September 2009 - SIMA

September 2009 - SIMA

September 2009 - SIMA


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N K Patnaik

V.S. Bapna

Prakash Tatia

Suresh Thawani

Sushil Maroo

P. Mohanty

G K Chhanghani

Nirmal Aggarwal

Anil Kumar Patwari

Narayan Tekriwal

James Mathew

Amitabh S Mudgal

N C Mohanty

S S Bhatnagar


Prakash Tatia

G K Chhanghani

Surender Dalmia

Sunil Garg

Dinesh Agarwal


In the past year the Indian as well as global

economy has witnessed a very high degree of

uncertainty and volatility. The Indian Sponge Iron

Industry also felt the cascading effects of

economic slowdown, however the industry feels

squeezed, but with its fundamentals still intact it

has the strength to utilize its full potential and

grow at double-digit rates when backed by the

Government in terms of raw material inputs. The

key growth drivers being infrastructure

development and high level urbanization,

escalating demand from housing, automobile, white goods and rural/

agricultural development sectors.

There has been tremendous amount of Government response and

support to the Industry, which is helping to bring out possible easing of

the situation and also showing clear signs of recovery. But obviously

this road is long and improvement is going to be gradual.

To achieve the production target of 124 Million Tons, for growth the

steel Industry has to heavily depend on the secondary route, using

Sponge Iron as a major source of quality metallics. However the DRI

Industry is facing serious problems, which need special considerations

from the Government to ensure short term and long-term supply of

vital raw materials namely Coal, Iron Ore and Natural Gas at affordable

prices. The economic crisis has led to the review or cancellation of

many planned investments in capacity expansion. This may result in

imbalance between capacity and demand levels unless corrective

measures are taken now. The Sponge Iron Industry is fully geared up

for the future but policy initiatives from the Government on availability

and prices of raw materials have become a pressing need of the

manufacturers’. We are confident about help for our sunrise Industry

and await all steps with optimism.

The robust growth of SIMA from 10 members in 1999 to 102 members

in 2009 can be attributed to its commitment and sincere efforts to serve

its members. The driving force behind SIMA has been encouragement

& co-operation of the members, which has made SIMA a very successful

result oriented Association at both National and International levels.

Your participation in Industry activities is our strength.



As India takes stride towards industrialization, it

encounters many problems at the foundation level.

Conflict between the industries and local agro

based population over land acquisition and water

allocation which sometimes precipitates explosive

situation reveals incoherence between the vision

of the policy makers and perception of the people

at the grass root level.

Issue of water allocation stems from plummeting

level of ground water which sometimes becomes

alarming due to weak or delayed monsoon and

poses a threat to survival both for agriculture and

industries of the region. Proposal to connect the

rivers is a pragmatic solution and should be

supplemented by clearing the silt deposit and

deepening of the river bed with spillways and dams.

This can also be utilized as waterways to ameliorate

the logistic problem that is coming to surface as

we start our journey.

Human resource requirement for tomorrow needs

serious concern today. The process of Human

resource development is slow but more important

than capital formation or infrastructure. It requires

joint effort of industries and government to plan out

future requirement in order to prevent starvation of

competent personnel in future. Industries should

also have constant interaction with educational


Government must encourage

and support green field

ventures in the field of power,

steel and allied industries which

would provide foundation for the



industrialization. Allocation of

mineral blocks for the captive

use of the industries deserves more attention than

what it receives today.

Industries on their part have a sacred duty to

conserve raw material and learn to live in an

environment of scarcity. It has taken million of years

for nature to create the minerals and these are

meant for many generations. Abundance of raw

material does not give us a liberty to take the cream

and leave the waste for our successors. We must

utilize the waste in effective manner. The countries

which have achieved industrialization under raw

material scarcity have developed innovative

technology for utilization of waste and we must

learn and adopt the same into our process.

India had for long accepted agriculture as the main

fabric of economy. Now large scale industrialization

would create a happy and balanced economy for

the country and it is just a bend ahead.




S.S. Bedarkar

Electrotherm (India) Limited

Direct reduction includes the processes in which iron

ore (lumps/ pellets) is reduced in the solid state and

oxygen is removed by either solid or gaseous

reducing agents. The reductants used are noncoking

coal or natural gas. The product is used in

steel making and melted in a manner similar to the

scrap. For gas based processes shaft furnaces,

fluidized bed retorts, etc. are used while for coal

based processes rotary kiln based plants are very


Tunnel kiln process:

Hoganas has developed a retort based process in

1908, which uses coal as a reductant. The

carbothermic reduction of iron ore takes place in

horizontal tunnel kiln.

Reduction mix, consisting of coal or coke fines of

the size 3 mm or below, anthracite, and limestone, is

charged with iron ore in ceramic muffles/saggers.

Ceramic saggers give life of about 8-10 heats. For

better life (about 100-120 heats) and improved heat

transfer, many plants use silicon carbide (SiC)

saggers. The materials are arranged in alternate

layers in the form of concentric rings within a sagger.

Figure 1 depicts the sagger with iron ore and coal in

a concentric manner. Also, in some processes

alternate layers of coal-ore-coal are placed.


Iron ore fines

Figure 2 shows unfilled SiC saggers. Individual

saggers are then stacked on one above the other.

Arrays of such units are formed above the kiln car.

Schematic of the arrangement of the saggers above

the car is shown in Figure 3 (a). Figure 3(b) depicts

the actual photograph of car trolley along with array

of saggers. The plant in which silicon carbide

saggers are used, the empty saggers are first

placed one above the other, and then the concentric

feeding of coal and iron ore fines is carried out.

Figure 2 Empty silicon carbide (SiC) saggers


Figure 1 Single sagger with arrangement of charge mix



Figure 4 Car pushing system


Figure 3 (a) Schematic of arrangement of

saggers on a trolley (b) Stack of SiC saggers

mounted on trolley, entering into tunnel kiln

The cars are then pushed through the tunnel kilns.

Figure 4 shows the photograph of car pushing

system. The time between two cars entering the kiln

is called the “pushing time”. The tunnel kiln consists

of three zones; the preheating zone, the reduction

zone, and the cooling zone. Schematic of the tunnel

kiln used by Hoganas is depicted in Figure 5 . The

kiln cars first travel through the preheating zone,

then through the reduction zone, where the ore is

reduced into iron at a constant high temperature of

1100-1200 °C. The kiln cars are then cooled in the

cooling zone of the kiln. It takes approximately 28-

36 hours for a kiln car to travel through a kiln. The

time of travel may vary from plant to plant. The

combustion air flows in the opposite direction of the

kiln cars. Cold fresh air first cools the hot cars and

after passing through the reduction zone, hot exhaust

gases preheat the incoming cars before the gases

exit the kilns. Because of concentric feeling of raw

material inside the sagger, the coal ash and sponge

iron, a product, remain separate inside the sagger.

The product, thus formed, can be separated easily.

Figure 6 shows the sponge iron in the form of a


Figure 5 Schematic of the tunnel kiln

The efficiency of the Hoganas sponge iron process

is defined as the energy needed for the reduction

reactions compared to the energy added to the

system. Eriksson and Larsson [1] presented the

Sankey diagram for heat balance for the process is

shown in Figure 7. From the diagram it could be

observed that large amount of heat demand for the

process is fulfilled by coke mix and natural gas, while

the maximum heat is consumed by the reduction

reactions. The process efficiency of Hoganas

process is about 40 %, which decreases slightly with

decreased pushing time.

Figure 6 The product of tunnel kiln


Consumption of raw materials and energy per tonne

of sponge iron for Hoganas process is as follows


Iron ore concentrates : 1350 kg

Coke : 500 kg

Lime : 125-130 kg

Energy consumption : 14.5 GJ

Typical analysis (%) of Hoganas sponge iron is,

Fe (metallic) : 93.0

Fe (total) : 97.0

Metallization : 95.9

C : 0.2

S : 0.008

P : 0.012

Gangue : 1.6

The consumption norms will vary as per the quality

of input raw materials. Instead of coke if coal is used

then the quantity will further increase. With Chinese/

anthracite coal the consumption is about 0.9 to 1.1

tonnes per tonne of sponge iron. With Indian coal,

the consumption is expected to be more. Out of the

total coal, 60 % will be utilized for iron ore reduction

and the remaining 40% will be used to produce coal


In China, Tangshan Outstanding Kiln Co., Ltd. has

installed a tunnel kiln for sponge iron production.

The factory has tunnel kiln of 260 m in length and

2.78 m in width with a single annual production

capacity of 50,000 – 70,000 T of direct reduced iron.

The capacity of the current factory is 100,000 T per

year. The kiln car has size of 3.4m x 2.6m. Above

the car, an array of 6x8 saggers has been formed.

Each column contains about 5 saggers. As a product

each cylinder of sponge iron weighs about 90 kg.

