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Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: 2002-2010 Conservation - IUCN

Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: 2002-2010 Conservation - IUCN

Contents Dedication

Contents Dedication ...................................vi Foreword ..................................vii Acknowledgments ............................viii Executive Summary ...........................ix Introduction ..................................1 Chapter 1. Status of the World’s Cetaceans ........5 1.1 Systematics and taxonomy .................5 1.2 Red List or threatened status ................9 1.3 CITES ................................10 Chapter 2. Threats Faced by Cetaceans. ..........13 2.1 Unsustainable use (including incidental mortality) ..............................13 Direct exploitation. ........................13 Incidental mortality in fisheries (bycatch) ......14 Indirect effects of industrial fisheries ..........15 Competition and culls ......................16 Ship-strikes ..............................16 Live-captures for captive display and/or research ..............................17 Whale- and dolphin-watching ................17 2.2 Habitat loss and degradation ...............18 Disturbance from industrial and military operations. ............................19 Chemical pollution ........................20 Disease and exposure to biotoxins ............21 Climate change and ozone depletion. ..........21 Chapter 3. Possible Solutions to Cetacean Conservation Problems ..............23 3.1 Ensuring that any catches or other uses of cetaceans are sustainable ..................23 Developing and encouraging alternative fishing techniques .......................24 Reducing incidental mortality in fisheries through gear modification and the use of deterrent devices .....................24 Reducing incidental mortality through rescue and release efforts. ................25 Managing cetacean-oriented tourism to minimize biological impacts ..............25 3.2 Habitat protection and restoration ..........26 Protected areas and time/area fishing closures ..............................26 Reducing environmental pollution ............27 Minimizing human-induced underwater noise . . . 27 Reducing and mitigating the effects of coastal development ..................28 Reducing the effects of water development on freshwater-dependent cetaceans .............................28 3.3 Enhancing the capacity and governance framework for cetacean conservation ........29 Capacity-building .........................29 Cooperation and coordination among conservation bodies ....................29 Incorporating cetaceans into national conservation laws and international agreements ............................30 Role of the Cetacean Specialist Group in cetacean conservation ...................30 Chapter 4. Status of Cetacean Species and Selected Populations ........................33 4.1 Right whales ...........................33 Bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus ..........33 Right whales, Eubalaena spp. ................33 4.2 Rorquals. ..............................34 Common minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata ..........................34 Antarctic minke whale, Balaenoptera bonaerensis ...........................34 Sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis .............35 Bryde’s whales, Balaenoptera edeni/brydei .....35 Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus ...........35 Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus ............36 Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae.....36 4.3 Gray whale. ............................37 Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus ............37 4.4 Pygmy right whale. ......................37 Pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata ........37 4.5 Marine dolphins. ........................37 Commerson’s dolphin, Cephalorhynchus commersonii. ..........................37 Chilean dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia ....37 Heaviside’s dolphin, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii .............................37 Hector’s dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori .....38 Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis ...............................38 Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis .............................39 Pygmy killer whale, Feresa attenuata .........39 Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus ........................39 Long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas ...39 Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus ............40 Fraser’s dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei .........40 Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. ...............................40 White-beaked dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris ............................41 Peale’s dolphin, Lagenorhynchus australis .....41 Hourglass dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger ...41 Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. ...........................41 Dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus ......42 Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis ..............................42 Southern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis peronii ...............................42 Irrawaddy dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris .......43 Killer whale or Orca, Orcinus orca. ...........43 Melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra ...43 iii

False killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens .......44 Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis ...................44 Indo-Pacific hump-backed dolphin, Sousa chinensis ........................44 Atlantic hump-backed dolphin, Sousa teuszii ....45 Pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata .............................45 Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene ...........45 Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba .........45 Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis. .....46 Spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris. .........46 Rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis .....46 Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus .............................47 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus ..............................47 4.6 Monodontids ...........................47 White whale or Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas ..47 Narwhal, Monodon monoceros ...............48 4.7 Porpoises ..............................48 Finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides ...48 Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena .........49 Spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica .......49 Vaquita (Gulf of California porpoise), Phocoena sinus ........................49 Burmeister’s porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis. ...49 Dall’s porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli ...........49 4.8 Sperm whales. ..........................50 Pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps, and Dwarf sperm whale, Kogia sima ...........50 Sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus ........50 4.9 River dolphins ..........................51 Boto (Amazon dolphin), Inia geoffrensis .......51 Baiji (Yangtze dolphin), Lipotes vexillifer ......51 ‘Blind’ river dolphins, genus Platanista ........51 Ganges dolphin (susu or shushuk), P. gangetica gangetica ..................51 Indus dolphin (bhulan), P. gangetica minor .....52 Franciscana (La Plata dolphin), Pontoporia blainvillei .............................53 4.10 Beaked whales ..........................53 Arnoux’s beaked whale, Berardius arnuxii .....53 Baird’s beaked whale, Berardius bairdii .......53 Northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus ............................53 Southern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon planifrons. ............................54 Longman’s beaked whale, Indopacetus pacificus (= Mesoplodon pacificus).........54 Mesoplodonts – Beaked whales of the genus Mesoplodon ...........................54 Shepherd’s beaked whale, Tasmacetus shepherdi .............................54 Cuvier’s beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris .....54 Chapter 5. Recommended Research and Education Initiatives. .........................55 5.1 Asia ..................................55 Projects ..................................56 1. Monitor and evaluate ongoing threats to the Irrawaddy dolphins in the Mahakam River of Indonesia ......................56 2. Investigate the status of cetaceans in the Indonesian archipelago ..................56 3. Assess the status of cetacean populations and levels of incidental mortality in the Philippines ............................57 4. Evaluate the status and levels of mortality of small and medium-sized cetaceans in Taiwan ...............................58 5. Investigate and monitor the status of finless porpoises in the Yangtze River ............58 6. Investigate the feasibility of establishing a natural reserve for finless porpoises in and near Dongting Lake or Poyang Lake, China . . 58 7. Establish a marine mammal stranding network in China .......................58 8. Determine the migration route(s) and breeding ground(s) of western Pacific gray whales as a basis for their protection. .......59 9. Investigate the status of Irrawaddy dolphins in the Mekong River of Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. ..........................59 10. Investigate the status of coastal small cetaceans in Thailand. ...................60 11. Assess populations and habitat of Ganges dolphins (susus) and Irrawaddy dolphins in the Sundarbans of India and Bangladesh. . . 60 12. Investigate the use of dolphin oil as a fish attractant in the Brahmaputra River and conduct one or more experiments to test potential substitutes .....................61 13. Assess the distribution, abundance, and habitat of Ganges river dolphins and monitor ongoing threats – India and Bangladesh .....61 14. Investigate deliberate and accidental killing of coastal cetaceans in India ..............62 15. Investigate and monitor the distribution, abundance, and habitat quality of Indus River dolphins (bhulans) and address ongoing threats in Pakistan ...............62 16. Assess the impacts of reduced water levels on river dolphins in the Ganges and Indus rivers – Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal ..................63 17. Investigate the status of small cetaceans in the Indus Delta, Pakistan ...............63 18. Assess the status of cetaceans and threats from direct and indirect exploitation in Sri Lanka .............................63 19. Predict and investigate areas of high-density occurrence (“hotspots”) for marine populations of Irrawaddy dolphins and identify focal areas for conservation effort . . . 64 20. Convene a workshop to develop an action plan for conserving freshwater populations of Irrawaddy dolphins ...................64 21. Conduct intensive training courses on cetacean research techniques for scientists in South and Southeast Asia ..............64 5.2 Latin America (including Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean) ......64 Projects ...............................65 22. Investigate interactions between river dolphins and fisheries in Amazonia and Orinoquia ....65 iv

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