'jonagold' and 'ligol' apple trees on m.9 and p 22 subclones, and ...

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'jonagold' and 'ligol' apple trees on m.9 and p 22 subclones, and ...

SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF THE LITHUANIAN INSTITUTE OF

HORTICULTURE AND LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE.

SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. 2006. 25(3). 173–180.

GROWTH AND YIELDING OF ‘JONAGOLD’ AND ‘LIGOL’

APPLE TREES ON M.9 AND P 22 SUBCLONES, AND

SOME OTHER POLISH ROOTSTOCKS

Alojzy CZYNCZYK, Pawel BIELICKI, Barbara BARTOSIEWICZ

Research Institute of Pomology ong>andong> Floriculture 96-100 Skierniewice,

Pomologiczna str. 18, Polong>andong>. E-mail: aczynczy@insad.pl

The effect of subclones of M.9 (M.9T 337, Pajam 1, RN 29), P 22 (P 22/K, P 22/A,

P 22/J), ong>andong> some new Polish rootstocks (P 59, P 60, P 61 ong>andong> P 62) on the growth ong>andong>

yielding of ‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ ong>appleong> ong>treesong> was studied in a field experiment over a

period of 10 years. The vigour of both cultivars on subclones M.9 was very close to that

on the stong>andong>ard rootstock M.9 EMLA, but ong>treesong> on Pajam 1 were the smallest. Trees

‘Jonagold’ grafted on the new Polish rootstock P 62 were significantly less vigorous than

those on M.9 EMLA. Tree vigour of both cultivars on the subclones of P 22 was similar to

that on the stong>andong>ard rootstock P 22. ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> grafted on P 61 were significantly

smaller than the stong>andong>ard ong>treesong> on P 22. The smallest ong>treesong> of both cultivars were obtained

on P 59. In the group of semi-dwarfing rootstocks, the smallest ong>treesong> were on P 60 ong>andong> the

largest on P 14. Yields were more or less proportional to tree size. Among the subclones of

P 22, the highest cumulative yields for both cultivars were obtained on P 22/A. The

highest cumulative yields for both cultivars on the M.9 subclones were obtained on M.9T

337 ong>andong>, in the semi-dwarfing group, for ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> on P 60 ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ ong>treesong> on P 14.

The values of the yield efficiency index for the subclones of M.9 were similar to those for

M.9 EMLA, ong>andong> among the subclones of P 22 the values of this index were similar to those

for the stong>andong>ard P 22 rootstock. The highest yield efficiency index among the semi-dwarfing

rootstocks was obtained for P 60. In 2004, the fruit quality parameters, such as size, weight

ong>andong> the percentage of fruits with a blush on more than 50% of the skin surface, were very

good for both cultivars on most of the rootstocks ong>andong> similar to the quality parameters of

the fruits on the stong>andong>ard rootstocks. ‘Jonagold’ ong>appleong>s of a significantly smaller size were

obtained on P 59.

Key words: ong>appleong>s, rootstocks, subclone, growth, yielding efficiency, fruit quality.

Introduction. One of the most efficient ways of obtaining early yielding of

ong>appleong> ong>treesong> in modern orchards is to plant dwarf ong>treesong> (Czynczyk, 1995 ong>andong> 2000;

Mika, 1995). Such ong>treesong> can be obtained by using dwarfing rootstocks for their

production. There is, however, no universal rootstock for all kinds of soil, climatic

conditions or various ong>appleong> cultivars. On light soils (the predominant type of soil in

Polong>andong>), these requirements are satisfied grafting ong>treesong> on semi-dwarfing rootstocks

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such as M.26, P 14 ong>andong> P 60 (Bielicki et al., 1999; Czynczyk, 1995; Czynczyk ong>andong>

Piskor, 2000; Skrzyñski ong>andong> Poniedziaùek, 1999). However, ong>treesong> grafted on these

rootstocks often grow too strongly (vigorously) on more fertile soils. Rootstock

M.9, the most commonly used rootstock in the countries of Western Europe, is also

recommended for growing in Polish conditions (Czynczyk et al., 2001). However,

growing of ong>treesong> on this rootstock is associated with some dangers. For example,

the root system of ong>treesong> growing on M.9 could be damaged by low temperatures

during winters without snow. Trees on P 22, on the other hong>andong>, are more winter

hardy, but they need more fertile soil, irrigation ong>andong> very well thinned fruitlets to

produce good quality fruits. So far the usefulness of the subclones of the M.9 ong>andong>

P 22 rootstocks growing the more economically important ong>appleong> cultivars in Polong>andong>

(‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’) has not been tested over a longer period of time. Can ong>treesong>

grafted on the subclones of M.9 ong>andong> P 22, ong>andong> growing on light soils, bear fruits of

good quality in older age? The aim of the study presented here was to determine the

orchard performance of ‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ ong>appleong> cultivars grafted on different

rootstocks, mainly on subclones of the two rootstocks, M.9 ong>andong> P 22. In this trial,

we determined their adaptability to the variable conditions of Polong>andong>’s climate, paying

particular attention to tree health ong>andong> vigour, crop abundance ong>andong> fruit quality in

older age.

