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preliminary evaluation of apple tree cultivar - Sodininkystė ir ...

SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 158–163.

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF APPLE TREE CULTIVAR

‘CELESTE’ ON DWARF ROOTSTOCKS IN CENTRAL

POLAND

Pavel BIELICKI, Alojzy CZYNCZYK, Barbara BARTOSIEWICZ

Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, 96-100 Skierniewice,

Poland. E-mail: pbielick@insad.pl

The field experiment was established in the spring of 2001 in the Experimental Orchard

in Dabrowice, near Skierniewice, on a sandy loam podsolic soil underlaid by loam. The

influence of five dwarf apple rootstocks on tree growth, yield and fruit quality of the

cultivar ‘Celeste’ was studied. One-year-old maiden trees grafted on rootstocks PB-4,

P 59, P 60, P 14 and M.7 were planted at the same spacing of 3.5 x 2.0m (1429 trees/ha).

Trees grafted on M.9 and M.26 were used as standards.

After the first five years of the evaluation, Byelorussian rootstock PB-4 and Polish

rootstock P 59 were found to have induced the lowest growth of the cultivar ‘Celeste’.

The size of the trees on these two rootstocks was smaller than of those on the standard

M.9. Among the semi-dwarf rootstocks, trees on P 60 were smaller than those on the

standard M.26. Rootstock P 14 reduced tree growth to the same extent as M.7.

The highest cumulative yield (2002–2005) of ‘Celeste’ was recorded for trees on P 14,

M.26 and M.7. Trees grafted on P 60 and M.9 showed similar yields. The lowest yield was

obtained from trees on PB-4.

In 2005, the fruit quality parameters (size, mean weight, and colour) of cultivar ‘Celeste’

were generally very good with the exception of those harvested from trees on PB-4 and

P 59, which produced the smallest fruit.

Key words: apple, Malus sp., clonal rootstock, growth, yield, fruit quality, yield

efficiency.

Introduction. In recent years there has been a growing interest among fruitgrowers

in summer varieties of apple. However, interest in such varieties is often

short-lived. The main reason is that they can be very disappointing in production and

the prices for this type of apples are highly changeable. Another problem is that there

is only a small assortment of summer cultivars. In comparison with the autumn or

winter cultivars, the number of cultivars in this group is quite small. At the end of

20th century, new summer varieties appeared, originating mainly from ‘Golden

Delicious’, the fruit of which was ready for consumption already in the first week of

August (Steinborn, 1983; Kruczyñska, 2002). ‘Celeste’ (syn. ‘Delcorf Schumann’)

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is one of them. It came from Germany, where it was found by Schumann. ‘Celeste’

is one of two mutants of cultivar ‘Delcorf’ used in Poland. With respect to many

characteristics, it resembles the parent cultivar. Tree vigour, crown appearance as

well as susceptibility to diseases and productivity are all similar in both cultivars. It

requires fruitlet thinning to ensure regular fruiting. There is little difference in fruit

size between ‘Celeste’ and ‘Delcorf’, but the red blush on ‘Celeste’ apples is more

intense and spreads over a larger area of the skin. Fruit ripening time is similar to that

of ‘Delcorf’ (Goddrie, 1987). The share of ‘Celeste’ trees, and of the other mutant

‘Ambassy’, in the total number of apple trees produced in Poland has been growing

in recent years.

The aim of the experiment was to determine the usefulness of dwarfing

rootstocks for the growing of apple tree cultivar ‘Celeste’. An evaluation of seven

rootstocks with obvious differences in growth vigour should accurately single out

the best rootstocks for the production of trees of this cultivar in the soil conditions

of central Poland.

Material and methods. The field experiment was established in the spring of

2001 in the Experimental Orchard in Dabrowice, near Skierniewice (central Poland),

on a sandy loam podsolic soil underlaid by loam. The influence of five dwarfing

apple rootstocks on tree growth, yield and fruit quality of cultivar ‘Celeste’ was

studied. One-year-old maiden trees grafted on rootstocks PB-4, P 59, P 60, P 14 and

M.7 were planted at the same spacing of 3.5 x 2.0 m (1429 trees/ha). Trees grafted

on M.9 and M.26 were used as standards. The experiment was set up in four

randomized blocks with three trees per plot. Thus, there were 12 trees of cultivar

‘Celeste’ growing on each rootstock.

All the trees were trained as slender spindles and tied to a supporting structure.

