Policing in Kosovo

fiq.fci.org

Policing in Kosovo

Policing in

Kosovo

February 2008


The Forum for Civic Initiatives (FIQ) is a Kosovar non-governmental organisation promoting the involvement of

Kosovar citizens in social and decision-making processes through programmes designed to focus attention on

the values and functioning of an open and democratic society.

Saferworld is an independent non-governmental organisation that works with governments and civil society

internationally to research, promote and implement new strategies to increase human security and prevent

armed violence.

Production: Rrota, www.rrota.com

Layout: Arbër Matoshi

Korab Etemi

Foto: OSCE/Hasan Sopa

© 2007 Forum for Civic Initiatives and Saferworld


Policing in Kosovo

3

Acknowledgments

This report was written by the SafePlace project team at the Forum for Civic Initiatives and Saferwold. We

wish to thank the Governments of United Kingdom and Germany for funding this research through their

support for the SafePlace project.


Policing in Kosovo

4

Executive Summary

This paper is the second part of a series designed to track changing perceptions of safety, security,

weapons prevalence and security providers in Kosovo. Its main focus is on perceptions of policing in Kosovo.

The results are based on data collected in June 2007 in a Kosovo-wide household survey of 1,200

respondents and a series of focus group discussions. The report analyses how perceptions of safety and

security have changed in the six months from December 2006 to June 2007, looking at the relationship

of different factors including levels of trust in the police, geographical position and ethnicity on perceptions

of policing in Kosovo.

Since December 2006, levels of safety appear to have improved slightly. Overall a high level of crime

was the most serious threat to security and safety, followed by poor infrastructure and traffic problems.

Kosovo Albanians and Kosovo Serbs continue to prioritise safety and security concerns very differently:

Kosovo Albanian respondents most often cited problems relating to lack of quality service provision at the

local or municipal levels, while Kosovo Serbs most often cited problems with political dimensions.

The Kosovo Police Service (KPS) is the second most trusted institution in Kosovo according to the survey

results (after the Kosovo Protection Corps – KPC). The level of trust is affected by several factors, in particular

place of residence, but the relationships between the factors that affect levels of trust in the KPS

are complex. While the findings showed a link between level of education and trust in the KPS, the relationship

is not simple: for instance, respondents who have completed secondary education were the least

likely to trust the KPS, but both those with no formal education and those who have completed university

education expressed high levels of trust in the KPS.

Unsurprisingly, there is also a strong relationship between levels of safety and trust in the KPS. Respondents

who felt “very safe” in their communities, trust the KPS “very much” or “fully”. However, there was

no clear link in the survey between the level of safety felt by respondents and how often they see the police

patrolling. Discussions in focus groups showed that feeling of safety and trust in the police are often

linked to personal experience and the experience of their friends and family with the police.

Although the presence of a police substation did have a slight positive impact on feelings of safety, it does

not necessarily improve the levels of safety one feels about their neighbourhood, nor does it necessarily

contribute towards higher levels of crime reporting to the police. Kosovo Serbs were much more aware

of the presence of a police substation than Kosovo Albanians. From the survey results it appears that the

permanent presence of police in the form of a substation contributes to higher levels of safety than police

patrolling only. Further research is necessary to determine if the presence of a substation contributes to

lower levels of crime, and therefore lower reporting of crime to the police.

Kosovo Albanian respondents felt KPS has improved in the past three years, where as Kosovo Serbs differed

on this matter. Even though the KPS was the least cited institution that takes bribes, both groups

were uniform in thinking that further improvement is needed in order for the KPS to develop into even

more modern and professional police force that would guarantee security to all its residents.

There are clear recommendations from respondents as to how the KPS could improve its performance.

Essentially, Kosovo’s public is asking police officers to continue their reforms and work more in the community.

More specifically, respondents would like the KPS to patrol more often and respond more quickly

to incidents. KPS officers are also asked to behave more professionally, tackling corruption within the

service and treating members of the public with more respect. Respondents would also like KPS officers

to improve their ability to resolve disputes between people, and to work more with the community to

solve community-level safety problems.


Policing in Kosovo

5

Contents

Introduction and methodology................................................................................................................. 7

Perceptions of safety ................................................................................................................................8

Fear of crime............................................................................................................................................9

Trust in the Kosovo Police Service............................................................................................................11

Professionalism of the KPS......................................................................................................................16

Crime reporting......................................................................................................................................18

The KPS in the community......................................................................................................................20

Community safety structures..................................................................................................................22

Recommendations for the KPS................................................................................................................24

Conclusion...................................... .......................................................................................................26

List of figures

Figure 1a: The most serious safety and security issues for Kosovo Albanians,

First, Second and Third mentioned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Figure 1b: The most serious safety and security problems for KosovoSerbs, First,

Second and Third mentioned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Figure 2: Fear of crime, disaggregated by ethnicity June 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 3: Frequency of different types of crime. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Figure 4: Trust in Kosovo’s institutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Figure 5: Trust in the KPS by level of education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Figure 6: Trust of police and feelings of safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Figure 7: Community safety and the number of days a year KPS officers are seen in that

community........................................................................14

Figure 8: Neighbourhood safety and the presence of a police substation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Figure 9: Respondents seeing KPS and UNMIK Police officers at least

several times a week. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Figure 10: Institutions asking for bribes within the last 12 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Figure 11: Satisfaction with the KPS’ action disaggregated by education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Figure 12: Confidence in case being solved, disaggregated by ethnicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Figure 13: Awareness of MCSC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Figure 14: How the KPS could improve its performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24


Policing in Kosovo

6

Acronyms and abbreviations

EU

FIQ

IDP

ISSR

KFOR

KLA

KPC

KPS

LPSC

MCSC

NATO

NGO

PISG

SALW

UNDP

UNMIK

European Union

Forum for Civic Initiatives

Internally Displaced Person

Internal Security Sector Review

Kosovo Force (NATO)

Kosovo Liberation Army

Kosovo Protection Corps

Kosovo Police Service

Local Public Safety Committee

Municipal Community Safety Council

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

Non-Governmental Organisation

Provisional Institutions of Self-Government

Small Arms and Light Weapons

United Nations Development Programme

United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo


Policing in Kosovo

Introduction and methodology

7

This survey is in two parts, one of which forms part

of a series designed to track changing perceptions

of safety, security, weapons prevalence and security

providers in Kosovo and the other which looks

at particular security issues on an ad hoc basis. The

survey undertaken in June 2007 focused on perceptions

of policing in Kosovo, and this report is based

on these data. The complete questionnaire and raw

data can be found at www.safeplaceproject.org.

