2014 BRG PDF (lo-res) - Blonder Tongue Laboratories Inc.

blondertongue.com

2014 BRG PDF (lo-res) - Blonder Tongue Laboratories Inc.

Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.

Broadband

Reference Guide

Airports

Casinos

Fitness Centers

Retail Stores

Houses of Worship

Hotels

Assisted Living

Stadiums & Arenas

Offices

Broadcast Studios

Schools & Universities

Government

Headends

Hospitals

MDUs

Correctional Facilites


Next Generation - “Broadband Reference Guide”

Select the desired channel

or frequency by touching

the respective blue arrow.

At the bottom of the

screen, select the icon for

the channel application.

The full range of channels is listed

to the right, select your range,

and then choose the appropriate

number to the left. Click at the

top left menu to return to your

channel info.


Thank you for requesting our Broadband Reference Guide. We

hope you find this latest update helpful as we strive to provide

technical information for the broadband industry in a convenient

pocket size book.

Remember to look for previous versions of the reference guide on

the Blonder Tongue website. We welcome any suggestion for further

improvement, simply e-mail: feedback@blondertongue.com.

Bob Pallé

President

One Jake Brown Road, Old Bridge, NJ 08857

Phone: 732-679-4000 • Fax: 732-679-4353

www.blondertongue.com

©2014 Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. Specifications are subject

to change without notice. Trademarks are the property of their respective owner.


1

2

3

4

5

SAFETY

System Planning.............................................................4

Cable Substitution Chart................................................5

Current Ratings for Electronic Cables..............................6

Headend HVAC Considerations.......................................7

PRODUCTS & APPLICATIONS

Encoder Collection.........................................................11

Digital Collection.......................................................... 28

EdgeQAM & IP Solutions.............................................. 49

DIGITAL REFERENCE

Digital Cable (QAM)..................................................... 60

Digital Over-the-Air...................................................... 60

Encoding Diagram........................................................ 61

Digital Content Types................................................... 62

Digital Closed Captioning............................................. 64

Chroma Sub-Mapping Types......................................... 66

Audio Encoding............................................................ 67

Digital Tech Tips........................................................... 70

Digital Signal Analysis................................................... 75

CATV QAM Channel Center Frequency......................... 84

North American Digital Broadcast Channel Frequency. . 86

ANALOG REFERENCE

Analog Cable (RF).........................................................88

Analog Over-the-Air......................................................88

Analog Content Types....................................................89

Analog Closed Captioning.............................................91

North America CATV Frequency Chart...........................92

US Frequency Spectrum................................................97

North America Off-Air Frequency Chart.........................99

FM Broadcast Channel Frequency..................................101

CONNECTORS & INTERFACES

Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference............................. 104

Optical Connectors......................................................112

iv


6

7

8

9

10

11

CATV RF CALCULATIONS

System Calculations.................................................... 114

Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics......................128

Broadband RF Network Powering...............................129

OFF-AIR ANTENNAS, & SATELLITE INFO

Dipole Antenna Equations..........................................132

Multiplexers...............................................................133

Antenna General Information......................................134

Antenna Spacing........................................................135

Antenna Phasing........................................................137

Satellite Transmission Standards.................................138

System Calculations....................................................139

North & South American C & Ku-Band Satellites........ 141

Broadcast Station "List"...............................................143

INTERNATIONAL TV FORMATS

Worldwide TV Standards............................................146

CCIR Television Transmission Characteristics...............152

International Analog Channel Standards.....................153

CONVERSIONS & MISC. DATA

Basic Cable Theory.....................................................156

Conversion Factors.....................................................162

Fiber Optics................................................................175

FCC RULES

FCC Highlights...........................................................180

FCC Rules...................................................................188

SYMBOLS & ACRONYMS

Common CATV Symbols.............................................194

Common IPTV Symbols..............................................196

CATV & IPTV Acronyms..............................................198

Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms.........................230

Useful Websites and Publications................................235

v


Company Profile

Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.

provides system operators and integrators serving the cable,

broadcast, satellite, IPTV, institutional and professional video

markets with comprehensive solutions for the provision

of content contribution, distribution and video delivery to

homes and businesses. With over 60 years of experience,

the company designs, manufactures, sells and supports an

equipment portfolio of standard and high definition digital

video solutions, as well as core analog video and high speed

data solutions for distribution over coax, fiber and IP networks.


6

5

7

4

1

2

3

SAFETY

PRODUCTS & APPLICATIONS

DIGITAL REFERENCE

ANALOG REFERENCE

CONNECTORS & INTERFACES

CATV RF CALCULATIONS

OFF-AIR ANTENNAS, & SATELLITE INFO

8

9

10

INTERNATIONAL TV FORMATS

11

CONVERSIONS & MISC. DATA

FCC RULES

SYMBOLS & ACRONYMS


1 SAFETY

System Planning....................................... 4

Cable Substitution Chart.......................... 5

Current Ratings for Electronic Cables........ 6

Headend HVAC Considerations................. 7

3


4 System Planning

Headend & Distribution System Construction

The System Contractor must adhere to both national and local

building codes when constructing a Broadband CATV System.

This includes, but is not limited to the NEC, NFPA Codes and local

building ordinances.

Related National Electrical Code (NEC) Articles

Article 250 - Grounding is one of the largest, most important,

and least understood articles in the NEC. As specified in Section

90-1(a), safety is the key element and purpose of the NEC. Proper

grounding and bonding is essential for maximum protection of life

and property. If over-current protection is considered the first line

of defense, grounding could be considered the last line of defense.

Article 810 - Radio and Television Equipment covers radio and

television receiving equipment and amateur radio transmitting and

receiving equipment, but not equipment and antennas used for

coupling carrier current to power line conductors.

Article 820 - Community Antenna Television and Radio

Distribution Systems covers coaxial cable distribution of radio

frequency signals typically employed in community antenna

television (CATV) systems.

National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) - www.nfpa.org


Cable Substitution Chart (Per 2005 NEC*)

5

FIRE-RESISTANCE LEVEL

Test Requirements

NEC ARTICLES

800 725 760 820 770 830

PLENUM

4 (Highest)

CMP

MULTI-CONDUCTOR

COAX

NFPA 262

(UL 910 Steiner Tunnel)

CL3P

CL2P

NONCONDUCTIVE

CONDUCTIVE

FPLP CATVP OFNP OFCP

BLP

CMP

CL3P

RISER

3

UL-1666

(Vertical Shaft)

CMR

MULTI-CONDUCTOR

CL3R

CL2R

FPLR

COAX

CATVR

OFNR

OFCR

BMR

GENERAL

PURPOSE

2

CMG

CM

MULTI-CONDUCTOR

PLTC

COAX

BM

UL-1685

Vertical Tray

or CSA FT4

(UL 1581)

CL3

CL2

FPL

CATV

OFNG

OFCG

RESIDENTIAL

1(Lowest)

VW-1

(Vertical Frame)

CMX

CL3X

CL2X

COAX

CATVX

BLX

All cables other than

“Network Powered Broadband Cables”

(BMR, BM, BLP, BLX)

shall be coaxial cables.

CMR

CL3R

CMG

CM

CL3

CMX

CL3X

Cables indicated can be substituted.

NEC Type

CMP, CMR, CMG, CM, CMX

CL3P, CL3R, CL3, CL3X, CL2P, CL2R, CL2, CL2X

FPLP, FPLR, FPL

CATVP, CATVR, CATV, CATVX

OFNP, OFNR, OFNG, OFN

OFCP, OFCR, OFCG, OFC

PLTC

BMR, BM, BLP, BLX

Definition

Communications Cables

Class 2 and Class 3 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power Limited Cables

Power Limited Fire Alarm Cables

Community Antenna Television and Radio Distribution Cables

Nonconductive Optical Fiber Cables

Conductive Optical Fiber Cables

Power Limited Tray Cables

Network-powered Broadband Communications Cables

*National Electrical Code and NEC are registered trademarks of the

National Fire Protection Association, Inc., Quincy, MA.


6 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables

The maximum continuous current rating for an electronic cable is

limited by conductor size, number of conductors contained

within the cable, maximum temperature rating of the cable, and

environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and air

flow.

To use the current capacity chart, first determine conductor size,

temperature rating, and number of conductors from the applicable

product description for the cable of interest.

Next, find the current value on the chart for the proper temperature

rating and conductor size. To calculate the maximum current

rating/conductor, multiply the chart value by the appropriate

conductor factor. The chart assumes cable is surrounded by still

air at an ambient temperature of 25˚ C. Current values are in

RMS Amperes and are valid for copper conductors only.

No. of Conductors**

Factors

1 1.6

2 - 3 1.0

4 - 5 .8

6 - 15 .7

16 - 30 .5

NOTE: Current ratings are intended as general

guidelines for low power electronic

communications and control applications.

Current ratings for power applications generally

are set by regulatory agencies such as UL, CSA,

NEC, and others.

** Do not count shields unless used as a conductor.


Headend HVAC Considerations

7

To maximize equipment reliability and life span, the headend room

should be temperature controlled. The heat generated by the

headend is one of the major contributors to the total amount of

BTU’s required for heating and cooling. The specified AC wattage

dissipation of a headend component directly correlates to the

amount of heat it generates. The conversion from watts to the

amount of heat generated in BTU’s is as follows:

Watts x 3.4144 = BTU’s/hour

With the total BTU’s per hour the headend generates along with the

buildings room details, a qualified HVAC technician can determine

the necessary heating and cooling requirements..

Sample Headend BTU Calculations

6233 + 6232B + (8) 6241A’s


9

2

PRODUCTS & APPLICATIONS


10

ENCODER COLLECTION....................11

• HD Encoders

• SD Encoders

DIGITAL COLLECTION......................28

• Modulators

• Demodulators

• Transcoders

• Multiplexers

• Processors

EdgeQAM & IPTV SOLUTIONS........49

• Clear IP-to-Clear/Pro:Idiom

• Bi-Directional ASI-to-IP Transcoder

• 12:4 ASI-to-IP Multiplexer


ENCODER

COLLECTION

11


12

HD264-2S-IP

H.264 HD ENCODER

2xHD-SDI/2xHDMI/2xComponent 1xIP

HD264-2S-IP (H.264 HD Encoder – 2xHD-SDI/2xHDMI/2xComponent – 2xIP)

accepts up to two (2) programs from any of the following inputs: 2xHD-SDI, 2xHDMI (unencrypted),

and 2xComponent. Each input program, if applicable is first digitized, then H.264 or

MPEG-2 encoded into a high-definition Single Program Transport Stream (SPTS), and finally

IP-encapsulated and delivered in 10/100Base-T Ethernet format as an output. Each SPTS is

also available via two (2) identical ancillary outputs in ASI format.

The encoder supports Dolby ® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and

EIA-708). It is also equipped with an auto-sensing relay that allows switching to an optional

redundant power supply in the unlikely event of primary power supply failure.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.

2xHD-SDI + 2xHDMI + 2xComponent

(2 Programs)

4xASI

2xIP

UDP/RTP

Uni- & Multi-Cast

1 program per each IP output

HD264-1S-IP is identical to HD264-2S-IP, but it accepts only one (1) input program and

simultaneously delivers 1xIP and 2xASI outputs.


13

Features

• Accepts up to two (2) programs from any of the following inputs: 2xHD-SDI, 2xHDMI

(unencrypted), and 2xComponent

• Digitizes & H.264 or MPEG-2 encodes up to two (2) input programs into two (2)

10/100Base-T Ethernet outputs

• Supports four (4) ancillary outputs in ASI format (2 identical ASI outputs for each input program)

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708

• Supports Real-time Dolby ® Digital audio encoding

• Provides optional redundant power supply

• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

HD264-2S-IP 6396 H.264 HD Encoder; 2xHD-SDI + 2xHDMI + 2xComponent

inputs; 2xIP + 4xASI outputs

HD264-1S-IP 6394 H.264 HD Encoder; 1xHD-SDI + 1xHDMI + 1xComponent

inputs; 1xIP + 2xASI outputs

HD264-SPS 6397 2x Standby Power Supply (supports 2x 6396 units)

Typical Application


14

HDE-2H/2S-QAM

MPEG-2 HD ENCODER

2xHDMI/2xHD-SDI/4xComponent/Composite 4xQAM

HDE-2H/2S-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 2xHDMI/2xHD-SDI/4xComponent/

Composite – 4xQAM) accepts up to four (4) high-definition (HD) programs from any of

the following inputs: 2xHDMI (unencrypted), 2xHD-SDI, and 4xComponent/Composite. MPEG-

2 encoded outputs are available in the following formats simultaneously: 4xQAM, 4xGigE

(1000Base-T Ethernet), and 4xASI.

To improve transport efficiency, the encoder allows operator to (i) assign one (1) to four (4)

programs to each QAM output channel, and (ii) to individually turn on/off each of the four

(4) adjacent QAM output channels.

The encoder supports Dolby ® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and

EIA-708). It is also equipped with an Emergency Alert System (EAS) interface. A front-panel

RF test point allows for monitoring/testing of the QAM output without service interruption.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.

2xHDMI + 2xHD-SDI + 4xComponent/Composite

EAS

(4 Inputs Total)

4xASI

4xGigE

4xAdjacent QAM

(4 Programs)

MPEG-2 HD Encoding

Dolby ® Digital Audio Encoding


15

Features

• Accepts up to four (4) programs from any of the following inputs: 2xHDMI (unencrypted),

2xHD-SDI, and 4xComponent/Composite

• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 4xQAM, 4xGigE, and 4xASI

• Multiplexes up to four (4) input programs in any of the following output combinations:

(i) 1:1 (1 program per QAM channel)

(ii) 2:1 (2 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8Mbps)

(iii) 3:1 (3 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8 Mbps)

(iv) 4:1 (4 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8 Mbps)

• Each of the four (4) QAM channels can (i) contain 1 or 2 programs, and (ii) be turned

on/off individually

• Provides +52 dBmV QAM output level for four (4) combined channels (+60 dBmV for 1 QAM)

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708

• Equipped with EAS interface (Analog Video + L/R Audio)

• Supports Real-time Dolby ® Digital audio encoding

• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration

Ordering Information

Model

HDE-2H/2S-QAM 6379A

Stock # Description

Typical Application

MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 2xHDMI+2xHD-SDI+4xComponent/

Composite inputs; 4xQAM+4xGigE+4xASI outputs; EAS compatible


16

HDE-4S-QAM

MPEG-2 HD ENCODER

4xHD-SDI/4xComponent/Composite

4xQAM

HDE-4S-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 4xHD-SDI/4xComponent/Composite –

4xQAM) accepts up to four (4) high-definition (HD) programs from any of the following

inputs: 4xHD-SDI, 2xHD-SDI, and 4xComponent/Composite. MPEG-2 encoded outputs are

available in the following formats simultaneously: 4xQAM, 4xGigE (1000Base-T Ethernet), and

4xASI.

To improve transport efficiency, the encoder allows operator to (i) assign one (1) to four (4)

programs to each QAM output channel, and (ii) to individually turn on/off each of the four

(4) adjacent QAM output channels.

The encoder supports Dolby ® Digital and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and EIA-708). It is also

equipped with an Emergency Alert System (EAS) interface. A front-panel RF test point allows

for monitoring/testing of the QAM output without service interruption.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.

4xHD-SDI + 4xComponent/Composite

EAS

(4 Inputs Total)

4xASI

4xGigE

4xAdjacent QAM

(4 Programs)

MPEG-2 HD Encoding

Dolby ® Digital Audio Encoding


17

Features

• Accepts up to four (4) programs from any of the following inputs: 4xHD-SDI, and

4xComponent/Composite

• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 4xQAM, 4xGigE, and 4xASI

• Multiplexes up to four (4) input programs in any of the following output combinations:

(i) 1:1 (1 program per QAM channel)

(ii) 2:1 (2 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8Mbps)

(iii) 3:1 (3 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8 Mbps)

(iv) 4:1 (4 programs per QAM channel, not exceeding 38.8 Mbps)

• Each of the four (4) QAM channels can (i) contain 1 or 2 programs, and (ii) be turned

on/off individually

• Provides +52 dBmV QAM output level for four (4) combined channels (+60 dBmV for 1 QAM)

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708

• Equipped with EAS interface (Analog Video + L/R Audio)

• Supports Real-time Dolby ® Digital audio encoding

• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

HDE-4S-QAM 6374A MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 4xHD-SDI+4xComponent/Composite inputs;

4xQAM+4xGigE+4xASI outputs; EAS compatible

Typical Application


18

HDE-CHV-QAM

MPEG-2 HD ENCODER

1xComponent/HDMI/VGA/Composite

1xQAM

HDE-CHV-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 1xComponent/HDMI/VGA/Composite –

1xQAM) accepts one (1) high-definition (HD) program from any of the following inputs:

1xComponent, 1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA, and 1xComposite. MPEG-2 encoded outputs

are available in the following formats simultaneously: 1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xIP (10/100Base-T

Ethernet). The QAM RF output is frequency agile over the entire CATV frequency range of

54-1002 MHz (channels 2-158) with an output level of +40 dBmV.

The encoder supports Dolby ® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608).

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection. A rear-panel VGA output port

is available for loop-through applications.

1xComponent/HDMI/VGA/Composite

(1 Program)

1xASI

1xIP

1xQAM

(1 Program) MPEG-2 HD Encoding

Dolby ® Digital Audio Encoding


Features

• Accepts one (1) program from any of the following inputs: 1xComponent, 1xHDMI

(unencrypted), 1xVGA, and 1xComposite

• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xIP

• Provides +40 dBmV QAM RF output level

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Compact design permits installation of up to 3 Encoder modules in 1RU

• Supports Real-time Dolby ® Digital audio encoding

• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

HDE-CHV-QAM 6384A MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 1xComponent/HDMI/VGA/Composite

inputs; 1xQAM+1xASI+1xIP outputs

HDE-3MCH 6389 1RU Rack mount chassis; holds 3 HDE-CHV-QAM modules

19

6

6389 6384

Typical Application


20

HDE-CSV-QAM

MPEG-2 HD ENCODER

1xComponent/HD-SDI/HDMI/VGA/Composite 1xQAM

HDE-CSV-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 1xComponent/HD-SDI/HDMI/VGA/

Composite – 1xQAM) accepts one (1) high-definition (HD) program from any of the

following inputs: 1xComponent, 1xHD-SDI, 1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA, and 1xComposite.

MPEG-2 encoded outputs are available in the following formats simultaneously: 1xQAM,

1xASI, and 1xIP (10/100Base-T Ethernet). The QAM RF output is frequency agile over the

entire CATV frequency range of 54-1002 MHz (channels 2-158) with an output level of

+40 dBmV.

The encoder supports Dolby ® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and

EIA-708). Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard

Web browser via a front-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection. A rear-panel VGA output

port is available for loop-through applications.

1xComponent/HD-SDI/HDMI/VGA/Composite

(1 Program)

1xASI

1xIP

1xQAM

(1 Program) MPEG-2 HD Encoding

Dolby ® Digital Audio Encoding


21

Features

• Accepts one (1) program from any of the following inputs: 1xComponent, 1xHD-SDI,

1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA, and 1xComposite

• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xIP

• Provides +40 dBmV QAM RF output level

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Compact design permits installation of up to 3 Encoder modules in 1RU

• Supports Real-time Dolby ® Digital audio encoding

• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

HDE-CSV-QAM 6382A MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 1xComponent/HD-SDI/HDMI/VGA/

Composite inputs; 1xQAM+1xASI+1xIP outputs

HDE-3MCH 6389 1RU Rack mount chassis; holds 3 HDE-CSV-QAM modules

6389 6382

Typical Application


22

HDE-8C-QAM

MPEG-2 HD ENCODER

8xComponent/Composite 4xQAM

HDE-8C-QAM (MPEG-2 HD Encoder – 8xComponent/Composite – 4xQAM) accepts

up to eight (8) analog programs from any of the following inputs: 8xComponent and

8xComposite. The encoder is equipped with a spare input (9th input) to replace any one (1) of

the primary eight (8) inputs in the event of a failure.

The encoder digitizes, MPEG-2 encodes each input into a high-definition stream, multiplexes

the resulting eight (8) streams, and then modulates them onto four (4) adjacent QAM channels

in the 54-1002 MHz range (CATV 2-158). Any one (1) of the four (4) QAM outputs is also

available in ASI format.

The encoder supports Dolby ® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608). It is

also equipped with an Emergency Alert System (EAS) interface. A front-panel RF test point

allows for monitoring/testing of the QAM output without service interruption.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a rear-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.

Optional software upgrade (Stock # 6371) enables the encoder to (i) accept eight (8) analog

programs from DishNetwork’s ViP211k satellite receivers, (ii) automatically switch over to any

of the primary eight (8) receivers in the event of failure to maintain the program stream,

and (iii) provide remote monitoring and control of up to nine (9) DishNetwork’s ViP211K

satellite receivers through UPnP protocol using a standard Web browser via a rear-panel

10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.

HD-Device #1

HD-Device #2

HD-Device #8 Spare HD-Device #9

Component/

Composite # 1

Component/

Composite # 2

Component/

Composite # 8

Component/

Component #9

8xComponent/Composite + 1xSpare

(8 HD Programs Total)

EAS

1xASI

4xQAM

(8 HD Programs)

MPEG-2 HD Encoding

Dolby ® Audio Encoding


Features

• Accepts up to 8 programs from any of the following inputs: 8xComponent and 8xComposite

• Supports additional 1 spare input to replace the failed input

• Digitizes, MPEG-2 encodes, and multiplexes up to 8 inputs into 4 QAM output channels (2

programs per QAM channel)

• Provides any 1 of the 4 QAM output streams in ASI format

• Compatible with ITU Annex A and B digital QAM formats

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)

• Equipped with EAS interface (Analog Video + L/R Audio)

• Supports Real-time Dolby ® Digital audio encoding

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608

• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

HDE-8C-QAM 6370 MPEG-2 HD Encoder; 8xComponent + 8xComposite + 1xSpare

inputs; 4xQAM + 1xASI outputs; EAS compatible

6371 OPTION-1 MPEG-2 HD Encoder for DishNetwork’s ViP211k

Satellite Receivers

Typical Application

23

6


110/230V

2.0/1.0A

50/60Hz

FUSE

3.0A

250V SB

CAUTION:

FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION

AGAINST FIRE HAZARD REPLACE

WITH SAME TYPE FUSE

EAS CONTROL

DRY CONTACT

GND

5 TO 12VDC

QAM RF

OUTPUT

SD ENCODER 4AV-QAM

MODEL: SDE-4AV-QAM

STOCK NO. 6364

HDMI

R

EAS INPUT

L

Pr Pb Y

COMPONENT IN

V

VGA OUTPUT

VGA INPUT

R

R

L

INPUT 2

V

CC

V

R

R

INPUT 3

L

L

INPUT 4

V

V

24

SDE-4AV-QAM

MPEG-2 SD ENCODER

4xAV 1xQAM

SDE-4AV-QAM (MPEG-2 SD Encoder – 4xAV – 1xQAM) accepts up to four (4)

standard-definition (SD) input programs in NTSC baseband Audio/Video format. Each

input program is digitized, MPEG-2 encoded, and then multiplexed into one Multi-Program

Transport Stream (MPTS). The output is available in the following formats simultaneously:

1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xGigE (1000Base-T Ethernet).

An optional high definition (HD) software upgrade allows the encoder to switch modes

between SD and HD. When operating in HD mode, the encoder accepts one (1) program

from any one of the following inputs: 1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA or 1xComponent.

The encoder supports Dolby ® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608). It is

also equipped with an Emergency Alert System (EAS) interface. A front-panel RF test point

allows for monitoring/testing of the QAM output without service interruption.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a rear-panel 10/100Base-T Ethernet connection.

4xAV

(4 Inputs Total)

EAS

REMOTE

DATA OUT CONTROL

IP

RESET

GIGE 10/100

INPUT 1

L

1xASI

1xGigE

1xQAM

(4 Programs)

Optional HD and VGA Inputs

(Software Upgradable)


Features

• Accepts up to four (4) programs in NTSC baseband A/V format

• Digitizes, MPEG-2 encodes, & multiplexes up to four (4) programs into one MPTS

• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 1xQAM, 1xASI, and 1xGigE

• Supports optional HD software upgrade to accept one (1) program from any of the

following inputs: 1xHDMI (unencrypted), 1xVGA, or 1xComponent

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)

• Compatible with ITU Annex A and B digital QAM formats

• Equipped with EAS interface (Analog Video + L/R Audio)

• Supports Real-time Dolby ® Digital audio encoding

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608

• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration

25

6

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

SDE-4AV-QAM 6364 MPEG-2 SD Encoder; 4xAV inputs; 1xQAM + 1xASI + 1xGigE

outputs; EAS compatible

Typical Application


26

SDE-6S-ASI

MPEG-2 SD/HD ENCODER/MULTIPLEXER

6xSD-SDI/NTSC 1xASI

SDE-6S-ASI (MPEG-2 SD/HD Encoder/ Multiplexer – 6xSD-SDI/6xNTSC – 1xASI)

accepts up to six (6) standard-definition (SD) programs from any of the following inputs:

6xSD-SDI, and 6xNTSC. MPEG-2 encoded outputs are multiplexed into one Multi- Program

Transport Stream (MPTS) which is available in the following formats simultaneously: 1xASI,

and 1xIP (10/100Base-T).

The encoder supports Dolby ® Digital audio encoding for (16) analog stereo audio pairs (L+R)

which in addition to primary and secondary audio programs also provide a third pair for

the Audio Descriptor Service, an additional narration track for blind and visually impaired,

as mandated by the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of

2010 (CVAA).

Ad insertion SCTE 30/35 compliant queuing messages are generated for each program from

either the audio Cue Tone input or an insertion contact closure (operator selectable).

A baseband audio analog encoding capability table is provided on the following page for easy

reference. In addition to the baseband audio analog encoding capability audio programs that

are already encoded and present on the SDI inputs may be multiplexed with the respective

output (pass-through) without utilizing the baseband audio analog encoding resource.

The encoder also supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608, and EIA-708), and Emergency Alert

System (EAS). A front-panel DVI port is available for real-time monitoring of active programs

during operation.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a rear-panel SFP port (10/100BaseT).

6xSD-SDI or NTSC

(6 Programs Total)

EAS

Uni- & Multi-cast

UDP

1xIP

1xASI

(6 Programs Total)

MPEG-2 SD/HD Encoding

Dolby ® Digital Audio Encoding


27 6

Features

• Accepts up to six (6) video programs from any of the following inputs: 6xSD-SDI and 6xNTSC

• Simultaneously delivers the following outputs: 1xASI and 1xIP

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Provides audio encoding for Primary Audio, SAP (Secondary Audio Program), & Audio

Descriptor Service

• Provides ad messaging via SCTE 30/35 activated by either Cue Tone Audio input or upon

contact closure (user selectable)

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708

• Supports Real-time Dolby ® Digital audio encoding

• Supports Emergency Alert System (EAS)

• Supports user-defined static PSIP configuration

• Supports compressed digital audio pass through for all HD-SDI & SDI inputs

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

SDE-6S-ASI 6365 MPEG-2 SD Encoder/Multiplexer; accepts only up to six (6)

SD-SDI or NTSC inputs

SDE-6S-HD-UPG 6366 Optional software upgrade for 2 HD-SDI inputs (or eight (8)

SD-SDI inputs)

Typical Application


28

DIGITAL

COLLECTION


Content from Satellite Dish

29

Digital

QPSK/8PSK

IRD

IRD #1

IRD #2

1x ASI

2x ASI

QTM Series

QTM-II/HD/HDPLUS

Stock No. 6242

AQM

Stock No. 6271B

MUX-2A-QAM

Stock No. 6505

}

Digital (QAM)

IRD = Integrated Receiver/Decoder

Content from Broadcasters

Digital

8VSB

4x 8VSB

2x 8VSB

DHDC

Stock No. 6264A & 5A

EAS

EAS

AQD

Stock No. 6244

MDDM

Stock No. 6273

Note: Output must be within UHF channels 14 to 69.

AP-60-860A

Stock No. 59819

DAP PLUS

Stock No. 6295

AQP

Stock No. 6268

AQT

Stock No. 6275

EAS

DQMx

Stock No. 6259A

MUX-2D-QAM

Stock No. 6504

MDDA

Stock No. 6277

Optional: Digital ASI

Optional: Digital ASI

}

}

Digital (8VSB)

Analog (Composite)

Analog (Modulated RF)

}

Digital (QAM)

Digital (ASI)

Analog

UHF/VHF

EAS

AP-60-860A

Stock No. 59819

Analog (UHF/VHF)


30

Content from Cable Companies

Digital

CLEAR QAM

}

AP-60-860A

EAS Stock No. 59819

AQP

Stock No. 6268

AQT

Stock No. 6275

Digital (QAM)

DQMx

4x QAM

Stock No. 6259A

MUX-2D-QAM

2x QAM EAS Stock No. 6504

AQD

Stock No. 6244

Optional: Digital ASI

Analog (Composite)

MDDM

}

Stock No. 6273

EAS

EAS

AP-60-860A

Stock No. 59819

DAP PLUS

Stock No. 6295

Optional: Digital ASI

Analog

}

(Modulated RF)

MDDA

Stock No. 6277

Digital (ASI)


The AP-60-860A (Agile Digital/Analog Processor) operates in one of the three

following modes:

Mode 1: Analog Heterodyne Processor (Analog RF IN > Analog RF OUT)

Mode 2: Digital Heterodyne Processor (QAM IN > QAM OUT)

Mode 3: Digital-to-Analog Processor (8VSB or QAM IN > Analog RF OUT)

Mode 1

Analog RF

CATV Ch. T7-T13

CATV Ch. 2-135

VHF Ch. 2-13

UHF Ch. 14-69

CATV Ch. T7-T13

CATV Ch. 2-135

Mode 2

QAM

AP-60-860A

Agile Processor

Mode 3

QAM/8VSB

CATV Ch. 2-135

VHF Ch. 2-13

UHF Ch. 14-69

EAS

31

CATV Ch. 2-135 CATV Ch. 2-135 CATV Ch. 2-135

Analog RF

+60 dBmV

QAM

+55 dBmV

Features

• As an agile analog heterodyne processor: accepts one Analog RF input (CATV sub-band

channels T7-T13, CATV standard channels 2-135, VHF channels 2-13, and UHF channels 14-69) and

delivers one Analog RF output (CATV standard channels 2-135)

• As an agile digital heterodyne processor: accepts one Digital Cable QAM input (CATV sub-band

channels T7-T13, and CATV standard channels 2-135) and delivers one Digital Cable QAM output

(CATV standard channels 2-135)

• As an agile digital-to-analog processor: accepts one Digital Off-air 8VSB or Digital Cable

QAM input (CATV standard channels 2-135, VHF channels 2-13, and UHF channels 14-69) and

delivers one Analog RF output (CATV standard channels 2-135)

• Equipped with EAS interface which can also be used as an IF (Intermediate Frequency) input

• Supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608)

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

AP-60-860A 59819 Agile, Processor, +60 dBmV, 54-860 MHz output

Related Products

Model Description

DAP

Digital-to-Analog Processor; 1 RU

AP Series Agile Heterodyne Processor; 1 RU

Analog RF

+60 dBmV


32

AQC Series

Agile QAM Converter

AQC (Agile QAM Convertor) is designed for data-over-cable and digital Video-on-Demand

(VoD) applications. The unit features an advanced menu system based on a flash upgradable

microcontroller which facilitates programming information to be easily entered with frontpanel

navigational key-pad.

QAM IF

44 MHz

QAM

Agile 54-860 MHz

Refer to product instruction manual for additional specification measurements and notes.

Features

• Agile output frequency range of 54-864 MHz compatible with Standard, HRC, IRC

channel assignments.

• Compact design allows for deployment of 6 modules in 2RU

• QAM output is tunable in 12.5 kHz increments.

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

AQC 6274 Agile QAM Converter

MIRC-12V 7715 Rack Chassis (holds up to 6 modules)

MIPS-12D 7722D 100-240 VAC 50/60 Hz power supply (one per chassis)

6274 (1 of 6)

7722C 7715


AQD

33

ATSC/QAM DEMODULATOR

1x8VSB/QAM 1xAV / 2xASI

AQD (ATSC/QAM Demodulator) accepts one input in 8VSB (digital off-air) or QAM (digital

cable) format, and delivers one output in NTSC composite analog Audio/Video format, and two

identical outputs in ASI format.

AQD allows delivering of a digital off-air program to viewers with an analog TV set. It also

allows an operator to cherry-pick channels from a “clear” QAM cable lineup.

AQD PLUS is the same as AQD, but includes the AFD broadcast package.

AFD (Active Format Description) is a standard set of codes embedded in the

video stream and used by digital television broadcasters to optimally display a

16:9 video format on an analog television set designed for 4:3 video format.

Remote Monitoring & Control via AQD-RCS

8VSB OR QAM

Composite

Analog A/V

2 x ASI

(AQD PLUS ASI only)

Features

• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB) and digital cable (QAM 64 and 256)

• NTSC Composite Analog Audio/Video output is in 480i format and supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608)

• Optional AQD-RCS module allows remote monitoring and configuration of up to 80 AQD modules

• Optional AQD-SPS unit provides standby utility power to the primary power supply (AQD Power & Control module)

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

AQD 6245 ATSC/QAM Demodulator

AQD PLUS 6244 AQD with AFD Broadcast Package

AQD PLUS ASI 6244-10 AQD PLUS with 2x ASI outputs

AQD-PCM 6246 AQD Power & Control Module

2730

QTRC 6233 QAM Transcoder Rack Chassis

Options

AQD-RCS 2730 AQD Remote Configuration Server Module

AQD/AQT-SPS 6253 AQD/AQT Standby Power Supply

QTHF 6235 QT Headend Fan

6245 (1 of 8)

6246 6233

6253

6235


AQM

34

AGILE QAM MODULATOR

1xASI 1xQAM

AQM (Agile QAM Modulator) accepts one MPEG-2 digital transport stream encapsulated

in an ASI (Asynchronous Serial Interface) format, and delivers one output in QAM format in the

5.75-864 MHz range.