Herbicides were used to control weeds in the tree rows, whereas the inter rows

were grassed over in the second year after planting. Fertilization, plant protection

and other agro-technical treatments were applied according to the standard

recommendations for commercial apple orchards in Poland. The trees were dripirrigated

from the first year after planting.

In the course of the experiment the following observations and measurements

have been recorded: health status of trees, trunk circumferences (measured at

30 cm above ground level), yield (determined every year, separately for each tree)

and fruit quality (samples were taken from each replication). In 2005, fruit quality

was assessed using an electronic sorting machine manufactured by Greef. Statistical

analyses involved variance analyses and Duncan’s multiple range test at P = 0.05.

Results and discussion. T ree health. During the first five years of the

evaluation there was no loss of trees due to frost damage or infection with diseases.

Only 2 trees of ‘Celeste’ grafted on P 59 were lost due to falling over during periods

of strong winds while carrying the burden of a heavy crop. Similar observations

regarding the poor rooting ability of trees grafted on very dwarfing rootstocks were

made by Wertheim (1998) and Czynczyk et al. (2004).

Tree growth. After the first five years of the evaluation, Byelorussian rootstock

PB-4 (Ùukuã, 1994) and Polish rootstock P 59 were found to have induced the

lowest growth of cultivar ‘Celeste’ (Table 1). The size of the trees on these two

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ootstocks was significantly smaller than of those on the standard M.9. Similar results

were obtained by Bielicki et al. (2004) for PB-4 with ‘Jonagold’ trees grafted on it

and Czynczyk et al. (2004) for P 59 with ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Ligol’ trees. Sùowiñski and

Sadowski (1999) reported that the vigour induced by PB-4 was similar to that of

M.27. Among the semi-dwarf rootstocks, trees on P 60 were smaller than those on

the standard M.26. In contrast, trees on P 14 were bigger than those on the standard

rootstock. The results confirmed earlier reports by Czynczyk (1995), Jakubowski

and Zagaja (2000) and Czynczyk et al. (2004), who stated that Polish rootstock P 14

showed a stronger effect inducing vigour than M.26. P 14 reduced tree growth to

the same extent as M.7. However, the results obtained by Hrotko and Berczi (1999)

showed that trees of cultivar ‘Idared’ on P 14 were bigger than trees on M.7.

Table 1. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), yield and yield

efficiency of cv. ‘Celeste’ grown on dwarf rootstocks

1 lentelë. ‘Celeste’ veislës obelø su þemaûgiais poskiepiais kamieno

skerspjûvio plotas (KSP), derlius ir produktyvumas

Rootstock

Poskiepis

TCA in

2005

KSP 2005 m.,

cm 2

Yield / Derlius

2002 2003 2004 2005

kg/tree / kg/vaism.

Total yield

in 2002–

2005

Suminis derlius

2002–2005 m.

Yield

efficiency

index (kg/cm 2

TCA)

Produktyvumas,

kg/cm 2 KSP

M.9 standard

M.9 kontrolë

10.7 b 2.3 c 1.2 a 6.8 d 4.6 a 15.5 c 1.5 b

PB-4 5.0 a 1.4 b 0.8 a 2.8 b 1.9 a 6.8 a 1.4 ab

P 59 6.6 a 2.4 c 1.6 a 5.2 c 3.5 a 12.7 b 2.0 c

M.26 standard

M.26 kontrolë

19.6 c 0.7 a 5.9 c 1.0 a 16.9 cd 25.0 de 1.3 ab

P 60 11.7 b 0.5 a 4.0 b 1.4 ab 11.1 b 17.0 c 1.5 b

P 14 23.7 d 0.1 a 7.9 d 0.3 a 19.1 d 27.4 e 1.2 ab

M.7 23.4 d 0.7 a 6.3 c 1.4 ab 14.5 c 22.9 d 1.1 a

Averages followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 (Duncan’s multiple

range test) / Ta paèia raide paþymëti vidurkiai pagal Dunkano kriterijø (p = 0,05) ið esmës nesiskiria.

Yields and Fruit Quality. The first yields from the cultivar ‘Celeste’ were obtained

in the second year after planting (Table 1). Very low yields (less than 1kg per tree)

were obtained from trees grafted on the semi-dwarf and medium vigorous rootstocks.

In the third year, the trees on those rootstocks produced bigger yields in comparison

with the trees on the dwarf rootstocks (M.9, PB-4 and P 59). Nevertheless better

yielding of the trees on the dwarf rootstocks was observed in the next year of fruitbearing.