Each of these tracker surveys comprises a household

survey and a series of focus groups. The household

survey in June 2007 was conducted throughout Kosovo

and a representative sample of 1,200 respondents

was selected to gather the data. The standard margin

of error is 2.89 percent at a confidence level of 95 percent.

The data for this study was gathered principally

from interviews with heads of households and where

appropriate, women (regardless of their position in

a household). Because a large majority of heads of

household in Kosovo are men, in order to provide an

adequate gender balance, women were interviewed

in every second and fourth household. In total, 53.2

percent of respondents were male and 46.8 percent

were female. All were over 18 years old.

Six focus groups on security provision were used to

validate the data from the household survey and to

investigate more deeply the sensitive issues around

security provision. These groups were as follows:

●●

●●

●●

●●

●●

●●

South Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, male and female,

Kosovo Albanian, age 18-25 years

North Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, male and female,

Kosovo Serb, age 18-25 years

Gjakovë/Djakovica, male, Kosovo Albanian,

age 18-25 years

Gjakovë/Djakovica, female, Kosovo Albanian,

age 18-25 years

Suharekë/Suva Reka, male and female, Kosovo

Albanian, age 18-25 years

Lipjan/Lipljan, male, Kosovo Serb, age 18-

25 years


Policing in Kosovo

8

Perceptions of safety

Figure 1a: The most serious safety and security issues for Kosovo Albanians First, Second and Third mentioned

(Baseline number: 954)

Poor infrastructure

Traffic problems

Pollution

High levels of crime

Unresolved status of

Kosovo

Unfavourable solution of

Kosovo status

0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%

Overall, respondents felt that levels of safety had

improved slightly in the six months between December

2006 and June 2007, with 17.0 percent agreeing

that “levels of safety have improved”, 77.4 percent

feeling that “levels of safety have stayed the same”

and only 4.4 percent feeling that “levels of safety have

got worse”. Kosovo Serb respondents were on average

slightly more pessimistic, with only 4.5 percent

feeling that “levels of safety have improved” and 13.6

percent feeling that they had got worse.

High levels of crime were the most serious safety

and security issue faced by communities, according

to 10.7 percent of respondents, followed by poor

infrastructure and traffic problems (both at 8.9 percent).

However, as has been noted before, 1 a high

“The situation is already improving as far as it concerns

safety. Policemen are becoming more capable

and competent.”

- 21-year-old Kosovo Albanian male student in a focus

group in Gjakovë/ Djakovica

percentage of Kosovo Albanian respondents – 29.9

percent – are unwilling or unable to answer questions

concerning their community’s security. Moreover,

many more respondents are refusing to answer

the question about types of crime, or answering “I

don’t know”. In June 2007, this had risen to 38.1

percent of respondents, compared with 34.3 percent

in December 2006 and 25.7 percent in March

2006. This reluctance needs closer investigation and

likely points to underlying mistrust of authorities

that is not necessarily reflected in questions dealing

explicitly with trust.

Kosovo Albanians and Kosovo Serbs prioritise safety

and security concerns very differently, as Figures

1a and 1b below demonstrate. When asked what

their three most serious safety and security concerns

were, the most frequent responses of Kosovo Albanian

respondents were “poor infrastructure” (21.1

percent), “traffic problems” (15.1 percent) and

“pollution” (13.0 percent), all related to the lack

of quality service provision at the local or municipal

level . In contrast, the most serious concerns for Kosovo

Serbs were “unfavourable solution of Kosovo’s

status” (55.1 percent), “high levels of crime” (53.5

percent) and “poor inter-ethnic relations” (40.9 percent)

– all political concerns with both local and international

dimensions.

It is interesting that the number of Kosovo Serb

respondents placing Kosovo’s status as the most

serious safety or security problem was not higher,

particularly given that 80.3 percent of Kosovo Serbs

felt that their security will “get a lot worse” if the

“resolution of Kosovo status is independence”, a

feeling shared by only 0.6 percent of Kosovo Albanian

respondents. (70.4 percent of Kosovo Albanian

respondents felt that “it will improve a lot” in the

same situation compared with Kosovo Serbs.)

___________________________________________

1

See for example, Human Security in Kosovo: A survey of Perceptions (Forum for Civic Initiatives and Saferworld, June 2007) p10, Sokolová, J. et. al.,

SALW Survey of Kosovo, (SEESAC, 2006), p36 and Light Blue: Public Perceptions of Security and Police Performance in Kosovo (UNDP Kosovo, June

2004), p19.


Policing in Kosovo

Fear of crime

9

Figure 1b: The most serious safety and security problems for Kosovo Serbs First, Second and Third mentioned

(Baseline number: 198)

Unfavourable solution

of Kosovo status

High levels of crime

Poor inter-ethnic relations

Lack of freedom of

movement in Kosovo

Pollution

Traffic problems

Although people’s perceptions of safety may be

becoming marginally more positive, according

to the survey fear of crime in general seems to have

increased between December 2006 and June 2007.

In the survey conducted in December, 34.1 percent

stated that they were “not afraid at all” that they

or their family may become a victim of crime and

15.9 percent that they were “very afraid”. 2 In June,

however, the figures were reversed: 28.6 percent

of people were “not concerned at all” that they or

their family may become a victim of crime, while

33.3 percent were “very concerned.”

“Now even the number of drug abuse has increased.

So, the percentage of crime is increasing.”

- A 20-year-old male from Suharekë / Suva Reka

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%

Kosovo Serbs may feel their neighbourhoods are

less safe than Kosovo Albanians do, but according

to the survey, Kosovo Serbs are becoming less fearful

of crime, while Kosovo Albanians’ fear of crime

is increasing. This trend is also backed up by the focus

group discussions. Many Kosovo Albanian focus

group participants felt that crime in their community

was very serious, some citing an increase of drug

abuse as an example.