ASI

QAM (with sub-band)

Features

• Input standard supported is ASI with data stream not to exceed 270 Mbps

• Output standards supported are ITU-T J.83 Annex A and Annex B (QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, 256,

512, and 1024)

• Optional IF output (Intermediate Frequency) and LVDS input (Low-Voltage Differential Signaling) is available

• Compact design allows for deployment of six modules in 2RU rack space

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

AQM 6271B Agile QAM Modulator

MIRC-12V 7715 Rack Chassis (holds up to 6 AQM modules)

MIPS-12D 7722D 110 VAC/60 Hz power supply (one per chassis)

MIPS-12C PAL B7722C 220 VAC/50 Hz power supply (one per chassis)

6271 (1 of 6) 7722D 7715


AQP

35

ATSC/QAM PROCESSOR

1x8VSB/QAM 1xQAM

AQP (ATSC/QAM Processor) accepts one input in 8VSB (digital off-air) or QAM (digital cable)

format, including the sub-band QAM input channels T7 to T13, and delivers one output in

QAM format in the 54-864 MHz range.

AQP can be utilized in a remote headend to “regenerate” a clean QAM channel from a

degraded one. It also allows TV sets to receive digital off-air programming on CATV channel

assignments by transmodulating the 8VSB broadcast to QAM.

It can also be utilized in remote digital origination applications, where the QAM channel needs

to be delivered to the headend via the sub-band frequencies.

8VSB

OR

QAM

QAM

Agile 54-864 MHz

+55 dBmV (115 dBµV)

Features

• Supports sub-band QAM input channels T7 to T13 for remote digital origination

applications

• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB & 16VSB) and digital cable

(QAM 16/32/64/128/206)

• Agile QAM output at +55 dBmV and in the frequency range of 54-864 MHz range

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

AQP 6268 8VSB/QAM-to-QAM Processor with sub-band input


36 AQT

ATSC/QAM TRANSCODER

1x8VSB/QAM 1xQAM

AQT (ATSC/QAM Transoder) accepts one input in 8VSB (digital off-air) or QAM (digital cable)

format, and delivers one output in QAM format in the 54-864 MHz range.

AQT can be utilized in a remote headend to “regenerate” a clean QAM channel from a

degraded one. It also allows TV sets to receive digital off-air programming on CATV channel

assignments by transmodulating the 8VSB broadcast to QAM.

Remote Monitoring & Control via AQT-RCS

8VSB OR QAM

QAM

Features

• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB & 16VSB) and digital cable (QAM 16, 32,

64, 128, and 256)

• Agile QAM output at +40 dBmV and in the frequency range of 54-864 MHz range

• Optional AQT-RCS module allows remote monitoring and configuration of up to 80 AQT modules

• Optional AQT-SPS unit provides standby utility power to the primary power supply

(AQT Power & Control module)

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

AQT 6275 ATSC-to-QAM Transcoder

AQT-PCM 6276 AQT Power & Control Module 2736

QTRC 6233 QAM Transcoder Rack Chassis

6275 (1 of 8)

Optional Equipment

AQT-RCS 2736 AQT Remote Configuration Server Module

AQD/AQT-SPS 6253 AQD/AQT Standby Power Supply

QTHF 6235 Headend Fan

HDA Series 6240 xx Integrated Combiner & Distribution Amplifier

6276 6233

6254

6235

6240


AQT8 Series

ATSC/QAM TRANSCODER

8x8VSB/QAM IP/QAM

AQT8 Series (ATSC/QAM Transcoder) accepts up to eight (8) inputs in 8VSB (Digital

off-air) or QAM (clear digital cable) format. Two models are available depending on the desired

output format. The AQT8-IP provides an IP (GigE) output and the AQT8-QAM provides QAM

and IP outputs simultaneously.

The AQT8 Series features Emergency Alert System (EAS) program switching through either

an ASI or IP format EAS input and terminal block contacts for triggering.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a rear-panel 10/100BaseT Ethernet connection.

37

8xATSC/QAM

8xQAM

IP

Features

• Accepts up to eight (8) ATSC or QAM channel inputs

• AQT8-IP (Stock No. 6280) provides IP output only

• AQT8-QAM (Stock No. 6281) provides IP and QAM outputs

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Supports Closed Captioning EIA-608 and EIA-708 when embedded in RF input(s)

• Accepts EAS input in ASI and IP formats

• Provides an ASI output of user selected input port

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

AQT8-IP 6280 ATSC/QAM Transcoder, 8xATSC/QAM inputs, 1xIP output

AQT8-QAM 6281 ATSC/QAM Transcoder, 8xATSC/QAM inputs, IP + QAM outputs


38 BTPRO-1000

QAM/8VSB/Analog Signal Analyzer

BTPRO-1000 is a versatile CATV test instrument for measuring both digital and analog CATV

and Broadcast TV signals. Robust and easy to use, BTPRO-1000 provides hours of operating

time from its high capacity battery. The instrument comes complete with a soft carrying case, AC

main and automotive chargers.

An optional Pro:Idiom Key Recovery feature is available for Hospitality applications that employ

Pro:Idiom television sets. The option consists of a built-in frequency agile QAM modulator

that connects directly to an affected Pro:Idiom TV to provide new encryption key information.

Features

• QAM/8VSB/NTSC Measurements

• Extended frequency range of 4-1000 MHz

• MER, aBER, bBER, Noise Margin and Level/Power measurements plus Spectrum Analysis

• Automatic quality analysis: FAIL-MARGINAL-PASS

• Auto Seek & Store Function - an essential feature for creating custom memory channel

plans. Scans receivable signals, determines signal type (QAM, 8VSB or analog) and stores only

those channels having signal levels above user defined values

• Ingress and Leakage Modes

• Data Logger Function: Steps through each channel in the “Active” memory plan and stores

all related measurements

• Graphics Display

• Alpha-numeric keypad

• Optional TV Key Recovery for Hospitality Pro:Idiom systems

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

BTPRO-1000 4230 QAM/8VSB/Analog Signal Analyzer

4230 RK Signal Analyzer with Pro:Idiom Key Recovery Option


DAP Series

39

DIGITAL/ANALOG PROCESSOR

1x8VSB/QAM 1xANALOG RF/2xASI

DAP PLUS (Digital/Analog Processor) accepts one input in 8VSB (digital off-air) or QAM

(digital cable) format, and delivers one output in modulated analog RF format. DAP PLUS

includes the AFD broadcast package. AFD (Active Format Description) is a standard set of

codes embedded in the video stream and used by digital television broadcasters to optimally

display a 16:9 video format on an analog television set designed for 4:3 video format.

The DAP PLUS can be equipped with an optional RNC module (Remote Network Card) for remote

monitoring and control operations. One RNC module can monitor and control up to sixty-four

DAP PLUS units installed in a headend. Additionally, it can be equipped with an optional ASI

module (Asynchronous Serial Interface) that delivers two identical ASI stream outputs, allowing a

seamless migration to an all-digital platform.

Remote Monitoring & Control via RNC Module

8VSB OR QAM

EAS

2xASI

Optional Analog RF

Features

• Agile Broadcast (UHF, VHF) and CATV (Standard, HRC, and IRC) channel assignments in the

54-864 MHz range

• Supports Emergency Alert System (EAS) input which can also be used as an Intermediate

Frequency (IF) input

• Automated scanning captures all available off-air or cable programs present on the input signal

• Supports both the Primary and the SAP (Secondary Audio Program) audio programs

• Output power level range of +50 to +62 dBmV adjustable in 0.2 dB increments

• Supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608)

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

DAP PLUS 6295 Digital-to-Analog Processor with AFD

DAP PLUS ASI 6295-10 DAP PLUS equipped with ASI module

DAP PLUS RNC 6295-12 DAP PLUS equipped with Remote Network Card (RNC) Module

DAP PLUS A/R 6295-22 DAP PLUS equipped with both the ASI and the RNC Modules


40

DHDP Series

DIGITAL HD PROCESSOR

1x8VSB 1xIF 1x8VSB

DHDP (Digital High-Definition Processor) is a two-module system consisting of one

down-converter module and one up-converter module. The down-converter accepts one 8VSB

(digital off-air) input in the 54-864 MHz range and delivers one output in IF (Intermediate Frequency)

format. The up-converter accepts one IF input and delivers one output in 8VSB format.

8VSB

8VSB

Features

• Agile Broadcast (UHF, VHF) and CATV (Standard, HRC, and IRC) channel assignments in the

54-864 MHz range

• Compatible with Digital TV and High-Definition TV applications

• Compact design allows for deployment of six Combo modules in 2RU rack space

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

DHDC-DV 6264A Digital TV & High-Definition TV Down-converter module

DHDC-UV 6265A Digital TV & High-Definition TV Up-converter module

DHDP-V 6266B Combo modules (6264A + 6265A)

MIRC-12V 7715 Rack Chassis (holds up to 6 combo modules)

MIPS-12D 7722D 110 VAC/60 Hz power supply (one per chassis)

DHDP-50 6260A Digital TV & High-Definition Integrated Unit (+50 dBmV Output)

6264A (1 of 6) 6265A (1 of 6) 7722D 7715


DQMx

DIGITAL QAM MULITPLEXER

4x8VSB/QAM/ASI 1xQAM

DQMx (Digital QAM Multiplexer) accepts up to four inputs in ASI, 8VSB, and QAM

formats, and delivers one output in QAM format in the 54-864 MHz range. Two types of input

modules are available (ASI and 8VSB/QAM), and any combination of input modules is allowed – for

example, DQMx can be equipped with 2 ASI and 2 8VSB/QAM input modules.

Each ASI input module can process up to twelve channels, not to exceed 270 Mbps. Each

8VSB/QAM input module can process up to twelve channels, not to exceed 19.4 Mbps for

8VSB or 38.8 Mbps for QAM 256. The QAM-modulated output can contain up to twelve

channels, not to exceed 38.8 Mpbs when operating in QAM 256 mode.

ASI & 8VSB & QAM

EAS

41

HD/SD MPEG-2 PROCESSING

QAM

Features

• Maintains MPEG-2 mapping if the input ASI stream is removed and the same stream is

added later (for example, after a power cycle)

• In addition to PAT, PMT, and MGT tables, supports the RRT, STT, and VCT tables of the

MPEG-2 transport stream

• Automatically re-maps duplicate PIDs, program numbers, and minor channel numbers

• Maintains mapping with new PAT/PMT/MGT versions and same programming

• User-defined major/minor or 4-digit CATV virtual channels

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

DQMx 6259A Digital QAM Multiplexer; Mainframe only (requires input modules)

DQMx-RF 6256 8VSB/QAM input module

DQMx-ASI 6257 ASI input module

6256

6257

6259A


MDDA-860

42

Micro ATSC/QAM Transcoder

1x8VSB/QAM 1xASI

The MDDA-860 is a digital demodulator and transcoder that receives one input in ATSC

8VSB (digital off-air) or “clear” QAM (digital cable) format and delivers one output in ASI format.

6

8VSB OR QAM

ASI

Features

• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB) and digital cable (ITU-B QAM 64 and 256)

• Die-cast Chassis Offers Superior Protection against Ingress or Egress

• Demodulates & transcodes HDTV/SDTV digital signals to ASI

• Compact design allows for deployment of 12 units in 2RU

• On-site firmware updates available through front-panel

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

MDDA-860 6277 ATSC/QAM-to-ASI Transcoder

MIRC-12V 7715 Rack Chassis (holds up to 12 modules)

MIPS-12D 7722D 110V/60Hz power supply (one per chassis configuration above)

6277

(1 of 12)

7722D

7715


6

MDDM-860

43

Micro ATSC/QAM Demodulator

1x8VSB/QAM 1xAV

The MDDM-860 is a digital demodulator and decoder that receives one input in ATSC 8VSB

(digital off-air) or “clear” QAM (digital cable) format and delivers one NTSC composite analog video

and stereo audio output.

The unit allows delivering of a digital off-air program to viewers with an analog TV set. It also

allows operators to cherry-pick channels from a clear QAM cable lineup.

Headends processing analog broadcasts using Blonder Tongue’s MIDM demodulators and

MICM modulators can be upgraded seamlessly to process digital broadcasts by simply

replacing the MIDM with a MDDM.

8VSB OR QAM

Composite

Analog A/V

Features

• Compact design allows for deployment of 6 channels (6 MDDM modules + 6 MICM modulators) in 2RU

• NTSC Composite Analog Video output is in 480i format and supports Closed Captioning (EIA-608)

• Input standards supported are digital off-air (8VSB) and digital cable (ITU-B QAM 64 and 256)

• Scans all 8VSB or QAM channels and stores in memory for quick channel selection

• Demodulates HDTV/SDTV digital signals to NTSC video and analog L/R audio

• On-site firmware updates/status monitoring available through front-panel

• Die-cast Chassis Offers Superior Protection against Ingress or Egress

• Adjustable picture sizes for 16:9 to 4:3 image conversion

• Supports Mono, Stereo, and SAP audio modes

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

MDDM-860 6273 ATSC/QAM Demodulator

MIRC-12V 7715 Rack Chassis (holds up to 6 MDDM + 6 MICM modulators)

MIPS-12D 7722D 110 V/60 Hz power supply

7797D

(1 of 6)

(one per chassis config. above)

MICM 7797D Micro channel modulator

6273

(1 of 6)

7722D

7715


44

Mux-2D-QAM

8VSB/QAM Multiplexer

2x8VSB/QAM 1xQAM

The MUX-2D-QAM is designed to allow CATV operators to multiplex two digital channels

received in either 8VSB or QAM format to a single QAM output channel for delivery over a

standard coaxial distribution network.

The MUX-2D-QAM accepts up to two (2) 8VSB or clear QAM channels and aggregates them onto

one QAM RF output in the 54-864 MHz range. The MUX-2D-QAM provides the capability to filter

program streams and to assign major/minor or a single 4-digit channel number to each.

The MUX-2D-QAM also provides Emergency Alert System (EAS) program switching through ASI

input and terminal block contacts. The EAS input source, which must be in ASI format, can be

shared among multiple MUX-2D-QAM units by looping it from one to another unit without the

need for external splitting and amplification.

2x8VSB/QAM

EAS

EAS Loop

1xQAM (MULTIPLE PROGRAMS)

Features

• Supports MPEG-2 Transport Stream Tables: PAT, PMT, MGT, RRT, STT, & VCT

• Re-maps duplicate PIDs, Program Numbers, and Minor Channel Numbers

• Allows sharing of the EAS input source among multiple units

• User-defined major/minor or 4-digit CATV virtual channels

• User-defined channel names

• EAS input replaces up to 12 program streams

• Supports PID filtering & PSIP re-assignment

• Provides QAM 256 Output at 38.8 Mbps

• Accepts ASI input as EAS input source

• User-defined QAM Output Parameters

• Maintains MPEG-2 mapping

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

MUX-2D-QAM 6504 Multiplexer, 2x 8VSB/QAM Inputs, Agile 54-860 MHz QAM output,

EAS compatible


Mux-2A-QAM

ASI Multiplexer

2xASI QAM

The MUX-2A-QAM is designed to allow CATV operators to multiplex two input sources in ASI

format to a single QAM output channel for delivery over a standard coaxial distribution network.

The MUX-2A-QAM accepts up to two (2) ASI inputs and aggregates them onto one QAM RF

output in the 54-864 MHz range. The MUX-2A-QAM provides the capability to filter program

streams and to assign major/minor or a single 4-digit channel number to each.

The MUX-2A-QAM also provides Emergency Alert System (EAS) program switching through

a third ASI input and terminal block contacts. The EAS input source can be shared among

multiple MUX-2A-QAM units by looping it from one to another unit without the need for external

splitting and amplification.

2xASI

EAS

45

EAS Loop

1xQAM (MULTIPLE PROGRAMS)

Features

• Supports MPEG-2 Transport Stream Tables: PAT, PMT, MGT, RRT, STT, & VCT

• Re-maps duplicate PIDs, Program Numbers, and Minor Channel Numbers

• Allows sharing of the EAS input source among multiple units

• User-defined major/minor or 4-digit CATV virtual channels

• User-defined channel names

• EAS input replaces up to 12 program streams

• Supports PID filtering & PSIP re-assignment

• Provides QAM 256 Output at 38.8 Mbps

• Accepts ASI input as EAS input source

• User-defined QAM Output Parameters

• Maintains MPEG-2 mapping

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

MUX-2A-QAM 6505 Multiplexer, 2x ASI Inputs, Agile 54-860 MHz QAM output, EAS

compatible


46

6 QTM

QAM TRANSCODER MODULE

1xQPSK/8PSK 1xQAM

QTM (QAM Transcoder Module) accepts one input in QPSK or 8PSK format, and delivers one

output in QAM format in the 54-864 MHz range.

The four available models are:

1. QTM-II - accepts one input in QPSK format, and delivers one output in QAM 64 mode.

2. QTM-HD - accepts one input in QPSK or 8PSK format, and delivers on output in QAM 256

mode.

3. QTM-HD PLUS - the same as QTM-HD, but capable of QAM 512/1024 modes.

4. QTM-HD NPU - the same as QTM-HD, but with a “Null Packet” feature that allows adding/removing

null packets to/from the input stream.

QPSK or 8PSK

QAM

Features

• Supports the 8PSK modulation typically used for High-Definition TV programming

• Supports ITU-T J.83 Annex A and Annex B standards (QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024)

• Compact design allows for deployment of 8 transcoders, and power & control module, in 3RU

rack space

• Optional Headend Web Server allows for remote monitoring and control of each transcoder

• Optional Standby Power Supply allows for uninterrupted service in the unlikely event of a

primary power supply failure

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

QTM-II 6231A QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK input, QAM 64 output

QTM-HD 6241 QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK/8PSK input, QAM 256 output

QTM-HD PLUS 6242 QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK/8PSK input, QAM 512/1024

output

QTM-HD NPU 6278 QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK/8PSK input, QAM 256 output;

Null Packet add/remove capability

QTRC 6233 Rack Chassis; 3RU (holds up to 8 QTM modules)

QTPCM PLUS 6232B QT Power and Control Module (one per chassis)

QTM (1 of 8) 6232B 6233

Optional Equipment

QT-HWS-II 2728 QTM Headend Web Server for remote monitoring and control

QTSPS 6239A QT Stand-by Power Supply with integrated fan tray (supports 2 fullyloaded

rack chassis)

QTHF 6235 QT 1RU rack-mounted fan tray

QTRFC 6234 1 8-port QAM combiner (mounts on the top of the Rack Chassis 6233)

6239A

QTRFS 6234 2 8-port L-band Splitter (mounts underneath the Rack Chassis 6233)

QTRFS-2 6225 2 2 x 4-port L-band Splitter (mounts underneath the Rack Chassis 6233)

2728


QTM-HD-4

47

QAM TRANSCODER MODULE

4xQPSK/8PSK 4xQAM

QTM-HD-4 (QAM Transcoder Module) contains four (4) independent transcoders in a single

module. Each of these transcoders accepts one (1) input in QPSK or 8PSK format, and the module

delivers four outputs in QAM format in the 54-1002 MHz range.

An integrated satellite selector switch allows operator to select any of the QPSK/8PSK inputs from

up to 4 different satellites without the need for a separate external multiswitch. The 4 RF QAM

output channels can be grouped in any 42 MHz-wide span, for example grouped consecutively

in a 24 MHz-wide span, or grouped as two pairs of adjoining RF channels each 12 MHz wide, or

any other possible combination of 4x 6 MHz-wide channels placed in a 42 MHz-wide span. The

QTM-HD-4 modules are designed to be housed in the same chassis and to be powered with the

same power/control module currently used with our QTM-HD-PLUS modules (Stock 6242) that are

QAM 512/1024 compatible.

The QTM-HD-4 may be monitored and controlled via GUI-based web pages from any computer

either locally or via the internet.

42 MHz

6 MHz

4xQPSK/8PSK

user-selectable from

4 different satellites

4xQAM

4x 6 MHz-wide chs. in any 42 MHz-wide span

TYPICAL DEPLOYMENT: 4x consecutive QAMs

24 MHz

Features

• Supports QPSK/8PSK inputs (DVB-S, DVB-S2, Turbo FEC)

• Equipped with integrated satellite switch allowing operator to select inputs from 4 different satellites

• Supports ITU-T J.83 Annex A and Annex B QAM output (QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, 256)

• Can be deployed with QTM-HD-Plus (Stock 6242) for applications requiring QAM 512/1024 modulation

• Compact design allows for deployment of 4 units (16 transcoders), including the power & control

module, in 3RU

• Optional Standby Power Supply allows for uninterrupted service in the unlikely event of a primary

power supply failure

• GUI-based menu, including SNMP-based management, provides remote monitoring/control capabilities

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

QTM-HD-4 6243 QAM Transcoder Module; QPSK/8PSK input, QAM 256 output

QTRC 6233A Rack Chassis; 3RU (holds up to 4 QTM-HD-4 modules)

QTPCM-4 6238 QT Power & Control Module (one per chassis)

3RU

Optional Equipment

QTSPS 6239A QT Standby Power Supply with integrated

fan tray (supports 2 fully-loaded rack chassis)

QTHF 6235 QT 1RU rack-mounted fan tray

6239A

QTM-HD-4 (1of4) 6238 6233A


EdgeQAM

& IPTV

SOLUTIONS

49


50

EdgeQAM Solutions

Dish Network

(ViP222 receivers)

DTCP-IP

64 programs

EQAM-400B

Stock No. 6520B

16 RF QAM Ch.

4 programs per QAM

BellTV

(6131 or 6400 receivers)

DTCP-IP

48 programs

EQAM-450B

Stock No. 6525B

16 RF QAM Ch.

3 programs per QAM

}Pro:Idiom QAM

• Comprehensive GUI-based menu for remote monitoring and control via Web browser

• User-selectable QAM 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 modulation modes

• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)

• Provides SNMP v2 for product and network management

• Provides comprehensive management of receivers

• Accepts variable and constant bitrate streams

• Provides Null Packet deletion and addition

MSO

headend

IP over Fiber

Transport

Network

Clear-IP

SPTS Mode: 64 SPTS

MPTS Mode: 16 MPTS

(64 Programs)

EQAM-420B

Stock No. 6522B

16 RF QAM Ch.

4 programs per QAM

Clear/

Pro:Idiom QAM

• SPTS Mode: Accepts up to sixty-four (64) MPEG-2/H.264 Single Program Transport Streams (SPTS)

• MPTS Mode: Accepts up sixteen (16) MPEG-2/H.264 Multi Program Transport Streams (MPTS),

each MPTS with maximum 4 programs and not to exceed 38.8 Mbps

• Each input program can contain 1 video and up to 2 audio elementary streams

• Supports IGMPv3 protocol

• Configurable with 4 modules, each with four (4) adjacent QAM channels, for a total of 16 QAM

channels

• Supports network based EAS program switching based on SCTE-18

• Comprehensive GUI-based menu for remote monitoring and control via standard Web browsers

• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)

• Accepts variable and constant bitrate streams

• Provides Null packet insertion and deletion


IPTV Solutions

51

1xASI

1xASI

IPAT

Stock No. 6510

1xGigE

1xGigE

ASI Input/Output interface

• Supports Single or Multi Protocol Transport Services (SPTS or MPTS)

• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) correction

• Allows Null Packet insertion & deletion

GbE Input/Output interface

• Provides robust protection against IP network jitter and delay

• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) replacement

• Supports Uni- and Multi-cast thru RTP/UDP protocols

• Supports IPv4, ARP, IGMPv2, and ICMP protocols

• Supports variable and constant bitrates

Optional RF modules

• RF IN/OUT modules support both 8VSB and Annex A/B QAM modes

• RF IN module accepts 8VSB free-to-air & NTSC CATV standard channels 2-135

• RF OUT module provides NTSC CATV standard/sub-band channels 2-135/T7-T14

• RF OUT module provides output level of +40 dBmV

12xASI

144 un-encrypted programs

EAS

MUX-12A-IP

Stock No. 6517

2xASI

20 programs

4xGigE

ASI Input

• Supports unencrypted MPEG-2/H.264 Single or Multi Protocol Transport Services (SPTS or MPTS)

• ASI port #12 is user-selectable for EAS messaging

• Supports 12 unencrypted ASI inputs, each up to 270 Mbps

• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) correction

• Performs Null Packet insertion & deletion

GbE Output

• Provides robust protection against IP network jitter and delay

• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) replacement

• Supports Uni- and Multi-cast thru RTP/UDP protocols

• Supports IPv4, ARP, IGMPv2, and ICMP protocols

• Supports variable and constant bitrates

• Provides a single IPv4 address & port


52 EQAM-420 Series

EdgeQAM with EAS

2xGbE 16xQAM (Clear/Pro:Idiom)

EQAM-420B (EdgeQAM with EAS) is designed to allow CATV operators to aggregate

multiple SDTV/HDTV programs received in IP format and to deliver them over a standard

coaxial distribution network. Each input program can contain one (1) video and up to two (2)

audio Elementary streams.

The EQAM-420B is capable of accepting unencrypted (clear) 1000Base-T Ethernet (GbE)

streams in one of the following two modes:

SPTS Mode: Up to sixty-four (64) MPEG-2/H.264 Single Program Transport Streams (SPTS)

MPTS Mode: Up to sixteen (16) MPEG-2/H.264 Multi Program Transport Streams (MPTS),

each MPTS with maximum four (4) programs and not to exceed 38.8 Mbps.

The input streams are aggregated in up to sixteen (16) QAM RF channels in the 54-996 MHz

range. The unit can be configured with four (4) QAM output modules, each capable of delivering

four (4) adjoining QAM channels. Each QAM channel can contain up to four (4) programs.

The EQAM-420B supports network-based (Soft/IP enabled Trigger) EAS program switching based

on the SCTE 18 standard. The unit also allows the operator to maintain the QAM RF output

unencrypted, or to encrypt it with Pro:Idiom against content piracy.

To utilize the Pro:Idiom encryption feature, the input streams must be received on a

dedicated GbE port and must meet the Pro:Idiom requirements. When Pro:Idiom

encryption is activated, QAM set-top box or external Pro:Idiom decrypter is required to view

Pro:Idiom encrypted premium channels.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished using any standard Web

browser via a front-panel 10/100BaseT Ethernet connection. The SCTE-18 based EAS trigger

is also received via the same port.

Mode 1

Mode 2

64 SPTS 16 MPTS

EAS (SCTE-18 Compliant)

Clear GbE

16xQAM

(Clear/Pro:Idiom)


53

Features

• SPTS Mode: Accepts up to sixty-four (64) MPEG-2/H.264 Single Program Transport Streams (SPTS)

• MPTS Mode: Accepts up to sixteen (16) MPEG-2/H.264 Multi Program Transport Streams

(MPTS), each MPTS with maximum 4 programs and not to exceed 38.8 Mbps

• Each input program can contain 1 video and up to 2 audio elementary streams

• Supports IGMPv3 protocol

• Configurable with 4 modules, each with four (4) adjacent QAM channels, for a total of

16 QAM channels

• Supports network based EAS program switching based on SCTE-18

• Comprehensive GUI-based menu for remote monitoring/control via standard Web browsers

• Provides a front-panel RF test point (at 20 dB below primary QAM output)

• Accepts variable and constant bitrate streams

• Provides Null packet insertion and deletion

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

EQAM-420B-4-64 6522B-4-64 EdgeQAM-420B equipped with 4 Quad-QAM output

modules (accepts 64 unencrypted HD programs)

EQAM-420B-PIL 6522B-PIL* Software option to add Pro:Idiom encryption

* Available to Pro:Idiom licensees only

Typical Application


54

IPAT

1xGbE

IP - ASI Transcoder

1xASI

IPAT (IP ASI Transcoder) is a bi-direction IP ASI transcoder that accepts MPEG2/4-

encoded input streams in 1000Base-T Ethernet (GbE) and ASI formats simultaneously. GbE

input is transcoded to ASI output while ASI input is transcoded to GbE output.

IP

GbE

IP

GbE

ASI or QAM/8VSB (with optional RF IN module)

ASI or QAM (with optional RF OUT module)

Two factory-installed optional modules (the RF IN and the RF OUT) allow input/output in QAM & 8VSB

formats rendering the product suitable for a wider range of applications.

An integrated web server provides comprehensive GUI-based local and remote control/

monitoring thru any standard Web browser via a front-panel 10/100BaseT interface.

Features

ASI Input/Output interface

• Supports Single or Multi Protocol Transport Services (SPTS or MPTS)

• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) correction

• Allows Null Packet insertion & deletion

GbE Input/Output interface

• Provides robust protection against IP network jitter and delay

• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) replacement

• Supports Uni- and Multi-cast thru RTP/UDP protocols

• Supports IPv4, ARP, IGMPv2, and ICMP protocols

• Supports variable and constant bitrates

Optional RF modules

• RF IN/OUT modules support both 8VSB and Annex A/B QAM modes

• RF IN module accepts 8VSB free-to-air & NTSC CATV standard channels 2-135

• RF OUT module provides NTSC CATV standard/sub-band channels 2-135/T7-T14

• RF OUT module provides output level of +40 dBmV

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

IPAT 6510 GbE-to-ASI and ASI-to-GbE transcoder

IPAT-RFO 6512 IPAT equipped with RF OUT module

IPAT-RFI 6514 IPAT equipped with RF IN module


Typical Applications

55

ASI

Multiple Programs

QAM/8VSB-to-ASI Transcoder

Model: MDDA

Stock No. 6277

CATV

Headend

Multiple virtual channels

GbE

Multiple Programs

1. IPAT's "native ASI Input with Single- or Multi-Protocol

Transport Services (SPTS or MPTS)

2. RF QAM channel transcoded to ASI utilizing the optional

"RF IN" module

3. RF QAM channel transcoded to ASI utilizing an external

QAM-to-ASI transcoder

4. GbE output with uni- or multi-cast programs

5. Display: Computer equipped with typical media player

or typical TV via an IP-to-RF settop box

GbE

Multiple Programs

1. GbE interface with uni- or multi-cast programs

2. The "standard" ASI output modulated to RF QAM

utilizing the optional "RF OUT" module

ASI

Multiple Programs

3. THe "standard" ASI output modulated to RF QAM

utilizing an external QAM modulator

4. The "standard" ASI output multiplexed with other ASI

streams and modulated to RF QAM

5. Display: Digital TV

Multiple virtual channels

ASI streams from

Other IPATs/sources

Multiple virtual channels

ASI-to-QAM Modulator

Model: AQM

Stock No. 6271B

Multiple virtual channels


Mux-12A-IP

56

ASI-to-IP Multiplexer

12xASI 4xIP

MUX-12A-IP (12:4 ASI-to-IP Multiplexer; 12xASI > 4xIP) is designed for cherrypicking

applications, allowing operators to create custom-made channel lineups by grooming

standard-definition (SD) and high-definition (HD) programs on an as-needed basis.

The multiplexer accepts up to twelve (12) unencrypted MPEG-2/H.264 inputs in ASI format and

multiplexes them into up to four (4) MPEG-2/H.264 Multi-Program Transport Streams (MPTS)

which are then encapsulated and assigned to up to four (4) IPv4 addresses in 1000Base-T

Ethernet (GigE) format suitable for distribution over Cat-5 networks. Any two (2) of the four (4)

MPTS output streams are also available in ASI format.

Each ASI input stream can contain up to 20 unencrypted programs, for a total of 240 input

programs. The GigE output can contain up to 20 programs groomed in up to four (4) MPTS

output streams from any of the available 240 input programs, each MPTS output stream not

to exceed 214 Mbps, and the sum of programs in all MPTS output streams not to exceed 20.

The multiplexer is EAS-compliant (Emergency Alert System) – operator can assign ASI port

#12 as an EAS input which, when activated, will override the content of all other ASI inputs.

Comprehensive remote monitoring and control is accomplished via a GUI-based interface

using any standard web browser.

12xASI

(240 Programs Total)

EAS

1x ASI

(port #12)

Any 2 of 4 MPTS

output streams

2xASI

4xIP (GigE)

20 Programs Total

Up to 4 IPv4 addresses

Uni- & Multi-cast

UDP/RTP


57

Features

• Accepts up to 12 unencrypted MPEG-2/H.264 Single or Multi-Program Transport

Streams (SPTS or MPTS) in ASI format, each up to 270 Mbps

• Provides 1, 2, 3, or 4 MPTS output streams when operating in Single, Dual, Triple, or

Quad IP Outputs Modes respectively

• Provides comprehensive GUI-based monitoring and control via standard Web Browsers

• Performs PCR (Program Clock Reference) correction, null packet insertion, and deletion

• Supports EAS (Emergency Alert System) input on ASI Input port 12

• Supports Uni- and Multi-cast thru RTP/UDP protocols

• Supports ARP, IGMPv2, and ICMP protocols

• Supports user-defined PSIP configuration

Ordering Information

Model Stock # Description

MUX-12A-IP 6517 12:4 ASI-to-IP Multiplexer; 12xASI inputs; 4xIP (GigE) + 2xASI

outputs; EAS compliant


59

3 DIGITAL REFERENCE

Digital Cable (QAM)..........................................................60

Digital Over-the-Air............................................................60

Encoding Diagram.............................................................61

Digital Content Types.........................................................62

Digital Closed Captioning..................................................64

Chroma Sub-Mapping Types.............................................66

Audio Encoding.................................................................67

Digital Tech Tips................................................................70

Digital Signal Analysis........................................................75

CATV QAM Channel Center Frequency..............................84

North American Digital Broadcast Channel Frequency......86


60

3

4

2

1.25 MHz 3.58

Digital Cable 6 MHz (QAM)

0.92 0.25

4

0.92 0.25

1.25 MHz 3.58

6 MHz

Type: 2 Color Carrier Analog Cable (Black & White since 1941; Color since 1953)

Name: 3 Sound Carrier NTSC (National Television System Committee)

Bandwidth:

4 Video Content

6MHz

Capacity: 1 program

1 Video Carrier

2 Color Carrier

3 Sound Carrier

4 Video Content

Type: Digital Cable (since 1990)

Name: QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)

Type: Digital Cable (since 1990)

Name: Bandwidth: QAM 6MHz

(Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)

Bandwidth: Capacity: 6MHz Variable – depends of modulation sche

Capacity: Variable

QAM

– depends

64 modulation

of modulation

= 26.9

scheme

Mbps

QAM 64 64 modulation modulation = 26.9 = 26.9 Mbps Mbps

QAM 256

QAM 256 modulation QAM modulation 256 = modulation = 38.8 Mbps

38.8 Mbps = 38.8 Mbps

6 MHz

6 MHz

Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.