As per design, maximum operating temperature is

1220 °C.

Looking at the overall scenario of tunnel kiln process

it can be said that tunnel kiln process is capable of

reducing iron ore fines using coal / coke fines.

Consumption of the coal per tonne of production of

sponge iron is considered as coal required for

reduction and coal required to generate coal gas.

With thorough study of fluid dynamics and proper

circulation of the coal gas and hot air within the kiln

helps in improving the thermal efficiency of the kiln.


1. Eriksson K. and Larson M., Energy survey of

the sponge iron process, Dept. of Chem. Engg,

Lund Inst. Tech., Sweden, 2005

2. Chatterjee A., Singh R. and Pandey B., Metallics

for steelmaking-production and use, Allied

Publishers Ltd., Mumbai, 2001

Figure 7 Sankey diagram for energy

balance at a specific pushing time



Rob Cheeley, Sales Manager, Midrex Technologies, Inc., USA


As one of the world’s most vibrant and growing

economies, India has a strong steel demand for

infrastructure, construction, and consumer goods.

From 1998-2008, its steel demand grew at nine

percent per year. To feed this demand, steel

production has grown from less than 10 million tons

(Mt) in 1980 to over 55 Mt in 2008, as shown in

Figure 1.

Figure 1

India Steel and DRI Production

Sources: WorldSteel and Midrex Technologies

There are ambitious plans to increase the country’s

steel production, with the Indian government having

set a goal of 110 Mt by 2020(?).

Approximately 58 percent of India’s steel is currently

produced in electric furnaces. Given the lack of

domestic scrap and the good availability of natural

resources like iron ore, coal and natural gas, direct

reduction has provided much of the iron units

required for Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel

production growth. Direct Reduced Iron (DRI)

production has increased tremendously since 1980,

from essentially zero to over 21 Mt in 2008, as shown

in Figure 1. Of the total DRI production in 2008, 74

percent was produced from coal and 26 percent from

natural gas. India is now the world’s largest producer

of DRI.

Currently, there are two primary means of DRI

production in India: small-scale rotary kilns using

local coal and iron ore lump, and large-scale shaft

furnace plants using natural gas and iron oxide

pellets and lump. In recent years, almost all the

growth in DRI production has been due to the

installation of rotary kiln facilities and there are now

over 350 of these plants. Many are small-scale and

it is believed that over 100 have capacities from

10,000-20,000 tpy. There are only seven natural

gas-fired shaft furnace plants (including six MIDREX®

Direct Reduction Modules), but they produce 1/4 of

the total DRI in India.

Future Steelmaking Growth

For India to grow its steel production significantly,

what are the options? Direct reduction using coalfired

rotary kilns or natural gas-fired shaft furnaces

are logical choices. Rotary kiln DRI capacity has

been installed because it makes use of domestic

iron ore and coal, but there is a limit to the growth of

this technology because rotary kilns cannot be built

larger than about 200,000 tpy. Thus, it is probably

not feasible to build a steel mill to produce one million

tons per year or more via this route. Also, there are

product quality issues because of the use of lump

ore and coal with high levels of ash and sulfur. Direct

reduction plants using natural gas would be an ideal

choice, but there is little additional natural gas

available for further expansion.

Another possibility is the installation of conventional

blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace technology, but

this requires the importation of coking coal or coke,

since only about five percent of India’s coal reserves

are coking quality. Also, there may be environmental

issues and the capital cost can be high.

The Gasification/MIDREX® Option

An alternative option generating significant interest

in India is the use of a coal gasification plant in

combination with a MIDREX® Direct Reduction Plant.


The coal gasification plant would use local Indian

coals to generate a synthesis gas (or syngas) that

can be an acceptable reducing gas source for

producing DRI in the MIDREX Plant.

Coal Gasification

There are three general types of coal gasifiers: fixed

bed, entrained flow, and fluidized bed. All three

technologies are based on partial oxidation

(gasification) of a carbonaceous (carbon containing)

feed material.

The general partial oxidation reaction is:

2 CHn + O


———> 2 CO + n H


In addition to the desired CO and H 2 , the syngas

exiting a gasifier also contains CO 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 , H 2 S,

and particulates. If a fixed bed gasification

technology is utilized, the syngas will also contain

ammonia and aromatic organic compounds.

While each of the gasifier types can make an

acceptable reducing gas for a MIDREX DR Plant,

the fixed bed technology is the preferred choice for

India because it can accommodate the high ash

domestic coals. The leading fixed bed process is

the Lurgi Gasification process, licensed by Lurgi

Clean Coal Technology Company. The Lurgi

Gasification technology is well-proven, with over 102

gasifiers in commercial operation worldwide, the

earliest of these built in 1955. Eighty of these units

are deployed in South Africa, using high ash coals

very similar to Indian coals.

Lurgi Coal Gasification Process

In the Lurgi Gasification process, coal is gasified at

elevated pressures by reacting with high pressure

steam and high purity oxygen to produce a syngas

suitable for the production of fuels and chemicals.

The gasifier operates at a temperature below the

ash melting point so the coal ash is discharged from

the gasifier as a solid. Because of this low operating

temperature, the Lurgi Gasification process requires

significantly lower quantities of oxygen than the

entrained flow gasification processes which melt the


The syngas exiting the gasifier is hot, dirty, and

contains a significant amount of non reducing gas

components. Downstream of the gasifier, the syngas

is cleaned and conditioned to remove most of the

undesired components, many of which are saleable

byproducts that can be used as petrochemical plant


Figure 2 contains a simplified process flowsheet for

combining the Lurgi Coal Gasification technology

with a MIDREX Plant and Figure 3 shows Lurgi

gasifiers at the Sasol Plant in Secunda, South Africa.

Figure 2

Simplified Lurgi Gasification Plant + MIDREX

Plant Flowsheet

Figure 3

Lurgi Gasifiers in Secunda, South Africa

The following table summarizes the major

characteristics of the Lurgi Gasification Plant.



Characteristics of the Lurgi Gasification Plant

Operating pressure l 20-40 barg

Feedstocks / Utilities l Lump coal (5-50 mm)

l Oxygen (approx. 99 mol%)

l High pressure (H.P.) steam

Gas Cleaning & Conditioning l Hot syngas is cleaned and cooled by a direct contact water scrubber,

followed by indirect air cooling and water cooling

l Trace components, most of the sulfur (H2S), and a significant amount

of the CO2 are removed by a Lurgi Rectisol® unit at the tail end of


l Sulfur is recovered in an OxyClaus® process with Claus tail gas

processed in an LTGT® process, achieving >99% sulfur recovery.

Produces valuable and l Phenols

saleable co-products

l Ammonia

l Coal oil

l Elemental sulfur

l Low pressure (L.P.) steam

MIDREX® Direct Reduction Plant

The high pressure syngas exiting the Lurgi

gasification plant contains approximately 85 percent

H 2

+CO, 2.5 percent CO 2

, and 12.5 percent CH 4

. The

H 2

/CO ratio is about 1.6, which is the same as used

in a natural gas-based MIDREX Plant.

In the MIDREX Plant, the cold syngas is first

depressurized to about 3 barg. If the syngas flowrate

is high enough, it may be economical to use a turbine

generator to depressurize the syngas.

The low pressure syngas is then mixed with recycled

gas to produce the required reducing gas. The mixed

syngas is then heated to over 900º C. The hot

reducing gas enters the MIDREX® Shaft Furnace

where it reacts with the iron oxide to produce DRI.

The reduction reactions are shown below:

Fe 2

O 3

+ 3H 2

—> 2Fe + 3H 2


Fe 2

O 3

+ 3CO —> 2Fe + 3CO 2

The spent reducing gas (top gas) exiting the shaft

furnace is scrubbed and cooled, then passed

through a CO 2

removal system. This reduces the

CO 2

content to five percent or less, which ensures

that the mixed reducing gas (syngas from the

gasification plant and recycled top gas from the

MIDREX Plant) has an acceptably high reductants

(H 2

+CO) to oxidants (H 2

O+CO 2

) ratio for efficient iron

oxide reduction. The CO 2

removal system will also

remove the sulfur gases contained in the recycled

top gas.

DRI Hot Transport Options

The DRI can be discharged from the MIDREX Shaft

Furnace at temperatures up to 700º C. Many of the

newer MIDREX Plants are designed to transport the

hot DRI to a nearby electric arc furnace to take

advantage of the available sensible heat.

Depending on the distance from the MIDREX Plant

to the steel mill, there are different options for hot

DRI transport. The following identifies which hot

transport option is recommended:


Distance between

Shaft Furnace and EAF

Hot Transport Mode

0 – 40 meters HOTLINK®

40 – 200 meters Hot Transport Conveyor

or Hot Transport Vessels

> 200 meters Hot Transport Vessels


The HOTLINK Process primarily uses

gravity to feed DRI from the MIDREX

Shaft Furnace into storage bins

located directly above the EAF. This

hot transport mode requires the

bottom of the MIDREX Shaft Furnace

to be at a higher elevation than the

EAF. The HOTLINK Process is under

construction at ESISCO in Egypt and

at Shadeed in Oman.