The number of Kosovo Serbs concerned that they

or their family might become a victim of crime decreased

between December 2006 and June 2007:

In December, 69.8 percent of Kosovo Serb respondents

were “very afraid” that either they or

a family member may become a victim of crime,

and a further 26.7 percent were “quite afraid”. In

June, the percentage of Kosovo Serbs who were

“very concerned” of becoming a victim of crime

decreased to 43.9 percent; a further 34.3 percent

were “quite concerned”.

While Kosovo Serbs remain fearful of crime, it

seems their fear is becoming less intense. One possible

explanation for this is exemplified by a comment

from a 23-year-old male student in a focus

group in Mitrovicë / Mitrovica: “People accept that

criminals are around us and that criminality is the

most developed business in our society. It became

a part of our reality, a part of our everyday life.”

If crime is perceived to be ubiquitous, it is possible

that people no longer consider it unusual and so

it is not revealed as the serious problem as it is by

quantitative surveys. Alternatively, it may be that

the crime in question is between criminal gangs,

having little direct effect on the day-to-day lives

of ordinary citizens. Certainly, the statistics demonstrating

the decrease in fear of crime among

Kosovo Serbs should be treated with caution.

The types of crime respondents perceive to be most

frequently occurring in their area are changing over

the months as Figure 3 below shows. 4 Robbery/theft

___________________________________________

2

Human Security in Kosovo: A survey of perceptions at: http://www.saferworld.co.uk/images/pubdocs/Human_Security_in_Kosovo_English.pdf,

pp 14-15.


Policing in Kosovo

10

Fear of crime

Figure 2: Fear of crime, disaggregated by ethnicity June 2007 3

50%

45%

40%

43.9%

41.7%

Kosovo Albanian

Kosovo Serb

Other

35%

30%

32.1%

34.3%

33.4%

25%

20%

19.8%

22.9%

15%

10%

5%

0%

14.6%

Very

concerned

Quite

concerned

12.5%

10.1% 9.1%

6.4%

Neither

concerned nor

unconcerned

3.9%

remains the most common type of crime according to

respondents, with 49.4 percent in March 2006, 36.3

percent in December 2006 and 43.3 percent of respondents

in June 2007 citing this as their first answer.

The focus groups discussions confirm this, with several

of the participants stating that they or someone they

knew Figure had 3: Frequency been robbed, of different often of types mobile of crime phones or car

4.2%

Not very

concerned

2.0%

Not concerned

at all

4.2%

3.1%

1.3%

0 0.5% 0

Don't know

No answer

radios but also of vehicles. Many participants also commented

on an increase in both drug abuse and drugrelated

crimes, potentially linked to the relatively high

level of petty theft mentioned by participants. 5

As Figure 4 demonstrates, the Kosovo Police Service

is the second most trusted institution in Ko-

50

Percentage of respondents

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

Jun-07

Dec-06

Mar-06

5

0

Robbery/theft

Assault/beating

Threats

Drug abuse

Property disputes

___________________________________________

Domestic violence

Shootings/fighting

with guns

Armed robbery/theft

Kidnapping

3

Baselines for each category: Kosovo Albanian: 954; Kosovo Serb: 198; Other: 48.

Murder

Armed threat

Violence related

to smuggling

Sexual assault

Other

Don't know

/no answer

4

Data for March 2006 is from Small Arms and Light Weapons Survey of Kosovo (SEESAC), p 41. Some of the fields in the table have been approximated:

the field “drug-related crime” has been included here under “drug abuse”; “fighting” has been included under “shootings/fighting with guns”

and “rape” has been included under “sexual assault”. The field “domestic violence” was not included in the March 2006 survey.

The data for December 2006 is from Human Security in Kosovo: a Survey of Perceptions, p 19, which also used an identical sampling methodology.

The field of “sexual assault” was not included in the December 2006 survey.

5

There is a marked decrease in the number of crimes people perceive occurring that involve or are likely to involve weapons, i.e., “shootings/fighting

with guns”, “armed robbery/theft”, “murder” and “armed threat”. In March 2006 25.6 percent of respondents cited those as a crime, compared to

7.2 percent in December 2006 and 6.1 percent in June 2007. However, stories of weapons-related crime were raised on several occasions in focus

group discussions in June 2007, where individual participants had witnessed crime scenes involving firearms.


Policing in Kosovo

Trust in the Kosovo Police Service

11

Figure 4: Trust in Kosovo’s institutions

90%

80%

Fully

Very much

70%

60%

Percentage

50%

40%

19.6

52.8 50.6

68.8 16.7

19.5

13.5

18.4

21.4

30%

20%

10%

0%

32.7

UNMIK

Police

24.4 25.4

11

37.8

KPS KFOR KPC Municipal

authorities

31.9

38.8

Judiciary Media Kosovo

government

33.1 34.1

EU

“Collaboration between population and police is improving

day after day.”

- A 21-year-old male student from Gjakovë / Djakovica

sovo, with 77.2 percent of respondents trusting it

either “very much” or “fully”, second only to the

Kosovo Protection Corps (79.8 percent of respondents).

While UNMIK Police, KFOR, Kosovo government,

media and judiciary are not trusted as much,

still over 50 percent of respondents trust these institutions

either “very much” or “fully”. 6

Several variables affect how much trust people have

in the KPS, including ethnicity, location and education.

For instance, 91.5 percent of Kosovo Albanian

respondents trusted the KPS “fully” or “very much”,

85.4 percent of non-Serb and non-Albanian respondents

trusted the KPS “fully” or “very much”, but only

5.1 percent of Kosovo Serb respondents did.

or had a majority of Kosovo Serb residents, as noted

in Human Security in Kosovo. 7 Trust in the KPS was

particularly low in the four municipalities with majority

Kosovo-Serb populations, reflecting the perception

among many Kosovo Serbs that the KPS is an institution

of Kosovo Albanians for Kosovo Albanians.