Materials ong>andong> methods. The trial began in the autumn of 1994 at the Experimental

Orchard of the Research Institute of Pomology ong>andong> Floriculture in Dàbrowice, central

Polong>andong>. One-year-old maidens grafted on subclones of M.9 ong>andong> P 22 rootstocks, ong>andong>

also on the dwarfing rootstocks: P 14, P 59, P 60, ong>andong> P 61, P 62 recently bred by the

Institute of Pomology ong>andong> Floriculture (Zagaja et al., 1991; Jakubowski, 1999). All

rootstocks were classified into three groups. The first group consisted of ong>treesong> on

P 59, P 61 ong>andong> P 22 (as stong>andong>ard) ong>andong> its three subclones: P 22/K (mother plants

propagated in vitro, rootstock intermediate in character), P 22/A (an adult subclone

with poor rooting ability, without spines in stoolbeds) ong>andong> P 22/J (juvenile subclone

with very good rooting ability, a few spines ong>andong> significantly higher number of layers

in stoolbeds (List of cultivars, 1977). The second group consisted of various

subclones of M.9 ong>andong> P 62, whilst the third group included semi-dwarfing rootstocks:

P 14, P 60 ong>andong> M.26 (Table 1).

The control function was performed by ong>treesong> grafted on the P 22, M.9 EMLA ong>andong>

M.26 rootstocks commonly used in the production of ong>appleong> ong>treesong> in Polong>andong>. The orchard

was located on a song>andong>y loam podsolic soil underlaid by loam. Experimental ong>treesong> were

planted according to a rong>andong>omized block design with 3 sub-blocks for each cultivar, in

4 replications ong>andong> 3 ong>treesong> per plot. Trees were trained in the slender spindle bush

system. The following observations ong>andong> measurements were recorded: health status

of ong>treesong>, trunk circumference, yield size ong>andong> fruit quality. The results were statistically

analyzed using the variance analysis method. To assess the significance of the differences

between means, Duncan’s t-test was used at the 5% level of significance. The

significance of the differences was assessed separately for the rootstock sub-blocks,

which represented the specific groups of rootstocks (Table 2).

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Table 1. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), yield, yield efficiency

ong>andong> quality of fruits of cv. ‘Jonagold’ grown on subclones

of M.9 ong>andong> P 22, ong>andong> some Polish-bred rootstocks

1 lentelë. ‘Jonagold’ veislës obelø su M.9 ir P 22 subklonais ir kai kuriais

lenkiðkos kilmës poskiepiais kamieno skerspjûvio plotas (KSP),

derlius, produktyvumas ir vaisiø kokybë

Rootstocks

Poskiepiai

P 22*

P 22/K

P 22/A

P 22/J

P 59

P 61

M.9 EMLA*

M.9 T337

M.9 Pajam 1

M.9 RN 29

P 62

M.26*

P 14

P 60

Number of

lost ong>treesong>

from 12

plants

Þuvusiø

medþiø

skaièius iš

12 sodinukø

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

TCSA in

2004

KSP

2004 m.,

cm 2

56.6 c

52.2 c

59.1 c

54.9 c

16.4 a

39.7 b

76.0 b

78.0 b

70.0 b

77.7 b

55.4 a

99.2 b

118.3 c

80.7 a

Total yield,

1996–2004

(kg/tree)

Suminis

derlius 1996–

2004 m.,

g/medis

145.4 b

149.5 b

162.4 b

156.6 b

71.2 a

142.6 b

179.9 ab

193.2 b

177.6 ab

160.1 a

151.6 a

179.3 a

191.5 ab

210.0 b

Yield

efficiency

(kg/cm 2

TCSA)