1.800.523.6049 www.blondertongue.com

Slide # 12

Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc.

QAM QAM 64 64

1.800.523.6049

www.blondertongue.com

64-Point Signal Constellation

26.9 Mbps bitrate

Can accommodate:

1x1080i HD program @ 17.9 Mbps,

or 4x480i SD programs each @ 4.2 Mbps,

or 1x720p HD program @ 8.8 Mbps + 2x480i SD programs at 4.2 Mbps,

or any combination not to exceed 26.9 Mbps

QAM QAM 256 256

256-Point Signal Constellation

38.8 Mbps bitrate

Can accommodate:

1x1080i HD program @ 36.5 Mbps,

or 2x720p HD programs each @ 17.6 Mbps,

or 4x480i SD programs each @ 8.8 Mbps,

or 1x720p HD program @ 17.6 Mbps + 2x480i SD programs at 8.8 Mbps,

or any combination not to exceed 38.8 Mbps

Digital Over-the-Air (8VSB)

Type: Digital Over-the-Air (Since Digital Transition of 2009)

Name: 8VSB (8-level Vestigial SideBand)

Bandwidth: 6MHz

Capacity: 19.8 Mbps

One 8VSB channel may contain 1 HD program identified, for example, as

"Major"

One 8VSB

channel

channel

2.1, and

may

several

contain

SD

1

programs

HD program

identified

identified,

as "Minor"

for example,

channels

as

“Major” channel 2.1, and several SD programs identified as “Minor” channels

2.2, 2.3, 2.4, ...

2.2 , 2.3, 2.4, ...

1 Pilot Carrier

6 MHz


Encoding Diagram

61

1 Un-compressed Digital content arrives in HD-SDI, SD-SDI, & HDMI formats.

gital content arrives in HD-SDI, SD-SDI, & HDMI formats.

Uncompressed

Digital Signal

2 Compress using MPEG-2/4 and convert to MPEG-TS (MPEG Transport Stream).

Compress using MPEG-2/4 and convert to MPEG-TS (MPEG Transport Stream).

Encoder

(Compressor)

der

3 Pack Several MPEG-TS into one ASI stream.

ssor)

3 Pack Several MPEG-TS into one ASI stream.

ASI Transport

Stream

ASI Carrier

(TS)

ASI Carrier

4 Convert ASI stream into QAM.

QAM Modulation

4 Convert ASI stream into QAM.

QAM Modulation

5 Deliver QAM over coax.

Coaxial

Distribution

Network

MPEG-2 Transport Stream

5 Deliver QAM over coax

Coaxial

Distribution

Network

PID

CAT

TSDT

Video

Audio (English)

Audio (French)

EIT = Event Information Table

CAT = Conditional Access Table

MGT = Management Table

PAT = Program Association Table

PID = Packet Identifier

SI Base PID STT, MGT, VCT, RRT

EIT-n, ETT-n, other

tables referenced

by MGT


62 Digital Content Types

SDI

SDI (Serial Digital Interface) refers to a family of un-compressed

audio/video interfaces

standardized by SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers).

HD-SDI (High-Definition Serial Digital Interface) or SMPTE 292M, provides a nominal

data rate of 1.485 Gbit/s. Typical video formats are 720p and 1080i.

SD-SDI (Standard-Definition Serial Digital Interface) or SMPTE 259M, provides a

nominal data rate of 270 Mbit/s. Typical video format is 480i.

Typical interface type is a BNC connector for both HD-SDI and SD-SDI.

HDMI

(High Definition Multi-media Interface) is an audio/video interface for transmitting

uncompressed un-compressed digital data. It was founded in 2002 by Hitachi, Panasonic, Philips,

Thomson, Toshiba, Silicon Image, and Sony.

The proprietary content encryption scheme used is HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content

Protection) which is developed by Intel and licensed by the Digital Content Protection,

LLC.

Nominal data rate is 10.2 Gbits/s and various video formats from 480i to 2160p are

supported.

The only interface type is the HDMI connector.

ASI

ASI (Asynchronous Serial Interface) is a streaming data format which often

carries an MPEG Transport Stream (MPEG-TS). Unlike the SD-SDI and HD-

SDI that are uncompressed, an ASI signal can carry one or multiple SD,

HD, or audio programs that are already compressed.

Generally, the ASI signal is the final product of video compression, either

MPEG2 or MPEG4, and ready for transmission, after necessary conversions,

over various types of transmission paths such as coax, fiber, or microwave.

For example, for CATV applications the ASI stream is typically converted

into QAM. It is converted into 8VSB for broadcast applications.

The two transmission formats commonly used by the ASI interface are the

188 byte format and the 204 byte format. The 188 byte format is the more

common ASI transport stream. When optional Reed-Solomon error

correction data is included the packet can stretch an extra 16 bytes to 204

bytes total.

Data rate is variable and dependent on user’s application requirements, but

the ASI interface of most products support 270 Mbps per DVB-ASI 50083-9

standard.


63

DVI

DVI (Digital Visual Interface) is a video-only

standard designed to provide

very high visual quality on digital display devices such as LCD TVs and

computers. It was developed to replace the analog VGA (Video Graphics

Array) technology.

Depending on the DVI type (single or dual link) the data rate is

3.96 and 7.92 Gbits/s. In most CATV applications, a DVI-to-HDMI

cable is used to display the DVI signal on a HDMI-compatible TV.


64 Digital Closed Captioning

For ATSC (digital television) programming, three streams are encoded in the

video: two are backward compatible Line 21 captions (CEA-608), and the

third is a set of additional caption streams encoded in EIA-708 format. The

captioning data is carried in the video user bits of the MPEG-2 bitstream (as

specified in ATSC A/53B) and is applicable to both HD and SD.

The CEA-708 specification provides for improved captioning compared

with CEA-608:

• Up to 63 services per program (16 announced in PSIP)

• 8 independently controlled display windows

• Extended range of characters (i.e. more accented letters and

non-Latin letters) and fonts (monospaced and proportional

spaced, serif and sans-serif)

• Additional font sizes (viewer-adjustable), backgrounds

(including both transparent and translucent backgrounds to

optionally replace the big black block), colors and edges

• More text styles, including edged or drop-shadowed text

rather than the letters on a solid background

• Higher bandwidth, to allow more data per minute of video

• More language channels, to allow the encoding of more

independent caption streams


Chroma Sub-Mapping Types

65

4:4:4 YCbCr

Each of the three YCbCr components have the same sample rate. This

scheme is sometimes used in high-end film scanners and cinematic

postproduction. Two SDI connections are normally required to carry

this bandwidth: Link A would carry a 4:2:2 signal, Link B a 0:2:2, when

combined would make 4:4:4.

4:4:4 RGB (no subsampling)

Note that "4:4:4" may instead be referring to RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color

space, which implicitly does not have any chroma subsampling at all.

4:2:2

The two chroma components are sampled at half the sample rate of

luma: the horizontal chroma resolution is halved. This reduces the

bandwidth of an uncompressed video signal by one-third with little to no

visual difference. This rate is often used in high-end encoders and video

production equipment.

4:2:1

Although this mode is defined, very few firmware or hardware codecs use

this sampling mode. Cb horizontal resolution is twice as low as one of

Cr (and four times as low as one of Y). This exploits the fact that human

eye has less spatial sensitivity to blue/yellow than to red/green. Similar to

NTSC, in using lower resolution for blue/yellow than red/green, which in

turn has less resolution than luma.

4:1:1

In 4:1:1 chroma subsampling, the horizontal color resolution is quartered,

and the bandwidth is halved compared to no chroma subsampling.

Originally, 4:1:1 chroma subsampling was not considered to be broadcast

quality and was only acceptable for low-end and consumer applications.


66 Chroma Sub-Mapping Types Continued

4:2:0

Cb and Cr are each subsampled at a factor of 2 both horizontally and

vertically. There are three variants of 4:2:0 schemes, that are sited differently

both horizontally and vertically.

• In MPEG-2, Cb and Cr are co-sited horizontally. Cb and Cr are

sited between pixels in the vertical direction (sited

interstitially).

• In JPEG/JFIF, H.261, and MPEG-1, Cb and Cr are sited

interstitially, halfway between alternate luma samples.

• In 4:2:0 DV, Cb and Cr are co-sited in the horizontal direction.

In the vertical direction, they are co-sited on alternating lines.

The PAL and SECAM color systems are especially well-suited to this kind of

data reduction. Most digital video formats corresponding to PAL use 4:2:0

chroma subsampling,


Audio Encoding

67

Dolby Digital: Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression

technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. The most elaborate mode

in common usage involves five channels for normal-range speakers (20

Hz – 20,000 Hz) (right front, center, left front, rear right, rear left) and one

channel (20 Hz – 120 Hz) for the subwoofer.

• Dolby Digital (also known as AC-3):

AC-3 is a perceptual digital audio coding technique that reduces the

amount of data needed to produce high-quality sound. AC-3 is

the sound format for digital television ( DTV ), digital versatile discs

(DVD s), high definition television ( HDTV ), and digital cable and

satellite transmissions. AC-3 is a 5.1 format, which means that it

provides five full-bandwidth channels. AC-3 also has a downmixing

feature that ensures compatibility with devices that do not support

the 5.1 format.

• Dolby Digital Plus (also known as E-AC-3):

E-AC-3 is an enhanced coding system based on the AC-3 codec.

It offers increased bitrates (up to 6.144 Mbit/s), support for more

audio channels (up to 13.1), and improved coding techniques

to reduce compression artifacts, enabling lower data rates than those

supported by AC-3 (e.g. 5.1-channel audio at 256 kbit/s). It is not

backward compatible with existing AC-3 hardware.

• Dolby Digital EX:

EX adds an extension to the standard 5.1 channel Dolby Digital codec

in the form of matrixed rear channels, creating 6.1 or 7.1

channel output.


68 Audio Encoding Continued

• Dolby Digital Live:

Dolby Digital Live (DDL) is a real-time encoding technology for

interactive media such as video games. It converts any audio signals

on a PC or game console into a 5.1-channel 16-bit/48 kHz Dolby

Digital format at 640 kbit/s and transports it via a single S/PDIF cable.

Dolby Digital Live is available in sound cards using various

manufacturers' audio chipsets.

• Dolby True HD:

Dolby True HD is an advanced lossless audio codec. Dolby TrueHD

supports 24-bit, 96 kHz audio channels at up to 18 Mbit/s over 14

channels (HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc standards currently limit the

maximum number of audio channels to eight). It supports metadata,

including dialog normalization and Dynamic Range Control.

• Dolby Surround:

Dolby Surround was the earliest consumer version of Dolby's

multichannel analog film sound decoding format Dolby Stereo. When

a Dolby Stereo / Dolby Surround soundtrack is produced, four

channels of audio information - left, center, right, and mono

surround - are matrix-encoded onto two audio tracks. The

stereo information is then carried on stereo sources such as

videotapes, laserdiscsand television broadcasts from which the

surround information can be decoded by a processor to recreate the

original four-channel surround sound.


69

AAC:

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy

compression and encoding scheme for digital audio and is a part of

the MPEG-4 Systems Standard. Designed to be the successor of the

MP3 format, AAC generally achieves better sound quality than MP3

at similar bit rates. An AAC encoded file can include up to 48

full-bandwith audio channels (up to 96 kHz) and 15 Low Frequency

Enhancement channels (limited to 120 Hz) plus 15 data streams. AAC

encoding methods are organized into Profiles (MPEG-2) or Object

Types (MPEG-4). These different Object Types are not necessarily

compatible with each other and may not be playable with

various decoders.

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (Also known as MP2):

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II is a lossy audio compression format defined

by ISO/IEC 11172-3 and primarily used in European countries. MP2

is an audio codec, and is the dominant standard for audio

broadcasting. It is similar to MP3, but MP3 has become the dominant

standard for PC and Internet applications. MP2 can have sampling

rates of 32, 44.1 and 48 kHz and bitrates of 32, 48, 56, 64, 80, 96,

112, 128, 160, 192, 224, 256, 320 and 384 kbit/s.

PCM:

Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent

sampled analog signals. It is the standard form for digital audio in

computers and various Blu-ray, Compact Disc and DVD formats, as

well as other uses such as digital telephone systems. A PCM stream is

a digital representation of an analog signal, in which the magnitude

of the analogue signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, with

each sample being quantized to the nearest value within a range of

digital steps.


70 Digital Tech Tips

BER (Bit Error Rate) is the ratio of errored bits to the total number of

bits transmitted, received, or processed over a defined length of time.

Example: 3 errored bits in a total of 1,000,000 transmitted bits will

result in a BER of:

3/1,000,000 = 0.000003 = 3 x 10-6.

MER (Modulation Error Ratio) is the ratio, in decibels, of average

symbol power to average error power:

MER(dB) = 10 x log (average symbol power / average error power)

MER is influenced by everything present in the signal’s transmission path

such as:

Phase Noise; CNR (Carrier-to-Noise Ratio); CTB distortion

(Composite Triple Beat); CSO distortion (Composite Second Order);

Cross Modulation (X-mod); Micro-reflections (Ghosting); Amplitude

tilt/ripple; Group Delay; Ingress.

(8VSB) (QAM 64) (QAM 256)

to

To help maintain the relative signal level difference between Analog and Digital channels, after adjusting for a

sloped output from the amplifier, do the following:

When using QAM 64, set signal level of digital channels 8 to 10 dB below the equivalent Analog channels.

When using QAM 256, set signal level of digital channels 6 to 8 dB below the equivalent Analog channels.


Interlace (1080i) vs. Progressive (1080p)

Interlace (1080i) vs Progressive (1080p)

Interlace

First, all odd lines are scanned (1/60 sec), then all even lines (1/60 sec), presenting a full picture (1/30 sec)

71

Progressive

All lines are scanned in a single pass, presenting a full picture (1/60 sec)

ATSC Scanning Formats

Definition Lines/Frame Pixels/Line Aspect Ratios Frame Rates

High (HD) 1080 1920 16:9 23.976p, 24p, 29.97p, 29.97i, 30p, 20i

High (HD) 720 1280 16:9 23.976p, 24p, 29.97p, 29.97p, 59.94p, 60p

Standard (SD) 480 704 4:3, 16:9 23.976p, 24p, 29.97p, 29.97i, 30p, 30i, 59.94p, 60p

Standard (SD) 480 640 16:9 23.976p, 24p, 29.97p, 29.97i, 30p, 30i, 59.94p, 60p


asure:

72 Digital Tech Tips

dB vs dBmV dBmV vs µ

Decibel (dB)

A logarithmic ratio of two power levels:

– 10Log(P1/P2)

– 20Log(V1/V2)

It’s used to measure:

– Gain

– Loss

– Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

– Isolation (e.g. directional couplers)

– Noise Figure

Decibel Millivolt (dBmV)

A logarithmic expression of RF signals referenced to

one millivolt (or 1000 microvolts) across 75 .

Typical input range

for a Digital Tuner

Typical input Range

for an Analog Tuner

dBmV

-10

-6

0

+5

+6

+12

+15

+18


+60

Reference Vol

0 dBmV = 1000

across 7

It’s used to measure:

– Maximum output voltage of an amplifier

– Minimum input signal

– Maximum input signal

V dBmV vs µV

)

tio of two power levels:

(P1/P2)

(V1/V2)

asure:

l-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

ion (e.g. directional couplers)

Figure

ivolt (dBmV)

xpression of RF signals referenced to

r 1000 microvolts) across 75 .

Typical input range

for a Digital Tuner

Typical input Range

for an Analog Tuner

dBmV µV

-10 300

-6 500

0 1,000

+5

+6 2,000

+12 4,000

+15

+18 8,000

… …

+60 1V

Reference Voltage Level:

0 dBmV = 1000 microvolts

across 75


73

Bitrates vs Bandwidth

Format Description Bitrate

(Mbits/sec)

Bandwidth

(MHz)

HD-SDI Uncompressed High-Def digital stream 1,485 N/A

SD-SDI Uncompressed Standard-Def digital stream 270 N/A

ASI Typically carries multiple compressed HD/SD-SDI programs (via MPEG Transport Stream) 270 N/A

QAM-256 Digital Cable 38.8 6

QAM-64 Digital Cable 26.9 6

8VSB Digital Over-the-Air 19.8 6

Encoding-vs-Quality Tradeoff

1,485 Mbps

IN

HD-SDI

Uncompressed

OUT

Compressed

MPEG-2 Chip

w/ variable output bitrate

40:1 compression

40:1

compression 36 Mbps (1080i quality)

80:1 compression

80:1

or

18 Mbps (720p quality)

compression

185:1 compression

185:1

or

8 Mbps (480i quality)

compression


74 Digital Tech Tips

PID Information

PID Information

PID: : Packet Identifier

• Usedinprogramheadertoidentifydifferentprogramsinastream

• ThereareseparatePIDsforAudiostreaminfoandVideostreaminfo

• PIDsdoNOTaffectthechannelnumberdisplayedonscreen

• PIDshavenorelationtowhatRFchanneltheprogrammingison

• ProgramsfromdifferentsourcescanhaveSAMEPIDs

• EX:twodifferentprogramscomingfromsatellite

• Ifbothprogramsaremultiplexed,themultiplexertypicallychangesone

setofPIDssotheyarenotthesame

• ThischangewillNOTimpactanythingthecustomersees

• TwoprogramsondifferentQAMstreamscanhavesamePIDswithno

impact

PSIP Information

PSIP Information

PSIP:

: Program and System Information Protocol

AllowsusertosetVirtualChannelNumbersforeachprogram

• PSIPtablescancontainWHOLEnumbersupto4digits(2–9999),likeCATV

channels

• PSIPtablescanbeformattedwithMajor/Minorchannelnumberslike

Terrestrialchannels(7-1,7-2,etc.)

7-2, etc.)

• PSIPtablesareINDEPENDENTofphysicalRFchannelthecontentison.

• PSIPtablescanbemodifiedinsomeDigitalEquipment

• DQMx

• MUX-2D-QAM

• PSIPtablescanbecreatedinsomeDigitalEquipment

• HDE-2H/2S-QAM

AV-10E-QAM

• HDE-CSV-QAM

SD4E-ASI

• MUX-12A-IP

HDE-2H-QAM

• SDE-6S-ASI

• HDE-8C-QAM


Digital Signal Analysis

75

Digital signals such as QPSK & QAM use many different factors to

determine the quality and performance of the signal. The following

section will describe some of the most common factors used in

digital signal analysis.

QAM Signal to Noise Ratio vs. BER

The theoretical bit-error rate of the QAM signal as a function of the

SNR is provided for reference.

To obtain an estimated BER of the QAM signal, one can use the

following diagram to get theoretical values for BER. In the case

that the QAM 64 mode SNR is >32, it indicates 10 -12 BER. It

should be noted that changing the S/N value by as little as 1 dB

alters approximately one decade. The diagram below depicts the

theoretical BER vs. SNR.


76 Digital Signal Analysis

QAM Signal to Noise Ratio

The following table depicts the theoretical maximum values for

various orders of QAM:

Order of QAM SNR max

4 46.0 dB

16 46.0 dB

32 43.0 dB

64 46.0 dB

128 43.0 dB

256 46.0 dB

QAM MER — Modulation Error Ratio

The modulation error is a calculated quantity indicating the mean

or the maximum deviation of the I/Q values from ideal signal states

and thus provides a measure of signal quality.

The following diagram shows the vectors used for calculating the

modulation error:


77

The modulation error is specified as rms and as peak value. To

calculate the modulation error, all decisions fields are investigated

on after the other:

To obtain peak modulation error, the maximum magnitude of

the difference vector (error vector) formed by the vector of the

ideal and the actual signal status is determined for each decision

field. From the maximum value of these results, the peak MER

(modulation error ratio) is calculated using the following formula:

To obtain the rms modulation error, the squares of the magnitude

of all differential vectors formed by the ideal-status and actualstatus

vectors are added up, and the number of symbols is counted.

Then the rms modulation error is calculated as follows:

The peak and rms modulation error can also be specified on a

logarithmic scale. Conversion is done using the following formula:


78 Digital Signal Analysis

For quantized I/Q values, the peak value is output in discrete form

only since no averaging is performed in the calculation. The rms

modulation error can be calculated within the limit values specified

in the following table. The limit values are obtained for quantized

I/Q values:

Order MER RMS MER PK MER PK MER dB

of QAM min min min max

4 0.5 % 1.563 % 98.44 % 46 dB

16 0.5 % 1.398 % 43.32 % 46 dB

32 0.7 % 1.976 % 29.33 % 43 dB

64 0.5 % 1.364 % 20.46 % 46 dB

128 0.7 % 1.952 % 13.66 % 43 dB

256 0.5 % 1.356 % 9.471 % 46 dB

The term “Modulation Error Ratio” and the prescribed method of

calculation were declared an international standard by the DVB

Measurement Group.


79

What is a QAM Signal

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) uses many different

phases known as states: 16, 32, 64, and 256. Each state is defined

by a specific amplitude and phase. This means the generation

and detection of symbols is more complex than a simple phase or

amplitude device. Each time the number of states per symbol is

increased the total data and bandwidth increases. The modulation

schemes shown occupy the same bandwidth (after filtering), but

have varying efficiencies (in theory at least).

QAM — Constellation Diagrams

Constellation diagrams are used to graphically represent the

quality and distortion of a digital signal. In practice, there is

always a combination of modulation errors that may be difficult

to separate and identify, as such, it is recommended to evaluate

the measured constellation diagrams using mathematical and

statistically methods. The following section will provide application

and interpretation information of constellation diagrams of digital

modulated signals.


80 Digital Signal Analysis

The constellation diagram examples shown are based on 64

QAM modulation and use the following basic settings: maximum

possible DVB data transmission rate of 6.92 Msps or 41.73 Mbit/s

(64 QAM); Cosine roll-off filtering with roll-off factor r = 0.15 and

PRBS (pseudo random binary sequence) data stream, no coding.

Constellation Diagram for an Ideal 64 QAM Signal

Amplitude Imbalance describes the different gains of the I and

Q components of a signal. In a constellation diagram, amplitude

imbalance shows by one signal component being expanded and

the other one being compressed. This is due to the fact that the

receiver AGC makes a constant average signal level.

Phase Error is the difference between the phase angles of the I and

Q components referred to 90°. A phase error is caused by an error

of the phase shifter of the I/Q modulator. The I and Q components

are in this case not orthogonal to each other after demodulation.


81

Interferers are understood to be sinusoidal spurious signals

occurring in the transmission frequency range and superimposed

on the QAM signal at some point in the transmission path. After

demodulation, the interferer is contained in the baseband form of

low-frequency sinusoidal spurious signals. The frequency of these

signals corresponds to the difference between the frequency of

the original sinusoidal interference and the carrier frequency in

the RF band.

In the constellation diagram, an interferer shows in the form of a

rotating pointer superimposed on each signal status. The example

applies the condition that there is no other error present at the

same time, The constellation diagram shows the path of the

pointer as a circle around each ideal signal status.

Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with

Interferer (C/I = 25.0 dB)


82 Digital Signal Analysis

Carrier suppression or leakage is a special type of interference

in which it’s frequency equals the carrier frequency in the RF

channel. Carrier leakage can be superimposed on the QAM signal

in the I/Q modulator. In the constellation diagram, carrier leakage

shows up as a shifting of the signal states corresponding to the

DC components of the I and Q components.

Additive Gaussian noise can disturb the digitally modulated signal

during analog transmission, for instance in the analog channel.

Additive superimposed noise normally has a constant power

density and a Gaussian amplitude distribution throughout the

bandwidth of a channel. If no other error is present at the same

time, the points representing the ideal signal status are expanded

to form circular “clouds”.

Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with

Additive Noise (SNR = 30.0 dB)

(Note: This diagram may also be obtained for other types of interference so

that a distinction from noise-produced patterns cannot be made)


83

Phase Jitter or phase noise in the QAM signal is caused by

transponders in the transmission path or by the I/Q modulator.

It may be produced in carrier recovery, a possibility that is to be

excluded here. In contrast to the phase error described above,

phase jitter is a statistical quantity that affects the I and Q path

equally. In the constellation diagram, phase jitter shows up by the

signal states being shifted about their coordinate origin.

Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with

Phase Jitter (PJRMS = 1.73°)

Source: Rohde & Schwarz — EFA QAM Analyzer documentation


84 CATV QAM Channel Center Frequency

EIA

CH.

MHz

Center

Frequency

2 57

3 63

4 69

5 79

6 85

95 93

96 99

97 105

98 111

99 117

14 123

15 129

16 135

17 141

18 147

19 153

20 159

21 165

22 171

7 177

8 183

9 189

10 195

11 201

12 207

13 213

23 219

24 225

25 231

26 237

27 243

28 249

29 255

30 261

31 267

32 273

33 279

34 285

35 291

36 297

37 303

38 309

39 315

40 321

41 327

Bandwith

(MHz)

54 60

60 66

66 72

76 82

82 88

90 96

96 102

102 108

108 114

114 120

120 126

126 132

132 138

138 144

144 150

150 156

156 162

162 168

168 174

174 180

180 186

186 192

192 198

198 204

204 210

210 216

216 222

222 228

228 234

234 240

240 246

246 252

252 258

258 264

264 270

270 276

276 282

282 288

288 294

294 300

300 306

306 312

312 318

318 324

324 330

EIA

CH.

MHz

Center

Frequency

42 333

43 339

44 345

45 351

46 357

47 363

48 369

49 375

50 381

51 387

52 393

53 399

54 405

55 411

56 417

57 423

58 429

59 435

60 441

61 447

62 453

63 459

64 465

65 471

66 477

67 483

68 489

69 495

70 501

71 507

72 513

73 519

74 525

75 531

76 537

77 543

78 549

79 555

80 561

81 567

82 573

83 579

84 585

85 591

86 597

Bandwith

(MHz)

330 336

336 342

342 348

348 354

354 360

360 366

366 372

372 378

378 384

384 390

390 396

396 402

402 408

408 414

414 420

420 426

426 432

432 438

438 444

444 450

450 456

456 462

462 468

468 474

474 480

480 486

486 492

492 498

498 504

504 510

510 516

516 522

522 528

528 534

534 540

540 546

546 552

552 558

558 564

564 570

570 576

576 582

582 588

588 594

594 600


85

EIA

CH.

MHz

Center

Frequency

87 603

88 609

89 615

90 621

91 627

92 633

93 639

94 645

100 651

101 657

102 663

103 669

104 675

105 681

106 687

107 693

108 699

109 705

110 711

111 717

112 723

113 729

114 735

115 741

116 747

117 753

118 759

119 765

120 771

121 777

122 783

123 789

124 795

125 801

126 807

127 813

128 819

129 825

130 831

131 837

132 843

133 849

134 855

135 861

136 867

Bandwith

(MHz)

600 606

606 612

612 618

618 624

624 630

630 636

636 642

642 648

648 654

654 660

660 666

666 672

672 678

678 684

684 690

690 696

696 702

702 708

708 714

714 720

720 726

726 732

732 738

738 744

744 750

750 756

756 762

762 768

768 774

774 780

780 786

786 792

792 798

798 804

804 810

810 816

816 822

822 828

828 834

834 840

840 846

846 852

852 858

858 864

864 870

EIA

CH.

MHz

Center

Frequency

137 873

138 879

139 885

140 891

141 897

142 903

143 909

144 915

145 921

146 927

147 933

148 939

149 945

150 951

151 957

152 963

153 969

154 975

155 981

156 987

157 993

158 999

Bandwith

(MHz)

870 876

876 882

882 888

888 894

894 900

900 906

906 912

912 918

918 924

924 930

930 936

936 942

942 948

948 954

954 960

960 966

966 972

972 978

978 984

984 990

990 996

996 1002


86 North America Digital Broadcast Channel Frequency

Broadcast

Channel

Center

Freq

(MHz)

BW (MHz)

Broadcast

Channel

Center

Freq

(MHz)

BW (MHz)

2 57 54 - 60

19 503 500 - 506

3 63 60 - 66

20 509 506 - 512

4 69 66 - 72

21 515 512 - 518

5 79 76 - 82

22 521 518 - 524

6 85 82 - 88

23 527 524 - 530

7 177 174 - 180

24 533 530 - 536

8 183 180 - 186

25 539 536 - 542

9 189 186 - 192

26 545 542 - 548

10 195 192 - 198

27 551 548 - 554

11 201 198 - 204

28 557 554 - 560

12 207 204 - 210

29 563 560 - 566

13 213 210 - 216

30 569 566 - 572

14 473 470 - 476

31 575 572 - 578

15 479 476 - 482

32 581 578 - 584

16 485 482 - 488

33 587 584 - 590

17 491 488 - 494

34 593 590 - 596

18 497 494 - 500

35 599 596 - 602


87

4

ANALOG REFERENCE

Analog Cable (RF)......................................... 88

Analog Over-the-Air...................................... 88

Analog Content Types.................................... 89

Analog Closed Captioning............................. 91

North America CATV Frequency Chart........... 92

US Frequency Spectrum................................ 97

North America Off-Air Frequency Chart......... 99

FM Broadcast Channel Frequency................ 101


88 Analog Cable (RF)

ransmission Standards

1

3

2

4

1.25 MHz 3.58 0.92 0.25

6 MHz

Type:

Name:

Bandwidth:

Capacity:

1 Video Carrier

2 Color Carrier

3 Sound Carrier

4 Video Content

Analog Over-the

NTSC (National Telev

6MHz

1 program

Same as A

2

3

Type: Analog Cable (Black & White since 1941; Color since 1953)

Name: NTSC (National Television System Committee)

Bandwidth: 6MHz

Capacity: 1 program

1 Video Carrier

2 Color Carrier

3 Sound Carrier

4 Video Content

0.92 0.25

Analog Over-the-Air

1

Type: Digital Cable (since 1990) 3 Type:

Name: QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) Name:

Bandwidth: 6MHz

2 Bandwidth:

Capacity: Variable – depends of modulation scheme Capacity:

QAM 64 modulation = 26.9 Mbps

1 Video Carrier

QAM 256 modulation = 38.8 Mbps

2 Color Carrier

4

3 Sound Carrier

4 Video Content

1.25 MHz 3.58 0.92 0.25

6 MHz

Analog Over-the

NTSC (National Telev

6MHz

1 program

Same as A

2

3

Type: Analog Over-the-Air

1.800.523.6049 Name: www.blondertongue.com NTSC (National Television System Committee) Slide # 12

Bandwidth: 6MHz

Capacity: 1 program

8 0.92 0.25

z

1 Video Carrier

2 Color Carrier

3 Sound Carrier

4 Video Content

Same as Analog Cable


Analog Content Types

89

Component video Video is an analog video-only

signal that is transmitted as three

separate signals. Component-video cables do not carry audio and are often paired with

audio cables. Component video is capable of carrying signals such as 480i, 720p, and

1080i and most high-definition TVs support the use of component video up to their

native resolution. The three most commonly used component types are:

YP b P r

YP bP r is the converted version of RGB which is split into three

components: Y carries luma (brightness) and sync information; Pb

carries the difference between blue and luma; and Pr carries the

difference between red and luma. The primary advantages of YPbPr

over RGB and S-video is that it is able to transfer non-interlaced video

and, and at the same time, provide high resolution video such as 1080i

or better.

RGB

RGB (Red, Green, Blue) uses no compression and contains redundant data

since most programs typically contain the same black & white image,

therefore, it requires large bandwidth to carry the signal. It’s becoming

obsolete as home theaters move toward HDMI and computers toward DVI

interfaces.

S-Video

S-Video (Separated Video) is an extension of the analog Composite

standard. Compared to the two standards above, it provides the poorest

quality of image. It’s rarely used for today’s applications because it cannot

be used for high definition standards unless its standard is changed to

accommodate for signal modulation of the carrier frequency.


90 Analog Content Types

Composite Video is an analog video-only signal which is a composite of

three source signals called Y, U, and V. Y represents the brightness of the picture

and includes synchronizing pulses, so that by itself it could be displayed as a

monochrome picture. U and V represent hue and saturation and carry the color

information

For residential For residential and and commercial commercial applications, applications, the composite the

composite video signal video is typically signal connected is typically using connected an RCA jack,

using normally an RCA yellow, jack, which normally is often accompanied yellow, which with red isand

often white accompanied for right and left with audio red channels. and white for right

and left audio channels.


Analog Closed Captioning

91

Closed captioning rules and regulations are found in FCC 47 C.F.R. § 79.1

(part 79). Closed captioning information is embedded in the program/

signal and is decoded and displayed by the television. For all types of NTSC

programming, captions are "encoded" into Line 21 of the vertical blanking

interval. Line 21 closed captioning has two styles: 1. Scrolling (or Roll-up),

and 2. Block (or Pop-on). It allows for up to four caption services per

program and provides the limited range of white characters with-in a boxed

black background.