In Zubin Potok/Zubin Potok, Leposaviq/Leposavić

and Zveçan/Zvečan, only 20.0 percent, 10.0 percent

and 4.0 percent of respondents respectively trusted

the KPS “fully” or “very much”, and in Shtërpcë/

Štrpce in the south of Kosovo – and therefore without

a boundary with Serbia proper – no respondents

trusted the KPS “fully” or “very much”.

“I know a lot of young police officers who do not take

their job as seriously as they should, who drive fast

their police cars and who are very aggressive.” - A

22-year old male student from Mitrovicë / Mitrovica

Mostly, trust in the KPS varied according to whether

a municipality was dominated by Kosovo Albanians

___________________________________________

6

For more data on trust in institutions, see UNDP Early Warning Report, January-March 2007, No.16 , accessed at: http://www.kosovo.undp.

org/repository/docs/EWR16_eng%5Bfinal%5D.pdf and Human Security in Kosovo: a Survey of Perceptions, pp 28-30.

7

Human Security in Kosovo: a Survey of Perceptions, p 27.


Policing in Kosovo

12

Trust in the Kosovo Police Service

Figure 5: Trust in the KPS by level of education

100%

90%

Fully

Very much

80%

70%

Percentage

60%

50%

40%

79.4% 66.1% 59.0%

55.7%

41.8%

47.9%

43.2%

30%

20%

10%

13.2%

20.0%

24.5% 23.0% 23.2%

28.9%

41.1%

0%

No formal

education

Uncompleted

primary

Completed

primary

Uncompleted

secondary

Completed

secondary

Higher/

uncompleted

university

Completed

universty

There is some relationship between the level of education

of respondents and how much they trust the

KPS, as Figure 5 below shows. The less education a

respondent has received, the more likely he or she

is to trust the KPS “fully”, while the more education

a respondent has received, the more likely he or she

is to be slightly sceptical and to trust the KPS “very

much” rather than “fully”. Respondents who have

completed secondary education but gone no further

are the least likely to trust the KPS, with 65.0 percent

trusting the KPS either “very much” or “fully”,

compared with 92.6 percent of respondents with no

formal education and 84.3 percent who have completed

university. 8

Unsurprisingly, as Figure 6 below shows, there is a

strong relationship between trust of the KPS and

the levels of safety that respondents feel in their

neighbourhood. 90.2 percent of respondents who

felt their community was “very safe” trusted the

KPS “very much” or “fully”, while 4.4 percent of

respondents who felt their community was “very

safe” trusted the KPS either “a little” or “not at

all”. In contrast, 54.1 percent of respondents who

felt their community to be “very unsafe” trusted

the KPS either “a little” or “not at all”. However,

the relationship between safety and trust is not

without complexities, with 40.5 percent of respondents

who felt their community to be “very

unsafe” trusting the KPS either “fully” or “very

much”. Therefore, other variables also affect perceptions

of safety, and while the KPS can do much

to improve people’s perception of safety through

its own actions, there will be some factors outside

of its control which will continue to contribute to

feelings of insecurity. (See the section on Perceptions

of Safety for discussion of some of these other

factors.)

___________________________________________

8

The age of respondents up to their 60s did not have an effect on how much they trust the KPS, with the exception of respondents over 60 years

old, 62.8 percent of whom trusted the KPS “fully” compared with an average of 52.8 percent.


Policing in Kosovo

Trust in the Kosovo Police Service

13

Figure 6: Trust of police and feelings of safety

Percentage of respondents trusting or distrusting the KPS

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Very safe

Very safe

Somewhat safe

Somewhat safe

Feelings of safety

Distrust

Trust

Linear (Trust)

Linear (Distrust)

Somewhat unsafe

Neither safe nor unsafe

Somewhat unsafe

Very unsafe

Very unsafe

entage of respondents trusting or distrusting the KPS

Interestingly, the level of safety felt by respondents

was not affected by how often they saw KPS officers

in the street. The extremely close correlation between

the two curves on Figure 7 below shows those respondents’

feelings of safety increased or decreased

regardless of how often they saw police officers.

“I’ve dealt with them and as far as I remember they’ve

behaved nicely. My neighbours have also had good

experience with police officers.”

– A 18- year old female student from Suharekë / Suva

Reka

Therefore, how often one sees the police is not necessarily

a measure of safety. Instead, the relationship

between feelings of safety and trust in the KPS

100

is complex, with these two factors influencing each

other as well as other factors being important. In

particular, 90 personal experience

Very safeseems important in

how the police are trusted, a finding stemming from

many 80 of the focus group discussions, and place of

residence and the presence of a police substation affect

feelings of safety to a greater or lesser degree.

70

Somewhat safe

According to this survey, the presence of a police

substation

60

in a community did have a slight positive

impact on feelings of safety, as shown in Figure 8

below. 50 At the same time, the presence of a police

substation did not seem to affect improvements

in the level of neighbourhood safety over the six

40

30

20

months between December 2006 and June 2007:

8.3 percent of the people who said there is a police

substation in their neighbourhood and 88.2 percent

who said there is not a police substation in their

neighbourhood also said that the levels of safety had

improved over the last six months. It is possible that

six months is too short a time period for the presence

of a substation to affect safety demonstrably,

but it is more likely that safety levels are dependent

on several different factors, many of which will be

outside the control of the local KPS officers.

Moreover, on the surface, it seems that the presence

of a police substation makes it less likely for a victim

to report a crime: 80.8 percent of respondents who

said there was a substation in their neighbourhood

would “definitely” report a crime to the police if it

was committed against them or their family, compared

with 94.3 percent of people living Distrust in areas

without a substation. However, rather than being a

result of fear of the police, it is likely that Trust because

substations are established according to need – and

therefore areas where people feel less safe – they

are already unlikely to report crimes because of general

distrust of authorities. Figure 8 suggests the

presence of the police locally – and what they are

doing – rather than the number of times they are

seen by the public impacts more on people’s feelings

of safety. Further research Somewhat needs unsafe to be done in

order to establish if the presence of a substation has

a positive impact on reducing levels of crime.

