Rural Residential Land Use Strategy - Palmerston North City Council

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Rural Residential Land Use Strategy - Palmerston North City Council

Rural Residential

Land Use Strategy

June 2012


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Palmerston North City Council wishes to thank the submitters, government agencies

and interest groups who have contributed to the development of this Strategy.

Content developed by Cynthia Ward | Senior Policy Planner | Palmerston North City Council

Design & Layout by Simone Viljoen at Print Synergy | Palmerston North City Council

Images courtesy of the Palmerston North City Council and used with the land owners permission

Published by Palmerston North City Council 2012 | © Copyright Palmerston North City Council

This document was adopted by the Palmerston North City Council in June 2012.


1 Introduction to the Rural

Residential Land Use Strategy 5

1.1 Statement of Purpose 5

1.2 Core Components of the Rural

Residential Land Use Strategy 5

1.3 Relationship to Other Land Use

Strategies and Plans 9

1.4 Why a Strategy for Rural Residential Land Use? 9

2 Strategic Planning Framework

and Strategic Directions 11

2.1 Strategic Planning Framework 11

2.2 Overview of Council’s Strategic

Planning Framework and Key Strategies 11

2.3 The Residential Growth Strategy

and Urban Growth Monitoring 13

2.4 Palmerston North City and

Manawatu District Boundary Change 13

3 Rural Residential Development

in Palmerston North 15

3.1 Overview of Rural Residential

Development in Palmerston North 15

3.2 Feedback from Community Consultation:

Rural Residential Land Use Strategy

Discussion Document 16

3.3 Feedback from Community Consultation:

Draft Rural Residential Land Use Strategy 19

4 Growth Projections 21

4.1 Analysis of Residential Development

Preferences 21

4.2 Managing Supply and Demand 22

4.3 Options Analysis – A more sustainable approach? 25

5 Development Principles for

Rural Residential Development 27

5.1 Broad Strategic Approach and

Schematic Diagram 27

5.2 Rural Residential Development Principles 30

5.3 Collaborative Relationships 35

6.0 Summary of Next Steps 37

Glossary 38

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Contents ]


Introduction to

the Rural Residential

Land Use Strategy

1

5

1.1 Statement of Purpose

The Rural Residential Land Use Strategy (RRLUS) sets out a new direction for planning

and managing rural residential land use in Palmerston North City over the next ten years.

Rural residential living is a popular form of development nationally and in the past

decade has shown steady signs of increase within Palmerston North. The purpose of

the RRLUS is to provide:

a) a high level overview of how and where rural residential land should be provided

in order to meet demand;

b) an outline of the general principles and planning rationale for future development; and

c) a framework for new regulatory controls in the District Plan for Palmerston

North City.

1.2 Core Components of the Rural Residential Land Use

Strategy

The RRLUS has been developed around the following core components:

1.2.1 Structural approach for managing rural subdivision and

development

Palmerston North’s historical pattern of development, key physical and social

infrastructure, and natural landforms all contribute to influence and shape

future opportunities and investment priorities, such as subdivision activity. The

RRLUS recognises the importance of:

• The primary sector and rural diversification opportunities

• Strategic infrastructure (transport, water, wastewater, energy and

communications)

• Integrated land use and transportation planning

• Our natural and physical resources, including amenity landscapes,

biodiversity habitats and native vegetation

• Population projections and housing demand patterns

The RRLUS seeks, first and foremost, to protect the economic viability of Palmerston

North’s rural economy taking into account social, economic and environmental drivers.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Introduction to the Rural Residential Land Use Strategy ]


1.2.2 Integrated Growth Management

6

The RRLUS provides direction as to how the projected demand for rural living

will be managed over the ten year planning period in an integrated manner.

This needs to be considered alongside the Council’s wider strategic planning

initiatives, in particular the Residential Growth Strategy 16 , which seeks to

maintain the City’s urban and rural distinction by promoting a compact

city and carefully managing peripheral growth. The RRLUS recognises that

uncoordinated rural-residential development has the potential to undermine

the primary objectives of the Residential Growth Strategy.

The RRLUS includes:

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Introduction to the Rural Residential Land Use Strategy ]

• A management framework for rural subdivision. This framework reflects

the types of development evident in our rural environment. In order of

hierarchy, the four principal development types are:

A: Rural Producer

B: Satellite Rural Residential Development

C: Integrated Developments

D: The Existing Rural Residential Areas of Aokautere Rural-

Residential, Moonshine Valley and Parklands 17

• A clear strategic direction which is reinforced by some important general

development principles for rural residential development, as well as

specific development principles customised to the four development

types listed above.

An illustrative, schematic diagram of the rural

management hierarchy and detailed description of the

general development principles is provided in Section 5.0

of this strategy. A brief explanation of the four primary

types of development is provided below.

Explanation of Development Types:

Rural Producer means subdivision of rural land in a way which ensures the productive

potential of the land is maintained and avoids conversion of highly productive

agricultural and horticultural land for rural living.

Satellite Rural Residential Development means land subdivision having a small scale,

lower density character, located in the Rural Zone and at a distance from the City’s urban

areas. These subdivisions typically comprise 4-5 lots and have a density character of 1-2

households per hectare.

16 The Palmerston North Residential Growth Strategy was adopted by Council in September 2010.

17 The Aokautere-Parklands Area is zoned Residential under the operative District Plan. However, there are strong similarities

between this area and other rural residential areas, particularly in terms of its large lot character and the limited provision

of services, hence information on it has been included in this strategy.


Integrated Development means comprehensive rural residential subdivision

developments. These subdivisions usually have a more intense subdivision pattern

(with lots averaging at less than 1 hectare) allowing for a greater intensity of buildings

and development. These developments also tend to be staged with development

being phased over many years. The planning objective is that this type of subdivision

will be required to meet strict development criteria designed to ensure that they are

self-sufficient and achieve high quality urban design and environmental outcomes.

There is an opportunity for Integrated Developments to be designed and planned in

a manner which provides for Future Urban development in areas located close to or

in proximity to identified urban growth areas 18 , and/or existing settlements where

future residential intensification is supported by Council. These lower density, rural

residential subdivisions at urban-edge locations will be required to be master planned

(using a staged approach) and meet strict development criteria designed to facilitate

orderly, efficient urban intensification. The planning objective is that subdivisions in

these locations will be staged (via a structure plan) to enable transition to full urban

development, in the longer term. A Plan Change will be required to rezone the

land from Rural to Residential. These areas are based around locations having good

transport access, amenity value for rural living, block patterns/nodes that can support

further intensification (i.e. they have physical and social infrastructure in place and few

development constraints) 19 . Future Urban developments are envisaged as a subset of

the Integrated Development Category, as they will be assessed by Council in a similar

manner.

Existing Rural Residential Areas means those areas identified for rural residential

purposes within the operative District Plan being the Aokautere-Rural Residential Area,

the Moonshine Valley Area and the Parklands Area 20 , which has been acknowledged

in the RRLUS as it forms part of the land supply (26ha) potentially available for rural

residential style living.

