the air also

took quite a lot of time.

“All kind of complexity and slowness. Finally everything worked when you just kept trying

and reading the guidance text. Downloading the teletext service was very slow.”

Table 6-17. User acceptance of MTV3 teletext.

User Acceptance of MTV3 text television

The service w as easy to find

6

5

1

2

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

3

6

1

3

1

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

5

8

1

The service is easy to take into use

3

4

1

4

2

The appearance of the service is

appealing

4

7

2

1

The service provides me w ith

useful information

6

5

2

1

The use of the service is

entertaining

2

7

4

1

The service is easy to use

4

5

2

3

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Number of respondents (n=14)

72


There were also problems in reliability of operation of the service. The service was

not always available and downloading a new collection of pages was slow. However,

once the pages were already downloaded, changing pages was quick.

The panellists considered the service easy to find and quite easy to use. Familiarity

with ordinary teletext eased use. Changing pages was found easy and quick.

”As you are used to ordinary teletext, this is also fluent to use (you know all the important

page numbers).”

“Image quality is brilliant and after the initial problems the pages were downloaded quickly.

Useful add-on service!”

The slowness of downloading a new page collection was the main complaint.

Functionality based on downloading blocks of pages was not familiar to the users.

The service got stuck occasionally and sometimes it just was slow. The alternative

navigation modes with scrolling page numbers or with the separate pointer mode

also caused problems for some users.

“Using the Navi key was confusing before I realised to read the guidance text (using links OR

browsing page numbers up/down). The on-screen guidance about the separate pointer mode

(what is that?) were not at all understandable before reading the guidance from the menu.”

The panellists even considered the appearance pleasant (78% considered it pleasant

or quite pleasant) although the layout was just migrated from the ordinary MTV3

teletext and the appearance was not optimised for mobile use.

The suitability of the service itself and the content for mobile use got both very

high grades (Table 6-18.). Improvement needs were seen in fluency of use and speed

of navigating between pages.

Table 6-18. Suitability of the service for mobile use

Suitability of the service for mobile use

The service is

w ell-suited for

mobile television

11

3

Agree

Somew hat agree

The content is

w ell-suited for

mobile television

Using the service

is fluent

3

11

7

3

2

1

1

Neither agree or

disagree

Somew hat

disagree

Disagree

Brow sing through

pages is fast

5

5

2

1

1

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Number of respondents (n=14)

73


The most common usage situation that the panellists mentioned was quickly

checking something while on the move. Some users also mentioned killing time as a

typical usage situation.

“just the same as at home from teletext, but now mobile, this is the service(of the piloted

ones) that I would use the most.”

“travelling to work - breaks at work – waiting - at home”

6.8.4 Results of Nelonen teletext

Of the panellists surveyed, 56% (15/27) had been using Nelonen teletext during the

evaluation period. Four panellists did not manage to update their phone software,

two panellists did not manage to access the service and three panellists said they

had been too busy.

Of those panellists that had been using the service, 80 % would use the service

again. Those who thought that they would not use the service again reported the

following reasons: small display, problems in the service functionality and preferring

teletext services of other channels. One panellist said that he did not like the page

numbering that followed a different logic than other TV channels.

Table 6-19. User acceptance of Nelonen teletext.

User Acceptance of Nelonen text television

The service w as easy to find

7

4

1

3

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The service w orked reliably

3

6

1

3

2

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

The service provides reliable

information

4

8

2

1

The service is easy to take into use

4

4

1

4

2

The appearance of the service is

appealing

5

4

6

The service provides me w ith

useful information

4

9

1 1

The use of the service is

entertaining

3

7

3

2

The service is easy to use

4

7

1

2

1

0 5 10 15

Number of respondents (n=15)

The reliability and usefulness of the content got very high grades (Table 6-19).

Almost all users mentioned using news content. TV schedules were also mentioned

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y a few users. One of the panellists pointed out traffic schedules as additional

content that could be added. Another panellist said that quicker updates of news

headers would be nice. Other panellists considered the current content sufficient.