Hot Transport The hot transport conveyor option

Conveyor: continuously transports HDRI from

the discharge of the MIDREX Shaft

Furnace via an inclined bucket

conveyor into storage bins located

directly above the EAF. For this hot

transport mode, the MIDREX Shaft

Furnace discharge can be at a

significantly lower elevation than the

EAF. This hot transport mode is

operating at Hadeed Module E in

Saudi Arabia.

Hot Transport In the hot transport vessel option,

Vessel: the HDRI exiting the MIDREX Shaft

Furnace is discharged into

refractory-lined containers. These

containers are then transported by

truck or rail to the steel mill. At the

steel mill, a crane is used to lift the

containers above the EAF so that

the HDRI can be discharged directly

into the EAF. The hot transport

vessel approach has been used by

Essar Steel since 1998 and is

operating at the Lion Group plant in


Figure 4 below shows the Hot Transport Conveyor

option that is utilized at HADEED Module E. On the

left side of this picture is the melt shop, on the right

side of this picture is the MIDREX® Shaft Furnace,

and between them is the inclined Hot Transport


Figure 4

Hot Transport Conveyor at HADEED Module E

MIDREX® Plant Capacities

MIDREX Plants can be designed and built for a wide

range of DRI capacities. Midrex is currently

designing modules with capacities ranging from

400,000 t/y up to 2,200,000 t/y.

Forty-five operating MIDREX® Direct Reduction

Modules have rated capacities between 400,000 t/y

and 800,000 t/y (six more are under construction),

seven operating MIDREX Modules have rated

capacities between 1,000,000 t/y and 1,400,000 t/y

(one more is under construction), and five operating

MIDREX Modules have rated capacities of 1,500,000

t/y or higher (three more are under construction).

Hadeed Module E is the largest MIDREX Plant, with

a rated capacity of 1,760,000 t/y and has been

operating since 2007. This Module uses the Hot

Transport Conveyor concept to deliver hot DRI at >

600º C into the EAF.


Predicted Operating Consumptions

The predicted operating consumptions for the

combined Lurgi Gasification Plant + MIDREX Plant

complex in India are given in Table II.


Table II

Lurgi Gasification Plant + MIDREX Plant

Combination Predicted Operating

Consumptions for Indian Conditions

MIDREX MEGAMOD® with capacity of 1,800,000 tpy

of hot DRI 1

Lurgi Gasifier using typical high ash Indian coal

Input Units Quantity per t

hot DRI2

Iron Ore t 1.45

Coal (ash free)3 t 0.46

Coal (as mined)3 t 0.84

H.P. steam t 0.7

L.P. steam t 0.1

Oxygen t 0.21

Electricity kW-h 180

Maintenance &

indirect costs 4 USD 10

1. The hot DRI product characteristics are: 93%

metallization, 2% carbon, and 700º C discharge


2. Quantities are for the combined Lurgi

Gasification Plant and MIDREX DR Plant

3. Values assume typical high ash Indian coal

4. Includes routine maintenance, long-term

amortized cost for replacing capital equipment,

and indirect costs


Combining the Lurgi Gasification technology with the

MIDREX Direct Reduction Process is a viable solution

in India.

The advantages of the combined the Lurgi

Gasification Plant + MIDREX Plant in India include:












Uses well-proven Lurgi Gasification and

Rectisol® technologies. The Lurgi Gasifier can

readily use the low rank, high ash domestic

Indian coals as feed material.

Uses well-proven MIDREX Direct Reduction

Process. This technology can readily use

domestic Indian iron oxides as feed material.

Produces DRI with quality comparable to natural

gas-based MIDREX Plants

The DRI can be hot charged into a nearby electric

arc furnace (EAF) to significantly reduce the EAF

electricity requirement and significantly increase

the EAF productivity.

The Lurgi Gasification Plant + MIDREX Plant

combination can be paired with an EAF-based

mini-mill to produce high quality long or flat steel


No coke, coke ovens, or sinter plant required.

Lower specific capital cost than an integrated

steel works

Lower air emissions than an integrated steel


Ability to capture high purity CO 2

for sequestering

or injecting into oil and gas fields

Much larger capacities than rotary kilns: up to

2.2 Mtpy in a single module

Higher quality DRI product than rotary kilns


For further information on the Lurgi Gasification Plant

+ MIDREX Plant combination, please contact:

Midrex Technologies:

Sales & Marketing Department

Phone: +1 704-373-1600

Email: info@midrex.com


Product Management Department

Phone: +49 69 5808 1780

Email: kommunikation@lurgi.com



The SIMA meeting held on 16 -17th March’09 was

organised by Vikram Ispat now Welspun Maxsteel

Ltd.at their plant in Salav, Maharashtra, including

the plant visit. Around 15 members of SIMA visited.

During the meeting various issues were discussed

related to the sponge iron industry and the initiatives

that need to be taken to cope up with the current

slowdown in steel industry.

After the meeting, plant visit was organised covering

the Main plant, the Material handling and the Jetty

area. All the members appreciated the cleanliness

& Eco friendly technology with no pollution in the

plant. Members were also briefed on Best Practices

followed at WMSL under World Class Manufacturing

umbrella, which was also well appreciated by the


Members also visited Vikram Vinayak Temple

followed by Residential Township. All the members

were overwhelmed by the hospitality extended to

them, which they felt was par excellence.




R Somnath & Suresh Thawani

Tata Sponge Iron Limited, Joda


Safety is becoming an increasingly important subject

for the management of all industrial organizations.

The concern, depending upon the value system of

the organization, spans from valuing human life at

one end to just compliance to regulations at the

other end. In all the cases, however the organizations

get benefit of higher productivity depending upon

their belief in safety value system.

This paper endeavors to create an approach to

develop and implement a general safety culture in

organisations, to the benefit of its employees & the


Even though special emphasis has given to the

unorganised sectors at large, this paper also throws

light on safety needs and processes in large

organisations. Objective of this paper is to highlight

two general components of safety culture: a

framework in the organisations to be co-created by

management & workmen and a constructive attitude

of the workforce at all levels for positive acceptance

of all safety norms.


The April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear

power plant[1] in Ukraine was the product of grave

lapses committed by the plant operators in the

context of a system where training was abysmally

low. Investigations attributed the human negligence

to the absence of a safety culture resulting out of a

direct consequence of Cold War isolation.

The immediate cause/s of accidents are often

associated with human error or technical snag.

However the investigation & analysis of the

circumstances surrounding major accidents such as

the one above, or Three Mile Island, Kings Cross,

Clapham, etc. have revealed issues beyond such

immediate causes. A quotation from an enquiry

reports illustrate the point : “their belief in safety was

a mirage, their systems inadequate, and operator

errors commonplace

…. from the top to

bottom, the body

corporate was

infected with the

disease of


It is now a known

fact that the basic




systems, climate and

procedures may Chernobyl reactor #4 after the

disaster, showing the extensive

predispose an

damage to the main reactor hall

organisation to an (image center) and turbine building

accident. This

(lower left)

backdrop scenario is

being increasingly described from the context of

safety culture, where culture comprises the attitudes,

beliefs and behaviours that are generally shared

within the organisation. The International Nuclear

Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) termed ‘safety

culture’ for the first time in 1988 in its summary report

on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on Chernobyl


Since then, a number of definitions of safety culture

have been introduced. The U.K. Health and Safety

Commission developed one of the most commonly

used definitions of safety culture, which describes

safety culture as: “The product of individual and

group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies,

and patterns of behaviour that determine the

commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an

organization’s health and safety management”.

“Organizations with a positive safety culture are

characterized by communications founded on mutual

trust, by shared perceptions of the importance of

safety and by confidence in the efficacy of preventive


Thus, safety culture can be described as an


environmental setting where everyone feels

responsible for safety and pursues it on a daily basis,

going beyond ‘the call of duty’ to identify unsafe

conditions and behaviors, and intervene to correct

them. In a safety culture, safety is not a priority that

can be shifted depending on situational demands,

rather it is a value linked with all other situational


Implementing a safety culture

Over the past 50 years, organisations have primarily

focused on successfully improving the technical

aspects in their plant & machinery to improve safety,

as is evident from lower accident rates caused due

to machine failures. However, with the frequency of

technical failures diminishing in industry, the role of

human behaviour has become more perceptible.

Safety experts estimate that 80–90% of all industrial

accidents are attributable to human factors and

organisational priorities [2] over safety. It is now

widely accepted that the general likelihood of an

accident occurring depends not just on the actions

of individual employees but on the safety culture of

the organisation[3].