1.2.3 Rational Servicing Approach

The approach taken for managing rural residential development and service

provision recognises the following:

a) The Council vision, goals and key strategies;

b) The Council priority for future infrastructure investment is to provide

additional capacity to support projected residential and industrial growth,

not rural-residential development;

c) The financial constraints faced by Council, in particular as it relates to

future capital works;

d) The inefficiencies and costs associated with the provision of reticulated

water and wastewater services in rural areas;

e) The existing state and level of investment, along with the environmental

performance of on-site wastewater systems (septic tanks);

18 Areas adjacent to or contiguous with existing urban areas, or planned future growth areas, as identified within the

Residential Growth Strategy (2010) and residential zoning through the RMA plan change process.

19 More than two households per hectare.

20 The Parklands Area is illustrated on Planning Map 23 and covers Waicola Drive and Titirangi Drive.

7

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Introduction to the Rural Residential Land Use Strategy ]


f) The increased travel costs and roading upgrades associated with ruralresidential

development;

g) The long term costs associated with maintaining local reserves in rural

communities when suitable open space is generally provided on-site;

h) The costs associated with providing urban services to established ruralresidential

areas; and

8

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Introduction to the Rural Residential Land Use Strategy ]

i) The equitable distribution of costs associated with maintaining services in

the future.

The RRLUS provides a clear direction about the circumstances in which Council

will support further investment in infrastructure, in particular reticulated water

and wastewater services, so that the market can respond with confidence.

The Council is keen to optimise investment and ensure that any investment in

infrastructure delivers the greatest return and benefit for the City.

A twofold approach to servicing is proposed for the Satellite Rural Residential

Development and Integrated Developments:

Satellite Rural Residential Development – Council will not provide reticulated

services.

Integrated Development – Council may contemplate the provision of

reticulated services in these areas, subject to strict development criteria. Land

use policies will be developed to ensure that Future Urban developments

are master planned in a staged approach to enable future intensification

and to support synchronised provision and funding of social and physical

infrastructure.

For the existing Rural Residential Areas 21 situated in Aokautere, the following

approach to servicing is proposed:

Existing Rural Residential Areas: Aokautere Rural Residential Area and

Moonshine Valley Area

Council may contemplate service provision in these areas but only where there

are extenuating circumstances, for example, reduced environmental outcomes

at a neighbourhood-wide scale associated with poor performance of treatment

systems and a broad agreement has been reached with the Community that

reticulation represents the most appropriate and effective option.

1.2.4 Collaborative Working Relationships

Achieving the purpose of the RRLUS requires the collaboration and agreement

of key stakeholders to the conceptual approach outlined in this Strategy.

In summary, strategically linking the types of growth, location and infrastructure

investment will promote greater certainty about rural residential subdivision for the key

stakeholders.

An overarching strategy for rural residential land use will support our traditional pastoral

and dairy farms, horticultural and market gardens and ancillary activities connected to

the rural environment, from being compromised by residential intensification (rural

21 Refer to explanation of existing rural residential areas on page 7.


esidential subdivision). It will ensure that the resources and production systems

underpinning our working rural land are protected, maintained and improved.

The RRLUS also seeks to create a balance between rural and horticultural production and

rural residential living, with the preservation of environmental and landscape features,

stimulating progress towards the sustainable development of our extensive rural area.

1.3 Relationship to Other Land Use Strategies and Plans

The RRLUS forms part of a ‘suite’ of land use strategies that the Council has prepared to

inform the Sectional District Plan Review.

9

The RRLUS sits alongside the following key land use strategies:

• The Residential Growth Strategy (September 2010)

• The Joint Industrial Land Review (2007)

• The Palmerston North Retail Strategy (May 2003 – data updated in 2011).

The land use strategies above, together with the RRLUS and the Regional Land Transport

Strategy (RLTS), collectively form an integrated approach for managing growth and

development within Palmerston North City over the next 10-30 years.

Significant infrastructure investment will be required from the Council and other

agencies to support the implementation of the existing land use strategies and the

RLTS. It is important the RRLUS reflects the infrastructural commitments of the existing

strategies.

1.4 Why a Strategy for Rural Residential Land Use?

Rural-residential living is popular and has become an established form of new housing

development within our City. Historically, 12% of new dwellings constructed within

the City are located within our rural areas 22 . The Council has traditionally developed

land use strategies for residential, industrial and retail development. While the current

District Plan provides a management framework for rural-residential subdivision this is

the first specific RRLUS developed for Palmerston North City.

The impetus to prepare a RRLUS was principally supported on the grounds that Council

needed to address the specific issue of rural residential subdivision and develop a

clear, community informed position, prior to reviewing the Rural Zone and supporting

subdivision sections of the District Plan.

In addition throughout the RRLUS development process, feedback from the community

through phased formal consultation generates important baseline information to

sharpen the Council’s overall policy direction and assist in defining the scope for the

review of the Rural Zone of the District Plan.

The key role of the RRLUS is to provide a ‘helicopter view’ of the growth and development

issues that are of planning concern including the fair distribution of costs and benefits

across the community. It also serves to provide the background rationale and planning

logic for targeted regulatory intervention in terms of rural residential land use controls

in the new District Plan.

22 PNCC Urban and Citywide Residential Dwelling Growth Monitoring Reports (various); Opus Consultants Ltd (2011)

Planning for Rural Residential Development in Palmerston North City: Background Technical Report (Table 3 Rural

Residential Development in Palmerston North).

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Introduction to the Rural Residential Land Use Strategy ]


Strategic

Planning Framework

and Strategic Directions

2

11

2.1 Strategic Planning Framework

The Council has an established strategic framework which guides its decision making.

The strategic planning framework analyses and decides what economic, environmental

and social outcomes need to be achieved, and prioritises actions to achieve these

outcomes.

The RRLUS sits within the context of the Council’s strategic planning framework, notably

the Sustainable City Strategy and supporting Urban Design Strategy. It also reflects the

Council’s Residential Growth Strategy.

An overview of the key strategies and strategic directives is provided below.

2.2 Overview of Council’s Strategic Planning Framework

and Key Strategies

Council’s approach to sustainable development

In 2010, Council formulated the Sustainable City Strategy, a high-level overarching

strategy, to promote and guide the sustainable development of the City. This strategy

document sets out a vision and guiding principles for the future development of the

City including the expansive, productive rural areas.

The Sustainable City Strategy also fulfils a directive

purpose to ensure clear linkages and alignment

between Council’s Goals (in the 10 Year Plan) and its key

programmes, with Council’s aspirations to move towards

becoming a more sustainable city.

A significant component to successfully delivering the Sustainable City Strategy is the

new Urban Design Strategy. The Urban Design Strategy and supporting initiatives seeks

to promote positive change in the design and quality of the City’s environment. The

Urban Design Strategy views the City as a whole and identifies five focus areas (drivers)

for future action: Public Realm, Diversity, Connectivity, Character and Environment.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Strategic Planning Framework and Strategic Directions ]


This Strategy also provides design direction for public spaces, new subdivisions, site redevelopment

as well as working to support co-ordinated action across the Council on

public transport and climate change initiatives.