Taking into use was not found very easy which is understandable as it in this trial

required upgrading the phone software. The panellists reported similar problems in

installation as with MTV3 teletext. The installation was slow and it did not always

succeed the first trial.

There were also problems in reliability of operation of the service. Slow

downloading of content was mostly the problem and one panellist mentioned

problems in starting the service.

The panellists considered the service easy to find and easy to use. Quite a few

panellists positively mentioned clarity of the content. Speed of changing pages was

also pointed out as a positive feature.

“Clear and logical. Works well when it works.”

The appearance was assessed quite pleasant (60% considered it pleasant or quite

pleasant) although the layout was just migrated from the ordinary Nelonen

teletext and the appearance was not optimised for mobile use. One panelist pointed

out that bystanders do not see teletext as easily as normal mobile web sites.

The panellists were also asked how suitable the service and the content were for

mobile use. Both got very high grades (Table 6-20.). Improvement needs were seen

in fluency of use and speed of navigating between pages.

Table 6-20. Suitability of the service for mobile use

Suitability of the service for mobile use

The service is

w ell-suited for

mobile television

11

2

1

1

Agree

Somew hat agree

Neither agree or disagree

The content is

w ell-suited for

mobile television

11

3

1

Somew hat disagree

Disagree

Using the service

is fluent

4

5

2

3

1

Brow sing

through pages is

fast

6

4

1

3

1

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Number of respondents (n=15)

Similar to MTV3 teletext, the most common usage situation that the panellists

mentioned was quickly checking something while on the move. Some users also

mentioned killing time as a typical usage situation.

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7 Overall Results

The mobile TV study was closed with final interviews of four focus groups in March

2008. Before the actual interviews the panellists were asked to fill in forms that

collected their general opinions about mobile TV, feedback of usage situations and

preferred channels and services. The final interviews lasted approximately 1.5 hours

each. In the following sections, we present conclusions from the results of the

interviews, complementing them with findings from the individual surveys.

Figure 7-1. Final interviews were carried out in focus groups

7.1 Usage situations and times

Most of the panellists had been watching mobile TV at least weekly (21/27). The

add-on services were used less than weekly; only three panellists reported that they

had been using additional services weekly.

”I think that this is best what is available in phone market, that I can have always or almost

always TV on, whether I need it or not.. I think that within five years there won’t be on sale

mobile phones without TV.”

Of the panellists surveyed, 14 had been watching mobile TV mainly in vehicles

and 11 panellists had been watching it mainly at home. Some of the panellists had

also used mobile TV at their work place. Mobile TV was used least in hobbies (see

Figure 7-3). Most panellists commented that Mobile TV usage has not affected

their usage of other media, mobile TV was rather one extra medium among others.

Some panellists commented that during the test period they watched or listened

to morning programmes from mobile TV while they ate breakfast and read the

newspaper.

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Figure 7-2. Typical usage situations

”Actually I have not been watching morning TV since I got this device. I watch the morning

TV programmes from here. I take this with me and watch. Before I used to sit at home, watch

morning TV and read the morning newspaper at the same time. This is a clear habit, for half a

year I have not put the big TV on in the mornings.”

Where did you use Mobile TV?

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

14

11

10

9

5 5 5

3 3 3 3

2

1

Home Workplace Vehicles Free time Hobbies

Mainly

Secondly

Third

Figure 7-3. Places where panellists had been using Mobile TV

The main reason for watching mobile TV was for entertainment (see Figure 7-4).

Mobile TV was also used for having one’s own space especially while travelling in

public transport. Mobile TV was least used as a secondary TV even though some

panellists commented that when there were two interesting programmes at the

same time they could watch the other from the mobile. According to panellists,

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the best feature of mobile TV was that it freed them to move and it could be used

as “an extension to home TV”. They could start to watch favourite programmes from

the mobile if they were not yet at home or continue watching on the mobile if they

had to leave home before the programme had ended. One panellist described how

bringing the children’s programme along on mobile TV helped in “mobilising the

kids”. Mobile TV was also used as background and instead of radio e.g. at home or

when driving a car.