Produktyvumas,

kg/cm 2

KSP

2.7 a

3.1 ab

2.9 ab

2.9 ab

4.8 c

3.9 bc

2.5 ab

2.5 ab

2.7 b

2.1 a

2.8 b

1.9 a

1.7 a

2.6 b

Weight

of 100

fruits

100 vaisiø

masë, kg

25.3 b

27.3 b

27.3 b

26.9 b

16.0 a

27.6 b

28.7 ab

26.9 ab

30.4 b

26.1 a

25.5 a

24.7 a

24.9 a

24.8 a

Amount of

fruits with

diameter

>7 cm

Vaisiø, kuriø

skersmuo

>7 cm, kiekis,

%

2004

99.1 b

100 b

100 b

100 b

45.4 a

99.8 b

96.1 ab

99.1 b

100 b

99.3 b

91.1 a

97.0 a

98.4 a

99.8 a

Amount of

fruits with

blush over

>50% of

skin

Vaisiø,

nusispalvinusiø

>50%,

kiekis, %

91.3 b

92.8 b

90.6 b

95.4 b

21.9 a

87.3 b

63.6 a

86.8 a

68.3 a

85.8 a

80.4 a

40.2 a

38.1 a

69.2 a

* – stong>andong>ard ong>treesong> / stong>andong>artiniai medþiai

Averages followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at P=0.05 (Duncan’s multiple

range test) / Tarp ta paèia raide paþymëtø vidurkiø pagal Dunkano kriterijø (p=0,05) esminio

skirtumo nëra.

K – stoolbeds established from in vitro propagated mother plants / augynai, suformuoti ið

in vitro dauginamø motininiø augalø

A – adult subclone / subrendæs subklonas

J – juvenile subclone / juvenalinis subklonas

Results ong>andong> discussion. Tree health. During ten-year-long period of

tree growth there was no loss of ong>treesong> due to frost damage to the cultivar or root

system. The highest number of ong>treesong> of the cultivar ‘Ligol’ were lost due to them

falling over during periods of strong winds while carrying a heavy crop. Out of 12

ong>treesong> planted, the following numbers were lost: on P 22/J – 3 ong>treesong>, on M.9 RN 29 –

3 ong>treesong>, on P 22/K – 2 ong>treesong>, on M.9 EMLA – 2 ong>treesong>, on P 59 2 ong>treesong> ong>andong> on P 60

– 2 ong>treesong>. These results show that strongly dwarfing rootstocks such as P 22 ong>andong> its

subclones, ong>andong> P 59 ong>andong> some subclones of M.9 had poorly developed root systems.

The poor rooting ability of ong>treesong> growing on very dwarfing rootstocks corresponds

with the observations made by Webster (1999), Webster ong>andong> Hollong>andong>s (1999), ong>andong>

Wertheim (1998). Six of 16 lost ong>treesong> of the cultivar ‘Ligol’ had on-stem infection

175


with Nectria canker. The bark ong>andong> wood of ‘Ligol’ ong>treesong> is more sensitive to this

disease than those of ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong>. The higher yield efficiency index of the cultivar

‘Ligol’ was also more favourable to the ong>treesong> falling over because of a heavy fruit

crop. Much smaller number of ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> were lost (accidentally only 5).

Table 2. Trunk cross-sectional area, yield, yield efficiency ong>andong>

quality of fruits of cv. ‘Ligol’ grown on subclones of M.9

ong>andong> P 22, ong>andong> some Polish-bred rootstocks

2 lentelë. ‘Ligol’ veislës obelø su M.9 ir P 22 subklonais ir kai kuriais

lenkiðkos kilmës poskiepiais kamieno skerspjûvio plotas, derlius,

produktyvumas ir vaisiø kokybë

Rootstocks

Poskiepiai

Number

of lost

ong>treesong>

from 12

plants

Þuvusiø

medþiø

skaièius iš

12

sodinukø

TCSA in

2004

(cm 2 )

KSP 2004

m., cm 2

Total

yield,

1996–

2004

(kg/tree)

Suminis

derlius

1996–

2004 m.,

kg/medis

Yield

efficiency

(kg/cm 2

TCSA)