2.2.1. The Sustainable City Strategy

12

The Sustainable City Strategy acknowledges that future development,

including the use and development of our rural lands, will be influenced by

rising energy costs and the Government’s imperative to reduce greenhouse

gas emissions overall. The potential implications of these factors for rural

residential development is to consider the case to explicitly direct this type of

development closer to the City’s urban edge, to help minimise the need for

travel and reduce travel costs and CO2 emissions.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Strategic Planning Framework and Strategic Directions ]

Of particular relevance to framing of the RRLUS, were the following objectives

set out in the Sustainable City Strategy:

• Sustainable Transport: Encourage development which is close to and

well linked to the City and its facilities, with a variety of public and private

transport alternatives

• Compact City: Encourage development which is close to and well linked

to the City and its facilities, so as to reduce fossil fuel dependency for

travel, and to facilitate active travel modes (cycling and walking)

• Accessibility: Development which is close to and well linked to the City

and its facilities

• Housing Choice: Encourage development in area(s) which would enable

diversity in the City’s housing stock, including quality, affordable housing

• Improving the stock of and quality of habitats and native vegetation in

the City

• Ensuring that land is identified to meet the projected growth for the City.

2.2.2. The Urban Design Strategy

Urban design is concerned with the arrangement, appearance and function of

our urban areas, suburbs and expansive rural areas. It is both a process and an

‘outcome’ of creating localities in which people live, engage with each other,

and engage with the physical world around them. The Urban Design Strategy

adopts a ‘place-based’ approach to the improvement of our environment and

sets out key priorities and urban design initiatives.

The Urban Design Strategy acknowledges the importance of providing

choices of living spaces and lifestyles as well as the importance and value

of the City’s landscapes in providing character to different parts of the

City. The configuration, design and layout of rural subdivisions are also

important structuring elements in delivering high quality, living and working

environments, strong neighbourhoods and improving compatibility with their

surroundings. The Urban Design Strategy provides a directive to develop ‘best

practice’, environmental design guidelines for subdivisions.


The Urban Design Strategy directs the review of the Rural Zone provisions

towards ensuring that the rural residential lifestyle developments occurs

in planned locations with clear policy differences between rural and rural

residential development. The key challenges identified for rural residential

development planning are:

• Desire for city services, transport impacts, loss of productive land and

sensitivity to the effects of rural activities

• Interactions with planning for urban areas of the city and infrastructure

provision (e.g. roads).

13

2.3 The Residential Growth Strategy and Urban Growth

Monitoring

The Residential Growth Review and the subsequent Residential Growth Strategy 23

focussed on investigating the capacity of the existing residential landbank to meet

the City’s longer term residential growth requirements and the assessment of various

greenfield options in terms of their suitability for future rezoning from rural to residential.

The preferred residential growth areas are recognised as those sites most capable of

achieving the objectives of the Sustainable City Strategy. The adopted growth options

for Palmerston North for the next 20 years are:

City West (Anders Road and Racecourse)

• Whakarongo (Kelvin Grove)

Council is also progressing residential growth planning for Ashhurst Village.

It is important that the implementation of the Rural Residential Land Use Strategy does

not undermine Council’s residential growth planning, i.e. rural-residential development

should not become an alternative form of greenfield residential development.

Council proactively undertakes growth monitoring which is reported annually.

Research and monitoring across the four residential demand categories of residential,

apartments, residential infill and rural residential, shows that population growth in our

rural areas, as measured through subdivision and building consent data (2000-2008),

makes up approximately 12% of total residential growth demand. Population and

demand projections are discussed further in Section 4.0 of the RRLUS.

2.4 Palmerston North City and Manawatu District

Boundary Change

The Rural Residential Land Use Strategy will inform future land use planning for all the

land zoned Rural that will be incorporated into Palmerston North City as a result of the

boundary change with the Manawatu District Council that takes effect from 1 July 2012.

23 Palmerston North City Council (2010) Residential Growth Strategy.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Strategic Planning Framework and Strategic Directions ]


Rural Residential

Development in

Palmerston North

3

15

3.1 Overview of Rural Residential

Development in Palmerston North

Rural residential areas are different from other types of living environments in Palmerston

North. Characteristically these areas are larger-sized residential properties in rural areas

with no reticulated Council services such as water, stormwater and wastewater (sewage)

infrastructure.

In Palmerston North rural residential development generally means development

occurring within the City’s Rural Zone at an average density of between one to two

households per hectare.

There is a unique range and choice of environments

available for rural residential development reflecting

the City’s diverse landscapes and natural features and its

roading pattern. Roading is a key structuring element in

our rural environment defining and framing settlement

areas, providing access and opportunity for rural

residential development.

Three distinct rural-residential areas are identified within the operative District Plan

and illustrated on the Planning Maps: Aokautere-Parklands Area; the Moonshine Valley

Area and the Aokautere Rural-Residential Area. In addition to these areas, further

opportunity is provided for smaller lot subdivision (1ha) in the Rural Zone within

the Rural Residential Overlay locations 24 . The current Rural Residential Overlay areas

accounts for around 42% of the total areal extent of the Rural Zone. Within the Overlay,

land may be subdivided (as a Controlled Activity) to a 1 ha minimum lot size, subject to

meeting specific performance conditions 25 .

The traditional form of subdivision, the ‘10 acre block’, is also provided in the Rural

Zone (as a Controlled Activity) subject to meeting specific performance conditions.

This subdivision pattern is a legacy from former planning practice and the legislative

principles of the Town and Country Planning Act 1977.

As with other parts of the land and housing market, demand for rural residential living

operates across local authority boundaries. This means that a co-ordinated planning

24 The Rural Residential Overlay is identified on the Planning Maps as a ‘hatching’ over large parts of the Rural Zone.

25 Refer Section 7: Subdivision, Rule 7.16.1.2 (b) (iii) of the operative District Plan for the relevant Performance Conditions.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Rural Residential Development in Palmerston North ]


approach for rural residential development is a pragmatic and prudent approach for

Palmerston North City and Manawatu District Councils to consider in the medium term.

3.2 Feedback from Community Consultation: Rural

Residential Land Use Strategy Discussion Document

16

150 submissions were received by the Council on the Discussion Document at the close

of the consultation period in June 2011. Feedback was received from rural ratepayers,

rural residential property owners and rural stakeholder interest groups, which

represented a fair response from all rural parts of the City. The feedback responses

provided valuable information and significantly updated Council’s knowledge of rural

residential characteristics such as land use planning issues, motivations and drivers for

this lifestyle type, attitudes on environmental issues including reverse sensitivity effects,

protecting landscapes, natural features and amenity landscapes.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Rural Residential Development in Palmerston North ]

Feedback was also provided on the more technical

aspects of land use subdivision including design, lot

size preferences and locations and on-site servicing

arrangements. Suggestions were provided on new

planning and subdivision controls, preferred locations and

where rural residential development should be avoided.