A positive safety culture entails that the whole is

always more than the sum of the parts. From various

studies, it is clear that certain factors appear to

characterize organisations with a positive safety

culture, which are typically as follows :





commitment by Senior Leadership

Clarity of expectations from the line managers

Involvement of all employees

Commonly understood & agreed goals through

effective communications




Good organisational learning & agility to change


Focused alertness on workplace safety

Encouraging good safety practices through

rewards & recognitions

Improving safety culture must be regarded as a

systematic & continuous process. This ideally

undergoes the PDCA cycle through initial

assessment of the existing safety culture,

determining priorities for change, develop action

plans to effect the desired changes and then

regularly reviewing progress before repeating its


Broadly, there are four components to implementing

an effective safety culture :

1. Establish safety as a core value : The

importance of safety to the individual, the

organization and the community should be

understood by everyone directly or indirectly

involved with the organization. Each individual

should have an awareness of his/her

responsibilities with respect to their safety

performance. The culture should reflect a strong

individual and group intolerance for violations

of safety norms. There should be a balanced

perspective on the importance of both traditional

worker safety and process safety performance

as unique but parallel goals of the organization.

2. Commitment from the top : In order for the

workforce to become safety conscious,

commitment from the senior leadership is

indispensable. Ability & motivation of the line

managers with day to day responsibility for safety

is proportional to the commitment from top

management, which lays the foundation for the

sustenance of safety culture. It is necessary for

senior management to realize the true costs of

accidents which go far beyond injuries to persons

or loss of productivity. To the outside world, it

also implies a lack of reliability & lackluster

attitude of the company as a unit. Sensitiveness

to safety often graduates in fostering the culture

through rewards & recognition and other means.


3. Measuring the scale of the problems :

Crucial to achieving a genuine safety culture is

having the means to monitor the company’s

current performance in order to identify ways in

which safety can be continuously improved.

Across all industries, the most widely used form

of monitoring the effectiveness of current

policies is the near miss accidents (Fuguais)

which, if not attended, escalates to lost time

accidents. This is more appropriately depicted

through the Heinrich safety triangle below which

emphasises to concentrate on the fundamentals

that eliminate the behaviours that cause the near


Researchers have concluded that reduction in

the number of personal accidents is directly

proportional to the number of other accidents,

involving damage to properties. The goal of a

true safety culture therefore is to reduce the near

miss rates to zero. There are other means of

monitoring safety performance which may

include categorization of injury types, or following

typical formats arising out of statutory reporting

requirements contained in industrial safety

norms. The key point, however, is that companies

must employ some regular means of monitoring

their safety performances.

4. Changing Bahaviour : It is often quoted that,

“safety culture is how we behave when no one

is watching.” The key aspect of a safety culture

is changing the behavior of its workforce so they

believe in safety, think safety and consistently

look for further improvements.

Introduction of a genuine safety culture based

on the concept of continual improvement,

personal commitment and responsibility on the

part of everyone in the company, is a long term

process and involves dedication & hard work.

To a certain extent, practicing the laid down

safety regulations through Safety Management

Systems result in certain change in behavior.

However, companies can take additional steps

to encourage the change from a culture of

compliance with regulations to that of a culture

based on individual commitment to safety.

At one extreme, companies may wish to conduct

detailed behavioural assessment programme,

hiring expert services, in order to work out the

best way to move forward. The assistance of

outside consultants may then be used to oversee

the change in the company’s safety culture.

However, this would largely depending on the

size of workforce and for many companies, a

less ambitious approach may be more


A three-stage model[2] developed by an offshore

operating company explains different stages of

employee attitudes & behavioural pattern (see

diagram). This model is useful as organisations

can identify their current stage and identify

actions to move them to the next stage. The

three stages in this model are, (a) dependent,

(b) Independent; & (c) Interdependent.


While this model describes the safety culture

improvement process in three separate stages, it is

likely that different parts of an organisation are at

different levels at any one time. It will therefore be

important for organisations to diagnose the stage

that different parts of the organisation are at, before

attempting to improve the safety culture.

Stages of development of safety culture

National policies are a necessity to boost the

development and implementation of safety and

security in the organisations, particularly in small &

unorganised sectors. Management and technical

staff responsibilities in these organisations usually

are not clearly defined. Highly skilled professionals

or technicians are the exception, and in general the

technical staff would only have the necessary

knowledge to deal with their work. These

organisations do not facilitate training & periodical

retraining of their staff, and a policy to disseminate

information on safety issues is either non-existent

or does not feature in the list of priorities.

Understanding of safety culture and self diagnosis

of its stage of development may be difficult in their

environment of economical urgencies, small number

of employees and other adverse constraints.

Professional associations should help such

organisations in their understanding of safety issues,

and should provide an appropriate environment for

“horizontal” communications between them.

The following classification of stages of development

of safety culture in unorganised sectors is

descriptive and not rigid. At any time, organisations

they may exhibit a combination of the following main

characteristics of the stages.

Stage I -

Stage II -

Stage III -

Safety issues are not fully addressed by

the organisation.

Safety issues are addressed mainly to

comply with regulations or as a formality.

Good safety performance becomes an

organisational & individual goal.

The suggestions in Table-I[4] are examples of some

actions aimed at assisting small & unorganised

organisations in their progress toward higher stages

of development of safety culture.

I to II


Require support from other organisations (professional associations, regulators) to review

or formulate safety policy, and communicate that action to the staff

establish safety training of the managerial level and the staff.

facilitate employees participation in the activities of professional associations

introduce regular review of safety and seek for employee’s suggestions in order to identify

areas of improvement, with emphasis on safety and security of spent sources

make employees aware of safety issues as part of quality performance.

make employees aware of strategic goals that relate quality and safety to long-term profits

make employees aware of other organisations who have successfully improved their safety

performance, to demonstrate that achievement is possible

Review safety performance and make employees aware that safety is not only a technical

issue. Promote a questioning attitude to prevent the problem of orphan sources

Facilitate cross communications with similar organisations and start collaborative work with


Table I - Suggestions to assist progress toward safety culture


Errors as a learning opportunity

Employees at small & unorganised sectors should

be encouraged to report human errors during

operations. Senior management should promote

employee participation in professional boards and

interactions with ‘safety cultured’ organisations to

confer and experience their unique practices.

Special emphasis should be given on cognitive

mechanisms as they determine the extent to which

questioning attitude is retained during operations.

Self learning & experience promote the automotive

controls to such an extent that they no longer require

conscious control.

Role of the regulatory body

The Regulatory Body should conduct a review of

the factors in the overall corporate culture that may

have significant influence in the development and

implementation of safety culture, and should

promote programs aimed at assisting unorganised

organisations in the cultural transformation of their

management. Their roles can be better described

as below[5] :




Provide a model of how an organisation should

approach the development of an effective safety


Provide a means by which an organisation’s

current approach to developing its safety culture

can be assessed

Provide a means by which improvements in an

organisation’s approach to developing its safety

culture can be identified.

v Encourage industries to conduct safety climate

surveys and application of behavioural safety



Achievement of an effective safety culture is a

prerequisite to implementing and maintaining

satisfactory standards of safety performances. The

indirect costs of industrial accidents are estimated

to be around 3 times the direct costs associated

with injuries & loss of lives and damage to properties.

As such, depending upon the level of its existence,

safety culture can prove to be a threat or competitive

advantage for organisational sustenance.

Safety culture is commonly described as the values

& practices that management and workforce share

to ensure that safety is always the first priority, thus

moving beyond statutory compliance to a culture of

self regulation.

Implementing an effective safety culture has four

broad components which primarily address the

softer aspects of safety management than

ordinance. Therefore, improvement in safety culture

is a continuous process, involving everyone in the


The Regulatory Bodies should play a pivotal role

promoting safety culture through customized

programmes & review mechanisms at unorganised

sectors in particular, and should go beyond

restricting itself to merely ensuring conformance to

regulatory norms.


1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safety_culture

2. Safety culture – the way forward; Mark Fleming

and Ronny Lardner, The Chemical Engineer,

March 1999

3. Safety Culture Transformation, Manoj S

Patankar, Saint Louis University, Euro Control

R&D Symposium, October 2008, Southampton,


4. Developing and implementing safety culture in

the uses of radiation sources, Rojkind, R.H.,

International Conference on the Safety of

Radiation Sources, Dijon, Francia, 14-18 Sept


5. Development of a Business Excellence Model

of Safety Culture: Safety Culture Improvement

Matrix, Michael S Wright, Philip Brabazon, Alison

Tipping and Medha Talwalka, Entec UK Ltd

6. Safety Culture – a Special issued by International

Shipping Federation, London

7. Development of a Process Safety Culture for a

Newly Graduated Chemical Engineer; Max Mckay

& Jean-Paul Lacoursière, Universite de




The global iron ore industry is on the verge a major

transformation, driven by a combination of booming

global demand and diminishing stocks of high-grade


World consumption of iron ore is driven by the global

steel industry and grows on average by 10% per

annum, with the main consumers being China, Japan,

Korea, the United States and the European Union.

