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2004, as cited in Kenneth Kunkel, et al.,

“Observed Changes in Weather and Climate

Extremes” in Thomas R. Karl, et al. (eds.),

U.S. Climate Change Science Program,

Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing

Climate, June 2008.

19. Ibid.

20. Kenneth E. Kunkel, et al., “Monitoring

and Understanding Changes in Extreme

Storm Statistics: State of Knowledge,”

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,

in press, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00262.1,

2012.

21. Travis Madsen and Nathan Willcox,

Environment America Research & Policy

Center, When It Rains, It Pours: Global Warming

and the Increase in Extreme Precipitation from

1948 to 2011, Summer 2012.

22. Ibid.

23. Arthur T. DeGaetano, “Time-

Dependent Changes in Extreme-

Precipitation Return-Period Results in the

Continental United States,” Journal of Applied

Meteorology and Climatology 48: 2086-2099,

doi: 10.1175/2009JAMC2179.1, 2009.

24. Ibid.

25. Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo

and Thomas C. Peterson (eds.), U.S. Global

Change Research Program, Global Climate

Change Impacts in the United States, 2009.

26. See note 4.

27. See note 25.

28. Hurricanes: Thomas R. Knutson,

et al., “Tropical Cyclones and Climate

Change,” Nature Geoscience 3: 157-163, doi:

10.1038/ngeo779, March 2010; other coastal

storms: Lennart Bengtsson, Kevin I. Hodges

and Noel Keenlyside, “Will Extratropical

Storms Intensify in a Warming Climate?”

Journal of Climate 22(9): 2276-2301, doi:

10.1175/2008JCLI2678.1, May 2009.

29. National Interagency Coordination

Center, Wildland Fire Summary and

Statistics Annual Report 2012, downloaded

from www.predictiveservices.nifc.gov/

intelligence/2012_statssumm/annual_

report_2012.pdf, 25 February 2013.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid.

35. Tom McGhee, “4,167 Colorado

Wildfires Caused Record Losses of $538

Million in 2012,” The Denver Post, 19

January 2013; Acreage burned: Erin Udell,

“Smoke Rises in Waldo Canyon Burn Area

as Officials Warn of Flood Risk,” The Denver

Post, 21 July 2012, and National Interagency

Coordination Center, Wildland Fire

Summary and Statistics Annual Report 2012,

downloaded from www.predictiveservices.

nifc.gov/intelligence/2012_statssumm/

annual_report_2012.pdf, 25 February 2013.

36. Doyle Rice, “U.S. Endures Near-

Record Wildfire Season,” USA Today, 12

November 2012, available at www.usatoday.

com/story/weather/2012/11/11/wildfireseason-destruction/1695465;

“Colorado

Wildfire: Waldo Canyon Fire Destroyed 346

Homes, 1 Dead, 1 Missing,” The Denver Post,

29 June 2012.

37. Rich Alden, “Waldo Canyon Fire:

Flying W Ranch Burns to Ground,” The

Gazette, 26 July 2012.

38. Ibid.

39. Nathan Vail, “Waldo Canyon Fire:

Flying W Ranch Cattle Survive Firestorm,”

The Gazette, 28 June 2013.

40. Increasing number of heat waves:

Kenneth Kunkel, et al., “Observed Changes

in Weather and Climate Extremes” in

Thomas R. Karl, et al. (eds.), U.S. Climate

Change Science Program, Weather and

Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate, June

2008.

41. Kenneth Kunkel, et al., “Observed

Changes in Weather and Climate Extremes”

in Thomas R. Karl, et al. (eds.), U.S. Climate

Change Science Program, Weather and

Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate, June

2008.

42. Ibid.

43. Pavel Ya. Groisman and Richard W.

Knight, “Prolonged Dry Episodes over

the Conterminous United States: New

Notes 49

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