The Line 21 data stream can consist of data from several data channels

multiplexed together. Field 1 has four data channels: two Captions (CC1,

CC2) and two Text (T1, T2). Field 2 has five additional data channels:

two Captions (CC3, CC4), two Text (T3, T4), and Extended Data Services

(XDS). XDS data structure is defined in CEA–608. As CC1 and CC2 share

bandwidth, if there is a lot of data in CC1, there will be little room for

CC2 data. Similarly CC3 and CC4 share the second field of line 21. The

FCC recommends bilingual programming should have the second caption

language in CC3.


92

North America CATV Frequency Chart

EIA Standard Incremental Harmonic

CH. CH. Video Audio Video Audio Video Audio

T7 none 7.0000 11.5000 NA NA NA NA

T8 none 13.0000 17.5000 NA NA NA NA

T9 none 19.0000 23.5000 NA NA NA NA

T10 none 25.0000 29.5000 NA NA NA NA

T11 none 31.0000 35.5000 NA NA NA NA

T12 none 37.0000 41.5000 NA NA NA NA

T13 none 43.0000 47.5000 NA NA NA NA

T14 none 49.0000 53.5000 NA NA NA NA

2 02 55.2500 59.7500 55 2625 59.7625 54.0027 58.5027

3 03 61.2500 65.7500 61.2625 65.7625 60.0030 64.5030

4 04 67.2500 71.7500 67.2625 71.7625 66.0033 70.5030

A8 01 NA N A 73.2625 77.7625 72.0036 76.5036

5 05 77.2500 81.7500 79.2625 83.7625 78.0039 82.5039

6 06 83.2500 87.7500 85.2625 89.7625 84.0042 88.5042

A5 95 91.2500 95.7500 91.2625 95.7625 90.0045 94.5045

A4 96 97.2500 101.7500 97.2625 101.7625 96.0048 100.5048

A3 97 103.2500 107.7500 103.2625 107.7625 102.0051 106.5051

A2 98* 109.2750 113.7750 109.2750 113.7750 Cannot lock to comb

A1 99* 115.2750 119.7750 115.2750 119.7750 ref: refer to FCC regs

A 14* 121.2625 125.7625 121.2625 125.7625 120.0060 124.5060

B 15* 127.2625 131.7625 127.2625 131.7625 126.0063 130.5063

C 16* 133.2625 137.7625 133.2625 137.7625 132.0066 136.5066

D 17 139.2500 143.7500 139.2625 143.7625 138.0069 142.5069

E 18 145.2500 149.7500 145.2625 149.7625 144.0072 148.5072

F 19 151.2500 155.7500 151.2625 155.7625 150.0075 154.5075

G 20 157.2500 161.7500 157.2625 161.7625 156.0078 160.5078

H 21 163.2500 167.7500 163.2625 167.7625 162.0081 166.5081

I 22 169.2500 173.7500 169.2625 173.7625 168.0084 172.5084

7 07 175.2500 179.7500 175.2625 179.7625 174.0087 178.5087

8 08 181.2500 185.7500 181.2625 185.7625 180.0090 184.5090

9 09 187.2500 191.7500 187.2625 191.7625 186.0093 190.5093

10 10 193.2500 197.7500 193.2625 197.7625 192.0096 196.5096

11 11 199.2500 203.7500 199.2625 203.7625 198.0099 202.5099

12 12 205.2500 209.7500 205.2625 209.762 204.0102 208.5102

13 13 211.2500 215.7500 211.2625 215.7625 210.0105 214.5105

J 23 217.2500 221.7500 217.2625 221.7625 216.0108 220.5108

K 24* 223.2500 227.7500 223.2625 227.7625 222.0111 226.5111

L 25* 229.2625 233.7625 229.2625 233.7625 228.0114 232.5114

* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz


93

EIA Standard Incremental Harmonic

CH. CH. Video Audio Video Audio Video Audio

M 26* 235.2625 239.7625 235.2625 239.7625 234.0117 238.5117

N 27* 241.2625 245.7625 241.2625 245.7625 240.0120 244.5120

O 28* 247.2625 251.7625 247.2625 251.7625 246.0123 250.5123

P 29* 253.2625 257.7625 253.2625 257.7625 252.0126 256.5126

Q 30* 259.2625 263.7625 259.2625 263.7625 258.0129 262.5129

R 31* 265.2625 269.7625 265.2625 269.7625 264.0132 268.5132

S 32* 271.2625 275.7625 271.2625 275.7625 270.0135 274.5135

T 33* 277.2625 281.7625 277.2625 281.7625 276.0138 280.5138

U 34* 283.2625 287.7625 283.2625 287.7625 282.0141 286.5141

V 35* 289.2625 293.7625 289.2625 293.7625 288.0144 292.5144

W 36* 295.2625 299.7625 295.2625 299.7625 294.0147 298.5147

AA 37* 301.2625 305.7625 301.2625 305.7625 300.0150 304.5150

BB 38* 307.2625 311.7625 307.2625 311.7625 306.0153 310.5153

CC 39* 313.2625 317.7625 313.2625 317.7625 312.0156 316.5156

DD 40* 319.2625 323.7625 319.2625 323.7625 318.0159 322.5159

EE 41* 325.2625 329.7625 325.2625 329.7625 324.0162 328.5162

FF 42* 331.2750 335.7750 331.2750 335.7750 330.0165 334.5165

GG 43* 337.2625 341.7625 337.2625 341.7625 336.0168 340.5168

HH 44* 343.2625 347.7625 343.2625 347.7625 342.0168 346.5168

II 45* 349.2625 353.7625 349.2625 353.7625 348.0168 352.5168

JJ 46* 355.2625 359.7625 355.2625 359.7625 354.0168 358.5168

KK 47* 361.2625 365.7625 361.2625 365.7625 360.0168 364.5168

LL 48* 367.2625 371.7625 367.2625 371.7625 366.0168 370.5168

MM 49* 373.2625 377.7625 373.2625 377.7625 372.0168 376.5168

NN 50* 379.2625 383.7625 379.2625 383.7625 378.0168 382.5168

00 51* 385.2625 389.7625 385.2625 389.7625 384.0168 388.5168

PP 52* 391.2625 395.7625 391.2625 395.7625 390.0168 394.5168

QQ 53* 397.2625 401.7625 397.2625 401.7625 396.0168 400.5168

RR 54 403.2500 407.7500 403.2625 407.7625 402.0201 406.5201

SS 55 409.2500 413.7500 409.2625 413.7625 408.0204 412.5204

TT 56 415.2500 419.7500 415.2625 419.7625 414.0207 418.5207

UU 57 421.2500 425.7500 421.2625 425.7625 420.0210 424.5210

VV 58 427.2500 431.7500 427.2625 431.7625 426.0213 430.5213

WW 59 433.2500 437.7500 433.2625 437.7625 432.0216 436.5216

XX 60 439.2500 443.7500 439.2625 443.7625 438.0219 442.5219

YY 61 445.2500 449.7500 445.2625 449.7625 444.0222 448.5222

ZZ 62 451.2500 455.7500 451.2625 455.7625 450.0225 454.5225

AAA 63 457.2500 461.7500 457.2625 461.7625 456.0228 460.5228

* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz


94 North America CATV Frequency Chart

4

EIA Standard Incremental Harmonic

CH. CH. Video Audio Video Audio Video Audio

BBB 64 463.2500 467.7500 463.2625 467.7625 462.0231 466.5231

CCC 65 469.2500 473.7500 469.2625 473.7625 468.0234 472.5234

DDD 66 475.2500 479.7500 475.2625 479.7625 474.0237 478.5237

EEE 67 481.2500 485.7500 481.2625 485.7625 480.0240 484.5240

FFF 68 487.2500 491.7500 487.2625 491.7625 486.0243 490.5243

GGG 69 493.2500 497.7500 493.2625 497.7625 492.0246 496.5246

HHH 70 499.2500 503.7500 499.2625 503.7625 498.0249 502.5249

III 71 505.2500 509.7500 505.2625 509.7625 504.0252 508.5252

JJJ 72 511.2500 515.7500 511.2625 515.7625 510.0255 514.5255

KKK 73 517.2500 521.7500 517.2625 521.7625 516.0258 520.5258

LLL 74 523.2500 527.7500 523.2625 527.7625 522.0261 526.5261

MMM 75 529.2500 533.7500 529.2625 533.7625 528.0264 532.5264

NNN 76 535.2500 539.7500 535.2625 539.7625 534.0267 538.5267

000 77 541.2500 545.7500 541.2625 545.7625 540.0270 544.527C

PPP 78 547.2500 551.7500 547.2625 551.7625 546.0273 550.5273

- 79 553.2500 557.7500 553.2625 557.7625 552.0276 556.5276

- 80 559.2500 563.7500 559.2625 563.7625 558.0279 562.5279

- 81 565.2500 569.7500 565.2625 569.7625 564.0282 568.5282

- 82 571.2500 575.7500 571.2625 575.7625 570.0285 574.5285

- 83 577.2500 581.7500 577.2625 581.7625 576.0288 580.5288

- 84 583.2500 587.7500 583.2625 587.7625 582.0291 586.5291

- 85 589.2500 593.7500 589.2625 593.7625 588.0294 592.5294

- 86 595.2500 599.7500 595.2625 599.7625 594.0297 598.5297

- 87 601.2500 605.7500 601.2625 605.7625 600.0300 604.5300

- 88 607.2500 611.7500 607.2625 611.7625 606.0303 610.5303

- 89 613.2500 617.7500 613.2625 617.7625 612.0306 616.5306

- 90 619.2500 623.7500 619.2625 623.7625 618.0309 622.5309

- 91 625.2500 629.7500 625.2625 629.7625 624.0312 628.5312

- 92 631.2500 635.7500 631.2625 635.7625 630.0315 634.5315

- 93 637.2500 641.7500 637.2625 641.7625 636.0318 640.5318

- 94 643.2500 647.7500 643.2625 647.7625 642.0321 646.5321

- 100 649.2500 653.7500 649.2625 653.7625 648.0324 652.5324

- 101 655.2500 659.7500 655.2625 659.7625 654.0327 658.5327

- 102 661.2500 665.7500 661.2625 665.7625 660.0330 664.5330

- 103 667.2500 671.7500 667.2625 671.7625 666.0333 670.5333

- 104 673.2500 677.7500 673.2625 677.7625 672.0336 676.5336

- 105 679.2500 683.7500 679.2625 683.7625 678.0339 682.5339

- 106 685.2500 689.7500 685.2625 689.7625 684.0342 688.5342

* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz


4

95

EIA Standard Incremental Harmonic

CH. CH. Video Audio Video Audio Video Audio

- 107 691.2500 695.7500 691.2625 695.7625 690.0345 694.5345

- 108 697.2500 701.7500 697.2625 701.7625 696.0348 700.5348

- 109 703.2500 707.7500 703.2625 707.7625 702.0351 706.5351

- 110 709.2500 713.7500 709.2625 713.7625 708.0354 712.5354

- 111 715.2500 719.7500 715.2625 719.7625 714.0357 718.5357

- 112 721.2500 725.7500 721.2625 725.7625 720.0360 724.5360

- 113 727.2500 731.7500 727.2625 731.7625 726.0363 730.5363

- 114 733.2500 737.7500 733.2625 737.7625 732.0366 736.5366

- 115 739.2500 743.7500 739.2625 743.7625 738.0369 742.5369

- 116 745.2500 749.7500 745.2625 749.7625 744.0372 748.5372

- 117 751.2500 755.7500 751.2625 755.7625 750.0375 754.5375

- 118 757.2500 761.7500 757.2625 761.7625 756.0378 760.5378

- 119 763.2500 767.7500 763.2625 767.7625 762.0381 766.5381

- 120 769.2500 773.7500 769.2625 773.7625 768.0384 772.5384

- 121 775.2500 779.7500 775.2625 779.7625 774.0387 778.5387

- 122 781.2500 785.7500 781.2625 785.7625 780.0390 784.5390

- 123 787.2500 791.7500 787.2625 791.7625 786.0393 790.5393

- 124 793.2500 797.7500 793.2625 797.7625 792.0396 796.5396

- 125 799.2500 803.7500 799.2625 803.7625 798.0399 802.5399

- 126 805.2500 809.7500 805.2625 809.7625 804.0402 808.5402

- 127 811.2500 815.7500 811.2625 815.7625 810.0405 814.5405

- 128 817.2500 821.7500 817.2625 821.7625 816.0408 820.5408

- 129 823.2500 827.7500 823.2625 827.7625 822.0411 826.5411

- 130 829.2500 833.7500 829.2625 833.7625 828.0414 832.5414

- 131 835.2500 839.7500 835.2625 839.7625 834.0417 838.5417

- 132 841.2500 845.7500 841.2625 845.7625 840.0420 844.5420

- 133 847.2500 851.7500 847.2625 851.7625 846.0423 850.5423

- 134 853.2500 857.7500 853.2625 857.7625 852.0426 856.5426

- 135 859.2500 863.7500 859.2625 863.7625 858.0429 862.5429

- 136 865.2500 869.7500 865.2625 869.7625 864.0432 868.5432

- 137 871.2500 875.7500 871.2625 875.7625 870.0435 874.5435

- 138 877.2500 881.7500 877.2625 881.7625 876.0438 880.5438

- 139 883.2500 887.7500 883.2625 887.7625 882.0441 886.5441

- 140 889.2500 893.7500 889.2625 893.7625 888.0444 892.5444

- 141 895.2500 899.7500 895.2625 899.7625 894.0447 898.5447

- 142 901.2500 905.7500 901.2625 905.7625 900.0450 904.5450

- 143 907.2500 911.7500 907.2625 911.7625 906.0453 910.5453


96 North America CATV Frequency Chart

4

EIA Standard Incremental Harmonic

CH. CH. Video Audio Video Audio Video Audio

- 144 913.2500 917.7500 913.2625 917.7625 912.0456 916.5456

- 145 919.2500 923.7500 919.2625 923.7625 918.0459 922.5459

- 146 925.2500 929.7500 925.2625 929.7625 924.0462 928.5462

- 147 931.2500 935.7500 931.2625 935.7625 930.0465 934.5465

- 148 937.2500 941.7500 937.2625 941.7625 936.0468 940.5468

- 149 943.2500 947.7500 943.2625 947.7625 942.0471 946.5470

- 150 949.2500 953.7500 949.2625 953.7625 948.0474 952.5474

- 151 955.2500 959.7500 955.2625 959.7625 954.0477 958.5477

- 152 961.2500 965.7500 961.2625 965.7625 960.0480 964.5480

- 153 967.2500 971.7500 967.2625 971.7625 966.0483 970.5483

- 154 973.2500 977.7500 973.2625 977.7625 972.0486 976.5486

- 155 979.2500 983.7500 979.2625 983.7625 978.0489 982.5489

- 156 985.2500 989.7500 985.2625 989.7625 984.0492 988.5492

- 157 991.2500 995.7500 991.2625 995.7625 990.0495 994.5495

- 158 997.2500 1001.7500 997.2625 1001.7625 996.0498 1000.5498

96


4

US Frequency Spectrum

97


98

FCC Aeronautical Band Frequencies

Used for Communication and Navigation

4

NOTE: The FCC mandated that- All full power TV stations in the

US cease analog broadcasts by June 12 2009. Currently only low

power and TV Translators are authorized for Analog Broadcasts.


4

North America Off-Air Frequency Chart

CH. BW (MHz) VIDEO CHROMA AUDIO

Lo VHF

2 54-60 55.25 58.83 59.75

3 60-66 61.25 64.83 65.75

4 66-72 67.25 70.83 71.75

5 76-82 77.25 80.83 81.75

6 82-88 83.25 86.83 87.75

Hi VHF

7 174-180 175.25 178.83 179.75

8 180-186 181.25 184.83 185.75

9 186-192 187.25 190.83 191.75

10 192-198 193.25 196.83 197.75

11 198-204 199.25 202.83 203.75

12 204-210 205.25 208.83 209.75

13 210-216 211.25 214.83 215.75

UHF

14 470-476 471.25 474.83 475.75

15 476-482 477.25 480.83 481.75

16 482-488 483.25 486.83 487.75

17 488-494 489.25 492.83 493.75

18 494-500 495.25 498.83 499.75

19 500-506 501.25 504.83 505.75

20 506-512 507.25 510.83 511.75

21 512-518 513.25 516.83 517.75

22 518-524 519.25 522.83 523.75

23 524-530 525.25 528.83 529.75

24 530-536 531.25 534.83 535.75

25 536-542 537.25 540.83 541.75

26 542-548 543.25 546.83 547.75

27 548-554 549.25 552.83 553.75

28 554-560 555.25 558.83 559.75

29 560-566 561.25 564.83 565.75

30 566-572 567.25 570.83 571.75

31 572-578 573.25 576.83 577.75

32 578-584 579.25 582.83 583.75

33 584-590 585.25 588.83 589.75

34 590-596 591.25 594.83 595.75

35 596-602 597.25 600.83 601.75

36 602-608 603.25 606.83 607.75

37 608-614 609.25 612.83 613 75

38 614-620 615.25 618.83 619.75

99


100 North America Off-Air Frequency Chart

CH. BW (MHz) VIDEO CHROMA AUDIO

UHF

39 620-626 621.25 624.83 625.75

40 626-632 627.25 630.83 631.75

41 632-638 633.25 636.83 637.75

42 638-644 639.25 642.83 643.75

43 644-650 645.25 648.83 649.75

44 650-656 651.25 654.83 655.75

45 656-662 657.25 660.83 661.75

46 662-668 663.25 666.83 667.75

47 668-674 669.25 672.83 673.75

48 674-680 675.25 678.83 679.75

49 680-686 681.25 684.83 685.75

50 686-692 687.25 690.83 691.75

51 692-698 693.25 696.83 697.75

52 698-704 699.25 702.83 703.75

53 704-710 705.25 708.83 709.75

54 710-716 711.25 714.83 715.75

55 716-722 717.25 720.83 721.75

56 722-728 723.25 726.83 727.75

57 728-734 729.25 732.83 733.75

58 734-740 735.25 738.83 739.75

59 740-746 741.25 744.83 745.75

60 746-752 747.25 750.83 751.75

61 752-758 753.25 756.83 757.75

62 758-764 759.25 762.83 763.75

63 764-770 765.25 768.83 769.75

64 770-776 771.25 774.83 775.75

65 776-782 777.25 780.83 781.75

66 782-788 783.25 786.83 787.75

67 788-794 789.25 792.83 793.75

68 794-800 795.25 798.83 799.75

69 800-806 801.25 804.83 805.75

NOTE: Channels 52-69 are no longer licensed for broadcast

(full power stations) after the digital transition date.


FM Broadcast Channel Frequency (MHz)

101

Channel Frequency Channel Frequency Channel Frequency

1 88.1 35 94.9 69 101.7

2 88.3 36 95.1 70 101.9

3 88.5 37 95.3 71 102.1

4 88.7 38 95.5 72 102.3

5 88.9 39 95.7 73 102.5

6 89.1 40 95.9 74 102.7

7 89.3 41 96.1 75 102.9

8 89.5 42 96.3 76 103.1

9 89.7 43 96.5 77 103.3

10 89.9 44 96.7 78 103.5

11 90.1 45 96.9 79 103.7

12 90.3 46 97.1 80 1039

13 90.5 47 97.3 81 104.1

14 90.7 48 97.5 82 104.3

15 90.9 49 97.7 83 104.5

16 91.1 50 97.9 84 104.7

17 91.3 51 98.1 85 104.9

18 91.5 52 98.3 86 105.1

19 91.7 53 98.5 87 105.3

20 91.9 54 98.7 88 105.5

21 92.1 55 98.9 89 105.7

22 92.3 56 99.1 90 105.9

23 92.5 57 99.3 91 106 1

24 92.7 58 99.5 92 1063

25 92.9 59 99.7 93 106.5

26 93.1 60 99.9 94 106.7

27 93.3 61 100.1 95 106.9

28 93.5 62 100.3 96 107.1

29 93.7 63 100.5 97 107.3

30 93.9 64 100.7 98 107.5

31 94.1 65 100.9 99 107.7

32 94.3 66 101.1 100 107.9

33 94.5 67 101.3

34 94.7 68 101.5


103

5 CONTENT TYPES & INTERFACES

Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference....... 104

Optical Connectors................................112


104 Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference

DB25 Male and Female

RS232 on DB25 (RS-232C)

Note: This is NOT the same as the DB25 Parallel port on a PC.

Pin Name Dir Notes/Description

No.

1 - - Protective/shielded ground

2 TD OUT Transmit Data (a.k.a. TxD, Tx) (ASYNC)

3 RD IN Receive Data (a.k.a. RxD, Rx) (ASYNC)

4 RTS OUT Request To Send (ASYNC)

5 CTS IN Clear To Send (ASYNC)

6 DSR IN Data Set Ready (ASYNC)

7 SGND - Signal Ground

8 CD IN Carrier Detect (a.k.a. DCD)

9 - - Reserved for data set testing

10 - - Reserved for data set testing

11 - - Unassigned

12 SDCD IN Secondary Carrier Detect. Only needed if second channel being used.

13 SCTS IN Secondary Clear To Send. Only needed if second channel being used.

14 STD OUT Secondary Transmit Data. Only needed if second channel being used.

15 DB OUT Transmit Clock (a.k.a. TCLK, TxCLK). Synchronous use only.

16 SRD IN Secondary Receive Data. Only needed if second channel being used.

17 DD IN Receive Clock (a.k.a. RCLK). Synchronous use only.

18 LL - Loop Loopback

19 SRTS OUT Secondary Request to Send. Only needed if second channel being used.

20 DTR OUT Data Terminal Ready. (ASYNC)

21 RL/SQ - Signal Quality Detector/Remote loopback

22 RI IN Ring Indicator. DCE (Modem) raises when incoming call detected used for auto answer applications.

23 CH/CI OUT Signal Rate selector.

24 DA - Auxiliary Clock (a.k.a. ACLK). Secondary Channel only.

25 - - Unassigned

Note: Leave all pins not specified above unconnected.


105

RS232 DB25 NULL Modem Pinout

DB9 Male and Female


106 Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference

RS232 on DB9 (EIA/TIA 574)

The column marked Dir shows signal direction with respect to the DTE.

Pin

No.

Name Dir Notes/Description

1 DCD IN Data Carrier Detect. Raised by DCE when modem synchronized.

2 RD IN Receive Data (a.k.a. RxD, Rx). Arriving data from DCE.

3 TD OUT Transmit Data (a.k.a. TxD, Tx). Sending data from DTE.

4 DTR OUT Data Terminal Ready. Raised by DTE when powered on. In auto-answer mode raised only when RI arrives

from DCE.

5 SGND - Ground

6 DSR IN Data Set Ready. Raised by DCE to indicate ready.

7 RTS OUT Request To Send. Raised by DTE when it wishes to send. Expects CTS from DCE.

8 CTS IN Clear To Send. Raised by DCE in response to RTS from DTE.

9 RI IN Ring Indicator. Set when incoming ring detected - used for auto-answer application. DTE raised DTR

to answer.

RS232 DB9 NULL Modem Pinout

Use when connecting two systems, for example two PCs, via their DB9 interfaces without

a modem. Typically called a back-to-back or NULL modem connection.


107

RS232 DB9 to DB25 NULL Modem Pinout

Use when connecting two systems (e.g. PCs) when one has a DB9 interface and the

other a DB25 interface without a modem. Typically called a back-to-back or NULL

modem connection.

RS232 DB9 to DB25 Pinout

Use when connecting a DB9 (e.g. a PC) to a DB25 (e.g. a modem) interface.


108 Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference

RJ 45 Pinout


RS232 on RJ45 (RS-232D)

109


110 Cables, Wiring & Pinout Reference

HDMI Connector Pin Assignment

Pin Signal Assignment Pin Signal Assignment


111

VGA Video Connector Pinout

6

1

5

10

11 15

Male Connector


112 Optical Connectors

FC Type Connectors

FC­APC (angled tip)

Commonly used in broadband

applications. Available on BT’s

TrailBlazer Series transmitters

and receivers.

FC­UPC

Typically used in data network

only.

Not used in broadband CATV

applications.

SC Type Connectors

SC­APC (angled tip – green body)

Commonly used in broadband

applications. Available on BT’s

TrailBlazer Series transmitters

and receivers.

SC­UPC (blue body)

Typically used in data networks only.

Not used in broadband CATV

applications.

ST Type Connector

ST (AT&T Trademark) connectors

are widely used in multimode data

networks found in buildings and

campuses.

Not used in broadband CATV

applications.


113

6

CATV RF CALCULATIONS

System Calculations.............................. 114

Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics..128

Broadband RF Network Powering.........129


114

System Calculations

Carrier/Cross Modulation (XM)

1. Cross Modulation for One Amplifier at Operating Level:

2. To Sum Identical Cross Modulation Ratios:

See charts & examples starting on pages 84.

3. To Sum Different Cross Modulation Ratios:

See examples starting on pages 84.

4. Cross Modulation vs Channel Loading:

XM = Cross Modulation Ratio, expressed

as a negative (-) number.

Rule: 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier

will change the cross modulation by 2 dB.

Rule: For every double the number of amplifiers

with identical cross modulation there

is a 6 dB degradation in the total

cross modulation.

FCC Requirement XM = 51 dB

N =

Number of equal

contributors

NF = Noise Figure

-59.2 = Thermal Noise in

4 MHz Bandwidth

(dBmV)


115

Carrier/Composite Triple Beat (CTB)

1. Composite Triple Beat for One Amplifier at Operating Level:

2. To Sum Identical Composite Triple Beat Ratios:

See charts & examples starting on pages 84.

3. To Sum Different Composite Triple Beat Ratios:

See examples starting on pages 84.

4. Composite Triple Beat vs Channel Loading:

A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change the CTB

ratio by 2 dB.

For every double the number of amplifiers with identical CTB,

there is a 6 dB degradation in the total CTB ratio.

FCC Requirement CTB:

Standard = 51 dB

IRC = 47 dB

HRC = 47 dB


116 System Calculations

Carrier/Single Second Order Distortion (C/SSO)

1. Single Second Order Beat for One Amplifier at Operating Level:

2. To Sum Identical SSO Ratios:

See charts & examples starting on pages 84.

3. To Sum Different SSO Ratios:

10

10 10

A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change SSO

by 1 dB.

The 10 log assumptions shown here for second order are conservative.

Some engineers use 13 log or 15 log assumptions.

FCC Requirement SSO = 51 dB


117

Carrier/Composite Second Order Distortion (C/CSO)

1. Composite Second Order for One Amplifier at Operating Level:

2. To Sum Identical CSO Ratios:

See charts & examples starting on pages 84.

3. To Sum Different CSO Ratios:

15

15 15

See examples starting on pages 84.

4. CSO vs Channel Loading:

A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change CSO by

1 dB.

FCC Requirement CSO = 51 dB


118 System Calculations

Composite Intermodulation Noise (CIN)

It is assumed that CIN is dominated by 3rd order distortion (CIN3).

This is the case in systems with analog television channels to 550

MHz and digital video above 550 MHz.

1. Composite Intermodulation Noise for One Amplifier at Operating

Level.

2. To Sum Identical Composite Intermodulation Noise Ratios:

See charts & examples starting on pages 84.

3. To Sum Different Composite Intermodulation Noise Ratios:

See examples starting on pages 84.

4. To Sum Carrier/Noise and Composite Intermodulation Ratios:

Rule: CIN behaves like CTB in a cascade of amplifiers, but it adds to the

C/N noise.


119

Carrier/Hum Modulation (C/H)

1. To Sum Identical Carrier/Hum Ratios:

See charts & examples starting on pages 84.

2. To Sum Different Carrier/Hum Ratios:

See examples starting on page 84.

Note: Above calculations assume connection of all power supplies to the

same powerline phase.

3. To Convert Percent Hum to C/H Ratio:

4. To Convert C/H Ratio to % Hum:


120 System Calculations

Carrier/Noise

1. The Carrier/Noise contribution of a single amplifier when the

Noise Figure (NF) is known:

2. To Sum Identical Carrier/Noise Ratios:

See charts & examples starting on pages 84.

3. To Sum Different Carrier/Noise Ratios:

10

10 10

See examples starting on pages 84.

4. Carrier/Noise Ratio vs Bandwidth:

Rule: For every 1 dB increase in input signal level, the C/N improves by 1 dB.

For every double the number of amplifiers with identical Carrier/Noise Ratios

there is a degradation of 3 dB in the total C/N.

FCC Requirement C/N = 43 dB

N = Number of equal

contributors

NF = Noise Figure

-59.2 = Thermal Noise

in 4 MHz

Bandwidth (dBmV)


121

Determining Acceptable Peak-to-Valley Deviation

To determine what degree of overall peak-to-valley deviation is

acceptable for the Nth amplifier in a cascade, use this formula.

Where x is equal to the acceptable P-V deviation and, N = number

of amplifiers in cascade.

For example, what is the maximum acceptable peak-tovalley

deviation at the 32nd amplifier in a cascade?

Thus, 4.2 dB is the maximum acceptable peak-to-valley deviation

(highest peak to lowest valley in the broadband signal) at the

32nd amplifier.


122 System Calculations

Amplifier Cascade Factor

C/N + SSO CSO CTB & XMOD

CASCADE (N) 10*LOG(N) 15*LOG(N) 20*LOG(N)

1 0.00 0.00 0.00

2 3.01 4.52 6.02

3 4.77 7.16 9.54

4 6.02 9 03 12.04

5 6.99 10.48 13.98

6 7.78 11.67 15.56

7 8.45 12.68 16.90

8 9.03 13.55 18.06

9 9.54 14.31 19.08

10 10.00 15.00 20.00

11 10.41 15.62 20.83

12 10.79 16.19 21.58

13 11.14 16.71 22.28

14 11.46 17.19 22.92

15 11.76 17.64 23.52

16 12.04 18.06 24.08

17 12.30 18.46 24.61

18 12.55 18.83 25.11

19 12.79 19.18 25.58

20 13.01 19.52 26.02

21 13.22 19.83 26.44

22 13.42 20.14 26.85

23 13.62 20.43 27.23

24 13.80 20.70 27.60

25 13.98 20.97 27.96


123

Amplifier Cascade Factor - Example

The Amplifier Cascade Factor Chart (on previous page) is used

to predict performance considering the contribution of various

numbers of amplifiers. It assumes that all amplifiers are

operated at the same level (input level for noise, output level

for distortion). This is generally the case in a Unity Gain Based

System.

Example: What is the trunk CTB after 13 trunk amplifiers?

Given: 1. Single trunk amplifier CTB specification is 87 dB

@ 32 dBmV flat (from Manufacturers specs.)

2. Trunk output is 25 dBmV, channel 2 Trunk

output is 32 dBmV, channel 60 (7 dB linear tilt)

Step 1 Re-rate performance of single amp

based on actual operating level.

Geometric tilt center = 28.5 dBmV

Add .5 dB correction factor =

29 dBmV average level

32 - 29 = 3 dB x 2 (for CTB) = 6 dB

87 dB + 6 dB = 93 dB CTB @

29 dBmV average level

Step 2 Find cascade factor for CTB for 13

amps, on the chart = 22.28 dB

Step 3 Subtract cascade factor from single amp operating

performance

93 dB - 22.28 = 70.72 dB

CTB = 70.72 dB after 13 amps


124

System Calculations

Note: Summing different ratios requires a grasp of the antilog concept.

For brevity, the example shown is for CTB only, but the approach is

identical for all system distortion and noise calculations.

Determine End Of Line CTB Given The Following:

10 Trunk CTB = 65 dBc

1 Bridger CTB = 60 dBc

3 Line Extender CTB = 58 dBc

-65 -60 -58

Step 1. CTB s = 20 log (10 20 + 10 20 + 10 20 )

-3.25 - 3.00 - 2.90

Step 2. CTB s = 20 log (10 +10 +10 )

CTB s 20 log (antilog -3.25 + antilog -3.00 + antilog -2.90)

Note: To perform the operations in step 2, use the “inverse” log or “antilog”

function on most calculators. Antilog (Inverse Log) is used to re-express

the different exponent values to voltage so the amounts may be easily

summed. Don’t forget the minus sign.

-4 -3 -3

Step 3. CTB s = 20 log (5.62 x 10 + 1 x 10 + 1.26 x 10 )

-4 -4 -4

Step 4. CTB s = 20 log (5.62 x 10 + 10 x 10 + 12.6 x 10 )

-4

Step 5. CTB s = 20 log (28.12 x 10 )

CTB = 51 dBc

The 20 Log and 10 Log function derate charts & example on pages 86, 87

and 88 may also be used to sum different ratios if a scientific calculator is

not available.