The major producers of iron ore include China,

Brazil, Australia, India, and Russia.

The major growth constraints for the global iron ore

industry are:

• the position of the iron ore relative to market;

• the cost of rail infrastructure to get it to market

• the energy cost required.

The growth in demand for iron ore over the past

decade has principally been driven by the Chinese

economy. During the first half of this decade, China’s

steel consumption grew at a rate of 1.5-2.5 times

GDP driven by rapid industrialization and


The principal ore minerals of Iron are Heamatite &


Hematite (Fe O )

2 3

Traditionally, the Global Iron ore industry has been

based on the mining, production and export of highgrade

hematite ores which currently account for

approximately 70% of global iron ore production.

High-grade hematite is often referred to as “Direct

Shipping Ore” or “DSO” because it is mined and

beneficiated using a relatively simple crushing and

screening process before being exported for use in

steel mills.

Magnetite (Fe O )

3 4

Magnetite ore has lower iron content and must be

upgraded to make it suitable for steelmaking.

Magnetite ore is suitable for processing into iron ore

pellets for use in modern steel production and

currently accounts for approximately 30% of global

Biranchi. N.Pati (Sr. Manager) Geological Services

Monnet Ispat & Energy Ltd.

iron ore production. The magnetic properties of

magnetite enable it to be readily refined into an iron

ore concentrate.

While magnetite is generally a lower-grade

deposit, it is globally accepted as a viable and

high-quality feedstock for the production of

premium quality, low impurity steel.

Magnetite – the Future of Global Iron Ore…

Traditionally, Haematitic “iron ore” with DSO quality,

is considered as emergence of the world’s great iron

deposits. As a result, magnetite has been greatly

misunderstood and undervalued by the market.

Because it has lower iron content than hematite, has

been regarded as a less attractive proposition.

However, the availability of cheaper energy combined

with unprecedented global iron ore and steel demand

is changing this perspective.

Magnetite projects today are capable of

producing high-quality concentrate grading up

to 68-69% Fe, which is higher grade than many

of the hematite lump and fines ores currently

being produced.

The processing route for magnetite requires primary

crushing, secondary crushing, screening, primary

grinding, fine grinding, magnetic separation, flotation,

thickening, filtering and drying. The final product is

a high iron grade magnetite concentrate (+65% Fe),

with typically very low impurities. Further processing

involves the agglomeration and thermal treatment

of the concentrate to produce pellets, which can be

used directly in a blast furnace or direct reduction

steel-making plant. The attached flow diagram (Fig

-1) is an overview of magnetite process from the

physical mining activity to the end user.

The additional processing cost for the

production of magnetite concentrate can be

offset by the premium price which it attracts

from steel mills because of the high iron

content compared to benchmark DSO hematite



Magnetite projects today are capable of producing

high-quality concentrate grading up to 68-69% Fe,

which is higher grade than many of the hematite

lump and fines ores currently being produced. Also,

it is well established that hematite grades are

declining globally and impurity levels are rising while

the demand or quality, premium steel from China

and India is continuing to increase.

With hematite grades declining, high-grade

magnetite concentrate is becoming an increasingly

sought-after product. Steel mills are now buying

increasing volumes of high-grade, low impurity

magnetite concentrate to supplement declining

supplies of high-grade lump ore, in order to maintain

the quality of their final product.

Magnetite processing block diagram.


—> —> —> —> —> —> —>









85 TO 90% OF ALL




Fig - 1

Exploration and Quality of Magnetite Deposits:

Today’s in the modern world the New Magnetometer

locator of higher sensitivity & sharp measurement is

used for prospecting of Magnetite Ore deposits. The

speciality of this instrument is that it directs towards

the centre of even small commercially processable

ore bodies through concentrating & amplifying the

signal from the ore body both at the INPUT and

OUTPUT of the Sensor. Simultaneously the methods

of quantitative geochemical prospecting is being

carried out which allow to cut the costs (as much as

50 %) of locating iron ores in conventional drilling

method. The main advantages of the new

magnetometer and the geochemical method are as


1. The possibility, before expensive drilling, of

determining the coordinates of principal ore

bodies both in the horizontal plane & in depth

by the new patented magnetometers with

elevated sensitivity & sharp measurement

directivity as well as of yielding an estimated

forecast of the ore reserves.

2. As a result by putting a single borehole in the

centre of the location, the quantative estimation

of the ore deposit would be evaluated in stead

of putting dozens of boreholes.

Quality :

For Magnetite Deposits, to be viable, the ideal quality

parameters should be as follows.


Fe % - > 41 %

SiO2 % - 30 to 36 %

Al2O3 - up to 1.0

P % - 0.09 to 0.10

S % - 0.03 to 0.07

Major Constraints in Magnetite Mining & Processing:

1. The mining & processing of magnetite involves

the consumption of a significantly higher amount

of electricity.

2. The emission intensity of CO2 will be more (i.e.

800 to 1000 parts per million) which is the

greatest environmental pollution. So a proper

design of the Carbon Pollution Reduction

scheme is required and to be approved by the

government of the respective country.

Conclusion :

Hence it can be concluded that, the magnetite ore

is definitely going to be major raw material in the

future global steel industry.

Rotary Kilns/Dryers/Coolers/Granulators

v Total solution to maintenance problems

„ Diagnostic Study/Technical Audit

„ Alignment - Checking & rectification

„ Mechanical Trouble Shooting

„ Revamping (Replacement of shell/tyre/chair-pads/base-plate/girth-gear)

„ Pre-commissioning check

„ Supervision of Erection/Heavy-repairs

v Training programme in Maintenance of Kilns/Dryers for engineers:

„ Specially designed programme at your premises

v Supply of:

„ Tyre mounting Chair-pads (bolted/welded/free-floating) (Design/Engineering/Supply/Replacement)

„ Graphite blocks, powder, seal plates

„ Spring steel seal plates

„ Replacement shells

* During the last five years, we have inspected/attended to more than 75 kilns/dryers/coolers in Sponge- Iron/

Cement/Paper Industry

Some of our valued clients:

- Nova Iron & Steel Ltd., Bilaspur - Rengaraj Steel & Power Ltd., Erode

- Goa Sponge & Power Ltd., Goa - BMM Ltd., Hospet

- Shree Veerangana Steel & Power Ltd., Nagpur - Bindal Steel Ltd., Talcher

Silverline Engineering Services

103-C, Techno Park-II, Thakur Village, Kandivali-E, Mumbai-400101

Telefax: 022 28843010; Tel: 32096644/40107284; Cell: 9423581189

e-mail: silverlineengineers@rediffmail.com; silverlineengineering@gmail.com

web site: www.silverlineengineering.com



Brief Report by Mr. S.C. Khattoi

A technical delegation was organized by SIMA to visit

China with the objective of attending the seminar on

Non-blast Furnaces Technology using Direct

Reduced Rotary Kilns and Tunnel Kilns by Tianjin

over-world Non-Blast Furnace Pudding Technical

Consultancy Co. Ltd. Focus was to study technical

details and see tunnel kilns in operation for making

Sponge Iron using iron ore and coal fines.

The conference is the call of the hour to deal with

the Non Blast Furnace Route of steel making with

emphasis on Sponge Iron. India is the leading

manufacture of Sponge Iron and its technology was

well presented by Chairman, Executive Director &

delegates of SIMA. The importance of SIMA at

international level was prominent.


The signing of mutual agreement with Jiaozuo Maike

Metallurgical Machinery Co. Ltd. & SIMA in the

International Trade Strategic Co-operation

Agreement Ceremony & the meeting with the Mayor

was also a landmark for SIMA. The first plant visit to

Kunming for wet process tunnel kiln was an eye

opener for all the members and gave a physical feel

of the plant. The second dry process plant

Chengshee near Handan was in full operation and

every one witnessed from raw material to finished

product, the process of the tunnel kiln. The visit to

MK (Maike Metallurgical Machinary Co.) for

equipment manufacturing and technology for sinter

plant, pellet plant was a good experience. The visit

to Kaiyang Kiln Furniture Co. Ltd for production of

silicon carbide pot (saggers) used in the tunnel kiln

was very informative.

On behalf of all the members I request SIMA to

conduct similar technical visits to different countries

& places for the benefit of their members and the




Tata Sponge, widely acclaimed across metalics

conglomerate as a benchmark in quality, has

acquired another jewel for its crown by winning the

prestigious CII (ER) quality award. Tata Sponge was

certified as a Model TQM Company for 2008-09, in

an industry wide contest. CII (ER) Quality Award has

been designed on the lines of EFQM (European

Foundation for Quality Movement) Award.