Produktyvu

mas, kg/cm 2

KSP

Weight of

100 fruits

100 vaisiø

masë, kg

Amount of

fruits with

diameter

>7 cm

Vaisiø, kuriø

skersmuo

>7 cm,

kiekis, %

2004

96.2 a

97.5 a

92.8 a

91.6 a

93.5 a

91.9 a

97.2 ab

100 b

100 b

91.5 a

93.5 a

88.9 a

Amount of

fruits with

blush over

>50% of

skin

Vaisiø,

nusispalvinusiø

>50%,

kiekis, %

P 22*

P 22/K

P 22/A

P 22/J

P 59

M.9 EMLA*

M.9 T337

M.9 Pajam 1

M.9 RN 29

M.26*

P 14

P 60

0

2

0

3

2

2

0

1

3

1

0

2

42.9 bc

44.7 c

40.7 c

33.4 b

12.2 a

55.8 a

55.1 a

54.9 a

61.1 a

76.6 b

85.1 b

60.1 a

138.6 b

153.3 b

156.8 b

137.5 b

75.8 a

191.2 a

203.0 a

179.9 a

193.5 a

197.6 a

210.1 a

191.1 a

3.5 a

3.5 a

4.0 a

4.2 a

6.4 b

3.5 a

3.8 a

3.3 a

3.3 a

2.6 a

2.8 a

3.2 a

22.5 a

30.4 b

21.7 a

23.1 ab

25.9 ab

30.5 a

26.9 a

26.9 a

27.2 a

27.4 a

31.5 a

24.2 a

96.1 a

84.8 a

88.3 a

97.9 a

97.2 a

79.2 a

86.8 a

100 a

92.2 a

87.3 a

95.7 a

94.3 a

* – stong>andong>ard ong>treesong> / stong>andong>artiniai medþiai

Explanation see in Table 1 / Paaiðkinimus þr. 1 lentelëje

Tree vigour. After ten years, the least vigorous growth was shown by

those ong>treesong> of both cultivars that were growing on P 59 ong>andong> P 61. Trees growing on

the subclones of P 22 were similar in size to the ong>treesong> growing on the stong>andong>ard

rootstock P 22. However, ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> on P 22/A were the biggest, ong>andong> ‘Ligol’

ong>treesong> on P 22/J were the smallest when compared with the ong>treesong> growing on the

traditionally propagated P 22. After seven years the relation between the size of tenyear

old ong>treesong> on the subclones of P 22 was almost the same as that previously noted

by Czynczyk et al. (2004). The ong>treesong> of ‘Jonagold’ on P 61 were significantly smaller

than the ong>treesong> growing on the traditionally propagated rootstock P 22. Within the

group of the stong>andong>ard dwarfing rootstocks, ‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ ong>treesong> on the

subclones of M.9 were similar in size. The most vigorously growing ong>treesong> were

obtained on the M.9T 337 subclone, whereas the smallest ong>treesong> of ‘Jonagold’ were

176


obtained on the newly bred P 62 rootstock – they were significantly smaller than the

ong>treesong> grown on M.9 EMLA. Small differences found in the group of the M.9 subclones

are in line with the reports by Kurlus ong>andong> Ugolik (1999), Engel (1999) ong>andong> Sadowski

et al. (2004). Within the group of semi-dwarf ong>treesong>, both ‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ ong>treesong>

grew more vigorously on P 14 in comparison with the ong>treesong> on M.26. The ong>treesong> on

P 60 of both cultivars were significantly smaller than the ong>treesong> growing on M.26 –

the stong>andong>ard rootstock. The obtained results relating to the vigour of dwarf ong>andong>

semi-dwarf ong>treesong> correspond with the results presented by Bielicki et al. (1999),

Czynczyk et al. (2004), Czynczyk ong>andong> Bartosiewicz (2003), ong>andong> Jadczuk (2000).

Y i e l d. All the ong>treesong> of two ong>appleong> cultivars began bearing fruit in the second

year after planting. Yield per tree in the following years corresponded to the size of

the tree. Higher yields were usually obtained from larger ong>treesong>. After ten years, within

the group of the least vigorously growing ong>treesong>, the total yields for both cultivars on

the subclones of P 22 were similar in size to the total yields obtained from the control

ong>treesong> on P 22. The lowest total yield was obtained from the smallest ong>treesong> on P 59.

A lower yield for ‘Jonagold’, in comparison with the yield from all the ong>treesong> on the

subclones of P 22, was also obtained from the ong>treesong> growing on the new P 61

rootstock. In the group of dwarf ong>treesong>, the total yields for both cultivars were similar

in size to the total yields obtained from the stong>andong>ard ong>treesong> growing on M.9 EMLA.

The obtained results relating to the total yield of ‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ cultivars

growing on the dwarfing rootstocks followed a trend similar to those presented

earlier by Jakubowski (1999), Bielicki et al. (1999) ong>andong> Czynczyk et al. (2004).