20 Log Function Derate Chart

(use for CTB and XMOD)

diff

SUBTRACTION VALUES

(dB) 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90

0 6.02 5.97 5.92 5.87 5.82 5.77 5.73 5.68 5.63 5.58

1 5.53 5.49 5.44 5.39 5.35 5.30 5.26 5.21 5.17 5.12

2 5.08 5.03 4.99 4.95 4.90 4.86 4.82 4.78 4.73 4.69

3 4.65 4.61 4.57 4.53 4.49 4.45 4.41 4.37 4.33 4.29

4 4.25 4.21 4.17 4.13 4.10 4.06 4.02 3.98 3.95 3.91

5 3.88 3.84 3.80 3.77 3.73 3.70 3.66 3.63 3.60 3.56

6 3.53 3.50 3.46 3.43 3.40 3.36 3.33 3.30 3.27 3.24

7 3.21 3.18 3.15 3.12 3.09 3.06 3.03 3.00 2.97 2.94

8 2.91 2.88 2.85 2.83 2.80 2.77 2.74 2.72 2.69 2.66

9 2.64 2.61 2.59 2.56 2.53 2.51 2.48 2.46 2.44 2.41

10 2.39 2.36 2.34 2.32 2.29 2.27 2.25 2.22 2.20 2.18

11 2.16 2.13 2.11 2.09 2.07 2.05 2.03 2.01 1.99 1.97

12 1.95 1.93 1.91 1.89 1.87 1.85 1.83 1.81 1.79 1.77

13 1.75 1.74 1.72 1.70 1.68 1.67 1.65 1.63 1.61 1.60

14 1.58 1.56 1.55 1.53 1.51 1.50 1.48 1.47 1.45 1.44

15 1.42 1.41 1.39 1.38 1.36 1.35 1.33 1.32 1.31 1.29

16 1.28 1.26 1.25 1.24 1.22 1.21 1.20 1.19 1.17 1.16

17 1.15 1.14 1.12 1.11 1.10 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.05 1.04

18 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93

19 0.92 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.86 0.85 0.84

20 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.76 0.75

21 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.71 0.70 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.67

22 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.60

23 0.59 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.54

24 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.48

25 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44 0.44 0.43 0.43

26 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.39 0.38

27 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34

28 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.31 0.31

29 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.27

30 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.24

31 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.22

32 0.22 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19

33 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17

34 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.15

35 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14

36 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12

37 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11

38 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10

39 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09

40 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08

125


126 10 Log Function Derate Chart

(use for CNR and SSO)

diff

SUBTRACTION VALUES

(dB) 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90

0 3.01 2.96 2.91 2.86 2.81 2.77 2.72 2.67 2.63 2.58

1 2.54 2.50 2.45 2.41 2.37 2.32 2.28 2.24 2.20 2.16

2 2.12 2.09 2.05 2.01 1.97 1.94 1.90 1.87 1.83 1.80

3 1.76 1.73 1.70 1.67 1.63 1.60 1.57 1.54 1.51 1.48

4 1.46 1.43 1.40 1.37 1.35 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.24 1.22

5 1.19 1.17 1.15 1.12 1.10 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.01 0.99

6 0.97 0.95 0.93 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.81

7 0.79 0.77 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.70 0.68 0.67 0.65

8 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53

9 0.51 0.50 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.42

10 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.34

11 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.27

12 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22

13 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.17

14 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.14

15 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11

16 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09

17 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07

18 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

19 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04

20 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

21 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

22 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

23 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

24 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01

25 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01


Combining Two X-MOD or CTB Performance

Ratings (20 Log)

10 Trunk CTB = 65 dBc

Using dB Subtraction Values

1 Bridger CTB = 60 dBc

The 20 log & 10 log derate

Line Extender CTB = 58 dBc

charts are used to sum different

ratios. The following example demonstrates how:

Step 1 Sum Trunk and Bridger CTB

1.1 Find the dB difference between the

two ratios (65-60=5 dB)

1.2 Look up the derate (dB Subtraction) for 5.0

dB difference in the chart (3.88 dB)

1.3 Derate the poorer of the two CTB ratios

by this amount (60-3.9=56.1 dBc)

Step 2 Sum the Sum of Trunk and Bridger from

Step 1 with the line extenders

2.1 Find the dB difference between the

two ratios (58-56.12=1.88)

2.2 Look up the derate (dB Subtraction)

for 1.88 dB difference in the chart

(5.12) (round 1.88 up to 1.9).

2.3 Derate the poorer of the two CTB ratios by

this amount (56.12 - 5.12 = 51.0 dBc)

Combining Two CNR or SSO Performance Ratings

(10 Log)

Using dB Subtraction Values

10 Trunk CNR = 56.5 dB

Example: Combine trunk and bridger

1 Bridger CNR = 65 dB

CNR to find the resultant CNR

at the Bridger output (no line extenders).

dB difference = 65-56.5 = 8.5 dB

dB subtraction figure = 0.6 dB

Bridger output CNR = 56.5-0.6 = 55.9 dB

So then, the resultant CNR measure is about 55.9 dB.

127


128 Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics

Cable and Equalizer Formulas

1. Cable Loss Ratio

The ratio of cable attenuation at two frequencies is approximately

equal to the square root of the ratio of the two frequencies.

Example: To calculate the approximate cable loss at 55 MHz

when the loss at 450 MHz is 20 dB,

2. Tilt to Cable Loss

To convert tilt (differential in signal level between end frequencies

of the cable bandpass) to cable loss at the highest frequency:

Example: To calculate the cable loss at the highest frequency

when the measured tilt is 12 dB between 55 and

450 MHz


Broadband RF Network Powering

129

When determining the power supply location in a cable system, it

is important to know OHM’s Law, cable loop resistance, amplifier

current drain and the minimum operating voltage required for

amplifier operation.

The cable resistance is included in the manufacturers specification

sheet. Resistance is usually stated as center conductor, shield,

and loop. Loop resistance is the sum of the center conductor and

shield resistance.

The amplifier current drain and voltage requirements are also part

of the manufacturers specifications.

The ideal location of the power supply is such that the current

supplied flows equally both, away from, and towards the

headend. The total current supplied should be between 80-90%

of the power supply’s rated output. Current passing through

the amplifiers is usually limited to about 6 Amps. Since power

supplies are available with various current handling abilities, one

with slightly higher capability than required should be selected.

Determining power supply placement, refer to the figure on the

next page.

1. First determine the loop resistance for each span of cable.

Example: Loop resistance = 1.7 Ohms/1000

ft. x 800’ = 1.36 Ohms.

2. Locate the last amplifier, determine the

voltage drop across the span of cable.

3. Using the current draw of the amplifier, determine

the voltage drop across the span of cable.

Example: 0.375A x 1.36 Ohms = 0.51 volts.

4. Since the minimum operating voltage for the amplifier

is 43 volts, the voltage level at the beginning of the

800’ span would be 43.5 volts (43.0 + 0.51).

5. At this point, the total current flow in the coax will increase

due to the addition of another amplifier. Current flow

in this span of cable will be 0.75A (0.375 + 0.375).


130 Broadband RF Network Powering

6. Determine the voltage across the next span of cable.

0.75 x 1.36 Ohms = 1.02 Volts

Therefore the voltage at the output of the bridger amp is 44.5

volts. The total current at the input to the bridger amp is 2.0

amps. This is the sum of both output legs of the bridger (1.5A)

and the current draw of the bridger amp itself.

7. Continue working towards the headend until the current

draw is 40-50% of the power supplies rated capability or the

voltage level nears 60 volts.

8. At this time, a guesstimate of where to place a power block

in the section between the power supply and headend must

be made. Add the current draw for the line extender(s) off

each trunk station to the trunk station current requirements.

A few trial calculations will show how many amplifiers can be

powered going in this direction.


131

7

OFF-AIR ANTENNAS & SATELLITE INFO

Dipole Antenna Equations......................................132

Multiplexers...........................................................133

Antenna General Information..................................134

Antenna Spacing....................................................135

Antenna Phasing....................................................137

Satellite Transmission Standards.............................138

System Calculations................................................139

North & South American C & Ku-Band Satellites.... 141

Broadcast Station "List"..........................................143


132 Dipole Antenna Equations

Shown below is a typical half-wave dipole antenna. The radiation

pattern of a Hertz dipole antenna is perpendicular to the axis of

the antenna. In directions other than the optimum directions, the

antenna is ineffective.

L

λ

To calculate the wavelength of a signal, l or the dipole length, L, or

the frequency, f, of a half-wave dipole antenna, use the following

three formulas:

where:

l = Wavelength (m)

k = Velocity Factor

c = Speed of light = 3 x 10 8 (m/s)

f = Frequency (Hz)

L = Length of the Dipole (m)


Multiplexers

133

ZUVSJ

ZHLSJ

ZUVSJ

ZHLSJ

LUV 2150

LUV 2150


134 Antenna General Information

Factors Which Determine The Quality Of Reception:

A) Distance to transmitter

B) Height of transmitting antenna

C) Transmitter power

D) Transmitter frequency (TV channel)

E) Type of receiving antenna

F) Height of receiving antenna

G) Terrain between the transmitter and receiving antenna

H) Obstacles between the transmitter and receiving antenna

(tall buildings, water tower, etc.)

Major Characteristics:

Gain: Indicates the amount of received signal level

increase as compared to reference antenna.

(usually a resonant dipole)

Bandwidth: The range of frequencies (TV channels) over

which the antenna is designed to operate. In

principle, there are two types of antennas:

1) Broadband

2) Single-Channel

Impedance: Home type antennas are usually 300 Ohms and

commercial antennas are usually 75 Ohms.

Pattern: Generally consists of two components, beam width

and front to back ratio. Refer to diagram.


Antenna Spacing

135

Mounting Channelized Antennas on the Same Mast

NOTE: Refer to Antenna Spacing Chart for dimensions


Dimension Notes:

A) The minimum

horizontal

Channel

No.

2

A

113

B

2/3 λ

138

C

1 λ

208

D

1/2 λ

104

spacing

3 101 125 188 94

4 91 115 172 86

between

5 78 100 150 75

the tower

6 72 93 139 70

structure and FM 72 80 120 60

the antenna

crossbar.

7

8

9

40

39

37

44

43

42

67

65

62

33

32

31

B) The

recommended

10

11

36

35

40

39

61

59

30

29

vertical spacing 12 34 38 57 29

13 34 37 55 28

for a gain

of 3 dB.

Dimensions are in inches

136 Antenna Spacing Chart

B/2) The minimum vertical spacing between the antenna

crossbar and adjacent mechanical structures.

C) The recommended horizontal spacing for a gain of 3 dB.

D) The minimum spacing between antennas of different channels

and is the figure given for the antenna with the lowest frequency

Formulae:

One Wavelength in space ................λ (inches) = 11811

Freq. in MHz

One Wavelength in 75 Ohm coax (solid) λ (inches) = 7783

Freq. in MHz

One Wavelength in 75 Ohm coax (foam) ....λ (inches) = 9565

Freq. in MHz

Antenna Nulling (finding H) ..................d (λ) = 1

2 sin φ


Antenna Phasing

137

Signal Nulling

Chart No. II

φ° λ(inches)

2 208

3 188

4 172

5 150

6 139

FM 120

7 67

8 65

9 62

10 61

11 59

12 57

13 55

Chart No. III

φ° d(λ) φ° d(λ)

5 5.733 50 0.653

10 2.880 55 0.610

15 1.931 60 0.577

20 1.462 65 0.551

25 1.183 70 0.532

30 1.000 75 0.517

35 0.871 80 0.507

40 0.777 85 0.502

45 0.707 90 0.500

Instructions:

1. Determine angle “φ“ using a field strength meter, compass, and a

single channel antenna.

2. Locate angle “φ“ in chart No. III and determine d(λ);

multiply λ(inches) in chart No. II to find the spacing of “H”.

3. Both antennas must be identical, facing in the same direction, in the

same horizontal plane and both be right side up.

4. For angles not listed, d(λ) = 1

2 sin (φ)


138

Satellite Transmission Standards

Satellite Transmission Standards

In North America, the satellite programs are transmited

primarily in digital format using the following two standards:

QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)

8PSK (8th-order Phase Shift Keying)

~ 28 MHz

The QPSK programs are typically transmitted in the C-band (3.7 to 4.2 GHz)

and the Ku-band (11.7 to 12.2 GHz).

The 8PSK

programs are typically transmitted in DBS (12.2 to 12.7 GHz ). DBS

(Direct Broadcast Satellite), also known more broadly as direct-to-home, is a

term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.


System Calculations

139

TVRO Formulas

1. System Gain Over Temperature

Ag = Antenna Gain (dB)

AT = Antenna Temperature (˚K)

LNAT = Low Noise Amp Temperature (˚K)

2. Carrier to Noise Ratio*

3. C/N for other RxBw

4. Convert C/N to S/N*

5. Declination Angle (Polar Mount Antenna)

3964 = Radius of the Earth

22300 = Distance to Satellite Arc

L = Site Latitude

* RxBw = 30 MHz


140

Aximuth and Elevation Angles

Antenna pointing angles can be calculated in degrees from true

north from the following equations:

Where ∆ is the absolute value of the difference between satellite

and TVRO site longitudes and Φ is the site latitude.

Noise Temperature & Noise Figure

Noise Noise Noise Noise

Figure Temperature Figure Temperature

(dB) (˚K) (dB) (˚K)

2.0 170 0.9 67

1.9 159 0.8 59

1.8 149 0.7 51

1.7 139 0.6 43

1.6 129 0.5 35

1.5 120 0.4 28

1.4 110 0.3 21

1.3 101 0.2 14

1.2 92 0.1 7

1.1 84 00

1.0 75


North & South American C & Ku-Band Satellites

North North & South & South America America

C & C Ku & Ku Band Band Satellites

141

61.5°W EchoStar 3 3 97.0°W 97.0°WGalaxy Galaxy 19 19

61.5°W EchoStar 6 6 Galaxy Galaxy 16 16

99.2°W 99.2°W

EchoStar 12 12 Spaceway Spaceway 2 & DirecTV 2 & DirecTV 11 11

61.5°W

EchoStar 15 15 SES SES 1

101.0°W

1

63.0°W Telstar Telstar 14

101.0°W

14 DirecTV DirecTV 4S/8 4S/8

65.0°W Star Star One One C1 C1 Spaceway Spaceway 1 & DirecTV 1 & DirecTV 10/12

103.0°W

10/12

67.0°W 67.0°W AMC AMC 4 103.0°W

4 AMC AMC 1 1

70.0°W 70.0°W Star Star One One C2 C2 AMC AMC 15

105.0°W

15

72.0°W 72.0°W AMC AMC 6 105.0°W

6 AMC AMC 18 18

DirecTV DirecTV 1R 1R

Anik Anik F1

72.5°W

F1

72.5°W

107.3°W

Nimiq

Nimiq

5

107.3°W

5

Anik

Anik

F1R

F1R

74.0°W

74.0°W

Horizons

Horizons

2

2

DirecTV

DirecTV

5

5

75.0°W Brasilsat B3 110.0°W EchoStar 10

75.0°W Brasilsat B3 110.0°W EchoStar 10

77.0°W EchoStar 1 EchoStar 11

77.0°W EchoStar 1 EchoStar 11

EchoStar 4 (incl. 2.3°) 111.1°W Anik F2

77.0°W EchoStar 4 (incl. 2.3°) 111.1°W Anik F2

77.0°W EchoStar 8 113.0°W SatMex 6

EchoStar 8 113.0°W SatMex 6

78.0°W Simón Bolívar 114.9°W Solidaridad 2 (incl. 2.5°)

78.0°W Simón Bolívar 114.9°W Solidaridad 2 (incl. 2.5°)

AMC 2 115.0°W XM 4

79.0°W AMC 2 115.0°W XM 4

79.0°W AMC 5 116.8°W SatMex 5

81.0°W Intelsat

AMC

3R

5 116.8°W SatMex 5

(incl. 1.2°) Anik F3

82.0°W 81.0°W Nimiq Intelsat 4 3R (incl. 1.2°) 119.0°W DirecTV Anik 7S F3

83.0°W 82.0°W AMC Nimiq 9 4 119.0°WEchoStar DirecTV 14 7S

84.0°W 83.0°W Brasilsat AMC 9B4 121.0°W EchoStar EchoStar 9/Galaxy 14 23

85.0°W 84.0°W AMC Brasilsat 16 B4 123.0°W 121.0°WGalaxy EchoStar 18 9/Galaxy 23

85.1°W 85.0°W XM AMC 3 16 123.0°WGalaxy Galaxy 14 18

85.1°W XM 3

125.0°W

85.2°W Sirius XM 5 Galaxy 14

125.0°W

AMC 21

87.0°W 85.2°W AMC Sirius 3 XM 5 127.0°W Galaxy AMC 13/Horizons 21 1

89.0°W 87.0°W Galaxy AMC 28 3 129.0°W 127.0°WCiel Galaxy 2 13/Horizons 1

89.0°W Nimiq Galaxy 1 28 131.0°W 129.0°WAMC Ciel 11 2

91.0°W

Galaxy Nimiq 17 1 133.0°W 131.0°WGalaxy AMC 1211

91.0°W

93.1°W Galaxy 2517 135.0°W 133.0°WAMC Galaxy 10 12

95.0°W 93.1°W Galaxy 3C25 137.0°W 135.0°WAMC AMC 7 10

95.0°W Spaceway Galaxy 3C 3 139.0°W 137.0°WAMC AMC 8 7

96.0°W 95.0°W Sirius Spaceway FM 5 3 139.0°W AMC 8

96.0°W Sirius FM 5

For up to date info visit

http://www.lyngsat.com/america.html


142

ple Lyngsat


Broadcast Station List

For Blonder Tongue Labs Headquarters Address

143

The FCC released the "Final DTV" channel allotments on March 21, 2008. The final

DTV channels are RF channels that will are used after February 17, 2009. The Final

DTV assignments reflect the new core spectrum for TV broadcasts of channels 2 to

51. Channels 52 to 69 have been re-assigned for public safety and advanced wireless

services.

The former analog channel number information is carried in the new digital channel's

PSIP (Program and System Information Protocol) information. It may also be referred to

as the "tune to" or as a "virtual" channel. Digital TVs and STBs use this channel number

to tune to the particular program that in most cases is transmitted over a completely

different RF channel.

Below is a sample Station List. Because these can frequently change,

For the most up to date information, visit

www.antennaweb.org

DTV

Antenna

Type

Call

Sign

Channel

Network

City,

State

Live

Data

Compass

Heading

Miles

From

RF

Channel

*

yellow uhf WNJT- DT 52.1 PBS TRENTON, NJ 258º 20.8 43

*

yellow uhf WNJU- DT 47.1 TEL LINDEN, NJ 50º 29.5 36

*

yellow uhf WPXN- DT 31.1 ION NEW YORK, NY 50º 29.5 31

*

yellow uhf WNBC- DT 4.1 NBC NEW YORK, NY 51º 26.7 28

*

yellow uhf WFUT- DT 68.1 TFA NEWARK, NJ 50º 29.5 30

*

yellow uhf WWOR- DT 9.1 MNT SECAUCUS, NJ 50º 29.5 38

*

yellow uhf WCBS- DT 2.1 CBS NEW YORK, NY 51º 26.7 33

*

green uhf WXTV- DT 41.1 UNI PATERSON, NJ 50ºº 29.5 40

*

red uhf WABC- DT 7.1 ABC NEW YORK, NY 51º 26.5 7

*

red uhf WNET- DT 13.1 PBS NEWARK, NJ 50º 29.5 13

*

red uhf WMBC- DT 63.1 IND NEWTON, NJ 25º 32.1 18

*

red uhf WNVW- DT 44 FOX NEW YORK, NY 50º 29.5 44

*

red uhf WPIX- DT 11.1 CW NEW YORK, NY 51º 26.7 11

*

blue uhf WNJB- DT 58.1 PBS NEW

BRUNSWICK, NJ

50º 29.9 8

*

blue uhf WNJN- DT 50.1 PBS MONTCLAIR, NJ 25º 32.1 51

*

violet uhf WTXF- DT 29.1 FOX PHILADELPHIA, PA 256º 53.7 42


145

8 INTERNATIONAL TV FORMATS

Worldwide TV Standards................................146

CCIR Television Transmission Characteristics...152

International Analog Channel Standards.........153


146 Worldwide TV Standards

Country

Population

(millions)

Analog

Standard

Digital TV

Standard

Albania 3.7 PAL BG DVB-T

(trial)

Analog

Shut-off

Date

N/A

Algeria 35 PAL B DVB-T 2014

Argentina 40 PAL N ISDB-T

(custom)

7/9/16

Australia 22.4 PAL BG DVB-T 5/11/11

Austria 8.3 PAL BG DVB-T2 2010 X

Bahamas 0.33 NTSC TBD

Bahrain 0.79 PAL B DVB-T N/A

Barbados 0.285 NTSC TBD

Belgium 10.8 PAL BH DVB-T completed X

Bermuda 0.068 NTSC DVB-T ?

Bolivia 10.9 NTSC ISDB-T

(custom)

Brazil 192 PAL M ISDB-T

(custom)

?

6/29/16

Bulgaria 7.5 SECAM D DVB-T 2012 X

Burma 50 NTSC DVB-T >2020

Cambodia 14.8 DVB-T 2015

Canada 34 NTSC 8VSB 8/31/11

Chile 17 NTSC ISDB-T

(custom)

2017

China 1330 PAL D DTMB 2015

EU


147

Country

Columbia 45 NTSC DVB-T 1/1/17

Costa

Rica

4.579 NTSC ISDB-

T(custom)

12/1/18

Croatia 4.5 DVB-T 2011

Cuba 11.2 NTSC TBD 2025

Curacao 0.141 TBD

Cyprus 0.87 PAL BG DVB-T 2011 X

Czech

Republic

10.5 SECAM

DK

DVB-T 2012 X

Denmark 5.5 PAL BG DVB-T completed X

Dominican

Rep.

10 NTSC TBD

Dubai 2.2 DVB-H

Egypt 77.4 SECAM

BG

El

Salvador

Population

(millions)

Analog

Standard

Digital TV

Standard

DVB-T

6 NTSC 8VSB 1/1/14

Equador 13.6 NTSC ISDB-

T(custom)

Estonia 1.34 DVB-T 2010 X

Ethiopia 79.2 PAL BG TBD

Analog

Shut-off

Date

Finland 5.3 PAL BG DVB-T completed X

France 60 SECAM EL DVB-T 11/30/11 X

EU


148 Worldwide TV Standards

Country

Germany 82.5 SECAM

BG

DVB-T completed X

Ghana 23.8 PAL BG DVB-T 2013

Greece 11 SECAM

BG

Greenland 0.056 NTSC DVB-T

Guam 0.178 NTSC TBD

DVB-T 2012 X

Guatemala 14 NTSC *8VSB testing

Haiti 9 NTSC TBD

Honduras 7.5 NTSC 8VSB 2017-

2022

Hong

Kong

Population

(millions)

Analog

Standard

7 PAL I DTMB ?

Hungary 9.9 SECAM

DK

Digital TV

Standard

DVB-T

Analog

Shut-off

Date

Dec.

2012?

Iceland 0.317 PAL B DVB-T ?

India 1000 PAL B DVB-T2 3/13/15

Indonesia 230 PAL B DVB-T 2015

Iran 74 PAL BG DVB-T ?

Iraq 31 PAL B DVB-H ?

Ireland 4 PAL I DVB-T end of

2012

EU

X

X


149

Country

Israel 7.6 PAL BG DVB-T 3/30/2011

Italy 57.4 PAL BG DVB-T 2012 X

Jamaica 2.8 NTSC TBD

Japan 127.3 NTSC ISDB-T 7/24/12

Kenya 39 PAL BG DVB-T2 2012

Korea

(South)

50 NTSC 8VSB 12/31/12

Latvia 2.5 DVB-T 2010 X

Libya 6.4 SECAM

BG

DVB-H

Lithuania 3.3 DVB-T 10/29/12 X

Luxembourg 0.5 SECAM C DVB-T X

Malaysia 28.3 PAL BG DVB-T 2015

Malta 0.413 DVB-T 6/1/11 X

Mexico 107 NTSC 8VSB 2022

Morocco 32 PAL B DVB-T by 2015

Netherlands 16 PAL BG DVB-T completed X

New

Zealand

Population

(millions)

Analog

Standard

Digital TV

Standard

4.4 PAL B DVB-T Nov. 2013

Nigeria 154 PAL B DVB-H

Norway 4.9 PAL BG DVB-T completed

Oman 2.8 PAL BG DVB-T

Analog

Shut-off

Date

EU


150 Worldwide TV Standards

Country

Pakistan 170 PAL B TBD

Panama 3.3 NTSC DVB-T 2020

Paraquay 6.3 PAL N ISDB-T

(custom)

Peru 29.4 PAL N ISDB-T

(custom)

Phillipines 92 NTSC DVB-T2 Mar. 2015

Poland 37.8 SECAM

DK

DVB-T 7/31/13 X

Portugal 11.3 PAL BG DVB-T 4/26/12 X

Puerto

Rico

3.9 NTSC 8VSB 6/12/09

Qatar 1.4 PAL B DVB-H

Romania 22.2 SECAM K DVB-T 2012 X

Russia 141.9 SECAM D DVB-T 2015

Samoa 0.179 NTSC TBD

Saudi

Arabia

Population

(millions)

Analog

Standard

28.7 SECAM

BG

Digital TV

Standard

DVB-T

Analog

Shut-off

Date

Serbia 7.3 DVB-T2 Apr-12

Singapore 5 PAL BG DVB-T2 2015

Slovakia 5.3 DVB-T2 by 2012 X

Slovenia 2 DVB-T 12/1/10 X

EU


151

Country

South

Africa

Population

(millions)

Analog

Standard

49.3 PAL I DVB-T2

(? Review)

Dec. 2013

Spain 46 PAL BG DVB-T2 completed X

St. Martin 0.075 NTSC TBD

Surinam 0.481 TBD

Sweden 9.3 PAL BG DVB-T completed X

Switzerland 7.1 PAL BG DVB-T completed

Taiwan 23 NTSC DVB-T by 2013

Thailand 66.4 PAL B DVB-T 2015

Trinidad 1.4 NTSC DVB-T

Turkey 72.5 PAL BG DVB-T

Uganda 31 PAL BG DVB-T (?) Dec-12

UK 62 PAL I DVB-T 2012 X

Ukraine 46 DVB-T by 2015

Uruguay 3.5 PAL N DVB-T

USA 310 NTSC 8VSB 6/12/09

Venezuela 26.8 NTSC ISDB-T

(custom)

Vietnam 85.8 SECAM

DM

Digital TV

Standard

Analog

Shut-off

Date

1/1/20

DVB-T 2015

EU


152 CCIR Television Transmission Characteristics

For Off Air Channels

LINES FIELD LINE CHAN. VIDEO VID/SND

Freq. Freq. Width B/W Spacing Sideb VEST VISUAL

SYSTEM (Hz) (MHz) (MHz) (MHz) (MHz) (MHz) MOD MOD AURAL

B/G 625 50 15,625 7/8 5 + 5.5 0.75 NEG FM

C 625 50 15,625 7 5 + 5.5 0.75 POS AM

D/K 625 50 15,625 8 6 +6.5 0.75 NEG FM

H 625 50 15,625 8 5 + 5.5 1.25 NEG FM

I 625 50 15,625 8 5.5 + 6.0 1.25 NEG FM

K1 625 50 15,625 8 6 + 6.5 1.25 NEG FM

L 525 50 15,625 8 6 +/- 6.5 1.25 POS AM

M 525 60 15,734 6 4.2 + 4 5 0.75 NEG FM

N 625 50 15,625 6 4.2 + 4.5 0.75 NEG FM

CCIR:

NTSC:

PAL:

Commitée Consulatif International Radiocommunications

National Television Systems Committee

Phase Alternating Lines

SECAM: Sequential Color with Memory

(Sequentiel Couleur Avec Memoire)

OIRT:

Organisation Internationale Radiodiffusion - Television


International Analog Channel Standards

Broadcast

Std.

Color Standard Channel Voltage and

Country System VHF UHF Frequencies Cycles (Hz)

153

5

Argentina PAL N N Amer

Australia PAL B G Australian

Austria PAL B G West Euro

Bahamas NTSC M Amer

Belgium PAL B H West Euro

Bermuda NTSC M Amer

Bolivia NTSC M M Amer

Brazil PAL M M Amer

Canada NTSC M M Amer

Chile NTSC M Amer

China PAL D Chinese

Colombia NTSC M M Amer

Costa Rica NTSC M Amer

Denmark PAL B G West Euro

Ecuador NTSC M Amer

Egypt SECAM B West Euro

Finland PAL B G West Euro

France SECAM L L French

Germany SECAM/PAL B G West Euro

Greece SECAM B G West Euro

Hong Kong PAL I West Euro

Hungary SECAM D K East Euro

India PAL B West Euro

Indonesia PAL B West Euro

Iran SECAM B G West Euro

Iraq SECAM B West Euro

Ireland PAL A I Irish

220

240

230

120

230

120/240

110/220

110/220

120

220

220

110

120

220

120/220

220

220

115/220

220

220

220

220

240

110/220

220

220

220

50

50

50

60

50

60

50

60

60

50

50

60

60

50

60

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

50


154

Broadcast

Std.

Color Standard Channel Voltage and

Country System VHF UHF Frequencies Cycles (Hz)

Israel PAL B G West Euro 230 50

Italy PAL B G Italian 127/220 50

Japan W M M JPN 100 50/60

Jordan PAL B G West Euro 220 50

Korea S. NTSC M M Amer 100/200 60

Malaysia PAL B G West Euro 240 50

Mexico NTSC M M Amer 125 60

Morocco SECAM B Morocco 127/220 50

Netherlands PAL B G West Euro 220 50

New Zealand PAL B G NZ 230 50

Norway PAL B G West Euro 220/230 50

Panama NTSC M M Amer 110/115/120 60

Peru NTSC M M Amer 220 60

Philippines NTSC M Amer 110/115/220 50

Poland SECAM D K East Euro 220 50

Portugal PAL B G West Euro 220 50

Romania SECAM D K East Euro 220 50

Russia SECAM D K East Euro 127/220 50

Singapore PAL B G West Euro 230 50

Spain PAL B G West Euro 127/220 50

Sweden PAL B G West Euro 220 50

Switzerland PAL B G West Euro 220 50

United King. PAL I I West Euro 240 50

Uruguay PAL N Amer 220 50

USA NTSC M M Amer 117 60

Venezuela NTSC M Amer 120 60


155

9 CONVERSIONS & MISC. DATA

Basic Cable Theory...............................156

Conversion Factors...............................162

Fiber Optics..........................................175


156 Basic Cable Theory

The Decibel

The decibel (dB) provides a means of representing large power

ratios as manageable, small numbers, and allows the overall gains

and losses in a module or a network to be calculated by addition

and subtraction, rather than by multiplication and division.

The original unit is the Bel (named after Alexander Graham Bell).

The decibel is one-tenth of a Bel. The power ratio of two power

measurements is calculated as follows:

Ratio of power P1 to power P2, in dB:

The power ratio of two voltage measurements is calculated as follows:

Power ratio of voltage V1 to voltage V2, in dB:

Voltage Confusion

dBmV and dBµV expressions of power contain an upper case V.

This does not mean they are expressions of voltage. They are

expressions of power. When all the power scales (dBm, dBmV and

dBµV) are laid next to each other, it is easy to see that each track

on a dB for dB basis.


Power Conversions

157

dBmV

A power measurement of ‘x dBmV’ indicates that a particular

signal is x dB greater than (‘above’) 1 millivolt in 75 ohms. A

negative dBmV value indicates that the signal is x dB less than

(‘below’) 1 millivolt in 75 ohms.

To convert x millivolts to dBmV:

dBµV

Similarly, a measurement of ‘x dBµV’ indicates that the signal is x

dB above one microvolt in 75 ohms.

To convert x microvolts to dBµV:

To convert dBmV to dBµV, add 60 to the dBmV reading:

dBm

A measurement of ‘x dBm’ indicates that a particular signal is x dB

greater than (‘above’) 1 milliwatt. A negative dBm value indicates

that the signal is x dB less than (‘below’) 1 milliwatt.

To convert x milliwatts to dBm:


158 Power Conversion

A power level, in dBmV, can be converted directly to power in

dBm, if the impedance, Z. is known:

To convert x dBmV directly to dBm:

The inverse operation is also possible if impedance is known:

To convert dBm directly to dBmV:

Impedance Mismatch

It frequently happens that the input impedance of a measuring

device (spectrum analyzer; field strength meter, etc.) does not match

the impedance of the system under test. In such a case, a correction

must be made to the reading displayed on the instrument.

Where Zi is the impedance of the instrument, and Zs is the

impedance of the system under test.