Chairman Mr Sandeepan Chakraborty presented the

acclaimed award to select companies. Mr R Somnath,

Head (Business Excellence) received the award on

behalf of Tata Sponge.

EFQM, a non profit membership foundation is the

primary business excellence network in Europe,

gathering organisations looking to excel in their

market and in their business. EFQM defines

Excellence as the outstanding practice in managing

the organisation and achieving results. The Award

recognizes industry leaders with an known track

record of success in turning strategy into action and

continuously improving their organisation’s

performance. In a formal award giving ceremony

organized at the Oberoi Grand, Kolkata, Past

Chairman, CII (ER), Mr Rajeev Kaul & current

Mr R Somnath, Head (Business Excellence) receiving

the CII (ER) Quality Award during the award giving

ceremony in Kolkata)


Tata Sponge has always believed in consistently

raising its bar on all spheres of workplace

performance, through path breaking initiatives.

A definitive demonstration was presented recently

by the company when it was qualified for the OHSAS

18001 certification. In its continuous pursuit for

higher standards in Occupational Health & Safety

(OHS), the company had initiated implementation

activities on OHSAS only in September 2008, which

makes this accomplishment even more exceptional.

An OHS Management System provides a framework

for managing OHS responsibilities. The framework

is designed to allow companies to become more

efficient and operate in a more integrated manner

with the specific quality & environment needs.

Specifically, OHS management systems specify a

process of achieving continuously improved OHS

performance and complying with legislation. Mr.S

Shankar, Sr.DM (Learning & Training), who

spearheaded the certification programme, attributed

the success to the united efforts of employees, who

were ably led by their respective Heads of the


The assessors from IRQS, during their very first

assessment of systems & procedures related to

OHSAS 18001, found the same to be of high order

and recommended for certification, alongwith

renewal of ISO 9001 & ISO 14001 certifications. With

this certification, Tata Sponge has also qualified for

the Integrated Management System (IMS) which is

a matter of elation for the entire Tata Sponge family.

Sponge Times congratulates all individuals who were

directly or indirectly involved in the OHSAS


Mr S Shankar, Sr DM (T&L) & MR offering his

welcome to the IRQS Auditors during the introduction

meeting in presence of our Vice President (O) Mr

TP Ninan, Dy Manager (Env) & DCI Mr SK Ray &

other senior officials


V.S. Bapna - Takes over Vice Chairman SIMA

Mr. Vijay Singh Bapna is a Chartered Accountant.

He brings with him a rich experience of 36 years

working with companies like Aditya Birla Group,

Essar, Ispat Industries, Reliance Industries, Balco

(Sterlite Group) and Indorama Group (Thailand). He

has spent around 17 years of his career in Thailand

and has been holding leadership positions such as

President and Director for more than 20 years in

the above companies. He has a rich experience in

Project implementation and Plant operations with a

strong commercial background. He has spent about

15 years in Steel and Aluminum Industry.

Mr. Bapna was earlier associated with SIMA from

Ispat Industries and also Vice Chairman of Cold

Rollers and Galvanizers association.

Mr. Bapna has joined Welspun Power and Steel as “

Executive Director & Chief Executive Officer - Steel

“ He is also ED & CEO of Remi Metals Gujarat Ltd

and now Director and CEO of Welspun Maxsteel

Ltd.(formerly Vikram Ispat)


Tata Sponge has always upheld its underlying

philosophy of achieving business excellence while

maintaining a perfect equilibrium with the ecology.

The company’s resolute endeavor towards

environment conservation has often been

acknowledged by imminent national organizations

through their prestigious awards. A recent addition

to the jewels in its crown was the coveted Good

Green Governance (G3) Award for the year 2008.

The awards were given away by Shristi Foundation

to Tata Sponge for the 2nd consecutive year. The

award was received by Mr.JP Mishra, Head

(Operational Excellence) from Dr T Mukherjee,

Group Director (Integration), Tata Steel in a formal

function organized on 22nd April, ’09 at New Delhi.

Also present in the function were officials of MOEF,

Chairman, Goa Pollution Board and Hon. Dy Chief

Minister of Goa, Dr.WIllfred, in addition to several

senior executives of leading companies. The award

becomes very special considering the fact that Tata

Sponge was selected from among a number of

reputed companies who had applied for this award.

Dr T Mukherjee presenting the Srishti G3

Award to Mr JP Mishra (right)




Thomas M. Scarnati

Manager Marketing & Sales, Tenova HYL, Mexico

Perhaps some readers are not yet familiar with the

relatively new name of Tenova, but they are steadily

making their presence known both in India and


Tenova, formerly known as Techint Technologies, is

a world-wide supplier of advanced technologies,

products and services for the metal and mining

industries providing innovative integrated solutions.

Combined process automation and metallurgical

know-how enhance the value delivered to the

customers. Tenova is committed further to develop

its technology in the areas that mostly impact the

future of the industries it serves: quality of the

products delivered by the customers, energy saving

and environmental safeguard.

Tenova has operating companies in 5 continents and

the Indian Sub-continent, a perfect mix of a global

company with local roots. The network of companies

allows Tenova to be always close to the customers

providing them with technological support, rapid

customer service and short time delivery. The

Tenova Group is part of the Techint Organization,

which also includes Tenaris (worldwide producers

and suppliers of steel pipe), and Ternium (flat and

long steel products producers). The following

companies form part of the Tenova Group:

Tenova HYL

With a heritage of over 40 direct reduction modules

supplied all over the world, including the world’s first

commercial plant built in 1957, Tenova HYL is the

pioneer and technology leader in the field of the

gas based direct reduction of iron ores: one quarter

of the total world production of gas based DRI and

HBI is currently carried out in HYL process plants

throughout the world.

Tenova HYL offers its technology under the

Energiron trademark, in cooperation with Danieli &

C. Direct reduction plants based on the Energiron

process are compact, efficient, reliable and fully

flexible for using not only natural gas but any

alternative reducing gas source such as coke oven

gas, syngas or other gasifier gases depending on


Tenova HYL provides process technology and

equipment for both hot and cold discharge direct

reduction plants, as well as the HYTEMP® system

for the direct transport and hot charging of high

carbon DRI to Electric Furnace melt shops. Its

support runs from the turn-key construction of direct

reduction plants, to the supply of the core process

design and equipment, up to the delivery of training,

technical assistance and plant operation services

for the direct reduction plant as well as for the

meltshop and mill areas.

The support of the entire Techint organization is

manifest in HYL, with a history of over 50 years of

technology development and implementation in

Techint’s own plants as well as those commercialized

worldwide. This long lasting relationship and

experience has contributed to making Tenova HYL

the unmatched leader for DR technology.

No other direct reduction technology supplier is able

to offer the flexibility and quality that is inherent in

the Energiron ZR technology. The unique ability to

produce high carbon DRI (over 4% carbon) for

quality steelmaking, the more efficient size and

operation of its plants, and the environmental

friendliness of its process technology have become

the benchmark in the industry.

In India, Tenova HYL and the Energiron technology

is extending its roots and fast becoming a major

player in the local direct reduction field. The first

plant using this technology was started up in 1993,

an HBI facility at Vikram Ispat (now part of Wellspun).


A second plant at the same site but using the

reformerless or ZR Energiron process configuration

was added in 2007. Additionally, Energiron plants

have been ordered by JSPL using the syngas

process option from coal gasification, and the HYL

HYTEMP System is currently being installed at the

Essar Steel facility in Hazira for transporting hot DRI

to their EAF melt shop.

Additionally, the

HYL Micro-

Module was

developed for

specific markets

such as India,

where small


operations are

numerous. The

Micro-Module is a


plant designed to

produce smaller


(200,000 tpy) of

DRI while

maintaining an investment cost similar to that of much

larger units (1.0 million tpy or more). The first such

unit will be starting up soon in Abu Dhabi, UAE and it

is expected that this will be the model for many future

installations in India to provide a higher quality DRI

with cleaner environmental aspects over the

traditional coal-based processes. The Micro-Module

is a natural gas-based process and like the larger

plants, can also use syngas from coal gasification.

This is currently not an economically viable option

for small plants, due to the significant investment

cost for the coal gasifier plant. However, where

gasification already exists or is planned for power

generation, the supply of a quantity of that syngas

directed to a Micro-Module DRI plant would provide

substantial profitability.

As natural gas becomes more available and as the

Indian steel industry continues to develop, Tenova

will continue to be a presence here, not only with

direct reduction technology but in other aspects of

steel making as well.

Tenova Melt Shops

Tenova Melt Shops is leader in the design and

supply of Electric Arc Furnaces, Ladle Furnaces,

Vacuum Degassing units, and relevant auxiliary

equipment like the high efficiency chemical package

KT Injection System and the TDR-H Digital

Regulation with Harmonics Control for electrode

movement optimization.