”What I think was positive experience was that it worked damned well in the car, even if

the driver is not allowed to watch it. Quite many TV series I have listened while driving from

Järvenpää to Helsinki.”

Purposes to use Mobile TV

16

14

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

7

2

5

1

4

2

1 1

3

2

2

6

3

1 1 1

4

3

6

9

Mainly

Secondly

Third

0

Entertainment Information Relaxation Background Creating own

space

Secondary TV

Killing time

Figure 7-4. Purposes to use Mobile TV

7.2 Preferred channels

Many panellists commented that the selection of channels in mobile TV was too

limited. Mainly they based these comments on the number of channels available on

primary TV. Panellists would have especially liked to see YLE channels available on

mobile TV. Panellists did not watch the new piloted channels very often because

those did not offer information particularly useful to them. Channels like MTV3

and Nelonen were familiar for them and they always knew what kind of content

they could expect to get. Panellists argued that existing habits with primary TV

are directing their watching habits with mobile TV; if they are used to watching

news always on the same channel they would like to watch news from that channel

on mobile TV also. Adopting a new channel on mobile TV may not be as easy as on

primary TV. User feedback of Stadi TV seems to support this finding – the users

commented that during short breaks they did not want to start getting acquainted

with something new.

”Human being is so set in one’s ways, as you are used to watch news on a certain channel,

you just open that channel. New things, yes, you go and have a look, but as you do not have

usage habits with them, the usage amount remains low.”

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In the final interviews the users were asked which channels they preferred in mobile

TV. The results indicate that most of the users put MTV3 in the first place (20/27),

Nelonen was in the second place and The Voice TV was third (see Figure 7-5). All the

three radio channels got grades as thirdly preferred channels after the actual TV

channels.

Preferred channels

25

20

20

17

15

10

5

8 8

6

4

4

3 3

4

2

1

First

Second

Third

0

MTV3 Nelonen The Voice Radio Nova

TV

The Voice

Radio

Iskelmä

Radio

Stadi TV

Figure 7-5. Mobile TV channels that panellists watched mostly during the test period.

7.3 User Acceptance of Mobile TV and Add-on Services

The questionnaires in the final interviews studied user acceptance of both mobile

TV itself and the add-on services. Mobile TV got very high grades (Table 7-1). As

TV could be put on from a dedicated key or from the phone’s application menu,

finding mobile TV and taking it into use was found easy or quite easy by a clear

majority of the panellists. Mobile TV was also found easy and effortless to use.

The role of mobile TV was experienced to be entertainment rather than access to

useful information. Information content was found reliable but nine panellists did

not agree that mobile TV was functioning reliably. In the interview the panellists

mentioned the limited coverage area, inconsistent functionality in some places and

problems with device storage capacity in the pilot test setup as the main reasons

for these opinions.

The image and sound quality were both found to be very good; panellists were

especially astonished that even the subtitles of the programmes were readable.

The mean grade for image quality was 4.3 and for sound quality 3.9 (scale 1-5).

Some users commented that the image blurred to pixels when the signal strength

was weak. The volume was considered to be too loud even if it was at the lowest

position; this especially hindered mobile TV use in public places. Quite a few users

were not used to using headphones.

Table 7-2 indicates user acceptance of add-on services. Taking into use was the main

problem. This is understandable because in the pilot test setting the users had to

carry out some additional tasks related to installations: M2Hz and Super teletext

79


had to be installed as separate applications and MTV3 and Nelonen teletext services

required updating the phone firmware. However, with the actual mobile TV addon

services the panellists also had problems in finding the services. Add-on radio

services that were available only during a certain programme confused the users.

It seems that the mere existence of add-on services and their connections to the

TV programmes will require learning before users can utilise these features. In our

study, the interactive services came available in the end of the study, so the users

did not have time to learn them. The popular teletext services that came available

during the last phase of the study would probably work well in teaching users how

to find, access and use add-on interactive services.