Neither safe nor unsafe

Somewhat unsafe

Linear (Trust)

Linear (Distrust)

Very unsafe

Very unsafe


Policing in Kosovo

14

Trust in the Kosovo Police Service

Figure 7: Community safety and the number of days a year KPS officers are seen in that community

Percentage of respondents feeling

"safe" or "unsafe"

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Number of days a year

Expon. (Safe)

Expon. (Unsafe)

The relationship between trust in the police, feelings

of community safety, co-operation with the police

in reporting crimes and presence of the police in

the community is complex, but in order to have the

greatest positive impact on community safety, police

reform needs to encompass all these related aspects

simultaneously. While a key recommendation of respondents

to this survey was that KPS officers patrol

more often (see on Top Six Recommendations), in

order to make a significant difference, it will be the

way KPS officers act and interact with the public, as

well as how efficient they are perceived to be, that

will be more important in the long run.

Moreover, the KPS’ patrolling is not geographically

uniform (neither is that of UNMIK Police), as

Figure 9 below shows. The KPS necessarily need

to devote different levels of resources to different

types of crime and safety problems, and tailor

approaches to communities’ different needs.

However, such a marked disparity between municipalities

where all respondents see KPS at least

several times a week (in Shtërpcë/Štrpce) and

those where only 40.0 percent of respondents do

so (in Novobërdë/Novo Brdo) is concerning and

suggests some municipalities are not receiving

sufficient resources.

Figure 8: Neighbourhood safety and the presence of a police substation (Baseline number: 184)

Percentage of people thinking a

substation made them safer

90%

85%

80%

75%

70%

65%

60%

55%

50%

45%

Very safe

Somewhat safe

Neither safe nor unsafe

Somewhat unsafe

Very unsafe

40%

Level of safety


Policing in Kosovo

Trust in the Kosovo Police Service

15

Figure 9: Respondents seeing KPS and UNMIK Police officers at least several times a week

Shtërpcë/Štrpce

Dragash/Dragaš

Leposaviq/Leposavić

Suharekë/Suva Reka

Zubin Potok/Zubin Potok

Shtime/Štimlje

Rahovec/ Orahovac

Zveçan/Zvečan

Deçan/Dečani

Kamenicë/Kamenica

Istog/Istok

Obiliq/Obilić

Vushtrri/Vučitrn

Gllogovc/Glogovac

Klinë/Klina

Mitrovicë/Mitrovica

Pejë/Peć

Podujevë/Podujevo

Viti/Vitina

Lipjan/Lipljan

Skenderaj/Srbica

Fushë Kosovë/ Kosovo Polje

Gjilan/Gnjilane

Ferizaj/Uroševac

Gjakovë/Đakovica

Prishtinë/Priština

KPS

UNMIK

Prizren/Prizren

Kaçanik/Kačanik

Malishevë/Mališevo

Novobërdë/ Novo Brdo

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%


Policing in Kosovo

16

Professionalism of the KPS

Figure 10: Institutions asking for bribes within the last

12 months (Baseline number: 39)

International

administration,

2.6%

Central government,

2.6%

UNMIK Police,

2.6%

Schools,

5.1%

KPS

5.1%

No answer

7.7%

Other, 7.7%

Municipal authorities,

38.5%

being asked for a bribe in the last 12 months were

asked by the KPS to do so.

Quantitative surveys on such sensitive issues as corruption

and bribery should be treated with the utmost

caution, given people’s tendency to be reluctant

to disclose potentially embarrassing information.

At most, the results in Figure 10 (from a very

low baseline number of 39) show the relative positions

of different institutions regarding the tendency

to ask for bribes. More usefully, qualitative data

from the focus groups show that corruption is considered

a problem for the KPS, or at least for some

of its officers, a finding backed up by 28.7 percent

of respondents who said that the performance of

the KPS would improve “if they were less corrupt”

(see section Top Six Recommendations). Some participants

perceived KPS officers as having inappropriate

links, most often by behaving more leniently

The Courts,

23.1%

Health services,

25.6%

“There is only one option: corruption. Law in Kosovo

can be “paid.”

- A 18- year old female student from Gjakovë/

Djakovica

The results from the quantitative part of this survey

show that members of the KPS are much less likely

to receive bribes than people working in some other

institutions. Only 3.3 percent of all respondents have

either been asked, or have a family member who was

asked, to pay a bribe to any institution in the last 12

months. The group most likely to have been asked to

pay a bribe were those who had completed university

education, with 7.4 percent of these respondents

saying they or a member of their family had been

asked to pay a bribe in the last 12 months. 9 Prizren/

Prizren was the region where most bribes had been

requested, with 5.9 percent of respondents in this region

stating that they or a member of their family had

been asked for a bribe. In contrast, in Gjilan/Gnjilane

region was the least corrupt by this measure, where

only 0.8 percent of respondents had been asked for a

bribe. As Figure 10 below shows, people were most

likely to be asked to pay a bribe by municipal authorities

(38.5 percent), health services (25.6 percent) or

the courts (23.1 percent); only 5.1 percent of those

with people they knew, but occasionally the allegations

are more serious: “I have seen several times

their [KPS officers’] relationship with well-known

criminals. It is not strange to see here a police officer

sitting and communicating with criminals.” 10

Such extreme examples should be treated with caution,

particularly because “criminals” could refer to

people who have not in fact been found guilty of a

crime but instead are perceived to have committed

wrongs. Nevertheless, there remains much for the

KPS to do in improving its reputation, particularly

among Kosovo Serbs.

Focus group participants were nuanced in their opinions

of KPS officers, with the majority judging officers

on their individual merits and faults rather than

making broad generalisations about the whole KPS.

For instance, some participants considered some

members of the KPS to “behave like hooligans” and

others to “have a proper attitude”. 11 However, the

general consensus in a focus group comprising Kosovo

Serbs was that KPS officers are “arrogant” 12 ,

___________________________________________

9

The reasons behind this apparent link between level of education and paying bribes merit further investigation, perhaps in focus groups comprising

people of similar education levels.

10

Young male in a focus group in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.

11

21-year-old male student in a focus group in Gjakovë/Djakovica.

12

Young male in a focus group in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.