Tenova Melt Shops is the owner of the Consteel®

technology: the continuous feeding and pre-heating

of scrap to the electrical furnace. All over the world

more than 30 Consteel® systems have been

supplied allowing clients to achieve the highest

production efficiencies. It also designs and supplies

dedusting plants, ferro-alloys storage and feeding

systems to the furnace, water treatment plants and

other auxiliary equipment for steelmaking.

Tenova Goodfellow with its EFSOP system, the

unique dynamic EAF process control, completes the

electric arc furnace offering of Tenova Melt Shops.

The EFSOP system is a real time off-gas system

which is continuously measuring and analyzing the

off-gas chemistry to be integrated into the iEAF®

for the dynamic optimization of the efficiency of the

melting unit.

Tenova Pyromet

Tenova Pyromet is a leading company in the design

and supply of high-capacity electric submerged-arc

smelting furnaces and of complete smelting plants

for the production of ferroalloys, as well as for base

metal reduction, slag cleaning and alloy refining.

Pyromet has built most of the ferroalloy furnaces in

operation in South Africa and it has also a significant

presence internationally.

Tenova Pyromet also designs and supplies

supplementary systems and equipment for material

handling and pretreatment, alloy conversion and

refining, granulation of metal, matte and slag, metal

from slag recovery, treatment of hazardous dusts

and wastes and environmental protection.


Tenova Pyromet’s closed and semi-closed type

submerged arc furnaces incorporate the proprietary

and patented electrode holder. Having set new

standards in equipment availability, Pyromet’s

electrode holder is widely recognized as being the

most reliable and providing the best performances

in the world.

Tenova Strip Processing

With more than 450 lines to its credit and more than

50 installations in the last five years, Tenova Strip

Processing can offer high performing and

environmental friendly processes for high quality

steel strip.

Tenova’s Continuous or Push Pull Pickling Lines are

equipped with shallow type high turbulence tanks,

polypropylene or rubber steel lined, tension leveler/

scale breakers and side trimmer with double turning

turrets. The lines can be supplied with its proprietary

Acid Regeneration Plants both spray roaster or

fluidized bed technology, neutralization and water

treatment plants.

Tenova’s leadership in the field of Tinning Lines is

proven by 40 plants supplied worldwide; its

technology foresees soluble or insoluble anodes

electrolytic tin plating, with low sludge dissolution

plant, automatic double turret side trimmers with

scrap balers and tension leveler with multiroll, bright

finish reflow section and quench with automatic

control, flying shear and automatic sample taking

and surface defect control.

Cost effective and high performing are the

characteristics of the Galvanizing Lines as well as

Colour Coating Lines equipped with a high quality

and environmental friendly process, high efficiency

curing ovens with heat recovery and fully automatic

paint coaters.

Tenova’s specific know-how in Silicon Lines covers

the complete production process for grain-oriented

and non-oriented steel sheets (annealing and

pickling, decarburization and MgO coating and

thermo flattening).

The newest member of the Tenova family is Tenova

Multiform, a joint venture between Tenova and the

Indian company Multiform Machinery.

Headquartered in Mumbai, where its production

facilities are located, with a workforce of 80, Multiform

is one of India’s main suppliers of cold rolling mills

and strip processing lines.

With the addition of Multiform to its team, Tenova

will consolidate and strengthen its position in India

where is already present with LOI Wesman, TAKRAF

India and Hypertherm, an Indian joint venture in the

LOI Italimpianti.

India, which is set to become the world’s second steel

producer after China, is a very interesting market

for Tenova, and for the Strip Processing Business

Unit in particular, which now together with Tenova

Multiform, are planning to establish a local center

for process lines and cold mill based upon Tenova

Multiform’s excellent engineering competences,

product know-how and manufacturing capability.

Tenova LOI Italimpianti

“Furnaces and Services for Metals” is the mission

of LOI Italimpianti, leading global supplier of

reheating furnaces for ferrous and non ferrous

material and heat treatment furnaces for the steel,

aluminium and automobile industries. Its

technological market leadership is undisputed and

is backed by hundreds of reference plants.

With a workforce of 700 employees and 10

companies in Europe, China, USA, India and other

countries, LOI Italimpianti is present on all world’s

key markets.

The reheating furnace leadership draws from the

long lasting experience inherited from Italimpianti.

Its distinctive capability is to provide custom

engineered furnaces to its clients. Some of the

largest, widest, most efficient reheating furnaces in

the world are to its credit, and with over 4,000

furnaces installed throughout its history, it has come

to see just about every conceivable process


Tenova LOI Italimpianti, designs and installs a wide

variety of reheating furnaces including walking beam

and walking hearth furnaces, rotary hearth furnaces,

and roller hearth furnaces for direct rolling.


An extremely broad range of equipment including

ultra low NOx burners and high performance rollers

is supported by its teams of engineers and

researchers committed to these products

development. Its targets are top thermal

performance of the furnaces always coupled with a

special focus on low environmental impact.

For the steel industry, LOI Italimpianti supplies a wide

range of furnaces. These include heat treatment

lines for heavy gauge steel plate, HPH® (highperformance

hydrogen) bell-type annealing plants

and continuous heat treatment lines for steel strip

and special steels as well as bell-type and continuous

furnace plants for wire coils, bars and pipes. LOI

Italimpianti is also active in the fields of heat

treatment plants for gear parts, engine and other

parts for vehicle production, continuous casting and

heat treatment plants for light alloys, especially

aluminium alloys. All the plants in the LOI range are

supplied complete with control systems developed


Large plants and furnaces for complex processes

characterize the current range of LOI Italimpianti.

HPH® bell-type annealing plants for the annealing

of carbon steel strip in an atmosphere of pure

hydrogen are one of the cornerstones of LOI

Italimpianti’s activities. LOI Italimpianti is the market

leader in high-performance hydrogen technology,

having installed more than 2,000 annealing bases

for customers throughout the world. Apart from

classical reheating and annealing equipment, cooling

and quenching facilities using a variety of media are

becoming increasingly important in efforts to take

full advantage of the performance capabilities of

alloys and components. Surface treatment and

diffusion processes round off the LOI Italimpianti

portfolio. With its wide range, LOI Italimpianti is the

largest supplier of plants in the field of thermal

processing technology. Over the past few years, LOI

Italimpianti has won major contracts for a variety of

furnace plants which cannot be matched by any

other furnace producer. It is especially this role of

project leader for contracts with challenging process

technologies that distinguishes LOI Italimpianti from

other furnace suppliers.

LOI Inc. in the USA became part of Tenova Core in

March 2009. The unification represents an

enhancement of Tenova operations in the important

North American market. The addition of LOI Inc. will

enable Tenova Core to offer the comprehensive

Tenova industrial furnace product line for reheating,

heat treating, carbon processing and specialty

applications, as well as continue to offer its traditional

melt shop, technical services and automation


Tenova Pomini

Through the Pomini brand, Tenova is worldwide

leader in the design and supply of Roll Grinders for

flat product rolling mills, as well as of special

machines for grinding of heavy components.

The product range of Tenova Pomini embraces

heavy, medium and light duty, fully automatic CNC

roll grinders, fully automatic CNC roll loaders, roll

storage racks, chocking and de-chocking machines

for all roll types, able to speed up grinding, handling

and maintenance operations and to guarantee the

level of precision required by the most sophisticated

rolling mills.

Pomini also supplies other ancillaries such as

washing machines and tilters for chocks, roll cooling

systems and other devices used in daily roll shop

operations. In addition, it boasts extensive expertise

in reconditioning, upgrading and fully automatic

revamping of used roll grinders of any brands.

The proprietary Pomini Inspektor Plug and Play

system is designed and developed internally and is

used in steel mills throughout the world to detect

surface and subsurface defects by means of Eddy

Current and Ultrasound technology.

Tenova Takraf

Tenova Takraf avails itself of the experience and

capabilities of Italimpianti, which has brought

innovative material handling solutions to market for

over 40 years. Tenova Takraf is internationally

recognised as a world leading contractor of bulk

material handling systems for the iron & steel

industry, power industry, port terminals, mining

industry, petrochemical and fertilisers industries.


It is specialised in the design and supply of bucket

chain continuous ship unloaders (CSU), grab ship

unloaders, ship loaders, stackers, reclaimers,

stacker/reclaimers, belt conveyor systems, pipe

conveyor systems, train loading and unloading

systems and several other types of bulk material

handling equipment of large capacity.

These capabilities have made Tenova Takraf a world

leading supplier of a complete range of systems for

the handling of iron ore, pellets, coal, DRI and HBI,

cement, bauxite, alumina, phosphate rock, urea,

DAP, MAP, NPKs and other fertiliser products.

