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A systematic approach to quality function deployment with a full ...

A systematic approach to quality function deployment with a full ...

A systematic approach to quality function deployment with a full

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Omega 33 (2005) 119 – 139 www.elsevier.com/locate/dsw A systematic approach to quality function deployment with a full illustrative example Lai-Kow Chan ∗ , Ming-LuWu Department of Management Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Received 22 June 2001; accepted 23 March 2004 Abstract This paper presents a systematic and operational approach to quality function deployment (QFD), a customer-driven quality management system for product development. After a comprehensive description of the relevant elements in house of quality (HOQ), the rst and most in uential phase of the QFD system, a 9-step model is proposed to help build such an HOQ. A number of 9-point scales are developed whose uses could help unify the various measurements in HOQ to avoid arbitrariness. Special attention is paid to the various subjective assessments in the HOQ process, and symmetrical triangular fuzzy numbers (STFNs) are suggested for use to capture the vagueness in people’s linguistic assessments. Instead of using the quite subjective sales-point concept, entropy method is introduced to conduct competitive analysis and derive competitive priority ratings. A thorough explanation is given to address the concepts, computations and implementations in the proposed HOQ model, followed by a full example for a fried Chinese vegetable to illustrate step by step all the relevant details with the purpose of facilitating the understanding and application of the QFD process. Two di cult parts omitted from our model, especially the correlation matrices, are discussed in some detail nally, and possible approaches are also suggested to deal with them in a potentially more complete HOQ model. ? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Quality function deployment; House of quality; Measurement scale; Symmetrical triangular fuzzy number; Entropy 1. Introduction Quality function deployment (QFD) is “a system to assure that customer needs drive the product design and production process” (Ref. [1]). Typically, a QFD system can be broken down into four inter-linked phases to fully deploy the customer needs phase by phase (Refs. [1–5]). In QFD, each phase’s important outputs (HOWs), generated from the phase’s inputs (WHATs), are converted into the next phase as its inputs (new WHATs). So each phase can be described by a matrix of “WHATs” and “HOWs”, which is easy and convenient to deal with in practice. The four QFD phases include: Phase I to translate customer needs into product design attributes which we will call technical measures; Phase II to translate important technical measures into parts characteristics; Phase III to translate important parts characteristics into process operations; and Phase IV to translate key process operations into day to day production requirements. The rst phase of QFD, usually called house of quality (HOQ), is of fundamental and strategic importance in the QFD system, since it is in this phase that the customer needs for the product are identi ed and then, incorporating the producing company’s competitive priorities, converted into appropriate technical measures to ful ll the needs. In other words, HOQ ∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +852-2788-8550; fax: +852-2788-9891. E-mail address: fblkchan@cityu.edu.hk (L.-K. Chan). 0305-0483/$ - see front matter ? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.omega.2004.03.010

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