In 2005, the yielding situation was reversed. The trees on the semi-dwarf

and medium vigorous rootstocks gave higher yields. The highest cumulative yield

160


(2002–2005) was recorded for the ‘Celeste’ trees on P 14, M.26 and M.7. Trees

grafted on P 60 and M.9 showed similar yields. The lowest yield was obtained from

the trees on PB-4. The total yields obtained for the trees grafted on the very dwarfing

rootstocks were similar to those presented by Bielicki et al. (2004) and Slowinski

(2004).

The results concerning tree productivity, expressed as the yield efficiency index,

showed that the trees on P 59 were more productive than these on remaining

rootstocks. They had the highest yield efficiency index (expressed as ratio of yield

per tree to the trunk cross-sectional area (kg/cm 2 )). Similar values of this index were

obtained from the trees on the dwarf rootstocks. The trees on semi-dwarf rootstocks

(P 14 and M.7) had the lowest yield efficiency index.

In 2005, the size and weight of apples and the percentage of apples having more

than 50% of their skin surface covered by a red blush were similar for all the rootstocks

with the exception of fruits harvested from the trees on PB-4 and P 59 (Table 2). In

their case, fruits were significantly smaller. There were no statistical differences

between the rootstocks in respect of the colouring of the fruit. However, fruits on

P 59 were slightly worse coloured. These results are in agreement with the data

produced by Bielicki et al. (1999).

Table 2. Fruit quality of cv. ‘Celeste’ grown on dwarf rootstocks in

2005

2 lentelë. ‘Celeste’ veislës obelø su þemaûgiais poskiepiais vaisiø kokybë 2005 m.

Rootstock

Poskiepis

Weight of 100 fruits

100 vaisiø masë, kg

Fruits with diameter >

7.0 cm

Vaisiai, kuriø skersmuo

> 7,0 cm, %

For explanation, see Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje

Fruits with blush on > 50%

of skin

Vaisiø, kuriø odelë

> 50% paraudusi, %

M.9 standard

M.9 kontrolë 14.3 ab 54.0 b 62.9 a

PB-4 11.3 a 14.9 a 73.8 a

P 59 11.2 a 27.5 a 46.0 a

M.26 standard

M.26 kontrolë 15.4 b 74.2 b 71.6 a

P 60 14.2 ab 58.3 b 70.4 a

P 14 15.5 b 72.4 b 58.4 a

M.7 15.9 b 78.3 b 71.4 a

Conclusions. 1. The lowest growth of apple tree cultivar ‘Celeste’ was induced

by Byelorussian rootstock PB-4 and Polish rootstock P 59.

2. Growth vigour of the trees of cultivar ‘Celeste’ grafted on P 60 was similar

to those on M.9 EMLA.

3. P 14 was similar to M.7 in its ability to reduce tree growth.

4. The highest cumulative yield was obtained from the trees of cultivar ‘Celeste’

grafted on the semi-dwarf rootstocks P 14 and M.7.

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5. The highest yield efficiency index was obtained for the trees of cultivar

‘Celeste’ growing on the very dwarf Polish rootstock P 59. In the case of semidwarf

rootstocks, all of the trees were characterized by a similar yield efficiency

index.

6. The development of fruit quality parameters (with the exception of fruit size)

appeared to be unaffected by the rootstock type. The smallest apples of cultivar

‘Celeste’ were harvested from trees on the very dwarf rootstocks.

Gauta

2006 07 05

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 17

References

1. Bielicki P., Czynczyk A., Bartosiewicz B. Effects of New

Polish Rootstocks and Some M 9 Clones on Growth, Cropping and Fruit Quality of Three

Apple Cultivars. Proc. of the International Seminar “APPLE ROOTSTOCKS FOR

INTENSIVE ORCHARDS”. Warsaw-Ursynów, 1999. P. 15–16.

2. Bielicki P., Czynczyk A., Chlebowska D. Effects of Several

New Polish Rootstocks and M.9 Subclones on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Two

Apple ‘King Jonagold’ and ‘Elshof’ Cultivars. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 327–332.

3. Czynczyk A. New apple rootstocks from the Polish Breeding Program.

International. Dwarf Fruit Tree Association, Pennsylvania. Compact Fruit Tree. 1995. Vol.