Within the group of semi-dwarf ong>treesong>, the total yields for both cultivars were similar

in size to the cumulative yields obtained from ong>treesong> on M.26, with the exception of

the yields obtained for ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> on P 60. The cumulative yield for ‘Jonagold’

ong>treesong> on P 60 was significantly higher in comparison with the yield obtained from

ong>treesong> on M.26. Yield data related to the rootstocks in this experiment correspond

with those presented previously by Bielicki et al. (1999) ong>andong> Czynczyk et al. (2004).

The total yield efficiencies (in kg per cm 2 of trunk cross-sectional area) within the

group of ong>treesong> growing on the subclones of P 22 were higher than the yield efficiencies

obtained from stong>andong>ard ong>treesong> on P 22. ‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ ong>treesong> on P 59 had

significantly higher yield efficiency index. ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> growing on P 61 also had

higher yield efficiency index than the stong>andong>ard ong>treesong> on P 22. Within the group of

dwarf ong>treesong> on M.9 EMLA ong>andong> its subclones, the numerical values of the yield

efficiency index were very similar. Similar values of the yield efficiency index had

also ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> on the new P 62 rootstock. In the group of semi-dwarf ong>treesong> of

both cultivars, the highest yield efficiency index was obtained for ong>treesong> on the P 60

rootstock. The results concerning the yield efficiency index for the different rootstocks

are in agreement with the data presented earlier by Czynczyk ong>andong> Bartosiewicz (2003),

Czynczyk ong>andong> Bielicki (2002) ong>andong> Czynczyk et al. (2004). The size ong>andong> weight of

fruits of both cultivars were similar for all the rootstocks with the exception of

‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> on P 59. In 2004, ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> on this rootstock produced

significantly smaller fruits. Fruitlets on ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> growing on P 59 have to be

thinned more carefully. In 2004, ‘Jonagold’ ong>appleong>s obtained from ong>treesong> on P 59 also

177


had the smallest red blush on their surface. Winter ong>andong> summer pruning of ‘Jonagold’

ong>treesong> on P 59 have to be done very carefully.

Conclusions. 1. The subclones P 22/A ong>andong> P 22/J showed growth vigour very

similar to P 22 (stong>andong>ard). The P 22/K rootstock obtained from stoolbeds established

from in vitro propagated mother plants contributed to the growth vigour of ‘Jonagold’

ong>treesong> similar to that of the ong>treesong> growing on P 22 (stong>andong>ard). Trees on the new

rootstock P 61 were also similar in size to the ong>treesong> on P 22 (stong>andong>ard). The smallest

ong>treesong> of both cultivars were obtained on P 59.

2. Growth vigour of subclones of M.9 rootstock (M.9 T 337, M.9 Pajam 1 ong>andong>

M.9 RN 29) was similar to the stong>andong>ard M.9 EMLA. However, both cultivars on the

M.9 Pajam 1 subclone showed the weakest growth. Trees of the cultivar ‘Jonagold’

on the new rootstock P 62 were significantly smaller than the ong>treesong> on M.9 EMLA

ong>andong> all the other subclones of M.9.

3. Within the group of semi-dwarf ong>treesong>, both ‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ ong>treesong> grew

less vigorously on P 60 ong>andong> more vigorously on P 14 in comparison with the ong>treesong> on

M.26.

4. The total yields obtained from ong>treesong> growing on the subclones of M.9 ong>andong>

P 22 were similar to the total yields from ong>treesong> growing on M.9 EMLA ong>andong> P 22 – the

stong>andong>ard rootstocks. ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> growing on the semi-dwarfing rootstocks

P 14 ong>andong> P 60 produced higher total yields than ong>treesong> on the stong>andong>ard rootstock

M.26. The highest yield efficiency within the group of the very dwarfing rootstocks

was achieved by ong>treesong> on P 59 followed by those on P 61, whereas among the

subclones of M.9 the most efficient were ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> on M.9 Pajam 1.

5. Tested subclones of M.9 ong>andong> P 22, ong>andong> new rootstocks with varying vigour

produced no significant effect on the size, weight or colouring of ong>appleong>s, with the

exception of ‘Jonagold’ ong>treesong> growing on P 59. More attention has to be paid to very

careful winter ong>andong> summer pruning ong>andong> the thinning of fruitlets when growing

‘Jonagold’ on P 59.

Gauta

2006 05 23

Parengta spausdinti

2006 07 13

References

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new polish rootstocks ong>andong> some M.9 clones on growth cropping ong>andong> fruit quality of three

ong>appleong> cultivars. Proceedings of the International Seminar “Apple Rootstocks for intensive

Orchards” (Warsaw-Ursynów, Polong>andong>, 18-21 08 1999). 1999. P. 15-16.