Key Findings

A summary of the key findings from community consultation are provided below:

a) The main aspirations of rural residential landowners residing in the country are

to seek space, privacy, openness, no close neighbours, peace, quiet, tranquillity,

open rural outlook and country living. The primary motivations for rural residential

living are for amenity and lifestyle reasons rather than small holdings or productive

farming.

b) The most common lot size preferences for rural residential living are:

• rural residential section: 2,000m 2 -2,500m 2

• small rural lot: 1 ha

• smallholding: 2-4 ha

c) The great majority of respondents were satisfied with the size of their landholding

(lot).

d) Feedback on the subdivision rules was mixed and wide ranging including requests

to provide a greater range of lot sizes, provide large lots linked to services, provide

mid-ranged sections (2,000m 2 -5,000m 2 ), retain the 1.5 ha lot pattern in Moonshine

Valley. Other general comments were: 1 ha is too small for rural living and for

enjoying rural lifestyle; raise the 4 ha minimum lot size for rural land having more

productive, arable soils; and lifestyle blocks are getting too small and too many

together.


e) Over 50% of respondents supported a review of the Overlay approach. The most

commonly cited reasons and a snapshot of the comments are:

• “need to consider a greater range of factors (in addition to soil

characteristics)”

• “transport impacts”

• “impacts of lifestyle blocks on the development of the City and the

surrounding farm industry”

• “loss of productive land”

• “need to respond to reverse sensitivity effects”

• “health impacts of rural residential growth e.g. increased cost

of commuting, traffic flows, noise/dust/odour nuisance, social

disconnectedness”

• “need to protect particularly sensitive areas and guard against the

overdevelopment of the countryside”

• “providing diversity and choice (in residential living) needs to be

balanced with the continued productivity of agriculture”

• “need to consider the issue of rural residential growth where residential

growth needs to occur”

• “consider reduced demand (for rural residential) due to rising fuel prices

and lack of infrastructure”

• “significant part of the District’s rural land is able to be developed in an

ad-hoc manner for rural residential development”

• “consider other forms of development which keeps land open for rural

uses e.g. co-housing and eco-village communities”

• “integrate the Urban Design Protocol into the design and development

of new rural residential areas.”

f) 78% of respondents supported Council’s planning approach and servicing rationale

requiring rural residential landowners to provide their own on-site systems for

water/wastewater. The most commonly cited reasons for this support are:

• Enables opportunities for sustainable living/self sufficiency

• Part of the costs and responsibilities of rural living

• Inefficient and not cost effective for Council to reticulate over such low

household density

• Places an unfair burden on Council ratepayers

• (providing services) will lead to further subdivision pressure potentially

destroying the character of rural environment and higher rates

• Unnecessary to provide reticulated services as there is generally

sufficient land area to provide (on-site) services

• (on-site services) minimises adverse effects on the environment, human

health and ecology

• A minority commented that shared services should be considered for

nodal or clustered development.

g) The preferred directions for rural residential development were:

17

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Rural Residential Development in Palmerston North ]


18

• On land which is poor quality, less productive soils, or difficult to farm;

• Away from reserves/natural features/the Manawatu River;

• Away from areas where reverse sensitivity effects occur (productive

rural lands, piggeries, windfarms, archaeological/heritage sites, State

Highways/ KiwiRail transport networks, Linton Military Camp and

Manawatu Prison);

• There was a fairly even spread of support for existing locations of rural

residential development: Tararua Foothills (Rural Residential Overlay),

Turitea Valley, areas close to the City ie Stoney Creek/Tutaki Road

area, towards Ashhurst, south of Ashhurst, Linton and Hewitts Road.

Respondents were concerned to avoid rural residential development on

floodplains, the edges of the river terraces and land which is prone to

erosion.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Rural Residential Development in Palmerston North ]

h) The majority of respondents (81%) considered that the open views they had of the

landscape were either important or very important.

i) Working collaboratively with adjoining Councils on planning for rural residential

development was strongly supported. 25% of respondents submitted that an

integrated regulatory approach for rural residential subdivision should be adopted.

87% supported regular communications and meetings on land use matters

that cross Council boundaries. Only five respondents opposed joint planning

approaches.


3.3 Feedback from Community Consultation:

Draft Rural Residential Land Use Strategy

102 submissions were received by Council on the Draft Strategy when consultation

closed in March 2012. Feedback was received from a diverse range of organisations

and rural residents in Palmerston North, including some from the adjoining rural areas

located within the Manawatu – Palmerston North Boundary Change Area.

Key Findings

A summary of the key findings are:

19

a) The majority of submitters supported the strategic intent of the Strategy (64%),

the proposed rural management hierarchy (83%) and the relevant development

types (86%).

b) Some submitters requested more detail and information on Category C: Integrated

Developments to provide greater certainty on Council’s approach to these forms

of subdivision and to clarify its relationship to the Council’s Residential Growth

Strategy.

The specific support for the identified Development Categories, were as follows:

Category A: Rural Producer (85% support)

Category B: Satellite Rural Residential Developments (77% support)

Category C: Future Urban/Integrated Developments (84% support)

Category D: Existing Rural Residential Areas (54% support)

c) 66% of respondents supported an increase in the minimum lot size from 4 hectares.

The most commonly cited reasons for this support were:

• To protect the rural landbank and probability of lost production

• To reduce the loss of rural amenity and landscape values

• To protect high class soils from rural residential subdivision.

d) 62% of respondents supported a reduction in the extent of the overlay for rural

residential subdivision (i.e. the Rural Residential Overlay). The most commonly

cited reasons for this support were:

• To protect rural amenity values and landscapes

• To protect nationally important strategic infrastructure from potential

reverse sensitivity effects of rural residential development.

e) Reservations to the proposed direction focussed on where and how future land

supply would be provided.

f) 52% of respondents supported the direction to promote additional wastewater

controls. Analysis of feedback indicates that this response is a mis-interpretation of

resident’s acceptance of on-site servicing 26 . A small number of respondents raised

costs of compliance as a concern.

26 Refer finding (f ) on page 17.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Rural Residential Development in Palmerston North ]


4

Growth Projections

21

4.1 Analysis of Residential Development Preferences

Based on the past 20 year average residential preferences from 1991 to 2010 and

Statistics New Zealand’s household growth projections, the following distribution

of residential lots is projected for Palmerston North City. It should be noted that the

following residential preferences data does not include apartments 27 . The following

Table assumes that residential preferences remain constant over the 20 year period

from 2012 to 2030.

Palmerston North Projected Residential Dwelling

Preference for 2012–2032 (20 years)

Statistics

New Zealand

projection

(2006 base)

2010 update

High

(1.45%)

Medium

(1.03%)

Low

(0.55%)

Greenfields

(Lots per

annum)

Infill

(Lots per

annum)

Rural

Residential

(Lots per

annum)

Total Lots

required

from

2012-2030

313 165 72 11,000

208 109 48 7,300

103 54 24 3,625

Source: Statistics New Zealand Family and Household Projections: 2006 (base) – 2031 Update.

Council’s planning approach is to target the Statistics New Zealand’s Medium Growth

projections. Accordingly, a target of 48 rural residential lots per annum is recognised by

Council for growth management planning.

