SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF
HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.
SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 158–163.
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF APPLE TREE CULTIVAR
‘CELESTE’ ON DWARF ROOTSTOCKS IN CENTRAL
Pavel BIELICKI, Alojzy CZYNCZYK, Barbara BARTOSIEWICZ
Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, 96-100 Skierniewice,
Poland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The field experiment was established in the spring of 2001 in the Experimental Orchard
in Dabrowice, near Skierniewice, on a sandy loam podsolic soil underlaid by loam. The
influence of five dwarf apple rootstocks on tree growth, yield and fruit quality of the
cultivar ‘Celeste’ was studied. One-year-old maiden trees grafted on rootstocks PB-4,
P 59, P 60, P 14 and M.7 were planted at the same spacing of 3.5 x 2.0m (1429 trees/ha).
Trees grafted on M.9 and M.26 were used as standards.
After the first five years of the evaluation, Byelorussian rootstock PB-4 and Polish
rootstock P 59 were found to have induced the lowest growth of the cultivar ‘Celeste’.
The size of the trees on these two rootstocks was smaller than of those on the standard
M.9. Among the semi-dwarf rootstocks, trees on P 60 were smaller than those on the
standard M.26. Rootstock P 14 reduced tree growth to the same extent as M.7.
The highest cumulative yield (2002–2005) of ‘Celeste’ was recorded for trees on P 14,
M.26 and M.7. Trees grafted on P 60 and M.9 showed similar yields. The lowest yield was
obtained from trees on PB-4.
In 2005, the fruit quality parameters (size, mean weight, and colour) of cultivar ‘Celeste’
were generally very good with the exception of those harvested from trees on PB-4 and
P 59, which produced the smallest fruit.
Key words: apple, Malus sp., clonal rootstock, growth, yield, fruit quality, yield
Introduction. In recent years there has been a growing interest among fruitgrowers
in summer varieties of apple. However, interest in such varieties is often
short-lived. The main reason is that they can be very disappointing in production and
the prices for this type of apples are highly changeable. Another problem is that there
is only a small assortment of summer cultivars. In comparison with the autumn or
winter cultivars, the number of cultivars in this group is quite small. At the end of
20th century, new summer varieties appeared, originating mainly from ‘Golden
Delicious’, the fruit of which was ready for consumption already in the first week of
August (Steinborn, 1983; Kruczyñska, 2002). ‘Celeste’ (syn. ‘Delcorf Schumann’)
is one of them. It came from Germany, where it was found by Schumann. ‘Celeste’
is one of two mutants of cultivar ‘Delcorf’ used in Poland. With respect to many
characteristics, it resembles the parent cultivar. Tree vigour, crown appearance as
well as susceptibility to diseases and productivity are all similar in both cultivars. It
requires fruitlet thinning to ensure regular fruiting. There is little difference in fruit
size between ‘Celeste’ and ‘Delcorf’, but the red blush on ‘Celeste’ apples is more
intense and spreads over a larger area of the skin. Fruit ripening time is similar to that
of ‘Delcorf’ (Goddrie, 1987). The share of ‘Celeste’ trees, and of the other mutant
‘Ambassy’, in the total number of apple trees produced in Poland has been growing
in recent years.
The aim of the experiment was to determine the usefulness of dwarfing
rootstocks for the growing of apple tree cultivar ‘Celeste’. An evaluation of seven
rootstocks with obvious differences in growth vigour should accurately single out
the best rootstocks for the production of trees of this cultivar in the soil conditions
of central Poland.
Material and methods. The field experiment was established in the spring of
2001 in the Experimental Orchard in Dabrowice, near Skierniewice (central Poland),
on a sandy loam podsolic soil underlaid by loam. The influence of five dwarfing
apple rootstocks on tree growth, yield and fruit quality of cultivar ‘Celeste’ was
studied. One-year-old maiden trees grafted on rootstocks PB-4, P 59, P 60, P 14 and
M.7 were planted at the same spacing of 3.5 x 2.0 m (1429 trees/ha). Trees grafted
on M.9 and M.26 were used as standards. The experiment was set up in four
randomized blocks with three trees per plot. Thus, there were 12 trees of cultivar
‘Celeste’ growing on each rootstock.
All the trees were trained as slender spindles and tied to a supporting structure.
Herbicides were used to control weeds in the tree rows, whereas the inter rows
were grassed over in the second year after planting. Fertilization, plant protection
and other agro-technical treatments were applied according to the standard
recommendations for commercial apple orchards in Poland. The trees were dripirrigated
from the first year after planting.
In the course of the experiment the following observations and measurements
have been recorded: health status of trees, trunk circumferences (measured at
30 cm above ground level), yield (determined every year, separately for each tree)
and fruit quality (samples were taken from each replication). In 2005, fruit quality
was assessed using an electronic sorting machine manufactured by Greef. Statistical
analyses involved variance analyses and Duncan’s multiple range test at P = 0.05.