Policing in Kosovo

Professionalism of the KPS

17

“aggressive 13 ” and “impolite” 14 . One participant

said that a typical KPS officer was “a personality

who suddenly got power. One day he is nothing

and the next day he has all the power. And then

he abuses that power.” 15 It will clearly be a challenge

to address such entrenched opinions, both

in changing police officers’ behaviour, in particular

avoiding any hint of partiality, and in communicating

policing priorities better to citizens. As one participant

put it, “the police have to speak with people

more often. Even they have to do the things more

transparently.” 16 However, some changes could be

relatively simple, such as insisting KPS officers address

citizens respectfully when carrying out routine

work such as checks on identity cards, and ensuring

officers’ behaviour is consistent regardless of with

whom they are working or whom they are addressing.

___________________________________________

13

Another young male in a focus group in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.

14

Another young male in a focus group in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.

15

Young male in a focus group in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.

16

A third young male in a focus group in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.


Policing in Kosovo

18

Crime reporting

Figure 11: Satisfaction with the KPS’ action disaggregated by education (Baseline number: 133)

Very or somewhat satisfied

90%

80%

85.7%

Very or somewhat dissatisfied

Linear (Very or somewhat dissatisfied)

Linear (Very or somewhat satisfied)

70%

70.0%

75.0%

60%

59.1%

62.5%

50%

40%

46.8%

40.4%

42.1%

30%

31.8%

33.3%

20%

20.0%

10%

14.3%

0%

0.0%

No formal

education

Uncompleted

primary

Completed

primary

Uncompleted

secondary

Completed

secondary

Higher/

uncompleted

university

Completed

universty

little over a tenth of respondents – 11.1 percent

A – had reported a crime to the KPS at some point

in their lives. 55.6 percent of these respondents were

either “somewhat satisfied” or “very satisfied” with

the KPS’ action in response to the crime report. Satisfaction

varied with education: the more educated

the respondent, the less likely they were to be satisfied

with the KPS’ action as Figure 11 below shows.

___________________________________________

The KPS is by far the most likely institution that respondents

would call if they or their family were

threatened with violence. 88.2 percent (in a question

with multiple answers possible) said that they

would call the KPS, followed by 19.3 percent who

would call their relatives or family. The majority of

Serb respondents (58.6 percent) would also call the

KPS if threatened with violence but 46.0 percent

would call their relatives or family. 17 Validating these

results, 91.6 percent of respondents would “definitely”

report a crime to the KPS if it was committed

against “you or your family”. Variables such as

age, education and gender did not radically alter respondents’

attitude towards reporting a crime, but

71.7 percent of Kosovo Serbs – some way below

the average – would “definitely” report a crime. Interestingly,

only 80.0 percent of respondents in the

region of Gjilan/Gnjilane would “definitely” report

a crime, the lowest of the seven regions, but this is

also the region with the fewest instances of “perceived

bribery”. (See the section on Professionalism

of the KPS).

Male respondents were more sceptical than female

respondents that the KPS would “catch the perpetrator/

solve the crime”, with 62.8 percent giving

this reason for not “definitely” calling the police,

against 55.6 percent of female respondents. Rural

respondents were also more sceptical, with 66.1

percent saying that they did not believe “the police

will catch the perpetrator/ solve the crime” and a

further 14.3 percent saying “I don’t think the police

are impartial”. This compares with urban respondents,

where 46.9 percent and 6.3 percent respectively

shared these beliefs.

17

7.3 percent of respondents said they would “definitely not report a crime”. When asked for their reasons, 59.1 percent answered “I don’t believe

the police will catch the perpetrator / solve the crime”, 11.4 percent said “I don’t think the police are impartial, and 5.7 percent said “I am afraid

for another reason”. .


Policing in Kosovo

Crime reporting

19

However, this urban-rural divide is not present in the

responses to the question, “If you or your family became

a victim of crime, how confident are you that

the case would be solved and the perpetrator brought

to justice?” This time, 59.8 percent of respondents

living in rural areas, and 57.3 percent in urban areas,

were either “very confident” or “somewhat

confident”. Again, Gjilan/Gnjilane region displays the

lowest confidence in the case being solved, with only

46.2 percent of respondents were “very confident”

or “somewhat confident”, followed closely by Mitrovicë/Mitrovica

region, on 47.0 percent. Respondents

were most confident in Prizren/Prizren region, with

77.0 percent of respondents being “very confident”

or “somewhat confident”.

Confidence is closely related to the ethnicity of the

respondent, with Kosovo Albanian respondents being

much more confident than their Kosovo Serb

counterparts that a case would be solved and the

perpetrator brought to justice, as shown in Figure

12. 18 As noted above, the scepticism regarding the

ability of the KPS to solve crimes is the primary motivation

for people’s reluctance to report them. The

implication for the KPS is broadly positive: while

there remains some concern about perceived links

to criminals or lack of impartiality, the KPS’ main

problem is one of capacity.

Participants in focus group discussions noted on several

occasions that they believed the KPS to have

improved in the past three years: “They are stricter

and they perform their duties better. They’re better

trained.” 19 While participants in the focus group

comprising Kosovo Serbs in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica

were divided over whether there had been any improvement,

there was general agreement in the focus

group comprising Kosovo Serbs in Çagllavicë/

Čaglavica that the KPS were “a little bit better”, 20

who “do patrols more often”. 21 Overall, “there is

progress but it is not enough.” 22 It is therefore important

for the KPS to continue with the reforms

“There is progress, but it’s not enough.”

- Male from a focus group in Çagllavicë/Ćaglavica

they have been instituting, such as more frequent

patrolling and in their training schedules in order to

build on and entrench these improvements.

___________________________________________

18

Baselines for each category: Kosovo Albanian: 954; Kosovo Serb: 198; Other: 48.

19

24-year-old male student in focus group in Suharekë/Suva Reka.

20

Young male in a focus group in Çagllavicë/Čaglavica.

21

Another young male in a focus group in Çagllavicë/Čaglavica.

22

A third young male in a focus group in Çagllavicë/Čaglavica.