27 Over the 20 year period from 1991 to 2010 (December years) 212 consents were issued for apartments, accounting for

3.6% of total consents issued by Council for new residential dwellings (5,880 consents). In the five years from 2006 to 2010

apartments accounted for 9.5% of total new dwelling consents issued. The average floor space for consents issued for

apartments during 2010 was just over 100m 2 while the average for other residential dwellings was 210m 2 .

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Growth Projections ]


4.2 Managing Supply and Demand

The Rural Residential Landbank: A Stocktake

22

Compositional Analysis of Rural Landbank-2011

The Rural Residential Landbank: A Stocktake

Type

Land

Area (ha)

Minimum Lot Size

Controlled Activity

Subdivision (ha)

Development Capacity

Rural Zone 15005 12 4 Land available.

Rural Residential

Overlay

Rural Residential

Areas 15 :

10805 13 1 Land available, Some

areas with development

constraints and/or

development cost issues.

375 Nearing capacity. Easy

development optionstaken

up, balance land has

development constraints

e.g. access, costly.

Moonshine Valley 76 1.5 At, or near capacity.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Growth Projections ]

Aokautere Rural

Residential

299 0.13 Nearing capacity Easy

development options

taken up. Balance

land has development

constraints e.g. roading

access, costly.

Parklands-

26 0.35 Approaching capacity.

Aokautere 14

Other:

Non-Complying

Subdivisions

Rural Residential

Integrated

Developments

Kingsdale Park

(Consented 2008)

Hartwell

(Proposed

2011 – Hearing

Adjourned)

Range of lot sizes:

0.40 - 2.65ha

Range of lot sizes:

1370m 2 -15920m 2

5 Stage, 120 lot

Subdivision,(Rural

Zone and Rural

Residential Overlay).

8 Stage, 60 lot Subdivision,

(Rural Residential Overlay).

12 Land zoned Rural, subject to 4 ha subdivision (Rule 7.16.1.2 (b))

13 Land zoned Rural and identified on the Planning Maps for rural residential subdivision (1 ha lots) (Rule 7 16.1.2(b)(iii)).

14 Parklands-Aokautere is zoned Residential, but is considered in this analysis, as the subdivision pattern and resultant

residential amenity meets demand for rural living, being larger lots and predominantly un-serviced sections.

15 Land zoned Rural and identified on the Planning Maps as Rural Residential Areas (dotted perimeter): Aokautere Rural

Residential Area (R7.16.1.2(b) (i)) and Moonshine Valley (R 7.16.1.2 (b)(ii)).


Subdivision for rural residential development has been a

strong feature of consent activity in the Rural Residential

Overlay area (1ha lots) and in the general Rural Zone (4ha

lots).

Monitoring of subdivision consent data indicates that the most prevalent subdivision

pattern has been 4-5 lot subdivisions with preferred locations being the foothills of the

Tararua Ranges notably: the elevated flats, incised valleys and the Ngahere Park and

Forest Hill slopes. Smaller scale, cluster-type subdivisions have also been popular in

the north east of the City at Stoney Creek/Tutaki Road and on the upper plains at Kelvin

Grove/ Whakarongo.

23

a) The Rural Residential Overlay

Most recently, rural residential subdivisions within the Overlay area have trended

towards larger scale (in terms of total lot numbers), high design market offerings.

This reflects the difficult financial market conditions and the ‘flight to quality’

phenomenon 16 for development capital. It also reflects the significant costs of

developing the land types located within the Overlay and the development drivers

to maximise overall lot yields to finance expensive roading and service infrastructure.

With much of the remaining land in the Overlay being topographically steep (with

potential for geotechnical issues) or low-lying, the balance of land in the landbank

is likely to be difficult and expensive to develop. High design and high priced

sections are the inevitable end result.

Against a backdrop of physical and economic constraints, rural residential

development is predicted to tail-off until finance and market conditions improve.

The indications are already there, in terms of the latest economic monitoring

report, which shows that rural residential demand has declined as a proportion of

total demand 17 in the past four years.

For the Overlay areas, Council can expect to process more non-complying resource

consent applications for rural residential subdivisions with a large-scale, multistaged,

integrated development format. The RRLUS constructively provides

a principle based planning framework to assist with processing these highly

technical and complex consents in the rural environment.

b) Rural Residential Areas

Of note, the early rural residential areas provided in the operative District Plan,

of Moonshine Valley and Aokautere Rural Residential, are nearing development

capacity.

The RRLUS seeks to move away from the ‘blanket’ planning approach for rural residential

subdivision in the Overlay area, given the planning, servicing and development

costs issues, to a more “principle-based” planning framework signalling a significant

reduction in the area identified as potentially suitable for subdivision. Area-specific

16 An expression coined by the property development sector. It refers to the practice especially in recessionary economies,

for financial institutions to move away from financing high-risk, lower-cost development and towards funding higher

quality, market proven development models.

17 Projections for Palmerston North (September 2011). Rural Residential is approximating 10% of total residential demand

(adapted from Table 24: New Dwelling Units by Development Type, 1999-2010).

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Growth Projections ]


technical investigations will further sharpen the planning approach for rural residential

subdivision in a reduced Overlay area 18 .

The general and specific development principles for rural residential development are

outlined in Section 5.0 which follows.

Rural Land Management: A Stocktake

24

There has been strong feedback from rural ratepayers and residents concerning the need

to preserve and sustainably manage the productive land resource 19 . The fragmentation

of farmland and concerns about reverse sensitivity, due to rural residential subdivision,

were key themes.

To progress the design of a purposive planning framework and subdivision rules

applying to the productive areas of the Rural Zone, Council has commissioned specific

research with rural landowners to better understand the drivers for land subdivision

and the evidence base for potentially increasing the maximum lot size upwards from 4

ha. This rural research will support future policy design and development principles for

rural land with the strategic aim of protecting rural land from ad-hoc subdivision (and

the consequent upwards pressure on rural land values) whilst preserving opportunities

for ‘entry level’ farming.

Managing Supply and Demand: Important Considerations and Consequences

A prudent and balanced approach is required for managing rural residential land use. It

is also important to recognise that there are direct consequences of actively providing

for full demand (100% provision equates to a supply of 48 lots per annum). Some of

these costs include:

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Growth Projections ]

• Traffic generation and vehicle kilometres travelled

• Infrastructure and environmental costs, in terms of failed effluent systems

• Upwards pressure on rural land values driving land use change (residential

intensification in the rural environment)

• Reverse sensitivity issues 20

• Loss of rural amenity (open rural outlook), potential effects on landscape

character

The enabling approach of the current District Plan is

based on meeting 100% of projected demand or market

preference for rural residential living. The rural residential

overlay in effect provides an oversupply of land required

for rural-residential subdivision for the next 10 years.

18 Under the RRLUS, this form of development is proposed to be called Satellite Rural Residential Development.

19 Please refer to Section 3.2 of the RRLUS.

20 Reverse sensitivity arises where a new incompatible activity (e.g. residential dwelling) is introduced into an environment

which has the potential to limit operation of existing activities (e.g. normal farm operations).