Its services include turnkey design and installation

of complete systems, as well as project financing

assistance and BOT (build, own, operate, transfer)

concessions. Tenova Takraf incorporates the most

innovative and state-of-the-art technologies,

developed entirely in house, and it has the

organisational capability and experience to design,

construct and commission equipment and systems

anywhere in the world, either on a turn-key basis or

on an equipment supply only basis. In India, the

company is represented by Takraf India.

Tenova Factories

Pomini factory, based in Castellanza, Varese (Italy),

is the pride of Tenova’s internal production and

assembly capability. Equipped with the most

advanced CNC machine tools, the workshop is

mainly focused on the production of Pomini roll

grinders. With over 25,000 sqm of covered area the

production facility is able to meet the most

demanding delivery schedules and quality

requirements. Its expert and reliable workers are the

real assets of the workshop that has been

recognised by renowned institutions as benchmark

for quality and efficiency in the production process.

Takraf factory, based in Lauchhammer (Germany)

is 235,000 sqm including 17,900 sqm that is covered

and is divided into four separate bays used for Metal

prefabrication, Steel construction, Assembly and

Wearing parts manufacture. Equipped with the latest

standards, the factory produces the key components

for Tenova’s product range as well as all related

spares and wearing parts. More than 100 highly

specialized and experienced workers contribute daily

to the successful and on time delivery of the parts

and components internally fabricated. TAKRAF

factory is a highly specialized workshop with a

specific focus on the production of:

- Bucket wheel drives and their components

- Crawler links of all types and sizes

- Ball bearing slewing rims split upwards of a

diameter of 6 m, with hardened or as-rolled

bearing races

- Gear rims in all diameters between module 20

and module 40

- Support bearings with ball diameter up to 1500


Timec is Tenova’s new production facility in China.

Based in the industrial area of Tanggu (Tianjin) Timec

is located near the third biggest Chinese port. The

factory takes up an area of 54.000 sqm (15.000 sqm

covered). Tenova Timec takes care of most of the

heavy structural steel components, water cooled and

pipe to pipe parts of Tenova’s products. Excellent

quality of the production is guaranteed by a

continuous inspection program carried out following

the strictest rules defined by the long lasting

experience of Tenova. The best available welding

and assembly competences together with the most

demanding quality requirements have allowed Timec

to become the preferred manufacturing facility not

only for Tenova but also for other top quality

customers worldwide.

Serving the Industry

This brief overview of the Tenova Group of

Companies should provide some new familiarity with

the technologies and capabilities offered as the steel

industry in India continues to develop and grow.

Tenova HYL for example, is a member of the SIMA

and as technology supplier to other members holds

a keen interest in the development and success of

India’s iron and steelmaking industries.





In order to provide complete mineral beneficiation

solutions to the Indian as well as South-East Asian

market, a new company, allmineral Asia Pvt. Ltd

has been formed on 11th June-09, which is a joint

venture company between allmineral GmbH & Co.

KG, Germany and Jyotirmoyee International Pvt.


Dr. Ing. Heribert Breuer, Managing Director,

allmineral GmbH and Sabyasachi Mishra,

Managing Director, Jyotirmoyee International Pvt. Ltd

have formally signed the joint venture agreement

on 11th June-09 at Kolkata. The new company will

operate from its Kolkata office. The new entity will

have Sabyasachi Mishra as Managing Director and

Dr. Ing. Heribert Breuer as Chairman.

Considering the growing business and future

potential of mineral beneficiation in India, allmineral

GmbH has decided to put in more focused efforts

to meet the ever increasing customer requirements.

This has lead to the formation of allmineral Asia Pvt.

Ltd. However, Hari Machines Limited continues to

be the manufacturing partner.

For the mineral beneficiation business, i.e. all the

customer enquiries, orders, project management,

commissioning, after-sales-service would be directly

handled by allmineral Asia Pvt. Ltd. The

manufacturing of the proprietary equipments will

continue to be done at HML. The same set of people

who were in the mineral beneficiation with HML would

continue to do so, but in the allmineral Asia Pvt. Ltd.

allmineral has entered into Indian market in the year

2005 with a technical assistance agreement with M/

s Hari Machines Limited, Rajgangpur, Orissa. Over

the last 4 years it has made deep in-roads in the

mineral beneficiation market in India and has

emerged as a leading mineral beneficiation solution

provider. It has bagged almost all the major iron ore

beneficiation projects in India.

allmineral is one of the world’s leaders in mineral

beneficiation providing complete solutions – from

concept to commissioning. It also manufactures key

beneficiation equipments like dry jigs (allair®), wet

jigs (alljig®) and fluidized bed separators (allflux®).

The plants designed in Duisburg can be found in

Europe, India, Australia, South America, the USA and

South Africa. The company has so far supplied 365

alljig® and over 70 allflux® for the wet separation of

primary and secondary raw materials as well as more

than 50 allair® for dry separation. It has strategic

tie-up with GAUSTEC, Brazil, for manufacturing and

supply of new generation WHIMS worldwide. Thus

allmineral provides the whole range of equipment

for mineral beneficiation, i.e. from lumps to ultra fines,

for the efficient processing of coal, ores, slag, gravel,

sand and various recycling materials. It has bagged

almost all the major iron ore beneficiation projects

in India. To name a few, it is building/supplying:

l 11 MTPA iron ore beneficiation plant (Largest in

India) for Jindal Steel & Powers Limited

wherein the scope includes basic & detailed

engineering for the complete plant,

manufacturing & supply of key equipments i.e.,

11 nos. Alljigs® 2500 and 4 nos. gaustec®

WHIMS 3600, complete project management etc.

The plant will take feed of 0-30mm size and

produces product for DRI, Blast Furnace, Sinter

and Pellet etc. The plant would be commissioned

by Dec-09 at their Barbil Mines.

l Key beneficiation equipments for 4 MTPA Iron

Ore beneficiation plant of Brahmani River

Pellets Limited, a Stemcor Group company in

Orissa, wherein the scope includes supply of 2

nos. allflux® 1500 and 3 nos. gaustec® 3600.

l 4 nos. allflux® 1500 to M/s Global Supply

Limited (Essar Group Company) for their 8

MTPA iron ore beneficiation plant in Orissa.



1.2 MTPA iron ore beneficiation plant for Sree

Metaliks Limited, in Orissa wherein the scope

includes supply of key beneficiation equipments

as well as basic & detailed engineering, total

project management etc.

In the coal sector too, allmineral has successfully

executed more than 15 nos. dry coal beneficiation

plants and 2 nos. wet coal beneficiation plant for

various DRI Plants, in the states of Orissa,

Chhattisgarh & Jharkhand. The dry coal beneficiation

is the right solution in Indian context because of

scarce water availability and pollution hazards

associated with coal slurry generated in the wet




d) Limestone grinding for Flue Gas

Desulphurization systems in power plants.

e) AG/SAG mills as aggregates for pre-crushing of

minerals, ores and comminuting waste such as

bulky refuse.

Cemtec manages projects throughout the world for

the Cement & Mineral Processing industry from start

to finish i.e., test work to commissioning. Cemtec

has the setup to carryout all kinds of test works

related to mineral processing in all the above areas.

It has full fledged pilot test plant established in its

works at ENNS, Austria.

On 10th March-2009, Hari Machines Limited has

entered into a Technical Assistance Agreement with

M/s Cemtec Cement & Mining Technology GmbH,

having its Registered office at EnnshafenstraBe 40,

A-4470, Enns, Austria for manufacturing & marketing

of their various product ranges in India.

Cemtec can also provide turnkey solutions for:-



raw meal and cement plants including raw

material handling, storage and packing plant.

Limestone wet grinding plants for producing

limestone suspension for flue gas

desulphurization systems

Cemtec has expertise and global references in

various areas such as:-


Treatment plants for the construction material,

filler, recycling, fertilizer and chemical industries

a) Iron ore - A range of products starting from wet

& dry Grinding Mills, Ore Dryers, Washing

Drums, Continuous Mixers, Mixing Drums for

sinter applications and Disc Pelletizers.

b) Cement Mills – complete process design with

filter/cyclone separation.

c) Wet Grinding Ball Mills – for the treatment of

minerals, ores and other bulk materials.


Drying plants.

The company was founded in 1990 and since then

has supplied and started-up more than 200 mills,

kilns & drums. Cemtec has references throughout

the globe spanning from all over Europe, Middle

East, China, India, Latin American Countries, Russia,

America, Africa, Western Australia & Central Asia.

For further information contact:

allmineral Asia Pvt. Ltd.

8th Floor, Sugam Business Park, J-6, Block-EP & GP, Sector-5, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 091 | India

Phone +91.33.3092.5005/09 Fax +91.33.3092.5011 office@allmineral.asia www.allmineral.com




Prakash Patil Swati Rajde Manoj Mohta

Analyst, CRISIL Research Team Leader, CRISIL Research Head, CRISIL Research








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