Policing in Kosovo

20

The KPS in the community

Figure 12: Confidence in case being solved, disaggregated by ethnicity

60%

50%

47.9%

Kosovo Albanian

Kosovo Serb

Other

40%

36.0%

30%

30.8%

31.8%

20%

14.6%

22.2%

20.7%

16.0%

14.6%

10%

8.1%

10.6%

8.3% 8.3%

7.0%

5.0%

6.6%

5.1%

6.3%

0%

Very confident

Somewhat

confident

Neither confident

nor unconfident

Not very

confident

Not confident

at all

No answer

fifth (19.9 percent) of respondents were aware

A of a KPS substation in their neighbourhood, but

there was a large disparity between Kosovo Albanian

and Kosovo Serb responses. Only 9.1 percent of

Kosovo Albanian respondents said that there was a

police substation in their neighbourhood, compared

with 70.7 percent of Kosovo Serb respondents, a

finding backed up by the results disaggregated by

municipality, and likely a result of intensive efforts

by the KPS to patrol these areas visibly. 77.0 percent

of respondents (the figures showed little difference

when disaggregated by ethnicity) who knew

of a police substation in their neighbourhood felt

that the presence of the substation made them feel

“much safer” or “a little bit safer”.

From the survey results it appears that it is this permanent

presence of the KPS – in the form of a substation

– rather than more frequent patrolling – that

has the greatest positive impact on perceptions of

safety. A substation provides the community with a

fixed point of contact for raising community members’

concerns and finding out information about

policing and community safety initiatives.

___________________________________________

23

23-year-old female student in a focus group in Gjakovë/Djakovica.

24

18-year-old female student in a focus group in Gjakovë/Djakovica.

Respondents see police in their neighbourhoods regularly,

with 44.9 percent seeing KPS every day and

25.8 percent “several times a week”. Kosovo Serb respondents

were more likely to see KPS officers “every

day” or “several times a week” than Kosovo Albanian

respondents, with 85.4 percent giving one of these

responses compared with 67.7 percent of Kosovo Albanian

respondents. Men were also much more likely

to see KPS officers than women: 49.5 percent of male

and 39.7 percent of female respondents saw KPS officers

“every day”. However, comments from women

“You would not feel safe if you lived in a neighbourhood

where theft was present. In such case you

would not feel safe to leave the house alone.”

- An 18-year old male student from Suharekë / Suva Reka

in an all-female focus group suggest a great deal of

contact between women and KPS officers, many of

whom had “often talked” 23 to police officers or “often

meet them”. 24 52.9 percent of respondents with

no formal education saw KPS officers “every day” or

“several times a week” compared with 73.3 percent

who had completed university. This could be a reflection

of more educated people being more mobile and

therefore more likely to encounter KPS officers, or of

being more conscious of seeing police officers. More

research would be needed to establish whether this

finding was anomalous or significant.


Policing in Kosovo

The KPS in the community

21

The KPS are mostly seen by respondents “in their

cars” (46.1 percent), “patrolling the streets on foot”

(23.4 percent) or “on traffic duties” (18.2 percent).

In Pejë/Peć region however, respondents saw police

“patrolling the streets on foot” (28.0 percent)

more often than “in their cars” (24.8 percent) and

in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica region, the results were 29.1

percent and 33.9 percent respectively.

Seeing police patrolling on foot is popular with

respondents, 60.7 percent of whom said that the

performance of the KPS in their area would be improved

“if they patrolled more often”. Focus group

participants noticed that this was already beginning

to happen. One said, “I think they [KPS officers]

walk more often now. In the past they used to

use bicycles more often but they also used their cars

more than they do now.” 25 Another noted with approval,

“Nowadays I see them [KPS officers] walking

around schools and downtown.” 26 47.3 percent

of respondents said that the KPS’ performance

would be improved “if they responded more quickly

to incidents”. Professionalism of the KPS was also

important, with 28.7 percent saying KPS would be

improved if it was less corrupt, and 27.3 percent if

KPS officers “treated people with more respect”.

[See the section on Professionalism and Corruption

in the KPS above.]

While a large majority of respondents (79.7 percent)

said they were not aware of any initiatives in their

community to improve co-operation between the

police and citizens, the results were varied according

to municipality. In Kaçanik/Kačanik, Novobërdë/

Novo Brdo and Rahovec/Orahovac, 33.3 percent, 40

percent and 23.3 percent of respondents respectively

knew of such initiatives in their communities occurring

currently, while 28.0 percent of respondents

in Skenderaj/Srbica were aware of initiatives that

had finished.

___________________________________________

25

24-year-old male student in a focus group in Suharekë/Suva Reka.

26

24-year-old male student in a focus group in Suharekë/Suva Reka.


Policing in Kosovo

22

Community safety structures

Only small minorities of respondents had heard

of Local Public Safety Committees (LPSCs) and

Municipal Community Safety Councils (MCSCs), although

awareness has grown since the last survey,

conducted in December 2006. 27 In December, only

6.9 percent had heard of LPSCs and 2.9 percent of

MCSCs, 28 which had grown to 12.3 percent and

15.8 percent respectively by June 2007. 29 Of those

who had heard of LPSCs, half (50.3 percent) said

there was an LPSC operating in their area. Awareness

of LPSCs was highest in the municipalities of

Deçan/Dečani (44.0 percent), Rahovec/Orahovac

(40.0 percent) and Obiliq/Obilić (26.7 percent).

However, there is an MCSC operating in every municipality,

and while in the June 2007 survey more

respondents had heard of MCSCs than of LPSCs (in

contrast to the December 2006 survey), the level of

awareness is still extremely low. Only in Malishevë/

Mališevo and Deçan/Dečani were close to half of

respondents aware of MCSCs, as Figure 13 below

shows.

___________________________________________

27

Human Security in Kosovo: A Survey of Perceptions, pp 34-36. The question asked on both occasions was “Have you heard of Municipal Community

Safety Councils?” and “Have you heard of Local Public Safety Committees?”

28

Human Security in Kosovo: A Survey of Perceptions, p 34.

29

The number of LPSC in Kosovo was 17 in 2006, with 12 to be approved for 2007, and 8 planned for 2008. For more information see: Kosovo

Ministry of Internal Affairs: Strategic plan 2007-2010, p 43.