Results and discussion. T ree health. During the first five years of the
evaluation there was no loss of trees due to frost damage or infection with diseases.
Only 2 trees of ‘Celeste’ grafted on P 59 were lost due to falling over during periods
of strong winds while carrying the burden of a heavy crop. Similar observations
regarding the poor rooting ability of trees grafted on very dwarfing rootstocks were
made by Wertheim (1998) and Czynczyk et al. (2004).
Tree growth. After the first five years of the evaluation, Byelorussian rootstock
PB-4 (Ùukuã, 1994) and Polish rootstock P 59 were found to have induced the
lowest growth of cultivar ‘Celeste’ (Table 1). The size of the trees on these two
ootstocks was significantly smaller than of those on the standard M.9. Similar results
were obtained by Bielicki et al. (2004) for PB-4 with ‘Jonagold’ trees grafted on it
and Czynczyk et al. (2004) for P 59 with ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Ligol’ trees. Sùowiñski and
Sadowski (1999) reported that the vigour induced by PB-4 was similar to that of
M.27. Among the semi-dwarf rootstocks, trees on P 60 were smaller than those on
the standard M.26. In contrast, trees on P 14 were bigger than those on the standard
rootstock. The results confirmed earlier reports by Czynczyk (1995), Jakubowski
and Zagaja (2000) and Czynczyk et al. (2004), who stated that Polish rootstock P 14
showed a stronger effect inducing vigour than M.26. P 14 reduced tree growth to
the same extent as M.7. However, the results obtained by Hrotko and Berczi (1999)
showed that trees of cultivar ‘Idared’ on P 14 were bigger than trees on M.7.
Table 1. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), yield and yield
efficiency of cv. ‘Celeste’ grown on dwarf rootstocks
1 lentelë. ‘Celeste’ veislës obelø su þemaûgiais poskiepiais kamieno
skerspjûvio plotas (KSP), derlius ir produktyvumas
KSP 2005 m.,
Yield / Derlius
2002 2003 2004 2005
kg/tree / kg/vaism.
index (kg/cm 2
kg/cm 2 KSP
10.7 b 2.3 c 1.2 a 6.8 d 4.6 a 15.5 c 1.5 b
PB-4 5.0 a 1.4 b 0.8 a 2.8 b 1.9 a 6.8 a 1.4 ab
P 59 6.6 a 2.4 c 1.6 a 5.2 c 3.5 a 12.7 b 2.0 c
19.6 c 0.7 a 5.9 c 1.0 a 16.9 cd 25.0 de 1.3 ab
P 60 11.7 b 0.5 a 4.0 b 1.4 ab 11.1 b 17.0 c 1.5 b
P 14 23.7 d 0.1 a 7.9 d 0.3 a 19.1 d 27.4 e 1.2 ab
M.7 23.4 d 0.7 a 6.3 c 1.4 ab 14.5 c 22.9 d 1.1 a
Averages followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 (Duncan’s multiple
range test) / Ta paèia raide paþymëti vidurkiai pagal Dunkano kriterijø (p = 0,05) ið esmës nesiskiria.
Yields and Fruit Quality. The first yields from the cultivar ‘Celeste’ were obtained
in the second year after planting (Table 1). Very low yields (less than 1kg per tree)
were obtained from trees grafted on the semi-dwarf and medium vigorous rootstocks.
In the third year, the trees on those rootstocks produced bigger yields in comparison
with the trees on the dwarf rootstocks (M.9, PB-4 and P 59). Nevertheless better
yielding of the trees on the dwarf rootstocks was observed in the next year of fruitbearing.
In 2005, the yielding situation was reversed. The trees on the semi-dwarf
and medium vigorous rootstocks gave higher yields. The highest cumulative yield
(2002–2005) was recorded for the ‘Celeste’ trees on P 14, M.26 and M.7. Trees
grafted on P 60 and M.9 showed similar yields. The lowest yield was obtained from
the trees on PB-4. The total yields obtained for the trees grafted on the very dwarfing
rootstocks were similar to those presented by Bielicki et al. (2004) and Slowinski
The results concerning tree productivity, expressed as the yield efficiency index,
showed that the trees on P 59 were more productive than these on remaining
rootstocks. They had the highest yield efficiency index (expressed as ratio of yield
per tree to the trunk cross-sectional area (kg/cm 2 )). Similar values of this index were
obtained from the trees on the dwarf rootstocks. The trees on semi-dwarf rootstocks
(P 14 and M.7) had the lowest yield efficiency index.