Table of Conversions

159

mV dBmV dbµV dBm

1.9953 6 66 -42.75

2.2387 7 67 -41.75

2.5119 8 68 -40.75

2.8184 9 69 -39.75

3.1623 10 70 -38.75

3.5481 11 71 -37.75

3.9811 12 72 -36.75

4.4668 13 73 -35.75

5.0119 14 74 -34.75

5.6234 15 75 -33.75

6.3096 16 76 -32.75

7.0795 17 77 -31.75

7.9433 18 78 -30.75

8.9125 19 79 -29.75

10.0000 20 80 -28.75

11.2202 21 81 -27.75

12.5893 22 82 -26.75

14.1254 23 83 -25.75

15.8489 24 84 -24.75

17.7828 25 85 -23.75

19.9526 26 86 -22.75

22.3872 27 87 -21.75

25.1189 28 88 -20.75

28.1838 29 89 -19.75

31.6228 30 90 -18.75

35.4813 31 91 -17.75

39.8107 32 92 -16.75

44.6684 33 93 -15.75

50.1187 34 94 -14.75

56.2341 35 95 -13.75

63.0957 36 96 -12.75

70.7946 37 97 -11.75

79.4328 38 98 -10.75

89.1251 39 99 -9.75

100.0000 40 100 -8.75

112.2018 41 101 -7.75

125.8925 42 102 -6.75

141.2538 43 103 -5.75

mV dBmV dbµV dBm

158.4893 44 104 -4.75

177.8279 45 105 -3.75

199.5262 46 106 -2.75

223.8721 47 107 -1.75

251.1886 48 108 -0.75

273.8420 48.75 108.75 0

281.8383 49 109 0.25

316.2278 50 110 1.25

354.8134 51 111 2.25

398.1072 52 112 3.25

446.6836 53 113 4.25

501.1872 54 114 5.25

562.3413 55 115 6.25

630.9573 56 116 7.25

707.9458 57 117 8.25

794.3282 58 118 9.25

891.2509 59 119 10.25

1000.0000 60 120 11.25

1122.0185 61 121 12.25

1258.9254 62 122 13.25

1412.5375 63 123 14.25

1584.8932 64 124 15.25

1778.2794 65 125 16.25

1995.2623 66 126 17.25

2238.7211 67 127 18.25

2511.8864 68 128 19.25

2818.3829 69 129 20.25

3162.2777 70 130 21.25

3548.1339 71 131 22.25

3981.0717 72 132 23.25

4466.8359 73 133 24.25

5011.8723 74 134 25.25

5623.4133 75 135 26.25

6309.5734 76 136 27.25

7079.4578 77 137 28.25

7943.2823 78 138 29.25

8912.5094 79 139 30.25

10000.0000 80 140 31.25


160 Return Loss, Reflection Coefficient, and

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)

Return Reflec. VSWR Return Reflec. VSWR

Loss (dB) Coefficient (%) Loss (dB) Coefficient (%)

0.0 100.00 20.0 10.00 1.222

0.5 94.41 34.753 20.5 9.44 1.208

1.0 89.13 17.391 21.0 8.91 1.196

1.5 84.14 11.610 21.5 8.41 1.184

2.0 79.43 8.724 22.0 7.94 1.173

2.5 74.99 6.997 22.5 7.50 1.162

3.0 70.79 5.848 23.0 7.08 1.152

3.5 66.83 5.030 23.5 6.68 1.143

4.0 63.10 4.419 24.0 6.31 1.135

4.5 59.57 3.946 24.5 5.96 1.127

5.0 56.23 3.570 25.0 5.62 1.119

5.5 53.09 3.263 25.5 5.31 1.112

6.0 50.12 3.010 26.0 5.01 1.106

6.5 47.32 2.796 26.5 4.73 1.099

7.0 44.67 2.615 27.0 4.47 1.094

7.5 42.17 2.458 27.5 4.22 1.088

8.0 39.81 2.323 28.0 3.98 1.083

8.5 37.58 2.204 28.5 3.76 1.078

9.0 35.48 2.100 29.0 3.55 1.074

9.5 33.50 2.007 29.5 3.35 1.069

10.0 31.62 1.925 30.0 3.16 1.065

10.5 29.85 1.851 30.5 2.99 1.062

11.0 28.18 1.785 31.0 2.82 1.058

11.5 26.61 1.725 31.5 2.66 1.055

12.0 25.12 1.671 32.0 2.51 1.052

12.5 23.71 1.622 32.5 2.37 1.049

13.0 22.39 1.577 33.0 2.24 1.046

13.5 21.13 1.536 33.5 2.11 1.043

14.0 19.95 1.499 34.0 2.00 1.041

14.5 18.84 1.464 34.5 1.88 1.038

15.0 17.78 1.433 35.0 1.78 1.036

15.5 16.79 1.404 35.5 1.68 1.034

16.0 15.85 1.377 36.0 1.58 1.032

16.5 14.96 1.352 36.5 1.50 1.030

17.0 14.13 1.329 37.0 1.41 1.029

17.5 13.34 1.308 37.5 1.33 1.027

18.0 12.59 1.288 38.0 1.26 1.025

18.5 11.89 1.270 38.5 1.19 1.024

19.0 11.22 1.253 39.0 1.12 1.023

19.5 10.59 1.237 39.5 1.06 1.021


Return Loss Ratio (RLR)

161

RLR (dB)

VSWR

Note: In a 75-Ohm transmission line.


162 Conversion Factors

Signal Levels

0 dBm = + 48.75 dBmV /75 ohms

0 dBW = + 78.75 dBmV /75 ohms

0 dBmV = 60 dBµV

Prefixes

milli (m) = 1/1,000

micro (µ) = 1/1,000,000

nano (n) = 1/1,000,000,000

pica (p) = 1/1,000,000,000,000

kilo (k) = 1,000

mega (M) = 1,000,000

giga (G) = 1,000,000,000

Energy/Heat

12,000 BTU = One Ton

1 Watt / hour = 3.415 Btu

1 horsepower = 746 Watts

1 atmosphere = 14.6 pounds per square inch

°Fahrenheit = (9/5 x °C) + 32

°CELSIUS = 5/9 x (°F - 32)


163

Volume

1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet

1 cubic inch = 16.38716 cubic centimeters

1 cubic meter = 1.307943 cubic yards

1 US gallon = 3.7853 liters

1 US gallon = 128 fluid ounces

1 US gallon = 0.8327 Imperial Gallons

1 liter = 61.025 cubic inches

1 liter = 1000 cubic centimeters

Weight

1 pound = 16 ounces

1 pound = 453.592 grams

1 kilogram = 2.20462 pounds

1 kilogram = 1000 grams

1 ton = 2000 pounds

1 ton = 907.185 kilograms

1 metric ton = 2205 pounds


164 Conversion Factors

Linear

1 mile = 5280 feet

1 mile = 1.60935 kilometers

1 kilometer = 3280.83 feet

1 kilometer = 0.621 miles

1 kilometer = 1000 meters

1 meter = 39.37 inches

1 meter = 3.281 feet

1 meter = 100 centimeters

1 centimeter = 10 millimeters

1 centimeter = 0.394 inches

1 millimeter = 1000 microns

1 micron = 1000 nanometers

1 foot = 30.48 centimeters

1 inch = 25.4 millimeters

1 inch = 1000 mils

1 mil = 25.4 microns

1 micron = 0.3937 mil

1 yard = 36 inches


165

Degrees, Fahrenheit to Celsius

F 0 -1 -2 - 3 -4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 9

-40 -40.0 -40.6 -41.1 -41.7 -42.2 -42.8 -43.3 -43.9 -44.4 -45.0

-30 -34.4 -35.0 -35.6 -36.1 -36.7 -37.2 -37.8 -38.3 -38.9 -39.4

-20 -28.9 -29.4 -30.0 -30.6 -31.1 -31.7 -32.2 -32.8 -33.3 -33.9

-10 -23.3 -23.9 -24.4 -25.0 -25.6 -26.1 -26.7 -27.2 -27.8 -28.3

0 -17.8 -18.3 -18.9 -19.4 -20.0 -20.6 -21.1 -21.7 -22.2 -22.8

+ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 -17.8 -17-.2 -16.7 -16.1 -15.6 -15.0 -14.4 -13.9 -13.3 -12.8

10 -12.2 -11.7 -11.1 -10.6 -10.0 -9.4 -8.9 -8.3 -7.8 -7.2

20 -6.7 -6.1 -5.6 -5.0 -4.4 -3.9 -3.3 -2.8 -2.2 -1.7

30 -1.1 -0.6 0.0 0.6 1.1 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.3 3.9

40 4.4 5.0 5.6 6.1 6.7 7.2 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4

50 10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0

60 15.6 16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8 18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6

70 21.1 21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3 23.9 24.4 25.0 25.6 26.1

80 26.7 27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.7

90 32.2 32.8 33.3 33.9 34.4 35.0 35.6 36.1 36.7 37.2

100 37.8 38.3 38.9 39.4 40.0 40.6 41.1 41.7 42.2 42.8

110 43.3 43.9 44.4 45.0 45.6 46.1 46.7 47.2 47.8 48.3

120 48.9 49.4 50.0 50.6 51.1 51.7 52.2 52.8 53.3 53.9

130 54.4 55.0 55.6 56.1 56.7 57.2 57.8 58.3 58.9 59.4

140 60.0 60.6 61.1 61.7 62.2 62.8 63.3 63.9 64.4 65.0

150 65.6 66.1 66.7 67.2 67.8 68.3 68.9 69.4 70.0 70.6

160 71.1 71.7 72.2 72.8 73.3 73.9 74.4 75.0 75.6 76.1

170 76.7 77.2 77.8 78.3 78.9 79.4 80.0 80.6 81.1 81.7


166 Conversion Factors

Ohm’s Law & Joule’s Law

Ohm’s Law

V = IR

V = voltage in volts

I = current in amperes

R = resistance in ohms

Joule’s Law

P = IV

P = power in watts

I = current in amperes

V = voltage in volts

Equations Summary of Ohm’s & Joule’s Laws

Ohms Law (1863)

A Law in Electricity: the strength of a direct current is directly

proportional to the potential difference and inversely proportional

to the resistance of the circuit (Georg Simon Ohm - 1870)


Miscellaneous Data & Constants

167

75 Ohm Attenuator Table & Equation

Loss

(dB)

T-Attenuator

Resistor (Ohm)

Pi-Attenuator

Resistor (Ohm)

a b c d

0.5 2.16 1302.16 2606.49 4.32

1.0 4.31 650.00 1304.32 8.65

1.5 6.46 432.14 870.75 13.02

2.0 8.60 322.86 654.32 17.42

2.5 10.72 257.01 524.75 21.89

3.0 12.82 212.89 438.60 26.42

4.0 16.97 157.24 331.46 35.77

5.0 21.01 123.36 267.73 45.60

6.0 24.92 100.40 225.71 56.03

7.0 28.69 83.70 196.09 67.20

8.0 32.29 70.96 174.21 79.27

9.0 35.72 60.89 157.49 92.38

10.0 38.96 52.70 144.37 106.73

11.0 42.02 45.92 133.87 122.49

12.0 44.89 40.22 125.32 139.87

13.0 47.56 35.35 118.27 159.11

14.0 50.05 31.17 112.39 180.46

15.0 52.35 27.55 107.44 204.21

16.0 54.48 24.39 103.25 230.67

17.0 56.43 21.62 99.67 260.18

18.0 58.23 19.19 96.60 293.15

19.0 59.87 17.04 93.96 330.01

20.0 61.36 15.15 91.67 371.25


168 75 Ohm Attenuator Table & Equations

The equations necessary to calculate the resistance values in ohms

for T and Pi pad Attenuators are as follows:

where:

n = loss in dB

z = impedance value in Ohm

To obtain resistance values at various impedances, simply

multiply the resistances by the impedance value.

Example:

Given n =

2.0, calculate

the resistance

values for a

75 Ohm

T-Attenuator:


Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics

169

Cable and Equalizer Formulas

1. Cable Loss Ratio

The ratio of cable attenuation at two frequencies is approximately

equal to the square root of the ratio of the two frequencies.

Example: To calculate the approximate cable loss at 55 MHz

when the loss at 450 MHz is 20 dB,

2. Tilt to Cable Loss

To convert tilt (differential in signal level between end frequencies

of the cable bandpass) to cable loss at the highest frequency:

Example: To calculate the cable loss at the highest frequency

when the measured tilt is 12 dB between 55 and

450 MHz


170 Cable and Equalizer Formulas

3. Equalizer Loss at any Frequency

To calculate the equalizer loss at any frequency, the following

formula may be used:

Example: To calculate the loss of an equalizer for 20 dB of cable

at 450 MHz at a frequency f1 of 55 MHz,


Cable Loss Conversion Chart

Use this chart to find a cable span’s attenuation at a new frequency if

you already know its attenuation at one frequency.

If you know the cable loss at f 1 and want to find the corresponding loss

at a higher frequency f 2 multiply the loss at f 1 by the conversion factor.

The result is the cable loss at f 2 .

If you know the cable loss at f 2 and want to find the corresponding loss

at a lower frequency f 1 divide the loss at f 2 by the conversion factor.

The result is the cable loss at f 1 .

f 1 f 2 f 1 f 2

(MHz) (MHz)

(MHz) (MHz)

220 270 1.108 400 440 1.049

220 300 1.168 400 500 1.118

220 330 1.225 400 550 1.173

220 400 1.348 400 600 1.225

220 440 1.414 400 750 1.369

220 500 1.508 400 860 1.466

220 550 1.581 400 1000 1.581

220 600 1.651

270 300 1.054 440 500 1.066

270 330 1.106 440 550 1.118

270 400 1.217 440 600 1.168

270 440 1.277 440 750 1.306

270 500 1.361 440 860 1.398

270 550 1.427 440 1000 1.508

270 600 1.491

300 330 1.049 500 550 1.049

300 400 1.155 500 600 1.095

300 440 1.211 500 750 1.225

300 500 1.291 500 860 1.311

300 550 1.354 500 1000 1.414

300 600 1.414

330 400 1.101 550 600 1.044

330 440 1.155 550 750 1.168

330 500 1.231 550 860 1.250

330 550 1.291 550 1000 1.348

330 600 1.348 1000 1250 1.118

330 750 1.508 1000 1500 1.225

330 860 1.614 1000 1750 1.323

330 1000 1.741 1000 2000 1.414

1000 2150 1.466

Example: If a cable span attenuates a 220 MHz signal by 10 dB, by how much will it

attenuate a 300 MHz signal?

Loss at 300 MHz = Loss at 220 MHz x conversion factor = 10 dB x 1.168 = 11.68 dB

171


172

Cable Loss and Temperature

This equation calculates the percentage of change in cable

attenuation (loss) caused by a temperature change:

% change in cable loss = 1.1% per 10° F

This equation calculates the change in cable loss in a span of cable,

expressed in dB.

change in cable loss (in dB) =

standard loss x % change in cable loss

Example: If the standard loss is 22 dB* when the temperature is

70°F and the temperature drops to -40°F, what is the change in

attenuation for that cable span?

1. Determine the number of degrees of temperature change.

T = T 2 - T 1 = (-40°F) - 70°F = (-110° F)

2. Find the percent change in cable loss.

% change = 1% per 10°F x (-110°F)

= (1%/10°F) x (-110°F)

= - 11%

3. Find the dB change in the span’s loss.

Change in cable loss (in dB) = -11% x 22 dB

= -2.42 dB

So, if the span’s loss was 22 dB at 70°F it becomes

22 dB + (-2.42 dB) = 19.58 dB at -40°F.

Changes in cable loss accumulate over multiple cable spans

and can cause performance degradation if not controlled by

AGC/ASC units.


Typical Cable Attenuation Chart

in dB/100 Feet @ 68°F (20°C)

173


174 Directional Couplers Insertion Loss

TAP

VALUE

(dB)

STOCK #

SRT-1

1940-4

1940-6

1940-9

1940-12

1940-16

1940-20

1940-24

1940-27

4

6

9

12

16

20

24

27

1940-30 30

SRT-2A

1942-4 4

1942-8 8

1942-11 11

1942-14 14

1942-17 17

1942-20 20

1942-23 23

1942-26 26

1942-29 29

1942-32 32

1944-8

1944-11

1944-14

1944-17

1944-20

1944-23

1944-26

1944-29

1944-32

1944-35

1948-11

1948-14

1948-17

1948-20

1948-23

1948-26

1948-29

1948-32

1948-35

SRT-4A

8

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

32

35

SRT-8A

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

32

35

Indoor

NO. OF

OUTPUTS

1

2

4

8

THRU-LINE

LOSS (dB)

@450 MHz @1000 MHz

4.0 4.5

3.5 4.0

1.6 2.0

1.5 2.0

0.7 1.5

0.7 1.5

0.6 1.5

0.6 1.5

0.6 1.5

@450 MHz @1000 MHz

Terminated

3.2 3.5

2.5 3.0

1.2 2.2

1.0 1.8

0.9 1.2

0.9 1.2

0.7 1.2

0.7 1.2

0.7 1.2

@450 MHz @1000 MHz

Terminated

3.8

2.3

1.5

1.2

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.8

4.4

2.5

2.0

1.4

1.2

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

@450 MHz @1000 MHz

Terminated

3.8 4.3

2.1 2.3

1.3 1.8

0.8 1.2

0.7 1.0

0.6 0.8

0.6 0.8

0.6 0.8

MODEL

STOCK NO.

DMT-1000-2

#3852

DMT-1000-4

#3854

DMT-1000-8

#3858

Outdoor

TAP

VALUE

(dB)

4

8

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

32

35

8

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

32

35

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

32

35

THRU-LINE

LOSS (dB)

@450 MHz @1000 MHz

Terminated

4.1 4.8

2.2 3.7

1.7 2.4

1.4 2.2

1.0 1.5

1.0 1.5

1.0 1.5

1.0 1.5

1.0 1.5

1.0 1.5

Terminated

4.0

2.2

1.6

1.3

1.2

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.2

4.2

2.4

1.7

1.3

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.2

4.9

3.7

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

Terminated

4.9

3.5

2.6

2.2

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

TAP THRU-LINE

MODEL VALUE LOSS (dB)

STOCK NO. (dB) @450 MHz @1000 MHz

TL-PI-1000

#3850

N/A 1.2 1.5

TLS-1000 8 2.9 3.2

#3851 12 1.2 2.2

16 1.2 2.2

TLS-1000-2

#3855

N/A 4.6 5.7

TLS-1000-3

#3856

N/A 7.0 9.0

TLS-1000-3U

#3857

N/A 5.0/8.5 6.0/9.2

(unbalanced)

Please refer to the Blonder Tongue catalog for more detailed specifications common to

indoor and outdoor passives.


Fiber Optics

175

Siecor MIC Cable Fiber Identification Guide

(SOLID) (DASHED) (STRIPED)

1 -1O 11 -20 21-30

1 Blue 11 Blue + Black Dash 21 Blue + Black Stripe

2 Orange 12 Orange+ Black Dash 22 Orange+ Black Stripe

3 Green 13 Green+ Black Dash 23 Green+ Black Stripe

4 Brown 14 Brown+ Black Dash 24 Brown+ Black Stripe

5 Slate 15 Slate+ Black Dash 25 Slate+ Black Stripe

6 White 16 White+ Black Dash 26 White+ Black Stripe

7 Red 17 Red+ Black Dash 27 Red+ Black Stripe

8 Black 18 Black+ White Dash 28 Black+ White Stripe

9 Yellow 19 Yellow+ Black Dash 29 Yellow+ Black Stripe

10 Violet 20 Violet+ Black Dash 30 Violet+ Black Stripe

Standard Single Mode Fiber

Wavelength Attenuation Dispersion

1310 nm 0.35 dB/km 3 ps/(nm•km)

1550 nm 0.24 dB/km 19 ps/(nm•km)

Wavelength Division Multiplexers (WDM)

Wavelengths

Bandpass

Insertion Loss

Directivity

1310/1550 nm

+ 20 nm

< 0.5 dB

≥ 60 dB

Amphenol Optical Connectors

SC-FC/APC Super SC-FC/PC

Insertion Loss ≤ 0.3 dB ≤ .15 dB

Back Reflection ≤ -65 dB ≤ -45 dB


176 Fiber Optics

Converting MW to DBM

Use the conversion table below, to convert milliwatts (mW) to

decibel milliwatts (dBm).

mW dBm mW dBm

0.1 -10.0 2.0 3.01

0.2 -6.99 3.0 4.77

0.3 -5.23 4.0 6.02

0.4 -3.97 5.0 6.99

0.5 -3.00 6.0 7.78

0.6 -2.20 7.0 8.45

0.7 -1.55 8.0 9.03

0.8 -0.96 9.0 9.54

0.9 -0.45 10.0 10.00

1.0 0.00 11.0 10.41

1.1 0.41 12.0 10.79

1.2 0.79 13.0 11.14

1.3 1.14 14.0 11.46

1.4 1.46 15.0 11.76

1.5 1.76 16.0 12.04

1.6 2.04 17.0 12.30

1.7 2.30 18.0 12.55

1.8 2.55 19.0 12.79

1.9 2.79 20.0 13.01


177

Optical Coupler Design Tool

Coupler Ports Ratio Loss (dB)

1 x 2 50/50 3.6/3.6

40/60 4.7/2.7

30/70 6.0/1.9

20/80 7.9/1.2

10/90 11.3/0.6

5/95 15.1/0.5

Coupler Ports Ratio Loss (dB)

1 x 3 33/33/33 6.0/6.0/6.0

40/30/30 4.7/6.4/6.4

50/25/25 3.6/7.3/7.3

60/20/20 2.7/8.4/8.4

70/15/15 1.9/9.6/9.6

80/10/10 1.2/11.3/11.3

Coupler Ports Ratio Loss (dB)

1 x 4 25% per port 7.3 per port

Coupler Ports Ratio Loss (dB)

1 x 6 16.6% per port 9.7 per port

Coupler Ports Ratio Loss (dB)

1 x 8 12.5% per port 10.8 per port


179

10 FCC RULES

FCC Highlights.....................................180

FCC Rules.............................................188


180 Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76

!

This section is a summary of FCC specifications that CATV systems

are required to meet. This section was created so technicians and

engineers could have a ready reference at their fingertips.

All specifications in this handbook were taken from Title 47

Telecommunications, part 76.605 from the FCC. It spells out the

rule, standard, number of channels to be tested, frequency of testing,

and equipment needed to perform each test.

The intention of this section is to summarize FCC specifications it is

not intended to replace them. Consult the current editions of all

specifications and regulations for complete and detailed requirements.

Aeronautical Operational Requirements

Frequency Offsets

All carrier signals or signal components carried at an average power

level equal to or greater than 10-4 watts in a 25 kHz bandwidth

in any 160 microseconds period must operate at frequencies offset

from certain frequencies which may be used by aeronautical

radio services operated by FCC licensees or by the United States

Government or its Agencies. The following table summarizes the

frequency offset requirements.

Frequency Offsets

Frequency Band(Standard and IRC) Offset Tolerance

118-137, 225-325.6 and 335.4-400 MHz 12.5 kHz ±5 kHz

108-118 and 328.6-335.4 MHz 25.0 kHz ±5 kHz

For Harmonically Related Carrier (HRC) systems, the fundamental

frequency from which the visual carrier frequencies are derived

should be a multiple of 6.0003 MHz ±1 Hz

http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Cable/WWW/aeronaut.html


181

Aeronautical Frequency Notifications

Cable operators planning to use the frequencies in the

communications and navigational frequency bands must notify the

FCC prior to the activation of these frequencies. The aeronautical

operational requirements in the aeronautical bands are contained

in 47 CFR Sections 76.610-76.616. Each notification shall include

an FCC Form 159.

❏ Legal name and local address of the cable television operator;

❏ The names and FCC identifiers (e.g. CA0001) of the system

communities affected;

❏ The names and telephone numbers of local system officials

who are responsible for compliance with 76.610, 76.611, and

76.612 through 76.616 of the rules;

❏ Carrier and subcarrier frequencies and tolerance, type of

modulation and the maximum average power levels of all

carriers and subcarriers occurring at any location in the cable

distribution system;

❏ The geographical coordinates of a point near the center of the

cable system, together with the distance (in kilometers) from

the designated point to the most remote point of the cable

plant, existing or planned, which defines a circle enclosing the

entire cable plant;

❏ A description of the routine monitoring procedure to be used;

❏ The cumulative leakage index derived under 76.611 (a)

(1) or the results of airspace measurements derived under

76.611 (a)(2), including a description of the method by which

compliance with the basic signal leakage criteria is achieved

and the method of calibrating the measurement equipment.

Use FCC Form 320 to submit the results.


182 Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76

Visual Carrier Center Frequency

Tolerance: aeronautical channels ± 5 KHz indicated by asterisk.

For all other channels no specific tolerance indicated by FCC.

Good engineering practice ± 10 KHz for non broadcast. Local

VHF broadcasts carried “on channel” should be zero frequency

tolerance. See Option 14 in Section 1.

Rule

Standard

Number Of Channels

Frequency Of Testing

Type Of Equipment

Rule

Standard

Number Of Channels

Frequency Of Testing

Type Of Equipment

76.605 (a)(2) Aural Carrier Center Frequency

4.5 MHz 5 kHz at subscriber terminal

& out put of modulating or processing

equipment

4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for

every 100 MHz or fractional increase:

5 Channels/54-216 MHz

6 Channels/54-300 MHz

7 Channels/54-400 MHz

8 Channels/54-500 MHz

Two times per year

Spectrum analyzer, frequency counter, or

automated testing system

76.605 (a)(3) Minimum Visual Carrier Level

0 dBmV at subscriber terminal and

3.0 dBmV at end of 100 ft. drop cable

connected to tap

All NTSC or similar video channels

Two times per year

SLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,

or automated test system


183

Rule

76.605 (a)(4)

Visual Carrier Level 24 Hour Variation

Standard

Not to vary more than 8 dB within any

six month interval (measured before the

converter)

Number Of Channels All NTSC or similar video channels

Frequency Of Testing In July/August and January/February, 1

test each channel every 6 hours for each

24 hour test

Type Of Equipment SLM, system analyzer, spectrum

analyzer, or automated test system

Rule

76.605 (a)(4)(i) Maximum Signal Level

of Adjacent Channel

Standard

Within 3 dB of any visual carrier within

6 MHz

Number Of Channels All NTSC or similar video channels

Frequency Of Testing In July/August and January/February, 1

test each channel every 6 hours for each

24 hour test

Type Of Equipment SLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,

or automated test system


184 Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76

Rule

76.605 (a) (4) (ii)

Minimum/Maximum Bandwidth

Standard

Within 10 dB of the visual signal on any

other channel on a cable system of up

to 300 MHz. A 1 dB increase in level

separation for each additional 100 MHz

of bandwidth

11 dB for a 400 MHz System

12 dB for a 500 MHz System

13 dB for a 600 MHz System

Number Of Channels All NTSC or similar video channels

Frequency Of Testing In July/August and January/February, 1

test each channel every 6 hours for each

24 hour test

Type Of Equipment SLM, system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,

or automated test system

Rule

Standard

Number Of Channels

Frequency Of Testing

Type Of Equipment

76.605 (a) (4) (iii) Maximum Visual

A maximum level that will not overload

the subscribers terminal or receiver

All NTSC or similar video channels

Two times per year

SLM, system analyzer, spectrum

analyzer, or automated test system


185

Rule

Standard

Number Of Channels

Frequency Of Testing

Type Of Equipment

76.605 (a)(5) Aural Carrier Level

10 dB to 17 dB below the associated

visual signal level. Baseband converter:

6.5 dB to 17 dB below the associated

visual-signal level

All NTSC or similar video channels

Two times per year

SLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,

or automated test system

Rule

76.605 (a)(6) Amplitude Characteristic

of a Single CATV Channel

Standard

Number Of Channels

Frequency Of Testing

Type Of Equipment

± 2 dB from -0.75 MHz to 5.0 MHz from

the channels bottom boundary at tap and

before converter (prior to Dec. 30, 1999)

above lower boundary frequency of CATV

channel (referenced to average of the

highest and lowest amplitudes)

4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for

every 100 MHz or fractional increase:

5 Channels/54-216 MHz

6 Channels/54-300 MHz

7 Channels/54-400 MHz

8 Channels/54-500 MHz

Two times per year

Sweep transmitter/receiver, spectrum

analyzer, or automated test system


186 Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76

Rule

Standard

Carrier to noise shall not be less than:

1) 40 dB (June 30,1993-June 30, 1995)

2) 43 dB (As of July 1,1995)

Number Of Channels 4 channels minimum, + 1 channel for

every 100 MHz or fractional increase:

5 Channels/54-216 MHz

6 Channels/54-300 MHz

7 Channels/54-400 MHz

8 Channels/54-500 MHz

Frequency Of Testing Two times per year

Type Of Equipment

76.605 (a)(7)(ii) Carrier to Noise (C/N)

76.605 (a)(7)(iii) Carrier to Noise (C/N)

SLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,

or automated test system

Rule

Standard

Number Of Channels

Frequency Of Testing

Type Of Equipment

76.605 (a)(8)(i)

Visual Signal-to-Coherent Beats

Not less than 51 dB for non-coherent

(standard) CATV systems Or not less

than 47 dB for coherent (HRC/IRC)

CATV systems

4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel

for every 100 MHz or fractional

increase:

5 Channels/54-216 MHz

6 Channels/54-300 MHz

7 Channels/54-400 MHz

8 Channels/54-500 MHz

Two times per year

SLM system analyzer, spectrum

analyzer, or automated test system


187

Rule

Standard

Number Of Channels

Frequency Of Testing

Type Of Equipment

76.605 (a)(9)(i)(ii) Terminal Isolation

Not less than 18 dB (manufacturer’s

specification) and sufficient to prevent

subscriber-caused terminal reflections

4 channel minimum, plus 1 channel

for every 100 MHz or fractional

increase:

5 Channels/54-216 MHz

6 Channels/54-300 MHz

7 Channels/54-400 MHz

8 Channels/54-500 MHz

Two times per year

Manufacturer’s specifications

Rule

Standard

Number Of Channels

Frequency Of Testing

Type Of Equipment

76.605 (a)(10) Hum

Not to exceed 3% of visual signal

level

Only on a single channel with a single

unmodulated carrier

Two times per year Testing

SLM system analyzer, spectrum

analyzer, or automated test system


188 FCC Rules

Cumulative Leakage Index

Cumulative Leakage Index (CLI), also referred to as a “figure

of merit” measurement, is a method for assessing the leakage

integrity of a cable plant. The cable operator demonstrates

compliance with a cumulative signal leakage index by showing

either that:

using either:

where:

r

ø

R

E

n

and where:

= Distance in meters (m) between the leakage source and

the center of the cable system.

= Fraction of the system cable length actually examined for

leakage sources. The fraction is equal to the strand miles

tested divided by total strand miles.

= Slant height distance (m) from leakage source i to a point

3,000 meters above the center of the cable system.

= Electric field strength in microvolts per meter (µV/m)

measured 3 meters from leak i.

= Number of leaks found with a field strength ≥ 50 µV/m.


189

Cumulative Leakage Index - continued

The following formula may be substituted to determine the CLI

figure of merit. Compliance is attained if the formula yields a figure

of merit less than or equal to 64.

where:

Mp = Total Plant Miles (miles)

Md = Total Plant Miles Driven (miles)

n = Number of leaks with the same level

L = Level of the leak in microvolts per meter (µV/m)

k = Number of different levels

Example: Given the following information about a cable system,

determine the CLI.

Mp = Total plant miles = 1500 miles

Md = Plant miles driven = 1350 miles

Number of leaks and level of each in µV/m =

n1 = 300 leaks @ L1 = 50 µV/m

n2 = 30 leaks @ L2 = 100 µV/m

n3 = 3 leaks @ L3 = 450 µV/m

Sum of: niLi2 + n2L22 + n3L32 =

(300 x 50 x 50) + (30 x 100 x 100) + (3 x 450 x 450) =

750000 + 300000 + 607500 =

1657500

CLI = 10 log (1.11 x 1657500)

= 10 log (1839825)

= 62.65 ≤ 64


190 FCC Rules

Maximum Leakage Levels

The following table gives the maximum leakage levels at the given

channels and voltage level.

Visual 20 µV/M 50 µV/m Visual 20 µV/M 50 µV/m

CH# Carrier (dBmV) (dBmV) CH# Carrier (dBmV) (dBmV)

T-7 7.0000 -17.33 -9.37 25 229.2625 -47.63 -39.67

T-8 13.0000 -22.70 -14.74 26 235.2625 -47.85 -39.90

T-9 19.0000 -26.00 -18.04 27 241.2625 -48.07 -40.11

T-10 25.0000 -28.38 -20.42 28 247.2625 -48.29 -40.33

T-11 31.0000 -30.25 -22.29 29 253.2625 -48.50 -40.54

T-12 37.0000 -31.79 -23.83 30 259.2625 -48.70 -40.74

T-13 43.0000 -33.09 -25.13 31 265.2625 -48.90 -40.94

2 55.2500 -35.27 -27.31 32 271.2625 -49.09 -41.13

3 61.2500 -36.17 -28.21 33 277.2625 -49.28 -41.32

4 67.2500 -36.98 -29.02 34 283.2625 -49.47 -41.51

5 77.2500 -38.18 -30.22 35 289.2625 -49.65 -41.69

6 83.2500 -38.83 -30.87 36 295.2625 -49.83 -41.87

14 121.2625 -42.10 -34.14 37 301.2625 -50.00 -42.04

15 127.2625 -42.52 -34.56 38 307.2625 -50.17 -42.22

16 133.2625 -42.92 -34.96 39 313.2625 -50.34 -42.38

17 139.2500 -43.30 -35.34 40 319.2625 -50.51 -42.55

18 145.2500 -43.67 -35.71 41 325.2625 -50.67 -42.71

19 151.2500 -44.02 -36.06 42 331.2625 -50.83 -42.87

20 157.2500 -44.36 -36.40 43 337.2625 -50.98 -43.02

21 163.2500 -44.68 -36.72 44 343.2625 -51.14 -43.18

22 169.2500 -44.99 -37.04 45 349.2625 -51.29 -43.33

7 175.2500 -45.30 -37.34 46 355.2625 -51.43 -43.48

8 181.2500 -45.59 -37.63 47 361.2625 -51.58 -43.62

9 187.2500 -45.87 -37.91 48 367.2625 -51.72 -43.76

10 193.2500 -46.15 -38.19 49 373.2625 -51.86 -43.91

11 199.2500 -46.41 -38.45 50 379.2625 -52.00 -44.04

12 205.2500 -46.67 -38.71 51 385.2625 -52.14 -44.18

13 211.2500 -46.92 -38.96 52 391.2625 -52.27 -44.31

23 217.2500 -47.16 -39.20 53 397.2625 -52.41 -44.45

24 223.2500 -47.40 -39.44 54 403.2500 -52.54 -44.58


191

Maximum Leakage Levels - continued

Visual 20 µV/M 50 µV/m Visual 20 µV/M 50 µV/m

CH. Carrier (dBmV) (dBmV) CH. Carrier (dBmV) (dBmV)

55 409.2500 -52.66 -44.70 88 607.2500 -56.09 -48.13

56 415.2500 -52.79 -44.83 89 613.2500 -56.18 -48.22

57 421.2500 -52.91 -44.96 90 619.2500 -56.26 -48.30

58 427.2500 -53.04 -45.08 91 625.2500 -56.34 -48.39

59 433.2500 -53.16 -45.20 92 631.2500 -56.43 -48.47

60 439.2500 -53.28 -45.32 93 637.2500 -56.51 -48.55

61 445.2500 -53.40 -45.44 94 643.2500 -56.59 -48.63

62 451.2500 -53.51 -45.55 100 649.2500 -56.67 -48.71

63 457.2500 -53.63 -45.67 101 655.2500 -56.75 -48.79

64 463.2500 -53.74 -45.78 102 661.2500 -56.83 -48.87

65 469.2500 -53.85 -45.89 103 667.2500 -56.91 -48.95

66 475.2500 -53.96 -46.00 104 673.2500 -56.99 -49.03

67 481.2500 -54.07 -46.11 105 679.2500 -57.06 -49.11

68 487.2500 -54.18 -46.22 106 685.2500 -57.14 -49.18

69 493.2500 -54.29 -46.33 107 691.2500 -57.22 -49.26

70 499.2500 -54.39 -46.43 108 697.2500 -57.29 -49.33

71 505.2500 -54.49 -46.54 109 703.2500 -57.37 -49.41

72 511.2500 -54.60 -46.64 110 709.2500 -57.44 -49.48

73 517.2500 -54.70 -46.74 111 715.2500 -57.51 -49.55

74 523.2500 -54.80 -46.84 112 721.2500 -57.59 -49.63

75 529.2500 -54.90 -46.94 113 727.2500 -57.66 -49.70

76 535.2500 -54.99 -47.04 114 733.2500 -57.73 -49.77

77 541.2500 -55.09 -47.13 115 739.2500 -57.80 -49.84

78 547.2500 -55.19 -47.23 116 745.2500 -57.87 -49.91

79 553.2500 -55.28 -47.32 117 751.2500 -57.94 -49.98

80 559.2500 -55.38 -47.42 118 757.2500 -58.01 -50.05

81 565.2500 -55.47 -47.51 119 763.2500 -58.08 -50.12

82 571.2500 -55.56 -47.60 120 769.2500 -58.15 -50.19

83 577.2500 -55.65 -47.69 121 775.2500 -58.21 -50.25

84 583.2500 -55.74 -47.78 122 781.2500 -58.28 -50.32

85 589.2500 -55.83 -47.87 123 787.2500 -58.35 -50.39

86 595.2500 -55.92 -47.96 124 793.2500 -58.41 -50.45

87 601.2500 -56.00 -48.05 125 799.2500 -58.48 -50.52


192

FCC Rules

Maximum Leakage Levels - continued

Visual 20 µV/m 50 µV/m Visual 20 µV/M 50 µV/m

CH. Carrier (dBmV) (dBmV) CH. Carrier (dBmV) (dBmV)

126 805.2500 -58.54 -50.58 143 907.2500 -59.58 -51.62

127 811.2500 -58.61 -50.65 144 913.2500 -59.64 -51.68

128 817.2500 -58.67 -50.71 145 919.2500 -51.73 -51.73

129 823.2500 -58.73 -50.78 146 925.2500 -59.75 -51.79

130 829.2500 -58.80 -50.84 147 931.2500 -59.81 -51.85

131 835.2500 -58.86 -50.90 148 937.2500 -59.86 -51.90

132 841.2500 -58.92 -50.96 149 943.2500 -59.92 -51.96

133 847.2500 -58.98 -51.03 150 949.2500 -59.97 -52.01

134 853.2500 -59.05 -51.09 151 955.2500 -60.03 -52.07

135 859.2500 -59.11 -51.15 152 961.2500 -60.08 -52.12

136 865.2500 -59.17 -51.21 153 967.2500 -60.13 -52.18

137 871.2500 -59.23 -51.27 154 973.2500 -60.19 -52.23

138 877.2500 -59.29 -51.33 155 979.2500 -60.24 -52.28

139 883.2500 -59.35 -51.39 156 985.2500 -60.29 -52.34

140 889.2500 -59.40 -51.45 157 991.2500 -60.35 -52.39

141 895.2500 -59.46 -51.50 158 997.2500 -60.40 -52.44

142 901.2500 -59.52 -51.56

Determine the maximum leakage levels by using the following equation:

where:

L = Maximum leakage level (dBmV)

E = Voltage

ƒ

ƒ = Visual Carrier Frequency (MHz)

Step 1

Convert dBmV to µV.