28. P. 68–76.

4. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P., Bartosiewicz B. Influence of

Subclones of M.9 and P 22 and New Polish-Bred Rootstocks on Growth and Yield of

‘Jonagold’ and ‘Ligol’ Apple Trees. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 129–133.

5. Goddrie P. D. Delbarestivale. Fruitteelt. 1987. 77(43). P. 16–17.

6. Jakubowski T., Zagaja S. W. 45 years of apple rootstocks breeding

in Poland. Proc. of the Eucarpia Symp. of Fruit Breeding and Genetics. Acta Hort. 2000.

538. P. 723–727.

7. Hrotko K., Berczi J. Effect of semi-dwarfing and medium vigorous

rootstocks on growth and productivity of apple tress. Proc. of the International Seminar

„Apple Rootstocks for Intensive Orchards”. Warsaw-Ursynów., 1999. P. 35–36.

8. Kruczyñska D. JABÙONIE – nowe odmiany. Wyd. Hortpress Sp. z o.o.

2002. P. 25–36.

9. Ùukuã T. PB-4 – obiecujàca podkùadka dla jabùoni. Sad Nowoczesny. 1994.

(7). 9 p.

10. S adowski A., Grochowalski W., Sùowiñski A. and

Ýóùtowski J. Ocena siùy wzrostu jabùoni na podkùadce PB-4. Zesz. Nauk. Inst. Sad.

i Kw. Skierniewice. 2002. 8. P. 71–76.

11. Sùowiñski A., Sadowski A. Growth in the nursery and in the orchard

and initial bearing of ‘Elise’ apple trees on different rootstocks. Proc. of the International

Seminar „APPLE ROOTSTOCKS FOR INTENSIVE ORCHARDS”. Warsaw-Ursynów, 1999.

P. 99–100.

12. S ùowiñski A. Comparison of 22 Rootstocks of Different Vigour Used for

‘Elise’ Apple Trees. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 279–286.

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13. Steinborn G. New early apple cultivars compared. Erwerbsobstbau. 1983. 25(8).

P. 188–190.

14. W ertheim S. J. Rootstock guide. Fruit Res. St. Wilhelminadorp Publ.

1998. No. 25.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3).

158–163.

PRELIMINARUS ‘CELESTE’ VEISLËS OBELØ SU ÞEMAÛGIAIS

POSKIEPIAIS ÁVERTINIMAS CENTRINËJE LENKIJOJE

P. Bielicki, A. Czynczyk, B. Bartosiewicz

Santrauka

2001 metø pavasará tyrimø sode Dabrovicuose, netoli Skiernievicø, priesmëlio jaurinëje

dirvoje ant priemolio atliktas lauko bandymas. Tirta penkiø þemaûgiø obelø poskiepiø

átaka ‘Celeste’ veislës vaismedþiø augimui, derliui ir vaisiø kokybei. Vieneriø metø sodinukai,

áskiepyti á PB-4, P 59, P 60, P 14 ir M.7 poskiepius, buvo pasodinti vienodais atstumais –

3,5 x 2,0 m (1429 medþiai/ha). Á M.9 ir M.26 áskiepyti vaismedþiai panaudoti kaip kontrolë.

Praëjus pirmiesiems penkeriems tyrimo metams pastebëta, kad baltarusiðkas poskiepis

PB-4 ir lenkiðkas poskiepis P 59 labiausiai stabdo ‘Celeste’ veislës augimà. Vaismedþiai su

ðiais poskiepiais buvo þemesni uþ vaismedþius su M.9. Pusiau þemaûgiø poskiepiø grupëje

vaismedþiai su P 60 buvo þemesni uþ vaismedþius su M.26 poskiepiu. P 14 poskiepis

sumaþino vaismedþiø augimà tiek pat, kiek ir M.7.

2002–2005 m. didþiausià suminá derliø davë ‘Celeste’ veislës vaismedþiai su P 14,

M.26 ir M.7 poskiepiais. Panaðø derliø iðaugino á P 60 ir M.9 áskiepyti vaismedþiai.

Nederlingiausi buvo vaismedþiai su PB-4.

2005 metais ‘Celeste’ veislës obuoliø kokybë (dydis, vidutinë masë ir spalva) ið

esmës buvo labai gera, iðskyrus nuskintus nuo vaismedþiø su PB-4 ir P 59 poskiepiais –

ðie vaisiai buvo maþiausi.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: obuoliai, Malus sp., vegetatyviniai poskiepiai, augimas, derlius,

vaisiø kokybë, produktyvumas.

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