LISTENING LISTENING

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LISTENING LISTENING

LISTENING

LISTENING

UNIT TWO


INTRODUCTION

“ We have two ears and only one tongue in order

that we may hear more and speak less”

“You do not listen with just your ears: You listen

with your eyes and with your sense of touch, you

listen by becoming aware of the feelings and

emotions that arise within yourself because of this

contact with others, you listen with your mind,

your heart your imagination”


Listening ,the mother of all communication, is a

fundamental skill that should be learnt for

effective communication.

No communication process is complete without

t

listening.

Listening is

an

essential

academic,

management and leadership skill. Several

studies

have proved that business people

spend almost 45 percent of their working

time in listening.

Similarly

effective listening

is

extremely

important for students, as they spend most

of their time listening to lectures.


DEFINITION

DEFINITION

Listening is a process of receiving, interpreting, and

reacting to a message received from the speaker.

There are four stages in the listening process.

They are Sensing, Encoding, Evaluation and Response.

Sensing: The listener hears sounds and does focus on them

Encoding: The listener decodes or interprets the message.

Evaluation: The listener evaluates the message.

Response: The listener responds.


HEARING AND LISTENING

• HEARING: Hearing is primarily a physical act that

depends on the ears. Hearing is merely the

vibration of sound waves on the ear drums

followed by the firing of electro-chemical chemical

impulses in the brain. Unless there is a physical

disability or problems such as noise or distance ,it

happens automatically.

LISTENING: Listening is an active process and

Listening requires voluntary attention and it is

much more conscious activity. It requires the

conscious involvement of the listener to

acknowledge, to understand and to respond. Here

the listener has to hear, analyze, judge , respond

and conclude.


TYPES OF LISTENING:

• APPRECIATIVE LISTENING:

• The main purpose of appreciative listening i is to

get enjoyment and pleasure, as we do when we

listen to songs, entertaining stories, jokes and

some interesting anecdotes.

• EMPATHETIC LISTENING:

• When we listen to a distressed or disappointed

friend who wants to vent his feelings, we provide

emotional and moral support in the form of

careful listening. For example when the

doctor/Psychiatrist listens to the patients


• ATTENTIVE/ COMPREHENSIVE LISTENING:

• Attentive listening demands the complete

attention of the listener. It is basically active and

intelligent listening. This type of listening is

needed to the class room when students have to

listen to the lectures to understand and

comprehend the message. Here the listener

should pay attention to all parts of the message.

Examples of this type of listening class room

lectures, administrative instructions, important

telephone calls etc.

• CRITICAL LISTENING:

• When the purpose is to accept or reject the

message or to evaluate it critically, one requires

this type of listening. Listening to a sales person

before making a purchase.


• SUPERFICIAL/PASSIVE LISTENING:

• In this type of listening the listener has little

awareness of the content of what is being said

and the output in this type of listening is zero as

the listener ignores the message and does not

concentrate on the theme.

• FOCUSED/SELECTIVE LISTENING:

• Focused listening involves listening for specific

information. For example listening to railway and

airport announcements.

• EVALUATIVE LISTENING:

• Evaluative listening involves evaluation of the

oral message or commentary and developing a

line of thought. The listener interprets and

analyses what he or she listens to in order to

understand the content. For example workshops,

seminars and structured talks.


IGNORING:

This is the kind of listening where the

listener is entirely ignoring the message as

well as the message giver. He /She may be

pretending to listen while doing or thinking

something. The listener’s lack of

participation becomes evident through the

body language.

LISTENINMG WITH A PURPOSE:

We listen to different kinds of oral

messages for different purposes. Although

the basic purpose of listening is to receive

information from various sources, there can

be different purposes in listening.


EFFECTIVE LISTENING AND INEFFECTIVE

LISTENING:

EFFECTIVE LISTENING:

i

The listener is aware of the purpose p of listening and he/she

is motivated to listen

The listener understands the language of the speaker

The content of the oral message is understandable to the

listener because of his/her familiarity with the subject

The listener pays attention to a person’s speech and

py p p

concentrates on the theme


• As the listener concentrates he/she thinks ahead

and predicts

• The listener asks questions for clarifications to

ensure that he/she has understood the subject

• The listener uses the background information to

understand the speech or lecture

• The listener interprets and analyses while

listening

• The listener uses different methods/strategies t t for

different kinds of oral discourses


INEFFECTIVE LISTENING:

The listener is not aware of the purpose of the listening

and has no motivation to listen

The listener finds it difficult to understand the language

of the speaker

The content is not understandable and he/she is not

familiar with ht subject

The listener does not pay attention and has no

concentration

The listener does not think ahead of the speaker


The listener does not question as he /she does not

understand

The listener does not have or does not use background

information

The listener does not interpret and analyze while

listening

i

The listener is not able to use different

methods/strategies for different kinds of oral

discourses


BARRIERS TO LISTENING

• As listening is a complex process ,we should take

care of the barriers that may hamper/disturb the

smooth flow of oral communication. The barriers

to the listening process may occur either from the

speaker ,listener, or circumstances /situations of

communication. The following are the barriers to

listening

• PHYSICAL BARRIERS:

• Physical distractions and disturbances can easily

disrupt the process of listening. They may be

noise, physical discomfort any sound and even

distance. We have to ensure that all channels are

free from noise during the time of

communication.


• PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS:

\

• The most common barrier to listening is the

listener’s disturbed d state t of mind. As listening i is a

purposeful activity ,any psychological or emotional

disturbance can prove to be a barrier to effective

listening. Feelings of anger, frustration, sadness,

anxiety or fear may disturb the listening process. One

should be in a normal state of mind before one takes

part in a communicative interaction.


• LINGUISTIC BARRIERS:

• When the message is incorrectly

decoded/interpreted by the listener, it may lead

to Confusion and misunderstanding and also a

communication breakdown will definitely it occur.

For example if he/she does not understand

French properly, he/she may not understand a

lecture in French. Hence ,the speaker should use a

language g

that the listener understands and the

speaker should avoid difficult words ,jargon,

technical terminology or unclear phrases or

idioms. When the listener does not understand

d

he/she should ask questions.


CULTURAL BARRIERS:

If the speaker and the listener belong to different

cultures and share different values ,listening could

become a difficult process. The interpretation of the

meaning can create misunderstanding during

intercultural communication due to different norms

and values. In order to avoid communication failure,

the listener has to be sensitive to this fact and try to

put himself/herself e in the other person’s s position.

o


EFFECTIVE LISTENING

STRATEGIES

Listening effectiveness largely depends on

an efficient method of listening. The

following rules may help to improve

effective listening.

STOP TALKING

Do not talk while listening. One can not be

a speaker and listener at the same time.

The listener should concentrate t on the

speaker’s words.


STOP THINKING

It is not enough for the listener to keep

his mouth shut while he/she is listening.

He/she has to stop thinking too. He/she

cannot listen effectively while listening.

AVOID DISTRACTIONS

In order to focus 100 percent on the

person on the person speaking, the

listener should avoid all kinds of

distractions.


AVOID DISTRACTIONS

In order to focus 100 percent on the

person’s speech, the listener should

avoid all kinds of distractions.

i

DON’T ALLOW YOUR MIND WANDER

One of the main causes of listening

inefficiency is the slowness of speech. We

can listen faster than the speaker can

speak. This lag time may make the

listener’s mind wander or daydream. This

can be avoided by concentrating on each

word spoken by the speaker.


GOOD ENVIORNMENT

• A conducive environment should be

provided to the speaker in order to

enable him/her to be at ease. If the

speaker is not comfortable ,he/she will

not be able to speak clearly.

• DO NOT PRE-JUDGE

• Give the speaker a chance to complete

what he/she has to say. Pre-judgment

closes the mind and does not allow you

to understand. You can make proper

judgment only after you have fully

understand the information.


• BE PATIENT

• The speaker should be allowed

sufficient time and not interrupted

.Patience is the key to good listening.

Good listening demands that he/she

listens to the speaker patiently.

• DO NOT BE ANGRY

• The listener should control his/her

temper while listening. He/she may not

like what the speaker is telling, or may

completely disagree. But good listening

demands d calm listening i without t

any

fuss.


BE IN THE SPEAKER’S POSITION

In order to understand the speaker’s

s

perspective properly, the listener should

try to put him/her in the speaker’s

position.

EVALUATE THE SPEECH , NOT THE

SPEAKER

Evaluate the speech but not the speaker.

Don’t pay too much attention on the

accessories and dress of the speaker.

BE OPEN MINDED

In order to be a good listener, you

should be open minded.


• DON’T INTERRUPT TOO OFTEN

• While listening even if you don’t

understand properly, don’t interrupt in

the middle of the speech.

• ASK QUESTIONS AT THE END

• Ask your doubts and seek clarifications

at the end of the session.

• TAKE NOTES

• The listener should take notes if he/she

wants to keep a record of what was

said, and wants to use it at a larger

stage.


CONCLUSION

• Active listening demands

concentration, ti involvement and

responsibility. In order to become an

active listener, we have to adopt a

set of continuous listening practices.


ACTIVITY

Kiran wasfiveyearsoldwhenhelost

when lost

his father.

So his widowed mother brought him

up.

When he finished his school final

exams, he thought he would take up

a simple summer job during the

vacation.


It was partly to earn some pocket money

and partly to get rid of boredom.

So he went to the local grocery shop run

by a Marwadi.

And asked if he could work as a delivery

boy.

The Marwadi wanted to test if the boy

was serious-minded.


He asked: "Kiran

Kiran, what would you do if

you got one lakh rupees?"

Completely taken aback, Kiran replied:

"Oh! I didn’t expect such a big salary at

the start.

"

***

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