4.3 Options Analysis – A more sustainable approach?

There are alternative options available to Council to manage demand and supply for

rural residential living, especially in view of the costs, for example, to only provide

land area for 80, 60 or 40% of rural residential demand projections. Allied to this is the

option of staging the allocation of the landbank for rural residential development over a

specified planning period e.g. sequencing land provision over the next 10 years.

The preferred planning approach for managing rural residential land use and its supply,

is to adopt a transparent, design-led, “principle-based” approach, aligned to the four

development types taking place in our rural environment. Such an approach will likely

result in a reduction of the land presently identified as available for rural-residential

subdivision.

25

The strategic land use framework for rural residential and the general development

principles are set out in Section 5.0.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Growth Projections ]


Development

Principles for Rural

Residential Development

5

27

5.1 Broad Strategic Approach and Schematic Diagram

To support our productive rural areas and to lessen the potential longer term

consequences of rural subdivision, including the fragmentation of rural land and

‘domestication’ of rural landscapes, a new management framework is proposed.

It specifically recognises the four development types via the following rural land

management hierarchy:

Category A:

Category B:

Category C:

Category D:

Rural Producer

Satellite Rural Residential

Integrated Development

Existing Rural Residential Areas

The rural land management hierarchy recognises Council’s

strategic planning framework and reflects the key

planning priorities for the Rural Zone.

Specifically, the strategic directions and imperatives seek to:

• protect the rural land bank – to better recognise and provide for the “Rural

Producer”

• direct growth to identified residential growth areas to support the investment

made in these locations and/or to existing urban areas (i.e. to promote

intensification and redevelopment, or residential infill development)

• limit the financial impact of rural-residential subdivision on Council

infrastructure demands

• limit the environmental impact of rural residential subdivision on rural

environmental qualities including biodiversity and water quality values, rural

amenity character, landscapes and natural features and open views.

New rural residential development must, therefore:

• be capable of being serviced by on-site water and wastewater services (unless

services are to be reticulated – Integrated Development only, subject to Council

support)

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]


28

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]

• not conflict with Council’s Long Term Plan and foreseeable long-term plans for

growth and infrastructure

• be directed and controlled in a manner that recognises the primacy of the Rural

Zone for rural activity and more responsive to evident market demands and

expectations for rural residential living 21

• support integrated land use and transport planning objectives (The Local

Government Act 2002)

• be responsive to natural and cultural heritage, and natural landform patterns

• address planning issues – high quality soils, reverse sensitivity, community

development

The following schematic diagram illustrates the management framework and highlights

the key directions and development principles.

Schematic Diagram:

Rural Land Management Hierarchy and Key Development Principles

A:

B:

C:

The Rural Producer

Satellite Rural

Residential

Development

Integrated

Development

Key Development Principles

• The priority is to protect the rural land bank for

primary sector production activities

• Protect productive land from rural residential

subdivision

• Increase the minimum lot size from 4ha, subject

to supporting research. Recognise the specific

requirements of horticulture and nursery operations

for smaller lots.

• Retain the 1ha minimum lot size

• Self-serviced lots

Council adopts a more “hands off” approach than for

Integrated Development

• Increase the burden of proof for applicants regarding the

long term performance of on-site wastewater systems;

and the appropriate and timely supply of energy

• Typically 4-5 lots

• Lower risk to Council in terms of supporting

infrastructure investment.

• High threshold for approval

• 2500m 2 – 1ha lots

• Specific approval required from Horizons Regional

Council if the new lot is below 5000m 2

• Initial presumption of self-serviced lots

21 Refer to consultation findings on motivating drivers for rural living in 3.2(a), page 16.


Key Development Principles

• Increase the burden of proof for applicants regarding the

long term performance of on-site wastewater systems;

and the appropriate and timely supply of energy

• Specifically recognise a residual risk remains for

Council and the community with body corporate

management regimes

D:

Existing Rural

Residential Areas:

Parklands Area,

Moonshine Valley

Area, Aokautere

Rural-Residential Area

• Should not undermine the purpose of the Council’s

Residential Growth Strategy, including residential

growth planning for villages, e.g. Ashhurst

• Should not become the preferred form of rural living

• Should not represent a new market but provide an

alternative for those seeking rural residential living in

proximity to existing urban areas

• Recognise that approved and pending subdivision

consents may provide sufficient capacity in the short

term to meet demand

• Approval will be subject to future infrastructure

planning by Council

• Reticulation should be cost neutral to the Council

• Specific development criteria for biodiversity,

landscape, connectivity and community matters

Council will only contemplate reticulation (water and

wastewater) in certain Future Urban situations 22

• Future Urban is a specific subset of Integrated

Development and will only be contemplated where

future intensification is supported by Council.

Future Urban:

• Compliance with specific design requirements that

enable intensification over the long term

• Reticulation should be cost neutral to the Council

• Specific development criteria for biodiversity,

landscape, connectivity and community matters.

• Reticulated services will only be provided on a user

pays / cost recovery process

• Reticulation is not a priority for Council investment

and/or a means of providing for growth

(intensification)

Council will only contemplate reticulation where

there is broad agreement from the affected

community to cover the cost of new services and

support for future intensification

• Recognise and protect the historic 1.5ha minimum

lot size at Moonshine Valley.

22 Where there is spare network capacity available and/or where there are network efficiencies resulting.

29

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]


5.2 Rural Residential Development Principles

General Development Principles have been developed to support the proposed rural

land management hierarchy.

30

The development principles in themselves are not absolutes but are provided as

guidelines to inform development decisions, for example, where or how rural residential

development should occur (i.e. the locational aspects of rural residential development).

In some cases, one principle can conflict with other principles. These tensions need to

be dealt with through the development planning process on a case by case basis.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]

The general development principles for rural residential land use are set out below:

General Development Principles:

Land Supply

Rural residential development should be directed away from land with high

capability for pastoral use (e.g. Class 1 and 2 land).

• Planning for rural residential development should seek to avoid, where possible,

the potential for reverse sensitivity issues to arise. For example, in locations

where there are existing pastoral dairy farms, intensive farming activities such

as deer, poultry farms and piggeries or existing rural industry activities such as

quarries or windfarms, consider large buffer zones or setback provisions and/or

preventing rural residential subdivision in these areas.

• Direct rural residential development away from potential wind electricity

generation sites and associated transmission and/or distribution infrastructure.

• Where there is existing strategic infrastructure, facilities and developed land,

these should be recognised without compromising their efficient functioning.

As much as possible, protect these existing strategic assets and activities from

any adverse effects of rural residential development.

• The National Grid and associated electricity transmission corridors which may

be needed over the next 50 years should be identified and protected from rural

residential development.

• Limit land supply in the Rural Zone for rural residential living i.e. reduce the

extent of the Rural-Residential Overlay available for Satellite rural residential

development.

• Direct Integrated Development as close to the City’s urban limits as possible,

without adversely affecting Council’s future residential growth options.

Through the Rural Zone review detailed policy and assessment criteria will be

developed to guide this development type and respond to locational aspects 23 .

Alignment with Council’s infrastructure investment and the Long Term Plan

needs to be demonstrated.

