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Volume 3, ISSUE1/2012 - Review of Applied Socio-Economic ...

Volume 3, ISSUE1/2012 - Review of Applied Socio-Economic ...

________________________________________________________________________________________________ ISSN: 2247-6172 ISSN-L: 2247-6172 Review of Applied Socio- Economic Research (Volume 3, Issue 1/ 2012 ), pp. 26 URL: http://www.reaser.eu e-mail: editors@reaser.eu More than half of MNREGA beneficiaries at all India level belong to Scheduled Castes and Tribes, and more than half are women 10 . What was even more remarkable was the coverage of SCs/STs and women under the scheme. The share of SC/ST families in the work provided under MGNREGA in the past four years ranged between 51-56%, while that of women was 41-50%. 11 6.2.2. Work profile The workers per household finding work under MGNREGA were 1.72 in the state and varied from 1.35 to 1.98 in the selected districts. However, at the state level 1.75 members per household from the general category, 1.66 from scheduled Caste households, 2.33 from scheduled tribe households and 1.74 from the OBC households found work under MNREFA. The number of females per household was the lowest, 0.62. But there was 41% increase in women participation in 2010-11 over 2009-10 and 50% increase in 2010-11 over 2008-09. During the period under reference 79.7 to 109.5 days’ work per household was provided in the selected districts, districts Sirsa and Mewat even exceeding the annual target of 100 days’ work. In the state as a whole 94 days’ work per household was provided. But the women got 30 days’ work per household, varying inter-districts from 7 to 52 days. The average wage rate during the period was Rs 150 per day, varying across sections marginally. The scheduled tribe workers received lowest wages, Rs. 147, lower than the minimum prescribed wage rate of Rs. 148 at that time. The average distance of work place from the residence in the state was about 2.23 kms, varying from 1.28 kms. in district Ambala to 2.7 kms in district Rewari. 6.3. Income Generation The beneficiaries got 25% household income from MGNREGA, 37% from agricultural labour, 33% from non-agricultural operations and 4% income came from livestock. The non-beneficiary sample households received 60% income from non-agricultural wages, 34% from casual agricultural work and 5% income from livestock (table 2). The Coefficient of variation in the case beneficiary households was highest for non-agricultural wages, followed by income from agricultural wages. However, for the non-beneficiaries the highest variation was found in income from agricultural wages, followed by non-agricultural wages. Total increase in wages after implementation of MNREGA has been reported by 2 to 2 and half times. 12 We find that wages during the comparable years have gone up from 28% to more than 50%, and that happened just in the second year of full operation of MNREGA (table 3). Whereas, labour costs for different agricultural operations between 2001 and 2009 (table 4) have gone up by 2.5 to three times and even more in some operations. The MNREGA has helped increase wage rates due to two reasons - one, reduced labour immigration because of implementation of MNREGA in the states of workers’ origin, and two, due to strengthening of their bargaining power because of assured wage employment under MNREGA. Employment guarantees have also been credited for their potential to induce positive labour market responses by improving the bargaining strength of workers. 10 IFPRI discussion paper 00963, 2010 11 ET Bureau, 26.3.2010 12 Tour Report on the visit of Sirsa(Haryana) by a Team of Officers headed by Shri B.K. Sinha, Secretary(RD) & Shri T. Vijay Kumar, JS(SGSY) and Shri N.K. Sinha, JD(NREGA)

________________________________________________________________________________________________ ISSN: 2247-6172 ISSN-L: 2247-6172 Review of Applied Socio- Economic Research (Volume 3, Issue 1/ 2012 ), pp. 27 URL: http://www.reaser.eu e-mail: editors@reaser.eu 6.4. Food Security and consumption The fulfillment of food requirement irrespective of income remains a priority. The other things education, entertainment etc. follow later. The Engel’s consumption law highlights that with the increase in income, expenditure on food does not increase proportionately. The per capita monthly consumption of food items between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries did not show significant change, except that overall food consumption was relatively more in the case of beneficiaries. Also, it was observed that consumption of most of the items, cereals and edible oils was slightly more in comparison to that worked by the NSSO in its three rounds. But consumption of vegetables was far less (table 5). However, total monthly per capita consumption expenditure highlights important issues. For example, monthly per capita consumption expenditure on food items works out to Rs. 487/- (or

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