Policing in Kosovo

Community safety structures

23

Figure 13: Awareness of MCSC

Malishevë/Mališevo

Deçan/Dečani

44.0%

48.0%

Shtime/Štimlje

Skenderaj/Srbica

Ferizaj/Uroševac

Rahovec/ Orahovac

Shtërpcë/Štrpce

Obiliq/Obilić

Suharekë/Suva Reka

Klinë/Klina

Gjilan/Gnjilane

20.0%

20.0%

20.0%

20.0%

20.0%

33.3%

32.0%

28.3%

26.7%

Gjakovë/Djakovica

Podujevë/Podujevo

Prishtinë/Priština

Lipjan/Lipljan

Leposaviq/Leposavić

Istog/Istok

Pejë/Peć

Vushtrri/Vučitrn

Mitrovicë/Mitrovica

Prizren/Prizren

Dragash/Dragaš

Zveçan/Zvečan

Fushë Kosovë/ Kosovo Polje

Viti/Vitina

Gllogovc/Glogovac

15.0%

14.5%

14.1%

14.0%

13.3%

12.0%

12.0%

11.4%

11.4%

11.1%

10.0%

8.0%

8.0%

8.0%

6.7%

Zubin Potok/Zubin Potok

Novobërdë/ Novo Brdo

Kaçanik/Kačanik

Kamenicë/Kamenica

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%


Policing in Kosovo

24

Recommendations for the KPS

Figure 14: How could KPS improve its work?

If they patrolled more often

60.7%

If they responded more quickly to incidents

47.3%

If they were less corrupt

If they treated people with respect

If they were better able to solve disputes

between people

If they worked more with our community

to solve our safety problems

28.7%

27.3%

25.1%

23.1%

If the officers came from this area

If they received more training

If political parties had less influence on them

If the officers came from a different area

If there were more officers who share my ethnic

background

If there were more female officers

If they did not carry weapons

No answer

Don't know

Other

15.4%

12.8%

9.2%

6.7%

5.5%

4.3%

0.6%

21.3%

11.8%

0.6%

Drawing on interviews with KPS management

and comments from focus group participants in

earlier surveys, 30 the research team for this survey

drew up a series of suggestions for how the KPS

could improve its performance. These suggestions

were put to the 1,200 respondents to the questionnaire

undertaken in June 2007, and six recommendations

were particularly popular with respondents,

as Figure 14 below shows (for which up to three

answers were possible).

Interestingly, when the results were disaggregated by

gender, education and region, the same six recommendations

came top, although the order and degree of

importance varied slightly. For instance, in the region

___________________________________________

of Pejë/Peć, 72.0 percent of respondents felt that the

KPS should patrol more often, and 39.2 percent said

the KPS should treat people with more respect – both

figures much higher than the average for Kosovo.

Patrolling more often was slightly more important to

male (63.8 percent) than female (57.1 percent) of respondents,

as was treating people with more respect

(29.8 percent and 24.4 percent respectively).

A large majority of respondents felt that the KPS

could improve its performance if its officers “patrolled

more often” (60.7 percent), a clear endorsement

of moves by the KPS to undertake more frequent

and visible patrols in communities. 47.3 percent

of respondents felt the KPS should “respond

30

In particular, focus groups for the reports Human security in Kosovo: A survey of perceptions and Human security in Kosovo: Participatory conflict

analysis report (unpublished: May 2007).


Policing in Kosovo

Recommendations for the KPS

25

The top six recommendations

●●

●●

●●

●●

●●

●●

The KPS should patrol more often

The KPS should respond more quickly to incidents

The KPS should be less corrupt

The KPS should treat people with more respect

The KPS should be better able to solve disputes between people

The KPS should work more with our community to solve our safety problems

more quickly to incidents”, more of a comment

on the current capacity of the KPS and something

which can be addressed as the KPS becomes more

efficient and better resourced and should be a priority

for the KPS’ development.

Another two recommendations refer to the tasks of

the KPS. 25.1 percent of respondents wanted the

KPS to be better at solving disputes between people,

and 23.1 percent wanted the KPS to work more

with the community to solve safety problems. These

both refer to aspects of policing work associated

with the twin concepts of community-based policing

and community safety. 31

___________________________________________

31

For more detailed aspects on policing in Kosovo see: Kosovo Police Service, Community Oriented Policing & Problem Solving: Operational Handbook,

Pristina: 2005.


Policing in Kosovo

26

Conclusion

Kosovo’s population may feel that levels of safety improved between December 2006 and June

2007, but high crime is still the most serious safety and security issue communities face. At the

same time, trust in the KPS remains high, and while people may be divided on the issue of the

professionalism of the KPS, they continue to turn to the KPS to provide for their security needs.

Moreover, many of the improvements that the KPS has begun to institute, such as more frequent

patrolling and training programmes, are noticed and appreciated by public. The KPS now has a

prime opportunity to consolidate its achievements to date, continuing to develop its communitybased

policing and engaging more closely with the communities its officers serve.

Some changes the KPS could undertake to improve its standing among Kosovo’s population, and

thereby indirectly contribute to increasing crime reporting levels, are relatively simple. Importantly,

behaving impartially, professionally and politely at all times to members of the public would

help dispel the notion that police officers are corrupt or favour certain people. Other changes

could be more costly and complicated, but are no less essential for that. For instance, in order to

improve the trust of Kosovo Serbs in the KPS, multi-ethnic police patrols could underline that the

KPS is designed to serve all of Kosovo’s population. Similarly, some municipalities receive fewer

KPS resources than others, a situation that should be regularly assessed to ensure that KPS coverage

of Kosovo is appropriate to needs of communities and not of central bureaucracies.

However, the KPS finds itself in a difficult position in Kosovo’s wider security and justice sector.

No matter how professionally its officers behave, how many crimes they solve and how comfortable

communities are in reporting crime and safety concerns, without co-ordinated support

for prosecutors, courts, judges, penal institutions, rehabilitation programmes, victim support

networks and witness protection – as well as the KPS – access to justice for Kosovo’s people will

remain inadequate.


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