Natural Hazards

• Avoid or direct rural residential development away from floodplains, ponding

areas, and/or areas subject to flood protection schemes and areas subject

to erosion and steep areas where landslide potential is high. In some cases

rural residential development, with appropriate building controls, may be

appropriate where there is a medium hazard risk (but not a high risk).

23 These future development areas will be carefully master planned, as staged developments, to enable future residential

intensification in the long term, as the market demands, and subject to Council's Growth Monitoring.


Landscape and Heritage

• Consider landscape character and heritage values, not only where it should

occur, but also what landscape, heritage and ecological considerations should

apply to development. A range of policy responses may be considered to

address these planning matters from active prevention of development, limited

controlled development, through to less restrictive development in particular

areas. The Palmerston North Landscape Inventory (2011) identifies the City’s

Landscape Units, character and values and is a key reference document.

• Consider effects of rural residential development on areas/features of

particularly high landscape character (e.g. Outstanding Natural Features or

Outstanding Natural Landscapes 24 ). It is important to note that this principle

is not just about protecting high value landscapes, it is also about maintaining

and enhancing other amenity landscapes so all development decisions need to

be based on a clear understanding of the effect of development on landscape

values.

• Give special consideration to landscape values along high volume traffic routes

e.g. SH 56 and 57. Viewing lines from these highways should be considered

when planning for rural residential development.

• Heritage: Development planning and decisions need to take account of

potential effects of rural residential development on historic heritage, sites and

features. Such sites and features should be identified and the appropriate level

of protection determined before development decisions are finalised.

• Sometimes cultural heritage values are not well known or understood (e.g.

‘silent files’ are sometimes used by iwi as a way of protecting sites). Development

planning and decisions therefore need to be made in consultation with iwi.

Infrastructure/Servicing

• Presumption of self-servicing for all rural-residential areas and new subdivisions.

Limit unplanned extensions to the water and wastewater networks which

bring additional costs, requests for further connections and reduce network

efficiencies.

• Increase consent applicant’s burden of proof regarding future operation of onsite

wastewater systems to ensure performance and positive environmental

outcomes.

• Consider adequacy and design of infrastructure such as stormwater, pipes and

culverts, in view of the impacts of climate change.

• Give effect to the Horizons Regional Council One Plan requirements for

domestic on-site wastewater treatment and disposal systems.

• Consider the adequacy of on-site reticulated water supply systems, in terms of

the both the standards of water supply and access by the NZ Fire Service, in

order to enable effective response to a fire emergency.

• Increase consent applicant’s burden of proof in terms of demonstrating that

an appropriate and timely supply of electricity can be achieved to the new

development.

24 ONF’s and ONL’s are defined in the Horizons Regional Council One Plan.

31

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]


32

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]

• Consider major transport routes. These may need to be well-buffered and

designed so that there is room for expansion of road widths in the future (such

as additional slip lanes and/or passing lanes) and to minimise conflicts with

rural activities and other land uses.

• Ribbon development along State Highways and major transport corridors

should be discouraged to protect the efficient and effective functioning of

these routes. Nodal development along main corridors may be appropriate in

some cases. Development decisions therefore need to be made in consultation

with relevant roading authorities.

• Rail routes should be protected from further rural residential development

which may increase the potential for reverse sensitivity to arise.

• Future potential infrastructure corridors (such as for electricity transmission,

road and rail) need to be determined and development (existing and future)

needs to be buffered from these corridors. Development decisions therefore

need to be made in consultation with Electricity Generation Companies and

energy transmission and distribution companies, NZTA and KiwiRail.


Energy

Rural residential development should be designed to make the best use of

north facing hill sites. Rural residential lots should be designed and sited to

maximise solar gain, particularly in winter months.

• Direct rural residential development away from consented and potential wind

electricity generation sites.

• Electricity and gas transmission corridors which may be needed over the next 50

years should be identified and/or protected from rural residential development.

• Increase consent applicant’s burden of proof in terms of demonstrating that

an appropriate and timely supply of electricity can be achieved to the new

development.

• Integrated Development – These development areas should be near existing

public transport routes and capable of being serviced by public transport.

Reserves

• Initial presumption is that local reserves are not required in rural areas as

adequate open space is generally provided on site.

• The provision of local reserves in rural areas increases maintenance costs in an

inequitable manner.

Rural residential development should not limit public access to rivers, lakes

and streams, and where practicable, development plans should augment the

public’s ability to access these features.

• Development can support or help re-establish wetland and biodiversity

habitats (bush/scrublands) – this can occur through land being set aside for

reserves and/or as ‘ecological patches’/green corridors or biodiversity corridors

to provide links with existing waterbodies, wetlands, bush/scrublands.

• Where rural residential development is to occur in the vicinity of an area of high

biodiversity value or habitat (or recognised potential), development buffer

zones, setback provisions or reserve provision may be considered.

Specific Development Principles:

Category A: Rural Producer

• The priority is to protect the rural land bank for primary sector production

activities.

• Increase the minimum lot size from 4ha, subject to supporting research,

to establish a minimum lot size that maintains and protects the rural land

bank for primary sector production activities, whilst also providing for

entry level farming operations. Also recognise the specific requirements

of horticulture and nursery operations for smaller lots.

• Self-serviced.

33

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]


Category B: Satellite Rural Residential Development

34

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]

• Retain the 1ha minimum lot size.

• Self-serviced.

Council adopts a more “hands off” approach than for Integrated

Development.

• Increase the burden of proof for applicants regarding the long term

performance of on-site wastewater systems.

• Appropriate and timely supply of energy.

• Typically 4-5 lots.

• Lower risk to Council in terms of supporting infrastructure investment.

• Recognise the Urban Design Strategy objectives and promote best practice

design for rural residential subdivisions, especially local connectivity.

• Recognise and work with the natural environment.

• Recognise and protect rural amenity, notably views and local landscapes/

natural features.

• Consider opportunities to enhance biodiversity and water quality values,

stock and quality of habitats and native vegetation.

Category C: Integrated Development

• High threshold for approval.

• 2500m 2 – 1ha lots.

• Specific approval required from Horizons Regional Council if any new lot(s)

is below 5000m 2 .

• Initial presumption of self-serviced lots.

• Increase the burden of proof for applicants regarding the long term

performance of on-site wastewater systems.

• Appropriate and timely supply of energy.

• Specifically recognise a residual risk remains for Council and the community

with body corporate management regimes.

• Should not undermine the purpose of the Council’s Residential Growth

Strategy, including residential growth planning for villages, e.g. Ashhurst.

• Should not become the preferred form of rural living.

• Should not represent a new market but provide an alternative for those

seeking rural residential living in proximity to existing urban areas

• Recognise that approved and pending subdivision consents may provide

sufficient capacity in the short term to meet demand.

• Approval subject to future infrastructure planning by Council.

• Future Urban is a specific subset of Integrated Development and will only

be contemplated where future intensification is supported by Council.

Council will only contemplate reticulation (water and wastewater) in

certain Future Urban situations where there is spare network capacity

available and/or where there are network efficiencies resulting.


• Compliance with specific design requirements for Future Urban

developments that enable intensification over the long term.