2. Czynczyk A. New ong>appleong> rootstocks from the Polish breeding program

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28. P. 68-76.

3. C z y n c z y k A. The growth ong>andong> fruiting of two ong>appleong> cultivars replanted over

the old ong>appleong> orchard at various densities. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 2000. (1). P. 19-24.

178


4. C z y n c z y k A. ong>andong> Piskor E. Effect of P 22 rootstocks propagated ‘in

vitro’ ong>andong> traditionally on growth ong>andong> fruiting of two ong>appleong> cultivars. Folia Hort. 2000.

12/1. P. 29-39.

5. Czynczyk A., Bartosiewicz B. Results of a nine-year study of the

effect of semigrowing rootstocks on the growth ong>andong> yielding of the ‘Ligol’ ong>appleong>. Folia

Hort. Ann. 2003. 15/1, 2003. P. 49-56.

6. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P. Ten-year results of growing the ong>appleong>

cultivar ‘Ligol’ in Polong>andong>. Hort. Veget. Grow. 2002. 21(4). P. 12-21.

7. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P., Bartosiewicz B. Testing New

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2001. 557. P. 83-89.

8. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P., Bartosiewicz B. Influence of

subclones of M.9 ong>andong> P 22 ong>andong> new Polish-bred rootstocks on growth ong>andong> yields of

‘Jonagold’ ong>andong> ‘Ligol’ ong>appleong> ong>treesong>. Acta Hort. 2004. 658. P. 129-133.

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179


SODININKYSTË IR DARÞININKYSTË. MOKSLO DARBAI. 2006. 25(3).

173–180.

‘JONAGOLD’ IR ‘LIGOL’ VEISLIØ OBELØ AUGIMAS IR DERËJIMAS SU

M.9, P 22 SUBKLONAIS IR KAI KURIAIS LENKIÐKAIS POSKIEPIAIS

A. Czynczyk, P. Bielicki, B. Bartosiewicz

Santrauka

Sode 10 metø buvo tirta M.9 subklonø: M.9T 337, Pajam 1, RN 29, P 22 subklonø:

P 22/K, P 22/A, P 22/J, ir kai kuriø naujø lenkiðkø poskiepiø (P 59, P 60, P 61 ir P 62) átaka

‘Jonagold’ ir ‘Ligol’ veisliø obelø augimui ir derëjimui. Abiejø veisliø vaismedþiø su M.9

subklonais augumas buvo labai artimas augumui su stong>andong>artiniu poskiepiu M.9 EMLA,

bet vaismedþiai su Pajam 1 buvo maþiausi. ‘Jonagold’ vaismedþiai su nauju lenkiðku P 62

poskiepiu augo daug lëèiau negu su M.9 EMLA. Abiejø veisliø vaismedþiø augumas su

P 22 subklonais buvo panaðus kaip su stong>andong>artiniu poskiepiu P 22. ‘Jonagold’ vaismedþiai

su P 61 poskiepiu buvo ið esmës þemesni uþ vaismedþius su P 22. Maþiausi abiejø veisliø

vaismedþiai buvo su P 59 poskiepiu. Pusiau þemaûgiø poskiepiø grupëje þemiausi

vaismedþiai buvo su P 60, didþiausi – su P 14 poskiepiu. Derlius buvo beveik proporcingas

vaismedþio dydþiui. Ið P 22 subklonø didþiausi abiejø veisliø derliai gauti su P 22/A, ið M.9

subklonø – su M.9T 337, pusiau þemaûgiø ‘Jonagold’ vaismedþiø grupëje – su P 60,

‘Ligol’ – su P 14. M.9 subklonø produktyvumas buvo panaðus á M.9 EMLA, o ið P 22

subklonø ðio rodiklio reikðmës buvo panaðios á stong>andong>artinio P 22 poskiepio. Ið pusiau

þemaûgiø poskiepiø produktyviausi buvo vaismedþiai su P 60. 2004 metais abiejø veisliø

su dauguma tirtø poskiepiø vaisiø kokybës rodikliai (dydis, masë ir vaisiø, kuriø þievë

paraudusi daugiau kaip 50%, procentas) nesiskyrë. Kur kas maþesni ‘Jonagold’ obuoliai

iðaugo tik su P 59.

Reikðminiai þodþiai: obelys, poskiepiai, subklonas, augimas, produktyvumas, vaisiø

kokybë.

180

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