In 2005, the size and weight of apples and the percentage of apples having more
than 50% of their skin surface covered by a red blush were similar for all the rootstocks
with the exception of fruits harvested from the trees on PB-4 and P 59 (Table 2). In
their case, fruits were significantly smaller. There were no statistical differences
between the rootstocks in respect of the colouring of the fruit. However, fruits on
P 59 were slightly worse coloured. These results are in agreement with the data
produced by Bielicki et al. (1999).
Table 2. Fruit quality of cv. ‘Celeste’ grown on dwarf rootstocks in
2 lentelë. ‘Celeste’ veislës obelø su þemaûgiais poskiepiais vaisiø kokybë 2005 m.
Weight of 100 fruits
100 vaisiø masë, kg
Fruits with diameter >
Vaisiai, kuriø skersmuo
> 7,0 cm, %
For explanation, see Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje
Fruits with blush on > 50%
Vaisiø, kuriø odelë
> 50% paraudusi, %
M.9 kontrolë 14.3 ab 54.0 b 62.9 a
PB-4 11.3 a 14.9 a 73.8 a
P 59 11.2 a 27.5 a 46.0 a
M.26 kontrolë 15.4 b 74.2 b 71.6 a
P 60 14.2 ab 58.3 b 70.4 a
P 14 15.5 b 72.4 b 58.4 a
M.7 15.9 b 78.3 b 71.4 a
Conclusions. 1. The lowest growth of apple tree cultivar ‘Celeste’ was induced
by Byelorussian rootstock PB-4 and Polish rootstock P 59.
2. Growth vigour of the trees of cultivar ‘Celeste’ grafted on P 60 was similar
to those on M.9 EMLA.
3. P 14 was similar to M.7 in its ability to reduce tree growth.
4. The highest cumulative yield was obtained from the trees of cultivar ‘Celeste’
grafted on the semi-dwarf rootstocks P 14 and M.7.
5. The highest yield efficiency index was obtained for the trees of cultivar
‘Celeste’ growing on the very dwarf Polish rootstock P 59. In the case of semidwarf
rootstocks, all of the trees were characterized by a similar yield efficiency
6. The development of fruit quality parameters (with the exception of fruit size)
appeared to be unaffected by the rootstock type. The smallest apples of cultivar
‘Celeste’ were harvested from trees on the very dwarf rootstocks.
2006 07 05
2006 07 17
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INTENSIVE ORCHARDS”. Warsaw-Ursynów, 1999. P. 15–16.
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SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3).
PRELIMINARUS ‘CELESTE’ VEISLËS OBELØ SU ÞEMAÛGIAIS
POSKIEPIAIS ÁVERTINIMAS CENTRINËJE LENKIJOJE
P. Bielicki, A. Czynczyk, B. Bartosiewicz
2001 metø pavasará tyrimø sode Dabrovicuose, netoli Skiernievicø, priesmëlio jaurinëje
dirvoje ant priemolio atliktas lauko bandymas. Tirta penkiø þemaûgiø obelø poskiepiø
átaka ‘Celeste’ veislës vaismedþiø augimui, derliui ir vaisiø kokybei. Vieneriø metø sodinukai,
áskiepyti á PB-4, P 59, P 60, P 14 ir M.7 poskiepius, buvo pasodinti vienodais atstumais –
3,5 x 2,0 m (1429 medþiai/ha). Á M.9 ir M.26 áskiepyti vaismedþiai panaudoti kaip kontrolë.
Praëjus pirmiesiems penkeriems tyrimo metams pastebëta, kad baltarusiðkas poskiepis
PB-4 ir lenkiðkas poskiepis P 59 labiausiai stabdo ‘Celeste’ veislës augimà. Vaismedþiai su
ðiais poskiepiais buvo þemesni uþ vaismedþius su M.9. Pusiau þemaûgiø poskiepiø grupëje
vaismedþiai su P 60 buvo þemesni uþ vaismedþius su M.26 poskiepiu. P 14 poskiepis
sumaþino vaismedþiø augimà tiek pat, kiek ir M.7.
2002–2005 m. didþiausià suminá derliø davë ‘Celeste’ veislës vaismedþiai su P 14,
M.26 ir M.7 poskiepiais. Panaðø derliø iðaugino á P 60 ir M.9 áskiepyti vaismedþiai.
Nederlingiausi buvo vaismedþiai su PB-4.
2005 metais ‘Celeste’ veislës obuoliø kokybë (dydis, vidutinë masë ir spalva) ið
esmës buvo labai gera, iðskyrus nuskintus nuo vaismedþiø su PB-4 ir P 59 poskiepiais –
ðie vaisiai buvo maþiausi.
Reikðminiai þodþiai: obuoliai, Malus sp., vegetatyviniai poskiepiai, augimas, derlius,
vaisiø kokybë, produktyvumas.