• Reticulation should be cost neutral to the Council.

• Specific development criteria for biodiversity, landscape, connectivity and

community matters.

• These areas should be near existing public transport routes and/or capable

of being serviced by Public Transport.

• Alignment with Council’s planned infrastructure investment, in particular

the transportation network, must be demonstrated.

• Connectivity and accessibility within the rural residential subdivision

and to the external transportation network must be demonstrated for all

modes of transport.

• Initial presumption is that local neighbourhood reserves are not required

in rural areas. However, in certain circumstances Council may consider

reserves, for example, where Council considers there are opportunities to

enhance biodiversity and water quality values, stock and quality of habitats,

native vegetation or improved public access. Alignment with Council’s

Recreation and/or Biodiversity Strategies will need to be demonstrated.

• Recognise the Urban Design Strategy objectives and promote best practice

design for rural residential subdivisions, especially local connectivity.

• Recognise and work with the natural environment.

• Recognise and protect rural amenity, notably views and local landscapes/

natural features.

Category D: Existing Rural Residential Areas

• Self-serviced.

• Reticulated services will only be provided on a user pays / cost recovery

process.

• Reticulation is not a priority for Council investment and / or a means of

providing for growth (intensification).

Council will only contemplate reticulation where there is broad agreement

from the affected community to cover the cost of new services and support

for future intensification.

• Recognise and protect the historic 1.5ha minimum lot size at Moonshine

Valley.

5.3 Collaborative Relationships

• Suggest policy alignment with Manawatu District via MDC District Plan Review.

• Ensure policy alignment with Horizons Regional Council in relation to the

5000m 2 minimum lot size for on-site wastewater treatment and disposal

systems.

• Work with Horizons Regional Council to ensure a co-ordinated and integrated

management approach, for biodiversity and regionally significant landscapes.

35

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Development Principles for Rural Residential Development ]


6

Summary

of Next Steps

37

Once formally adopted by Council, the RRLUS will have status as a strategic planning document

and be given effect to via the Sectional District Plan Review.

Further technical reports and feasibility studies may be required to support the implementation

of the RRLUS within the District Plan.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Summary of Next Steps ]


GLOSSARY

38

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Glossary ]

Ancillary Activities – Means an activity or service

which is related to, or supports the principal activity

on a site, or the specialised function of an area or

zone.

Block Pattern/Cadastral Pattern – A technical term

associated with land survey and the subdivisions

process and which also describes the size, location

and layout of lots and general form of development

which emerges through the process of land

development.

Density - A term that describes the intensity of

building on a particular site or in a particular zone, as

defined within the District Plan. For example, in the

Rural Zone, the density of development is primarily

controlled through the minimum lot size rule.

Development Capacity - Means the permitted

number of household lots/dwellings that a site or

an area is able to accommodate at current densities

(intensity), as defined within the District Plan.

Development Criteria - Criteria used to assess the

suitability of development, generally in terms of its

effects on the environment, and compliance with

objectives, policies and rules of the District Plan.

Development Pattern - The subdivisional and land

use pattern (or activities) taking place in an area or

location.

Household - Defined as one person usually living

alone, or two or more people usually living together

and sharing facilities in a private dwelling (e.g

cooking facilities, bathroom and toilet facilities, and

living areas).

Infrastructure – the same meaning as infrastructure

in the RMA 1991.

Intensification – Means subdivision, use and/or

redevelopment of areas within existing, urban areas.

Landbank - Specific blocks of land that are zoned

for development. This term is often used in relation

to growth forecasts and monitoring reports, notably

the uptake of residential and industrial zoned land.

Lot and Allotment - As per the definition of

“Allotment” in Section 218(2) of the Resource

Management Act 1991, including: any parcel of land

under the Land Transfer Act 1952 that is a continuous

area and whose boundaries are shown separately on

a survey plan; or any parcel of land or building or part

of a building that is shown or identified separately on

a survey plan; or any unit on a unit plan; or any parcel

of land not subject to the Land Transfer Act 1952.

Minimum Lot Size - Means the total area of the lot

allowable, less the area used for access where the lot

concerned is linked to a public road via a single or

shared access strip.

Farmparks or Ecoparks - A specifically designed

farm (or forest park) within rural areas where the

design of the allotments and dwelling sites are each

individually located to ensure the least impact on the

rural environment and rural landscape values.

Nodes or Cluster Developments - Clustering of

residential allotments within the rural environment

to retain and preserve the open visual character and

expanse of rural areas. Sometimes called ‘hamlets’

this pattern of land development is recognised as


one option for meeting demands for rural lifestyle

subdivisions.

Overlay/Rural Residential Overlay Area – The

land area which is identified on the District Planning

Maps legend (under the heading Miscellaneous) as

Rural Residential Area’ and graphically illustrated

on the Rural Zone through horizontal hatched lines

(hatching overlay). The land parcels within this

area are potentially suitable for subdivision for rural

residential living, subject to meeting the specific

rules in Section 7 Subdivision. The Rural Residential

Area covers or overlays a large area of the Rural Zone,

and serves to clearly identify where the opportunity

for subdivision down to 1 ha allotments is allowed.

This provision is sometimes referred to as the Rural

Residential Overlay or Overlay Area.

On-site Systems/Services – These systems include

private water bores, domestic water and wastewater

(grey water) or stormwater systems designed to

serve rural households in rural areas.

Resource Consent – Has the meaning set out in

section 87 of the Resource Management Act 1991. A

consent can generally be described as a permission

(usually a written application) required from a

Regional Council or a territorial authority or local

authority, to carry out an activity under the Resource

Management Act 1991 and includes all conditions to

which the consent is subject.

Reticulated Services or Infrastructure – Means

publicly or privately owned network utility

infrastructure and generally includes water supplies,

pump stations, wastewater sewers and stormwater

reticulation services to service residential households

and new residential areas.

Reverse Sensitivity - Reverse sensitivity arises

where a new incompatible activity is introduced into

an environment which has the potential to limit the

operation of existing activities.

Rural Lifestyle Block - Rural land used primarily for

farming activities and usually containing a dwelling,

comprising an area of about four hectares.

Rural Residential Area - Land which is identified in

the District Planning Maps for rural residential living,

for example, Moonshine Valley Area and Aokautere

Rural Residential Area.

Strategic Infrastructure – Infrastructure identified

in Policy 3-1 of the Horizons Regional Council One

Plan as being of regional or national importance.

Subdivision – Subdivision is defined in the section

281(1) of the Resource Management Act 1991 to

mean the division of an allotment by various means

including cross-lease, unit titles and for leases which

are for 20 years or longer (including renewals).

Subdivision or Residential Infill - Means the

splitting of an existing section into two or more

allotments (lots) usually for the purpose of building

another dwelling(s).

Zoning - A system of land use regulation whereby

land is mapped into zones which separate one set of

permitted land uses from another.

39

RURAL RESIDENTIAL LAND USE STRATEGY [ Glossary ]


Palmerston North City Council

Private Bag 11034, The Square, Palmerston North, 4442 | P 06 356 8199 | W www.pncc.govt.nz

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