Use tables in Section 6 to convert dBmV to mV. Multiply mV by

1000 to set µV.

Step 2

Convert µV to µV/m.

Multiply µV times frequency (in MHz) times .021


193

Common CATV Symbols.......................194

Common IPTV Symbols........................196

CATV & IPTV Acronyms........................198

Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms...230

Useful Websites and Publications..........235

11 SYMBOLS & ACRONYMS


194 Common CATV Symbols


Common CATV Symbols

195


196 Common IPTV Symbols


Common IPTV Symbols

197


198

CATV & IPTV Acronyms

1xRTT

3DES

3DTV

3G

3GPP

Single

Carrier Radio

Transmission

Technology

Triple Data

Encryption

Standard

Three

Dimensional

Television

3rd Generation

Third Generation

Partnership

Project

AAC

AAC

AACS

ABSBH

AC

AC

AC_BE

Advanced Audio

Codec

Advanced Audio

Compression

Advanced Access

Content System

Average Busy

Season Busy Hour

Access Category

Alternating Current

Access Category

– Best Effort

ADI

Ad-ID

ADM

ADSL

AES

AF

Asynchronous

Digital Interface

Advertising-

Digital Interface

Add/Drop

Multiplexing

Administration

Asymmetric

Digital

Subscriber Line

Advanced

Encryption Standard

Assured Forwarding

4C

5C

A/D

A/D/A

A/O

A/V

AAA

AAAA

Consortium

of Intel, IBM,

Matsushita, and

Toshiba

Consortium

of Intel, Sony,

Matsushita,

Toshiba, and

Hitachi

Analog to Digital

Analog to Digital

to Analog

Additional Outlet

Audio/Video

Authentication,

Authorization,

and Accounting

American

Association of

Advertising

Agencies

AC_BK

AC_VI

AC_VO

AC-3

ACE

ACK

ACL

ACL

ACM

AD

ADI

Access Category

– BacKground

Access Category

– VIdeo

Access Category

– VOice

Audio Coding

Revision 3

Advanced

Component

Exchange

Acknowledge

Access Control List

Applications

Connection-Less

Adaptive Coding

and Modulation

Activity Detection

Asset Distribution

Interface

AFF

AGC

AGW

AI

AIFS

AIN

AIS

AIT

AKA

ALG

AM

Adaptive Field/

Frame

Automatic Gain

Control

Access Gateway

Artificial Intelligence

Arbitration

InterFrame Space

Advanced

Intelligent Network

Alarm Indication

Signal

Application

Information Table

Authentication and

Key Agreement

Application Layer

Gateway

Amplitude

Modulation


199

AM

AMA

AMOL

A-MPDU

AMS

ANA

ANC

ANF

Application Manager

Automatic

Message

Accounting

Automated

Measurement Of

Lineup

Aggregated MAC

(Media Access

Control) Protocol

Data Unit

Asset

Management

System

Association

of National

Advertisers

Announcement

Aggregate Noise

Factor

APON

Apps

APS

APSK

ARCNET

ARDP

ARF

ARIN

ATM-based

Passive Optical

Network

Applications

Automatic

Protection

Switching

Amplitude Phase

Shift Keying

Attached Resource

Computer Network

Advanced Return

Path Modulator

Advertising Research

Foundation and

Businesses

American Registry of

Internet Numbers

ASI

AsiaPac

ASIC

ASM

ASP

ASP

ASR

ASTB

ASTD

Asynchronous

Serial Interface

Asia Pacific

Application-

Specific

Integrated Circuit

Asset

Management

System

Advanced

Streaming Profile

Average Selling

Price

Access Switch Router

Advanced Set-

Top Box

American Society

for Training and

Development

ANP

Announcement

Player

ARP

Address Resolution

Protocol

AT

Advanced

Technology

ANSI

AOD

AoR

AP

AP

APD

API

American National

Standards Institute

Advertising On

Demand

Address of Record

Audio Processor

Automatic Power

Avalanche Photo

Diode

Application

Programming

Interface

ARPU

AS

ASAP

ASCII

ASF

ASF

Average Revenue

per Unit (or User)

Application Server

As Soon As Possible

American

Standard Code

for Information

Interchange

Advanced

Streaming

Format

Advanced

Systems Format

ATA

ATDMA

ATM

ATSC

ATTN

AUP

Advanced

Technology

Attachment

Asynchronous

Time Division

Multiple Access

Asynchronous

Transfer Mode

Advanced Television

Systems Committee

Attenuator

Acceptable Use

Policy


200 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

AV

AV

AVC

Audio/Video

Audiovisual

Advanced Video

Coding

BDR

BE

BER

Baseband Digital

Reverse

Best Effort

Bit Error Rate

BOOTP

BP

BPDU

Bootstrap Protocol

Boundary Point

Bridge Protocol

Data Unit

AVI

AWGN

AWT

B2B

B2BUA

Advanced Video

Interface

Additive White

Gaussian Noise

Abstract Window

Toolkit

Business to

Business

Back-to-Back

User Agent

BERT

BFS

BFT

BGCF

BGP

Bit Error Rate Test

Broadcast File

System

Broadcast File

Transfer

Breakout

Gateway Control

Function

Border Gateway

Protocol

BPF

BPI

BPI+

BPL

B-PON

Band-Pass Filter

Baseline Privacy

Interface

Baseline Privacy

Interface Plus

Broadband over

Power Line

Broadband

Passive Optical

Network

B2C

BA

BAF

BB

BB

BC

BC/NC

BC-BS

BCID

Business to

Consumer

Behavioral

Aggregate

Bellcore AMA

Format

Baseband

Broadband

Broadcast

Broadcast/

Narrowcast

Backwards-

Compatible

Broadcast Services

Billing Correlation

Identifier

BICSI

BIF

bits/

sym

BIU

BMS

BNC

BNN

BoD

Building Industry

Consulting

Services

Binary Interchange

Format

Bits per Symbol

Broadband

Interface Unit

Business

Management

System

Broadcast Network

Bit-Error-Rate in

the Noise Notch

Broadcast on

Demand

bps

BRAS

BRI

BRI

BRS

BS

BSAM

BSAM

BSC

Bits Per Second

Broadband

Remote Access

Server

Basic Rate Interface

Brand Rating

Index

Broadband Radio

Service

Broadcast Services

Basic Sequential

Access Method

Broadband

Services Access

Multiplexer

Base Station

BDF

Broadband

Digital Forward

BOM

Bill of Material

BSCC

Broadcast Stream

Client Connector


201

BSS

BSS

BTS

BTS

BTSC

BTU/hr

BW

BYOI

C/N

CA

CA

CA

CAB

Basic Service Set

Business Support

System

Base Transceiver

Station

Business Telecom

Services

Broadcast Television

Systems Committee

British Thermal

Unit Per Hour

Bandwidth

Bring Your Own

Infrastructure

Carrier-to-Noise

Ratio

Call Agent

Conditional Access

Content Archive

Cable Advertising

Bureau

CAN

Canitec

CapEx

CAPMAN

CAS

CAS

CAT

Cellular Access

Network

Camara Nacional

de la Industria

Television por Cable

Capital

Expenditure

Capacity

Management

Conditional

Access Server

Conditional

Access System

Conditional

Access Table

CAT5 Category 5

CATV Community

Antenna Television

(or Cable Television)

CB

CB

CBR

Channel Bonding

Citizen Band

Constant Bit Rate

CCI

CCK

CCM

CCM

CCNR

CCS

CCS

CD

CD

CDC

CDC

CDL

Copy Control

Information

Complimentary

Code Keying

Channel Change

Message

Constant Coding

and Modulation

Completion of

Calls No Reply

Centum Call

Seconds

Control Compact Disc

Chromatic

Dispersion

Compact Disc

Changed Data

Capture

Connected

Device

Configuration

Code DownLoad

CAC

CAD

CALA

CALEA

CAM

Call Admission

Control

Computer Aided

Design

Central America

and Latin America

Communications

Assistance for Law

Enforcement Act

Content

Addressable

Memory

CBT

CC

CCA

CCCM

CCDF

Computer Based

Testing (or Training)

Closed Caption

Circuit Card

Assembly

CPE Controlled

Cable Modem

Complementary

Cumulative

Distribution Function

CDMA

CDN

CDP

CDR

CD-ROM

CDT

Code Division

Multiple Access

Content Delivery

Network

Cisco Discovery

Protocol

Call Detail Record

Compact Disk-Read

Only Memory

Carrier Definition

Table


202 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

CE

CE

CEA

CEBus

CEO

CEP

CEPCA

CER

CES

CFO

CFP

CH

Consumer

Electronics

Customer

Equipment

Consumer

Electronics

Association

Consumer

Electronic Bus

Chief Executive

Officer

Cable Entry Point

Consumer

Electronics Powerline

Communication

Alliance

Codeword Error Ratio

Circuit Emulation

Service

Chief Financial

Officer

Contention Free

Periods

CableHome

CIN

CINIT

CIR

CLASS

CLDC

CLE

CLEC

CLI

CLI

CLR

Call Indentity

Number

Centro de

Investigacion e

Innovacion en

Telecomunicaciones

Committed

Information Rate

Custom Local

Area Signaling

Services

Connection

Limited Device

Configuration

Customer

Located

Equipment

Common Local

Echange Carrier

Command Line

Interface

Cumulative

Leakage Index

Common

Language Runtime

CMOS

CMS

CMTS

CNAM

CNIR

CNR

CNR

CO

CODEC

COFDM

COLD

COPS

Complimentary

Metal-Oxide

Semiconductor

Call

Management

Server

Cable Modem

Termination

System

Calling NAMe

Carrier-to-Noise/

Ingress Ratio

Carrier-to-Noise Ratio

Chronic Non-

Responder

Central Office

Coder/Decoder

Coded Orthogonal

Frequency Division

Multiplexing

Central Office

Layout Design

Common Open

Policy Service

Ch

CIDR

CIF

CIFS

CIM

Channel

Classless Inter

Domain Routing

Common Image

Format

Common Internet

File System

Common

Information Model

CLV

CM

CMCI

CMLA

Consumer

Lifetime Value

Cable Modem

CM (Cable Modem)

To CPE (Customer

Premises Equipment)

Interface

Content

Management License

Administrator

CORBA

CoS

COT

CP

CPD

Common Object

Request Broker

Architecture

Class of Service

Central Office

Terminal

Copy Protection

Common Path

Distortion


203

CPE

CPM

CPMS

CPPM

CPRM

CPTWG

CPU

CQoS

Customer

Premises

Equipment

Cost per

Thousand

Impressions

Copy Protection

Management

System

Copy Protection

for Prerecorded

Media

Content

Protection for

Recordable Media

Copy Protection

Technical

Working Group

Central

Processing Unit

CableHome

Quality of Service

CR-LDP

CRM

CSA

CSCF

CSH

CSMA/

CA

CSMA/

CD

Constraintbased

Label

Distribution

Protocol

Customer

Relationship

Management

Common

Scrambling

Algorithim

Call State/Session

Control(ler)

Function

Central Switch

Homerun

Carrier Sense

Multiple Access

with Collision

Avoidance

Carrier Sense

Multiple Access

with Collision

Detection

CSV

CTAM

CTB

CTIA

CTO

CVCT

CW

CW

CWDM

Comma

Separated Value

Cable &

Telecommunications

Association for

Marketing

Composite Triple

Beat

Cellular

Telecommunications

& Internet

Association

Chief Technology

Officer

Cable Virtual

Channel Table

Codeword

Continuous Wave

Coarse

Wavelength

Division

Multiplexing

CQP

CRA

CableHome

QoS Portal

Contention

Resolution Algorithm

CSO

CSR

Composite

Second Order

Customer Service

Representative

CWM

D&B

Common

Warehouse

Metamodel

Dun & Bradstreet

CRC

CRC

CRG

CRL

Cyclic Redundancy

Check

Cyclic

Redundancy

Check

CableHome

Residential

Gateway

Certificate

Revocation List

CS-RZ

CSS

CSU/

DSU

Carrier-

Suppressed

Return-to-Zero

Content

Scrambling

System

Channel Service

Unit/Data

Service Unit

D/E

DA

DAB

DAC

DAC

Decrypt/Extract

Destination Address

Digital Audio

Broadcast

Descrambler

Authorization

Center

Digital Addressable


204 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

DAC

DANIS

DARPA

DAS

Digital to Analog

Converter

Digital Addressable

Network Interface

System

Defense Advanced

Research Projects

Agency

Direct Attached

Storage;

Distributed

Antenna System

DC

DC

DCA

D-

CAPMAN

DCAS

Directional Coupler

Dispersion

Compensator

Digital Cable

Application

Dynamic Capacity

Management

Downloadable

Conditional

Access System

DCR

DCS

DCT

DCT

DCT

Digital Cable Ready

Digital Crossconnect

System

Digital

Communications

(Cable) Terminal

Discrete Cosine

Transform

Discrete Cosine

Transform

DASE

DAT

DAT

DAVIC

DB

dB

dBc

dBFS

dBm

dBmV

DBPSK

DBS

DC

DC

Digital TV Application

Software Environment

Digital Audio Tape

DOCSIS® Settop

Gateway

Address Table

Digital Audio

Visual Council

Database

Decibel

Decibel Referenced

to the Carrier

Decibel Below

Full Scale

Decibel milliwatt

Decibel milliVolt

Differential

Binary Phase

Shift Keying

Direct Broadcast

Satellite

DigiCipher®

Direct Current

DCC

DCC

DCD

DCD

DCE

DCF

DCF

DCII

DCM

DCP

DCP

Data

Communication

Channel

Dynamic

Channel Change

Disconnection Delay

Downstream

Channel

Descriptor

Data Circuit

Comm Equipment

Dispersion

Compensating

Fiber

Distributed

Coordination

Function

DigiCipher® II

Dispersion

Compensation

Module

Device Control Protocol

Digital Convergence

Platform

DE

DeCSS

DEM

DENI

DES

DES

DF

DFAST

DFB

DHCP

Default

Defeat Content

Scrambling

System

DigiCipher Even

Manager

Digital

Entertainment

Networking

Initiative

Data Encryption

Standard

Digital

Encryption

Standard

Delivery Function

Dynamic Feedback

Arrangement

Scrambling

Technique

Distributed

Feedback

Dynamic Host

Configuration

Protocol


205

DHEI

DHWG

DiffServ

Div

DIX

DLCI

DLL

DLNA

DLS

DM

DM

DM

DM

DMA

DMB

DMC

DMCA

DMH

DigiCable

Headend

Expansion

Interface

Digital Home

Working Group

Differentiated

Services

Division

DEC-Intel-Xerox

Data Link

Connection Identifier

Data Link Layer

Digital Living

Network Alliance

Down Load Server

Degraded Modem

Demodulator

Device Manager

Dispersion

Mitigation

Designated

Marketing Area

Digital

Multimedia

Broadcasting

Dual Modem

Cards

Digital Millennium

Copyright Act

Degraded

Modem Hours

DMIF

DML

DNCS

DNS

DOA

DOCS

DIAG

DOCSIS ®

DOCSIS ®

-RFI

DoD

DoS

DPI

DPON

DPSK

DPT

DQoS

DQPSK

Delivery

Multimedia

Integration

Framework

Direct Modulated

Distributed

Feedback Laser

Digital Network

Control System

Domain Name

System

Dead on Arrival

DOCSIS Diagnostic

Program

Data-Over-Cable

Service Interface

Specifications

DOCSIS® Radio

Frequency Interface

Department of

Defense

Denial of Service

Digital Program

Insertion

Deep-Fiber Passive

Optical Network

Differential Phase

Shift Keying

Dynamic Packet

Transport

Dynamic Quality

of Service

Differential Quadrature

Phase Shift Keying

DRAM

DRC

DRM

DS

DS0

DSA

DSCP

DSE

DSG

DSL

DSLAM

DSM

DSM-

CC

DSM-

CC

DSP

DSP

Dynamic Random

Access Memory

Dynamic Range

Control

Digital Rights

Management

Downstream

Digital Signal 0 (zero)

Dynamic Service

Addition

Differentiated

Service Code Point

Digital Service

Encoder

DOCSIS® Settop

Gateway

Digital

Subscriber Line

Digital Subscriber

Line Access

Multiplexer

Digital Storage

Media, DNCS

Session Manager

Digital Storage

Medium Command

& Control

UN Digital Storage

Media Command

and Control Userto-Network

Digital Signal

Processing

Digital Signal

Processor


206 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

DSR

DSSS

DSTB

DS-UWB

DS-x

DSx

DTCP

DTCP/5C

DTD

DTE

DTH

DTMF

DTV

Digital Satellite

Receiver

Direct

Sequencing

Spread Spectrum

Digital Set-top Box

Direct Sequence

Ultra-WideBand

Digital Signal (level)

Dynamic Service

Change

Digital

Transmission

Content Protection

Digital Transmission

Content Protection/5

Companies

Dial Tone Delay

Data Terminal

Equipment

Direct To Home

Dual Tone Multifrequency

Digital Television

DVB-

DSNG

DVB-H

DVB-

RCS

DVB-S

DVB-S

DVB-T

DVC

DVD

DVD+R

DVD+

RW

DVD

CCA

DVB (Digital Video

Broadcast) Digital

Satellite News

Gathering

DVB Handheld

DVB (Digital

Video Broadcast)

Return Channel

via Satellite

DVB (Digital

Video Broadcast

Standard

DVB Satellite

DVB Terrestial

Digital Video

Compressor

Digital Versatile

Disc

Recordable

Digital Versatile

Disc

Rewritable Digital

Versatile Disc

Digital Versatile

Disc Copy Control

Association

DVS

DWDM

Digital Video

Subcommittee

Dense

Wavelength

Division

Multiplex

E/I Encrypt/Insert

EA-DFB Electro-Absorption

Modulator Integrated

Distributed Feedback

Laser

EAP

EAS

eBIF

EBITDA

ECC

eCM

Extensible

Authentication

Protocol

Emergency Alert

System

Enhanced Binary

Interchange

Format

Earnings Before

Interest, Taxes,

Depreciation,

and Amortization

Encryption

Control Center

Embedded Cable

Modem

DUN

DUT

DVB

DVB-

ASI

Dial-Up Networking

Device Under

Test

Digital Video

Broadcast

DVB (Digital

Video Broadcast)

Asynchronous

Serial Interface

DVI

DVNR

DVR

DVS

Display Visual

Interface

Digital Vision

Noise Reducer

Digital Video

Recorder

Digital Video

Standard

ECM

ECR

ECR

EDC

Entitlement

Control Message

Efficient Consumer

Response

Engineering

Change Request

Electronic

Dispersion

Compensator


207

EDCA

EDFA

EDGE

eDOCSIS

EEPROM

EF

EFM

EFMS

EFS

EHDR

EIA

EIC

EIGRP

Enhanced

Distributed

Channel Access

Erbium Doped

Fiber Amplifier

Enhanced Data

Rates for Global

Evolution

Embedded

Data-Over-Cable

Service Interface

Specifications

Electronically

Erasable

Programmable

Read Only

Memory

Expedited

Forwarding

Ethernet in the

First Mile

Error Free

Milliseconds

Error Free Seconds

Extended Header

Electronics Industry

Association

Entertainment,

Information, and

Communications

Enhanced

Interior Gateway

Routing Protocol

EIRP

EIS/SCS

ELA

E-LSP

EM

EMC

EMEA

EMI

EML

EMM

EMS

eMTA

ENDEC

ENUM

Effective Isotropic

Radiated Power

Event Information

Scheduler/

SimulCrypt

Synchronizer

Ethernet Line

Aggregation

EXP-Inferred-PSC

Label Switch

Path

Element Manager

Encoder Monitor

and Control

Europe, Middle

East and Asia

Electro-Magnetic

Interference

Externally

Modulated Laser

Entitlement

Management

Message

Element

Management

System

Embedded

Multimedia

Terminal Adapter

Encode/Decode

Electronic

Numbering

EoS

EP

EPG

EPL

EPON

EPRI

EPROM

EQAM

ER

ERIM

ERM

ERS

ES

ES

ESC

ESCON

Ethernet over

SONET

End Point

Electronic

Program Guide

Ethernet Private Line

Ethernet Passive

Optical Network

Electric Power

Research

Institute

Electrically

Readable

Programmable

Read Only Memory

Edge QAM

Edge Router

Erasmus Research

Institute of

Management

Edge Resource

Manager

Encryption

Renewal System

Errored Seconds

Exclusive Session

Embedded

Signaling Channel

Enterprise

System

Connection

EIR

Excess

Information Rate

E-O

EoD

Electrical-Optical

Everything on Demand

ESF

Extended

SuperFrame


208 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

ES

Errored Seconds

ExCCI

Extended CC

FF

Fast Forward

ES

ESC

ESCON

ESF

ESM

ESP

Exclusive Session

Embedded

Signaling

Channel

Enterprise System

Connection

Extended

SuperFrame

EOD Server Manager

Encapsulating

Security Payload

EX-MOD

EXP

FastE

FAT

FBI

FC

Externally

Modulated

Experimental

Fast Ethernet

File Allocation Table

Federal Bureau

of Investigation

Fiber Channel

FC-AL Fiber Channel –

Arbitrated Loop

FFT

FGPS

FHCS

FHSS

FICON

Fast Fourier

Transform

FEC, Guard

time, Preamble,

Stuffing bytes

Fragment

Header Check

Sequence

Frequency

Hopping Spread

Spectrum

Fiber Connection

ETS

ETSI

ETTH

ETTx

eTV

EVC

EV-DO

EVM

EVPL

EVPLAN

EXC

Event Trigger

System

European

Telecommunication

Standards Institute

Ethernet To The Home

Ethernet To The

x (end point)

Enhanced Television

Ethernet Virtual

Circuit

Evolution-Data Only

Error Vector

Magnitude

Ethernet Virtual

Private Line

Ethernet Virtual Private

Local Area Network

Electronic Cross

Connect

FCC

FCP

FCRC

FDD

FDDI

FDIS

Federal

Communications

Commission

Fibre Channel Protocol

Fragment Cyclic

Redundancy

Check

Frequency

Division Duplexed

Fiberoptic Digital

Data Interface

Final Draft

International

Standard

FDP Face Description

FE Fast Ethernet

FEC Forward Error

Correction

FEC Forwarding

Equivalence

Class

FIFO

FLR

FM

FN

FOADM

FOD

FOSC

FP

FPM

FQDN

FR

FRAG

First In First Out

Frame Loss Ratio

Frequency

Modulation

Fiber Node

Fixed Filter

Optical Add/

Drop Multiplexer

Free on Demand

Fiber Optic

Splice Closure

Fabry-Perot

FEC and Packet

Multiplexer

Fully Qualified

Domain Name

Frame Relay

Fragmentation


209

FS-

CWDM

FSN

FSO

Full Spectrum

– Coarse

Wave Division

Multiplexing

Full Service Network

Free Space Optical

FTA Free to Air

FTP

FTTB

FTTC

FTTH

FTTN

FTTP

FTTU

FTTx

FW

FWM

FXS

G2B

GaAs

File Transfer

Protocol

Fiber to the Business

Fiber to the Curb

Fiber to the Home

Fiber to the Node

Fiber to the Premises

Fiber to the User

Fiber to the (endpoint)

Firewall

Four-Wave Mixing

Foreign

eXchange Station

Go2BroadbandSM

Gallium Arsenide

GBIC Module

Gbps Gigabits per Second

GC Gateway

GCR Group

Configuration

Request

GDV

GE

GEM

GFL

GFP

GFP-F

GFP-T

GFP-T

GGSN

GHz

GigE

Group Delay Variation

Gigabit Ethernet

Globally

Executable MHP

Group Flow Label

Generalized

Framing Procedure

Generic Framing

Procedure-Framed

Generic Framing

Procedure-Transparent

Transparent

Generalized

Framing Procedure

Gateway GPRS

Support Node

Gigahertz

Gigabit Ethernet

GNT

GOP

GPI

G-PON

GPRS

GPS

GQoS

GR

GRE

GRM

GRX

GS

GSM

Grant

Group of Pictures

General Purpose

Interface

Gigabit Passive

Optical Network

General Packet

Radio Service

Global Positioning

System

Generic Quality

of Service

Generic Requirement

Generic Routing

Encapsulation

Global Resource

Manager

GPRS (General

Packet Radio

Service) Roaming

eXchange

Global Server

Global System

for Mobile

communications

GARP

GB

GB/s

GbE

GBIC

Generic Attribute

Registration Protocol

Gigabyte

Gigabits per Second

Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Interface

Converter

GIGO

GIS

GMPLS

Garbage In,

Garbage Out

Geographic

Information

System

Generalized

MultiProtocol

Label Switching

GSMA

GSRM

GTP

Global System

for Mobile

communications

Association

Global System

Resource

Manager

GPRS Tunneling

Protocol


210 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

GUI

Graphical User

Interface

HDD

High Definition

Decoder

HIT

Headend

Interface Terminal

GVRP

GW

GWC

H&S

HAN

HAVi

HCCA

HCF

HCM

HCRP

HCS

HCT

GARP VLAN

Registration

Protocol

Gateway

Gateway

Hub and Spoke

Home Area Network

Home Audio Video

Interoperability

Hybrid

Coordination

function controlled

Channel Access

Hybrid Coordination

Function

Hardware Control

Message

Hard Copy Cable

Replacement

Header Check

Sequence

Headend

Configuration Tool

HDE High Definition

Encoder

HDLC High Level Data

Link Control

HDMI High Definition

Multimedia

Interface

HD-PLC High Definitionready

Powerline

Communications

HDR Header

HDT Host Digital

Terminal

HDTV High Definition

Television

HDVOD High-Definition

Video on Demand

HE

HEC

HEM

HF

HFC

Headend

Headend Cable

Headend Modem

High Frequency

Hybrid Fiber/Coax

HITS

HLR

HMAC

HMS

HMS

HMS

HN

H-Net

HNv1

HOD

HOM

Home

PNA

Headend In The Sky

Home Location

Register

keyed-Hashing

for Message

Authentication Code

Headend

Management

System

Home Media Server

Hybrid Management

Sub-layer

Home Network

Home Network

Home

Networking

Version 1

HBO On Demand

High-Order

Modulation

Home Phoneline

Networking

Alliance

HD

Hardware

HGW

Home Gateway

HP

Homes Passed

HD

High Definition

HH HouseHold

HPF

High Pass Filter

HDBH

HDCP

HDD

High-Day Busy Hour

High-bandwidth

Digital Content

Protection

Hard Disk Drive

HHP

HHR

Hi-PHY

Households Passed

Half Horizontal

Resolution

High Performance

Physical Layer

HPLMN

HPNA

HPOV

Home Public Land

Mobile Network

Home Phoneline

Networking Alliance

Hewlitt Packard

Open View


211

HQ

HRC

HSA

HSCI

HSD

HSDPA

HSE

HSI

HSP

HSRP

HSS

HSS/

HLR

HSUPA

HTML

HTPC

HTTP

HVAC

High Quality

Harmonically

Related Carriers

High Speed Access

High Speed

Cable Interface

High Speed Data

High Speed Downlink

Packet Access

HD Service Encoder

High-Speed Internet

Headset Profile

Hot Standby

Router Protocol

Home Subscriber

Server

High Speed Serial/

Home Location Register

High Speed Uplink

Packet Access

Hyper Text

Markup Language

Home Theatre

Personal Computer

Hyper Text

Transfer Protocol

Heating, Ventilation,

and Air Conditioning

HVS

Hz

I/O

IAG

IAMS

IANA

IB

ICB

ICC

ICE

ICE

ICMP

ICO

i-CSCF

i-CSCF

ID

Human Vision System

Hertz

Input/Output

Interactive Advertising

Guidelines

Intelligent Asset

Management System

Internet Assigned

Numbers Authority

In-Band

Independent

Customer Builds

Instant Channel

Change

Information &

Content Exchange

Inter Chip Encryption

Internet Control

Message Protocol

Incumbent Cable

Operator

Interrogating-

Call State

Control Function

Interrogating-Call

State/Session

Control(ler)

Function

Identifier

IDE

IDE

iDEN

IDS

IDT

IEC

IEEE

IEEE-SA

IETF

IF

IFC

IGMP

IGRP

Integrated

Development

Environment

Integrated

Device

Electronics

integrated

Digital Enhanced

Network

Intrusion Detection

System

Integrated Digital

Terminal

International

Electrotechnical

Commission

Institute of Electrical

and Electronics

Engineers

Institute of Electrical

and Electronics

Engineers Standards

Association

Internet Engineering

Task Force

Intermediate

Frequency

Initial First Cost

Internet Group

Multicast Protocol

Interior Gateway

Routing Protocol

HVAC

HVC

High Voltage

Alternating Current

HD Video Compressor

IDC

IDCT

International

Data Group Inc.