Table 7-1. User acceptance of Mobile TV

User Acceptance of Mobile TV

Easy to use

12

10

4

1

Agree

Somewhat agree

Use is entertaining

7

17

2

1

Neither agree or disagree

Somewhat disagree

Offers useful

information

2

12

10

3

Disagree

Appearance is

appealing

12

12

2

1

Easy to take into

use

17

6

3

1

Provides reliable

information

8

14

5

Works reliably

3

9

6

8

1

Easy to find

14

10

2

1

0 5 10 15 20 25

Most panellists, however, found add-on services easy to find and the offered

information was experienced as reliable. Panellists thought that add-on services

well complemented mobile TV. Even though the content was considered reliable

it was not felt to be especially useful, except for the commercial teletext services.

The panellists commented that for people who need the add-on services offered on

the radio channels (e.g. sending SMS to studio), the services seemed to be easy to

access and use.

In the surveys of the individual services, problems in ease of use were reported,

such as in getting an overview of what the service offered, as well as getting

a conception what was behind individual links, e.g. length and content of the

available videos in M2Hz video on demand service. Familiar teletext services got

positive comments on ease of use as the services provided both a familiar way to

select pages by giving the page number and a faster way by pointing and selecting

on the page.

80


Table 7-2.User acceptance of add-on services.

User Acceptance of add-on services

Complements well

mobile TV

Easy to use

Use is entertaining

1

4

4

9

6

13

7

9

4

8

5

3

2

2

1

Agree

Somewhat agree

Neither agree or disagree

Somewhat disagree

Disagree

Offers useful

information

1

8

7

9

1

Appearance is

appealing

6

8

6

6

Easy to take into

use

5

4

4

12

1

Provides reliable

information

6

10

7

3

Works reliably

4

6

7

7

2

Easy to find

5

10

5

5

1

0 5 10 15 20 25

7.4 Broadcast vs. on demand

Mobile TV was mainly used when there was a short 10-15 minute break, e.g. lunch

break or while travelling to work. The panellists thought that during these short

breaks they would more likely check if there was something interesting on TV

at that moment than order on demand videos. Latest news, summary of sports

events or children’s programmes were the kinds of programmes that panellists said

they might order. News and sports would be ordered if panellists had missed some

important information and children’s programmes for kids for killing time when

travelling.

The on demand videos were compared to YLE Areena service on the web, which

some users had been using to watch missed programmes. According to the

panellists ordering on demand videos with mobile should be easy, effortless and

quick enough, otherwise they would not bother to use the service. The user should

get good description of the content and the length to be able to select from the

service. Here, again, familiarity increases ease of use: when ordering e.g. an episode

of a familiar soap opera, the user knows well what to expect.

7.5 Interactive services

Interactive services were not used very often by the panellists, except for the MTV3

and Nelonen teletext services. The main reason for low usage was that the panellists

did not have enough time or interest to get acquainted with these services. Some

of the panellists argued that the threshold to use new services with a mobile device

is quite high and that on mobile TV they expect to have familiar content.

81


In addition the panellists did not consider the piloted add-on services especially

useful to them. Also some panellists commented that at the beginning of the test

period there were no services to test and suddenly they all came at the same time

and it felt a little bit irritating.

The teletext services (MTV3 and Nelonen) were rated to be the most preferred addon

services on mobile TV (see Figure 7-6). The panellists felt that teletext was a fast

and easy way to get a quick glance to the latest news and weather information. As

a local teletext service, Stadi TV teletext got quite good grades as well.

Preferred services

10

8

8

9

6

4

2

6

6

4 4

3 3

2

1 1

2

2

1

1

First

Second

Third

0

MTV3 teletext

Nelonen

teletext

ElisaTV N77

competition

StadiTV

teletext

ElisaTV

jukebox

M2Hz

Figure 7-6. Mobile TV add-on services that panellists preferred during the test period

Users thought that the mobile TV may not be the best medium for launching new

services. Mobile TV is used only during short breaks and usage time is limited

so there is no time to get acquainted with new services. If both content and

functionality are new, the user has too much to learn. Mobile TV was seen as an

extension for other media and thus the content of mobile TV should be familiar to

the users. The low grades of M2Hz were related to content unfamiliar to the users.

