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Titanium MEMS: Anodic Bonding

of Titanium to Pyrex Glass

Faculty Lab: Noel MacDonald

Lab Mentor: Yanting Zhang

Group Members:

Dan Aubrey

Warren Hopkins

Jesus Roman

Deizely Santana

Funding Provided By:

NSF/ ITR

The National Science Foundation

DARPA (Defense Advanced Financing Research Project Agency)


MEMS:

Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems

• What are MEMS

• Tiny devices (biochips,

Analog Micro-Mirror Device)

• Present MEMS

• Airbags actuators, Jet ink

Printers

• Future of MEMS

• Impact significant

Industries

www.engr.ucsb.edu/%7Emsucsb/research/optical/micromirrorAMD.html


Bonding of Titanium to Pyrex Glass:

• Anodic Bonding

- Success with Pyrex Glass and Silicon

- Pyrex Glass and Silicon keep their shape during the anodic

bonding process

• Why Titanium?

- Titanium keeps its shape during the anodic bonding the process

- Recent completion of Pyrex glass and Titanium anodic bond

- Entering the beginning of research on the Titanium and Pyrex

glass bond


Finding Optimal Parameters by Modifying:

• Surface Roughness

• Temperature

• Vacuum

• Pressure

• Voltage


Prepare Samples

Picture of Titanium Sample

Interferometer Microscope

Picture of Titanium Sample

Titanium Samples

• ≈ 1 cm 2

• 500 μm thick


Bond Titanium and Pyrex

Uses:

• Silicon Fusion Bonding

• Adhesive Bonding

• Thermal Compression Bonding

• Anodic Bonding

Features:

5

• Vacuum down to 5 x 10⎯ mBar

• Pressure up to 3 mBar

• Voltage up to ± 2000 V


What Occurs During Anodic

Bonding?

Electrodes

Negative Polarity

Pyrex

Titanium

Chuck

-

Current

direction

+

• Temperature → mobile ions

• Voltage → migration of ions

• Electrostatic force brings samples together

• Result → permanent chemical bond

http:microlab.eecs.berkeley.edu/labmanual/chap9/KSbonderrpt.html


Temperature Results

Unsuccessful Bond

Successful Bond

400°C

300°C


Vacuum Results

Unsuccessful Bond

Successful Bond

5.00 x 10 -3mBar -4

1.00 x 10 mBar


Instantaneous Occurrence of

Anodic Bond

Current (mA)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2450 475 500

Time (s)


Testing Bond Strength

• Crack Method

• Micro-manipulator

• Results

• Testing Bond

Strength

newport.eecs.uci.edu/^rnelson/ug2000/crackopm.pdf


Acknowledgements

• Professor Noel MacDonald

• Yanting Zhang

• Ofelia Aguirre

• Al Flinck

• The Resident Advisors

• The Epsem Program

• All Friends and Family

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