It seems that in the study the selection of interactive services was not versatile

enough to illustrate the potential of those services.

7.6 Locality

Local information has quite a potential as content on mobile TV. Many panellists

argued that today there is a lot of information available and it would be useful if

the information was outlined and collected so that the user could better handle it.

Information from authorities and traffic information were considered to be suitable

content for a local channel. Also some panellists mentioned that in the universities

and other schools, information related to studies or other activities could be sent

over the local mobile TV channel. Local news, politics, hobbies and views from local

events were listed as potentially interesting local content.

82


7.7 User generated vs. professionally made content

The panellists had the opportunity to become acquainted with Floobs (web

interface) which is a service where you can share your own video material, and

you can even set up your own TV channel on the web. Due to technical reasons,

the mobile version of this service could not be included in the trial. In the final

interviews the panellists commented that firms and communities could generate

their own material related to their business and activity for mobile TV. The

panellists did not believe that many individual users are willing to generate content

to mobile TV. User generated content may be meant only for friends and relatives

and this kind of content needs to be delimited with restricted access. Panellists also

wondered how this user generated content on mobile TV would differ from home

pages or blogs on the web. However, panellists expressed interest in local hobby

groups as potential content providers.

7.8 Pricing expectations

In the start-up interviews the panellists were asked how much they were willing

to pay for watching mobile TV and using the add-on services. The panellists were

divided quite evenly between those who were willing to pay a monthly fee and

those who wanted to pay based on the amount of use. The average monthly

payment was 9.7 euros varying between 0-50 euros so that eight of the panellists

were ready to pay 10 euros/month and six of the panellists were ready to pay

5 euros/month. Only four panellists did not want to pay anything for watching

mobile TV.

In the final interviews the situation had changed: most of the panellists argued

that the payment should be according to amount of use, sort of “pay per view”

-payment. The arguments for this kind of pricing were based on the experiences

of the panellists of their primary TV. Existing subscription channels are sold in

packages that contain some channels that the users have no interest in but they do

not have a choice. The panellists did not like this kind of pricing and wanted mobile

TV to offer more flexible pricing models. Some panellists suggested that there could

be multiple alternatives for payment, e.g. pay per view, monthly payment and

standing order, from which users could select their best choice. Also some panellists

suggested that the TV licence fee should also include mobile TV watching. This is

quite reasonable because mobile TV in the study did not offer much extra content

compared to primary TV, thus mobile TV was seen as an additional TV set. When

the panellists were asked about the monthly payment they argued that 10 euros

per month would be the absolute maximum payment. Panellists were also ready to

pay one to two euros for informative on demand videos; one example was video

instructions for setting up the digital receiver of the primary TV.

83


”It should be started with such a system that you can have either packages or individual

things that you can set together to personal packages. People would have the possibility to

select what they want to pay for. You could start with a certain price level to see whether you

get customers.. There could be elasticity like with Hesari (morning paper): you can subscribe it

daily until further notice, for a specific period, or just for a certain day of the week. Similarly

these services could be for sale once, until further notice or for a certain period. It would give

the consumer more freedom of choice. “

8 Conclusions

In this trial, the 27 users were using mobile TV for over half a year. The usage was

established with about half of the respondents using mobile TV at least once a

week. The users described many usage routines that they had adopted. Quite a few

users were using mobile TV in the morning when having breakfast. Mobile TV was

also used early in the morning and late in the evening to keep from disturbing the

rest of the family. Mobile TV was used as an extension to primary TV - by starting

to watch before getting home and continuing to watch when leaving home. One

respondent even described how she was using mobile phone to “mobilize the

children” more quickly from home. Often mobile TV was used like a radio, as a

background noise, glancing at the image only now and then. These kinds of usage

situations have been identified in earlier mobile TV studies as well.

Short usage sessions during commuting were reported. Setting up the device and

getting to the desired channel took time, so usage sessions had to be sufficiently

long, mini breaks as described by Cui et al. (2007). During the short usage sessions

the users felt that they did not have time to get acquainted with complex

functionalities or totally new services.

Taking mobile TV into use was found easy. The quality of sound and especially the

quality of image got very positive feedback. The users reported only occasional

problems in lip sync and subtitles. Even though the users were informed about the

limited coverage of DVB-H broadcast, coverage was mentioned first when asked

about problems in use.

With the new TV channels and video on demand services such as Stadi TV and M2Hz

the users did not find the overview of the offerings easy or versatile enough. Even

if using the service just to kill time, purposeless browsing around was not how

users wanted to access the content. There seems to be need for easier overview of

the content and also firmer connections to services on other media. The users could

learn and adopt the services on the other media where they have better tools for

getting the overview and then extend their usage to mobile. Also, usage practise

can be adapted from existing practises on other media.

84


The value of mobile TV was seen rather in entertainment than in useful

information. Still news in a wide sense, including domestic news, international

news, local news, sports news and entertainment news was the content of most

interest to the users. Local content such as event information, local politics and

information from authorities was found interesting. Personal information was

found important. As an example, one of the panellists mentioned practises of a

hobby group, from where he would have liked to receive guidance from the coach

right after the lesson that he had missed. It seems that in mobile the content

should be even more local, even more topical and even more personal than what

was available in Stadi TV in the study.

Familiar add-on services such as MTV3 and Nelonen teletext services were very well

accepted, and it was a positive surprise to the panellists that these services offered

some better functionalities than conventional teletext. The users were delighted

with the possibility to navigate on the teletext page and of the speed of changing

pages once they had downloaded the startup page package. Also the local teletext

service, Super teletext, got quite good feedback. Add-on services were easy to

access and use. Some problems were faced in finding services that were available

only during certain time slots as they were connected to certain radio programmes.

Problems in taking the add-on services into use were related to knowing the

existence of those services. Except for teletext services, the piloted interactive

services were not found especially interesting. When asked about suggestions

for additional services, the users could not mention many alternatives. However,

ways to affect the broadcast content, additional information of the ongoing

programme, as well as information on local attractions and events were mentioned

as potentially interesting content.

The users clearly stated that paying per viewing was the preferred payment policy.

Their opinions changed during the trial, as prior to the trial, half of them preferred

a monthly fee. One reason for this may be that during the trial, mobile TV took

place in the everyday life of the panellists as one additional TV set. Thus the

panellists thought that they should receive the content with the same payment

policy as conventional TV. The situation may change if mobile TV will succeed in

providing the users with additional services to conventional TV.

Today, information and entertainment is available on different media and from

many different service and content providers. Mobile television should succeed by

offering extremely local, extremely topical and extremely personal content, which

is the kind of content users may be willing to pay for. In addition to broadcast

where all receivers get the same content, also other service types will be required to

respond these requirements.

85


Regarding the development of interactive services, the users realized that services

can be made easily available on mobile phones. The panellists told that “the services

will certainly be easy to use for those who need them”. To utilise the possibilities

of add-on services more widely the design approach should be changed from usercentred

design to user driven design. This means that users should not be taken

only as research objects but they should be taken as active co-designers to innovate

usage possibilities for new technology. User-driven design facilitates identifying

the kinds of interactive mobile TV services that the users would be willing to

use. Provided with applicable tools, users may want to participate also in content

production.

Mobile TV has a lot of potential. The broadcasting content is already interesting

and attractive to the users. Interactive services will require learning from the users

so that they will get used to looking for those add-on services. The path to addon

interactive services should go from familiar content such as teletext to more

versatile services. In the future web content will be increasingly integrated to TV.

Media phones provide good platforms for this kind of service development. The

potential of the mobile phone should be utilised to provide the users with still

more topical, still more local and still more personal content. These kinds of services

would change mobile TV from an additional TV set to a medium in its own right.

86


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Dowell B. 2006.Viewing habits shift into the bedroom.

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and ease of adoption. http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications/2005/P566.pdf. VTT

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