Inverse Discrete

Cosine Transform

IKE

ILEC

Internet Key Exchange

Incumbent Local

Exchange Carrier


212 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

ILMI

IM

IMD

IMS

INA

I-NET

INP

INA

INT

IntServ

IP

IPAT

IP-CAN

IPCDN

IPDR

IPDT

IPG

IPG

Interim Link

Management

Interface

Instant Messaging

Intermodulation

Distortion

IP Multimedia

Subsystem

Interactive

Network Adaptor

Institutional

Network

Input

Interface Adaptor

International

Integrated Services

Internet Protocol

Internet Protocol

Access Terminal

Internet Protocol

Cellular Access

Network

IP over Cable

Data Network

Internet Protocol

Detail Record

Internet Protocol

Digital Terminal

Interactive

Program Guide

Inter-Packet Gap

IPM

IPMP

IPPV

IPRM

IPSec

IPTA

IPTV

IPv4

IR

IRD

IRI

IRR

IRT

IRTDBG

IS

IS

Intelligent Policy

Management

Intellectual Property

Management &

Protection

Impulse Pay Per View

IP Rights

Management

System

Internet Protocol

Security

Internet Protocol

Transport

Agreement

Internet Protocol

Television

Internet Protocol

version 4

Infrared

Integrated

Receiver/Decoder

Industrial

Reporting Inc

Internal Rate of

Return

Integrated

Receiver/

Transcoder

Integrated Receiver

Transmitter

DeBuG

Information Systems

International

Standard

ISA

iSCSI

ISDB

ISDB-T

ISDN

ISI

IS-IS

ISM

ISMS

ISO

ISP

ISP

ISTP

Interactive

Service

Architecture

Internet Small

Computer

System Interface

Integrated

Service Digital

Broadcast

Integrated

Services Digital

Broadcasting

-Terrestrial

Integrated

Services Digital

Network

Inter-Symbol

Interference

Intermediate

System-to-

Intermediate

System

Industrial

Scientific Medical

Integrated Service

Management

System

International

Organization for

Standardization

Inside Plant

Internet Service

Provider

Internet

Signaling

Transport

Protocol


213

ISUP

ISV

IT

Integrated Services

Digital Network

User Part

Independent

Software Vendor

Information

Technology

JCP

JMF

JND

JNI

Java Community Process

Java Medium

Framework

Just Noticeable

Difference

Java Native Interface

ksym/s

ksym/

sec

Kilosymbols Per Second

Kilosymbols Per Second

KTTA Korean

Telecommunications

Technology

Association

ITA

ITU

ITU-T

iTV

IUC

Interactive

Television

Association

International

Telecommunications

Union

International

Telecommunication

Union -

Telecommunication

Standardization

Sector

Interactive Television

Interval Usage Code

JPEG

JSR

JTA

JVM

JVT

JVT

Joint

Photographic

Experts Group

Java Specification

Request

Job Task Analysis

Java Virtual Machine

Java Vision Toolkit

Joint Video Team

k Kilo = 1000

kB

Kilobyte

kVA

1000 Volt Amperes

kW Kilowatt

l Current

L/R Left/Right

L2 Level 2

L2TP Layer-2

Tunneling

Protocol

L2TPv3

Layer-2

Tunneling

Protocol

Version 3

IVR

IVRM

IWF

IWF

IXC

IXP

J2ME

Interactive Voice

Response

Intelligent

Video Resource

Manager

Internetworking

Function

InterWorking

Function

Interexchange

Carrier

Internet Exchange

Provider

Java2 MicroEdition

kb/s

kbps

KDC

KDCF

kHz

KLS

km

KP

KSA

Kilobits per Second

Kilobits per Second

Key Distribution

Center

Korea Digital

Cable Forum

Kilohertz

Key List Server

Kilometer

Kernel Processor

Knowledge, Skills

& Abilities

LAeq

LAN

LATA

LC

LCAS

LCC

LCD

Long-term

A-weighted

loudness

EQuivalent

Local Area

Network

Local Access and

Transport Area

Local Convergence

Link Capacity

Adjustment

Scheme

Life-Cycle Cost

Liquid Crystal Display


214 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

LCP

Local Convergence

Point

LMP

Link Management

Protocol

M/U

Modulator/

Upconverter

LCS

LD

LDAP

Line Code Signaling

Long Distance

Lightweight

Directory Access

Protocol

LNB

LNP

LO

Low Noise Blockdownconverter

Local Number

Portability

Local Origination

M3UA

MAC

MACD

MTP-3 User

Adaptation

Media Access Control

Moves, Adds,

Changes, Deletes

LDP

LDPC

Label Distribution

Protocol

Low Density

Parity Check

LOADM

LOS

Lightweight

Optical Add/

Drop Multiplexer

Line Of Sight

MAN

MAP

Metropolitan

Area Network

Main Audio

Program

LDS

LEC

LED

LEN

LEO

LER

LF

LFA

LH

DWDM

LLC

L-LSP

LMDS

LMI

Local Digital Switch

Local Exchange

Carrier

Light Emitting Diode

Length

Low Earth Orbit

Label Edge Router

Low Frequency

Long Format

Advertising

Long Haul Dense

Wave Division

Multiplex

Logical Link Control

Label-Only-

Inferred-PSC LSP

Local Multipoint

Distribution Service

Link Management

Interface

LOS

LovSAN

LP

LPCM

LRU

LSB

LSP

LSP

LSR

LTC

LTS

LUA

LVI

LWP

Loss of Signal

a.k.a The Blaster Worm

Long Play

Linear Pulse

Code Modulation

Least Recently

Used

Least Significant Byte

Label Switched Path

Legacy Set-top Profile

Label Switch Router

Longitudinal

Time Code

Long Term

Storage

Last User Activity

Low Voltage

Integrator

Low Water Peak

MAS

MB

Mb/s

MB/s

MB-AFF

Mbaud

Mbits/

sec

MBOA

MB-

OFDM

Mbps

MBps

MPEG-Aware

Switch

Megabyte

Megabits per

Second

Megabytes per

Second

Macro Block Adaptive

Frame/Field

Megabaud

Megabits per

Second

MultiBand

OFDM Alliance

Multiband

Orthogonal

Frequency Domain

Modulation

Megabits per

Second

MegaByte per

Second


215

MBS

MC

M-

CMTS

Mission Bit Stream

Motion Compensation

Modular Cable Modem

Termination System

MGCF

MGCP

MGW

Media Gateway

Control(ler) Function

Media Gateway

Control Protocol

Media GateWay

MOS

MP

MP@HL

Mean Opinion

Score

Media Player

Main Profile @

High Level

MC-PC

MCPC

MCTF

MDA

MDA

Media Center

Personal Computers

Multiple Channel

Per Carrier

Motion

Compensated

Temporal Filtering

Message-Digest

Algorithm

Model Driven

Architecture

MHP

MHz

MIB

MIDP

MIMO

MIP

Multimedia

Home Platform

Megahertz

Management

Information Base

Mobile Information

Device Profile

Multiple Input,

Multiple Output

Mobile IP

MP3 MPEG-2 Layer 3

MPAA Motion Picture

Association of

America

MPBGP

MPC

MPDU

MultiProtocol

Border Gateway

Protocol

Media Player

MAC (Media

Access Control)

Protocol Data Unit

MDR

Mobile Digital

Recorder

MIPS

Million Instructions

Per Second

MPE

Multi Protocol

Encapsulation

MDU

mDVR

MEMS

MEN

MER

MF

MF

MG

MGC

Multiple Dwelling Unit

Multi-TV Digital

Video Recorder

Micro-Electro-

Mechanical

Systems

Metro Ethernet

Network

Modulation Error Ratio

Multifield

Multifrequency

Media Gateway

Control(ler)

Media Gateway

ML@

MP

MLD

MM

MMD

MMI

MMT

MOCA

MOD

MOF

Main Level @

Main Profile

Multicast Listener

Discovery

Multimedia

Multipoint Microwave

Distribution

Man Machine Interface

Modulation

Mode Table

Multimedia Over

Coax Alliance

Movies on Demand

Meta Object Facility

MPEG

MPEG-

TS

MPLS

MPS

MPTS

MPTS-

TE

MQ

M-QAM

Moving Pictures

Expert Group

Moving Pictures

Expert Group

Transport Stream

Multiprotocol

Label Switching

Modular

Processing System

Multiple Program

Transport Stream

MPLS – Traffic

Engineering

Medium Quality

M-ary Quadrature

Amplitude Modulation


216 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

MRFC

Multimedia

Resource Function

MTBF

Mean Time

Between Failures

NASS

Network Access

Attachment Function(s)

MRFP

Multimedia Resource

Function Processor

MTP-3

Message Transfer

Part Level 3

NAT

Network Address

Translation

MRTG

MS

ms

Multi Router

Traffic Grapher

Master Server

Millisecond

MTTF

MTTR

MTTU

Mean-Time-To-Failure

Mean Time- To- Repair

Mean Time to

Understand

NBC-BS

NBI

Non Backwards-

Compatible

Broadcast Services

Northbound

Interface

MSA300 Standard 10

Gigabit Ethernet

Connector

MUX

MV

Multiplexer

Motion Vector

NC

NCM

Network

Next Century Media

MSB

MSC

MSE

msec

MSFT

MSN

MSO

MSPP

Msps

MSR

MSRP

MTA

Most Significant Byte

Mobile Switching

Center

Multi-Standard

Encoder

Millisecond

Microsoft Corporation

Microsoft Network

Multiple System

Operator

Multi-Service

Provisioning Platform

Mega-Symbols

per Second

Multi-Standard

Receiver

Manufacturer’s

Suggested Retail Price

Multimedia

Terminal Adapter

MVNO

MVoD

MVP

MZ

NABTS

NANPA

NAP

NAPT

NAS

NAS

NASRAC

Mobile Virtual

Network Operator

Mobile Video on

Demand

Multi-View Profile

Mach-Zehnder

North American

Broadcast Teletext

Standard

North American

Numbering Plan

Administration

Network Access Point

Network Address &

Protocol Translation

National

Authorization Service

Network

Attached Storage

National Authorization

Service–Regional

Access

NCS

NCS

NCTA

NDA

NDE

NDMH

NDVR

NE

NEBS

NEMA

Network Control System

Network-based

Call Signaling

National Cable &

Telecommunications

Association

Non-Disclosure

Agreement

Network

Dimensioning

Engine

Non-Degraded

Modem Hours

Network Digital

Video Recording

Network Element

Network

Equipment

Building System

National

Electrical

Manufactures

Association


217

NEMS

Network Element

Management

System

NIST

National Institute

of Standards and

Technology

nRTP

Non Real-time

Transport

Protocol

NETBIOS

Network Version

of Basic Input/

Output System

NF Noise Figure

NFS Network File System

NG STB Next Generation

Set-Top Box

NG-L1 Next Generation Layer 1

NGN

NGNA

NGO

ngOSS

ng-

SONET

NI

NIC

NID

NIM

NIS

Next Generation

Network

Next Generation

Network Architecture

Non-Government

Organization

Next Generation

Operations

Support System

Next Generation

Synchronous

Optical NETwork

Network Interface

Network

Interface Card

Network

Interface Device

Network

Interface Module

Network Infrastructure

Solutions

NIT

NIU

NLOS

nm

NMS

NNI

NNOC

NNTP

NOC

NP

NPAC

NPR

NPT

nPVR

NRSS

Network

Information Table

Network Interface Unit

Non-Line of Sight

Nanometer

Network

Management System

Network-Network

Interface

National Network

Operations Center

Network News

Transfer Protocol

Network

Operations Center

Number Portability

Number Portability

Administration

Center

Noise Power Ratio

Network

Performance Tool

Network-based

Personal Video

Recorder

Network

Renewable

Security Standard

NRTC National Rural

Telecommunications

Cooperative

nrtPS

NRVC

NRZ

ns

NSI

NSP

NTIA

NTP

NTS

NTSC

NTSC

NVM

NVOD

NW

Non-Real Time

Polling Service

Noise Reduction

Video Compression

NonReturn to

Zero

Nanosecond

Network Side

Interface

Network Service

Provider

National

Telecommunications

and Information

Administration

Network Time

Protocol

Near Term

Storage

National

Television System

Committee

National

Television System

Committee

Non-Volatile

Memory

Near Video-On-

Demand

Network


218 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

O/E

OADM

OAM

OAM&P

OCAP

OC-CC

Optical Signal-to-

Electrical Signal

Conversion

Optical Add/

Drop Multiplexer

Operations,

Administration, &

Maintenance

Operations,

Administration,

Maintenance &

Provisioning

OpenCable

Application

Platform

OpenCable

CableCARD

OC-CFR OpenCable -

Core Functional

Requirements

OCn

OCSP

OCST

OC-x

ODA

ODRL

OE

O-E

OEM

Optical Carrier (level)

Online Certificate

Status Protocol

Office of Cable

Signal Theft

Optical Carrier (level)

Outlet Digital

Adapter

Open Digital

Rights Language

Optical Ethernet

Optical-Electrical

Original Equipment

Manufacturer

O-E-O

OEPL

Optical-to-

Electrical-to-Optical

Optical Ethernet

Private Line

OEPLAN Optical Ethernet

Private Local

Area Network

OEVPL

OEV

PLAN

OFC

OFDM

OH

OIU

OJT

OLT

OM

OMA

OMG

ONDS

ONT

OOB

Optical Ethernet

Virtual Private Line

Optical Ethernet

Virtual Private

Local Area

Network

Optical Fiber

Communication

Orthogonal

Frequency

Division

Multiplexing

Overhead

Organizationally

Unique Identifier

On-The-Job Training

Optical Line Terminal

Out of Band

Modulator

Open Mobile Alliance

Object Management

Group

Optical Node

Distribution Switch

Optical Network

Termination

Out-of-Band

OOK

OOO

OpEx

OpLT

OpTN

ORX

OS

OSA

OSC

OSD

OSGi

OSI

OSMINE

OSNR

On-Off-Keying

Optical-Optical-

Optical

Operations

Expenditure

Optical Line

Termination

Optical Transport

Network

Optical Receiver

Operating System

Open Service Access

Optical Supervisory

Channel

On-Screen Display

Open Services

Gateway

Initiative

Open Systems

Interconnect

Operations

Systems

Modification for

the Integration of

Network Elements

Optical Signal-to-

Noise Ratio

OSP Outside Plant

OSPF Open Shortest

Path First

OSS Operational

Support System

OSSI OSS Interface


219

OSW

OTDR

Optical Switch

Optical Time

Domain

Reflectometer

PBP

PBR

PBX

Personal Basis Profile

Policy Based Routing

Private Branch

Exchange

PDG

PDH

PDI

Packet Data Gateway

Plesiochronous

Digital Hierarchy

Path Defect Indicator

OTN

OTU-N

OTX

OUI

OWG

Optical Transition Node

Optical Transport Unit

Optical Transmitter

Organizationally

Unique Identifier

OnRamp

Working Group

PC

PC

PCI

PCM

PacketCable

Personal

Computer

Peripheral

Component

Interconnect

Pulse Code

Modulation

PDL

PDP

PDU

PDW

Polarization

Dependent Loss

Policy Decision

Point

Protocol Data Unit

Polarization

Dependent

Wavelength

OXC

P2P

P2P

PACM

PAL

PAN

PAR

PARM

Optical Cross Connect

Peer to Peer

Point to Point

Provisioning,

Activation,

Configuration &

Management

Phase Alternating Line

Personal Area

Network

Project

Authorization

Request

Parameter

PCMCIA

PCMM

PCR

PCR

PCS

P-CSCF

Personal

Computer

Memory Card

PacketCable

Multimedia

Peak Cell Rate

Program Clock

Reference

Personal

Communications

System

Proxy-Call

State/Session

Control(ler)

Function

PEG

PEP

PER

PES

PESQ

PHB

PHS

PHY

Public, Education,

Government

Policy Enforcement

Point

Packet Error Rate

Packetized

Elementary Stream

Perceptual Evaluation

of Speech Quality

Per-hop Behavior

Payload Header

Suppression

Physical (layer)

PAT

PAT

PBIA

Port Address

Termination

Program Association

Table

Personal

Broadband

Industry

Association

PDA

PDD

PDF

PDF

Personal Digital

Assistant

Post-dial Delay

Policy Distribution

Function

Probability Density

Function

PID

PID

PIM

PIM-SM

Packet Identifier

Program Identifier

Protocol Independent

Multicast

Protocol Independent

Multicast – Sparse

Mode


220 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

PIN

PIN

PING

PIP

PKI

PKT

PL

PLC

PLC

PLMN

PLT

PM

PMB

Personal Identification

Number

Positive-Intrinsic-

Negative

Packet Internet

Gopher

Picture In Picture

Public Key

Infrastructure

Packet

Packet Loss

Packet Loss

Concealment

Powerline

Communications

Public Land

Mobile Network

Powerline

Telecommunications

Performance

Monitoring

Permanent

Message Buffer

PN

PNA

PO

POD

POH

PON

POP

POP3

POS

POTS

POTS

PPD

PPE

PPP

Program Number

Phone Network

Alliance

Purchase Order

Point of

Deployment

Path Overhead

Passive Optical

Network

Point Of Presence

Post Office

Protocol 3

Packet Over SONET

Plain Old

Telephone Service

Plain Old

Telephone System

Post-pickup Delay

Programmable

Processing Element

Point-to-Point

Protocol

PRBS

PRCF

PRI

PRM

PRNG

PRV

PS

PS

PS

PS

PSA

PSI

PSIP

PSK

Pseudo-Random

Bits Stream

Positioning Radio

Coordination Function

Primary Rate Interface

Polarization

Recovery Module

Pseudo Random

Number Generators

Privacy

Policy Server

Portal Services

Power Supply

Provisioning

Server

PacketCable

Service Agreement

Program Specific

Information

Program & System

Information Protocol

Phase Shift Keying

PMD

PMI

PMK

PML

PMP

PMT

Polarization

Mode Dispersion

Packet Multiplex

Interface

Pairwise Master Key

Packet Multiplex

Link

Point to MultiPoint

Program Map Table

PPPoA

PPPoE

PPT

PPTP

PPV

PRBS

PPP over ATM

Point-to-Point Protocol

over Ethernet

Power Passing Tap

Point-to-Point

Tunneling Protocol

Pay per View

Pseudo-Random

Binary Sequence

PSK

PSNR

PSP

PSP

PSQ

PreShared Key

Peak Signal to

Noise Ratio

Packet Streaming

Protocol

Packet Success

Probability

Packet Streaming

Queue


221

PSQM

PSTN

PSTN

PTK

PTS

PTT

PTV

PVC

PVC

PVR

PWE3

QAM

QBP

QCC

QCS

QEF

Perceptual

Spec Quality

Measurement

Public Switched

Telephone

Network

Public Switched

Telephone

Network

Pairwise

Temporal Key

Program

Transport Stream

Postal, Telegraph

& Telephone

PowerTV

Permanent

Virtual Circuit

Private Virtual

Circuit

Personal Video

Recorder

Pseudo-Wire

End-to-End

Working Group

Quadrature Amplitude

Modulation

QoS Boundary Point

QoS Characteristics

Management Client

QoS Characteristics

Management Server

Quasi-Error Free

QFM

QL

QL/BR

QLP

QoE

QOS

QPSK

R&D

R.H.

RACF

RACS

RADD

RADIUS

RAID

RAM

RAN

RAP

QoS prioritized

Forwarding and

Media Access

Quantization Level

Quantization

Level/Bit Rate

Quantization

Level Processor

Quality of

Experience

Quality of Service

Quadrature Phase

Shift Keying

Research and

Development

Relative Humidity

Resource Access

Control Facility

Resource &

Admission Control

Function(s)

Remote Addressable

DANIS/DLS

Remote Authentication

Dial-in User Service

Redundant Array Of

Inexpensive Disks

Random Access

Memory

Radio Access Network

Regional Access

Point

RAP

RARP

RBOC

RBW

RCA

Resource

Allocation Protocol

Reverse Address

Resolution Protocol

Regional Bell

Operating Company

Resolution Bandwidth

Root Cause Analysis

RCV Receiver

RDI Remote Defect

Indicator

ReTP Real Time Protocol

ReCOM Rear-Chassis

Output Module

REL Rights Expression

Language

REQ Request

ResApp Resident Application

RF Radio Frequency

RFC Request for

Comment

RFP Request for

Proposal

RG Residential

Gateway

RIAA Recording Industry

Association of

America

RIM

RIN

Rear-Chassis

Input Module

Relative Intensity

Noise


222 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

RIP

Routing Information

Protocol

RSA

Rivest-Shawir-Adleman

(crypto algorithm)

S/IMP

Signal-to-Impulse

Ratio

RISC

RJ

RKS

RM

RMS

RMX

RNOC

RO

ROADM

ROAP

ROB

Reduced Instruction

Set Computer

Rights Object

Acquisition Protocol

Return on

Bandwidth

RSM

Registered Jack RSU

Record-Keeping

Server

RSVP

Resource Manager

RSVP-

Root Mean Square TE

Remux

RT

Regional Network

Operations Center RTI

Read Only RTN

Re-configurable

Optical Add/Drop RTOS

Multiplexing

RTP

RTSP

Remote Satellite

Modulator

Resynchronization

Software Utility

Resource reSerVation

Protocol

Resource Reservation

Protocol with Traffic

Engineering

Real Time

Real Time Ingest

Regional Transport

Network

Real Time

Operating System

Real-time

Transport Protocol

Real Time

Streaming Protocol

S/N

SAC

SAG

SAN

SAP

SAP

SARA

SAS

SATA

SAW

SB

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Subscriber

Authorization Center

Synthetic Analog

Gateway

Storage Area Network

Secondary Audio

Program

Service Access Point

Scientific-Atlanta

Resident Application

Subscriber

Authorization System

Serial Advanced

Technology Attachment

Surface Acoustic

Wave

Switched Broadcast

ROI

ROM

RPD

RPM

RPR

RS

Return on

Investment

Read Only

Memory

Return Path

Demodulator

Revolutions per

Minute

Resilient Packet Ring

Reed-Solomon

RTT

RU

RW

RX

RZ

RZ-DPSK

s.f.

Round-trip Time

Rack Unit

Rewind

Receiver

Return to Zero

Return to Zero

Differential Phase

Shift keying

Square Foot

SBC

SBCA

SBM

SBS

SBS

Switched

Broadcast Client

Satellite Broadcasting

Communication

Association

Switched Broadcast

Manager

Stimulated Brilliouin

Scattering

Switched

Broadcast Server

RSA

Reed-Solomon

Association

S/I

Signal-to-

Interference Ratio

SBV

Switched

Broadcast Video


223

SBW

SC/APC

SCADA

S-CDMA

SCE

SCM

SCM

SCMS

SCN

SCN

SCO

SCP

SCPC

SCR

SCS

s-CSCF

Signal Bandwidth

Standard

Connector/Angled

Physical Contact

Supervisory Control

& Data Acquisition

Synchronous

Code Division

Multiple Access

Single Channel

Encoder

Stored Content

Manager

Sub-Carrier

Multiplexing

Serial Copy

Management

System

Service Class Name

Shared Content

Network

Synchronous

Connection Oriented

Service Control

Platform

Single Channel

Per Carrier

Silicon Controlled

Rectifier

Service

Capability Server

Serving-Call State/

Session Control(ler)

Function

SCSI

SCTE

SD

SDB

SDH

SDI

SDIO

SDK

SDL

SDM

SDMH

SDMI

SDP

SDPF

SDRAM

SDTV

Small Computer

System Interface

Society of Cable

Telecommunications

Engineers

Standard Definition

Switched Digital

Broadast

Synchronous

Digital Hierarchy

Serial Digital

Interface

Secure Digital

Input/Output

Software

Development Kit

Simple

DirectMedia Layer

SmartStream

Device Manager

Severely Degraded

Modem Hours

Secure Digital

Music Initiative

Session Description

Protocol

Service Policy

Decision Function

Synchronous

Direct Random

Access Memory

Standard Definition

Television

SDV

SDVOD

SE

SEM

SEP

SeRTP

SERDES

SES

SF

SF

SFID

SFP

SG

SG

SGC

SGW

SHA-1

SHDB

SI

Switched Digital

Video

Standard Definition

Video-on-Demand

Single Encoder

SmartStream

Encryptor Modulator

Simulcast Edge

Processor

Sequenced

Routing Table

Protocol

Serializer/

Deserializer

Severely Errored

Seconds

Service Flow

SuperFrame

Service Flow

Identifier

Small Formfactor

Pluggable

Service Group

Signaling Gateway

Signaling Gateway

Security GateWay

Secure Hash

Algorithm 1

Switched High-

Definition Digital

Broadcast

System Information


224 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

SIC

Standard Industrial

Classification

SMS

Service Management

System

SPIT

SPAM over IP

Telephony

SID

AMOL

SID

SIFS

SIM

SIP

SISO

SIT

SL

SLA

SLC

SLIC

SLM

SM

SMB

SME

SMF

SMPTE

Source Identification

– Automatic

Measurement of

Lineups

Service Identifier

Shortest

InterFrame Space

Subscriber

Identity Module

Session Initiation

Protocol

Single-Input

Single-Output

Splice Information

Table

Sync Layer

Service Level

Agreement

Shorten Last Codeword

Subscriber Line

Interface Card

Signal Level Meter

Single Mode

Small & Medium

Business

Small &Medium

Enterprise

Single Mode Fiber

Society of Motion

Picture & Television

Engineers

S-MTA

SMTP

SNG

SNMP

SNR

SOA

SOAP

SoC

S-OFDM

SOH

SOHO

SONET

SP

SPAN

SPDF

SPDIF

SPE

Standalone Multimedia

Terminal Adaptor

Simple Mail

Transfer Protocol

Satellite News

Gathering

Simple Network

Management Protocol

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Semiconductor

Optical Amplifier

Simple Object

Access Protocol

Systems on a Chip

Scalable Orthogonal

Frequency Division

Multiplexing

State of Health

Small Office/

Home Office

Synchronous

Optical Network

Service Provider

Services & Protocols for

Advanced Networks

Synchronous

Piggybacked Data Flow

Sony/Philips

Digital Interface

Synchronous

Payload Envelope

SpIM

SPM

SPP

SPTS

SQL

SR

SR

SRAM

SRM

SRS

SRTP

SRUP

SS7

SSB

SSD

SSH

SSI

SSL

Splice Information

Message

Self phase Modulation

Serial Port Profile

Single Program

Transport Stream

Structured Query

Language

Satellite Receiver

Switch Router

Static Random

Access Memory

System Resource

Manager

Stimulated

Raman Scattering

Secure Realtime

Transport

Protocol

Sequenced Routing

Update Protocol

Signaling System

number 7

Single Sideband

Solid State Disk

Secure Shell

Synchronous

Serial Interface

Secure Sockets Layer


225

SSM

SSMF

Source Specific

Multicast

Standard Single

Mode Fiber

SW

SX

SYNC

Software

Short Reach as in

1000Base-SX

Synchronization Profile

TDMA

TDMoIP

Time Division

Multiple Access

Time Division

Multiplexing over

Internet Protocol

SSP

STAMP

STB

STG

STL

STM

STP

STS

STT

STT

STTD

STUN

SU

SUT

SVOD

SVP

Session Setup

Protocol

Set-top Applications

& Middleware

Platform

Set-Top Box

Subscriber

Telephony

Gateway

Studio-to-

Transmitter Link

Synchronous

Transport Module

Spanning Tree

Protocol

Synchronous

Transport Signal

Set-top Terminal

System Time Table

Space Time

Transmit Diversity

Simple Transversal

of UDP (User

Datagram Protocol)

Subscriber Unit

System Under Test

Subscription

Video on Demand

Secure Video

Processor

SYSLOG

SYST

T1

TAM

TB

TBD

Tbps

TC

TCAP

TCM

TCM

TCO

TCP

TCP/IP

TDD

TDM

System Log

System

Integration & Test

A Telecommunications

Standard Committee

T1

Tier Addressed

Message

Terabyte

To Be Determined

Terabits per Second

Transmission

Convergence

Transaction Capabilities

Application Part

Tandem Connection

Monitoring

Trellis Coded

Modulation

Total Cost of

Ownership

Transmission

Control Protocol

Transmission

Control Protocol/

Internet Protocol

Time Division Duplex

Time Division

Multiplexing

TDT

TEC

TELR

TFC

Time & Date Table

Triggered Event

Command

Talker Echo

Loudness Rating

Tunable Filter Chip

TFF hin Film Filter

TFTP Trivial File

Transfer Protocol

TGCP Trunking Gateway

Control Protocol

TGS

THz

TIA

TIA

TIPHON

TISPAN

TKIP

TL1

Ticket Granting

Server

Terahertz

Telecommunication

Industry Association

Trans Impedance

Amplifier

Telecommunications

& Internet Protocol

Harmonization Over

Networks

Telecom & Internet

Services & Protocols

for Advanced

Networks

Temporal Key

Integrity Protocol

Transaction

Language One


226 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

TLS

Transparent LAN

Service

TSID

Transport Stream

Identifier

UCC

Upstream

Channel Change

TLS

Transport Layer

Security

TSP

Television Service

Processor

UCD

Upstream Channel

Descriptor

TLV

TMX

TN

TNCS

TOADM

TOD

Type, Length, Value

Transport Multiplexer

Transit Node

Transmission Network

Control System

Tunable Optical Add/

Drop Multiplexer

Television on

Demand

T-SPEC

TSR

TSS

TTL

TTLS

TTS

Traffic SPECification

Technical Service

Representative

Telephony Switching

Sub-System

Time-to-Live

Tunnel Transparent

Layer Security

Text To Speech

UCID

UCS

UDDI

UDLR

UDP

Upstream

Channel Identifier

Uplink Control

System

Universal Description,

Discover & Integration

Uni-Directional

Link Routing

User Datagram

Protocol

ToD

TOS

TOS

TP

TPL

TPS

TR

TRI

TRP

tRTO

TSI

Time of Day

Theft of Service

Type of Service

Transport

Processor

TDM Private Line

Transport

Parameter

Signaling

Technical Reference

Telephony Return

Interface

Target Rating

Points

TCP Retransmit

Timeout

Time Slot

Interchange

TURN

Traversal Using

Relay NAT (Network

Address Translation)

TV Television

TVCT Terrestrial Virtual

Channel Table

TVOD Television on

Demand

TWC Time Warner Cable

TX Transmit

TXOP Transmission

Opportunity

U/S Upstream

UA User Agent

U-ASPD Unscheduled -

Automatic Power

Save Delivery

UBR

Unspecified Bit Rate

UDP/IP

UDSL

UDWDM

UEQ

UGS

UGS/

AD

UHF

UI

UKL

User Datagram

Protocol/Internet

Protocol

Unidirectional Digital

Subscriber Line

Ultra Dense

Wave Division

Multiplex

Universal Edge QAM

(Quadrature Amplitude

Modulation)

Unsolicited Grant

Service

UGS with Activity

Detection

Ultra High

Frequency

User Interface

Unit Key List


227

UMA

UML

UMTS

UNE

Unlicensed

Mobile Access

Unified Modeling

Language

Universal Mobile

Telecommunications

System

Unbundled

Network Element

USM

UTI

UTP

UWB

V

User-based

Security Model

Universal Transport

Interface

Unshielded

Twisted Pair

Ultra Wideband

Voltage

VCM

VCO

VCO

VCR

VCT

Virtual Channel Map

Virtual Channel

Override

Voltage Cut Off

Video Cassette

Recorder

Virtual Channel

Table

UNE-P

UNI

U-NII

Unbundled

Network Element

- Platform

User Network

Interface

Unlicensed National

Information

Infrastructure

V/A

VAC

VAD

VAG

Video/Audio

Volts Alternating

Current

Voice Activity

Detection

Voice Access

Gateway

VDC

VDLM

VDSL

VDT

Volts Direct Current

Virtual Data Line

Monitor

Very High-bitrate

Digital

Subscriber Line

Video Dial Tone

UPA

UPrS

UPnP

UPS

URI

URL

US

Usability

Professionals’

Association

Uplink Product

Support

Universal Plug

& Play

Uninterruptible

Power Supply

Uniform Resource

Identifier

Uniform Resource

Locator

Upstream

VBI

VBR

VBR-

NRT

VBR-RT

VC

VC-1

VCAT

Vertical Blanking

Interval

Variable Bit Rate

Variable Bit Rate

– Non-Real Time

Variable Bit Rate

– Real Time

Virtual Channel

Video Compression

(Coding) 1

(Formerly VC-9--

Soon to be VCAT)

Virtual

Concatenation

VER

VF

VHF

VHS

VLAN

VLL

VLR

VM

Virtual Ethernet

Ring

Voice Frequency

Very High

Frequency

Video Home

System

Virtual Local

Area Network

Virtual Leased Line

Visitor Location

Register

Virtual Machine

USB

USF

Universal Serial Bus

Universal Service

Fund

VCI

VCM

Virtual Channel

Identifier

Variable Coding

& Modulation

VN

VOD

Voltage Null

Video on

Demand


228 CATV & IPTV Acronyms

VoDSL

VoIP

VoWi-Fi

VP

VPI

VPL

VPLS

VPN

VPWS

VQ

VRF

VRN

VRNAV

VRTX

VS

VSA

VSAT

Video over Digital

Subscriber Line

Voice over

Internet Protocol

Voice over Wi-Fi

Voltage Peak

Virtual Path

Identifier

Virtual Private Line

Virtual Private

LAN Service

Virtual Private

Network

Virtual Private

Wire Service

Vector

Quantization

Virtual Routing

& Forwarding

Tables

Video-Rich

Navigation

Video-Rich

Navigation

Audio/Visual

Virtual Real-Time

Extension

Video Server

Vector Signal

Analyzer

Very Small

Aperture Terminal

VSB

VT

VTS

WAN

WCD

WCDMA

WCM

WCMTS

WDM

WECA

WEP

WFA

WFM

WiFi

WiMax

Vestigial

Sideband

Virtual Tributary

Video Transport

Service

Wide Area Network

Wideband

Channel

Descriptor

Wireless Code

Division Multiple

Access

Wideband Cable

Modem

Wideband Cable

Modem Termination

System

Wave Division

Multiplex

Wireless Ethernet

Compatibility

Alliance

Wired Equivalent

Privacy

Workforce

Automation

Workforce

Management

Wireless Fidelity

Worldwide

Interoperability

for Microwave

Access

WiMedia

WIP

WLAN

WM

WM9

WMAN

WME

WMM

WMM-

SA

WOFDM

WPA

WPA-

FSK

WPAN

WPE

An alliance

for Wireless

Multimedia

Work in Process

Wireless Local

Area Network

Wave Multiplexing

or Wave Mixing

Windows Media

Player, version 9

Wireless

Metropolitan

Area Network

Wireless

Multimedia

Extension

Wi-Fi MultiMedia

Wi-Fi MultiMedia

Standards

Association/

Alliance

Wavelet

Orthogonal

Frequency

Division

Multiplexing

Wireless (Wi-Fi)

Protected Access

Wireless (Wi-Fi)

Protected Access

with Pre-Shared

Key

Wireless Personal

Area Network

Wireless Plant

Extension


229

WRED

WSDL

Weighted

Random Early

Detection

Web Services

Definition

Language

xOD

xoIP

X-service on

Demand (i.e.,

Movies on

Demand)

Anything Over

Internet Protocol

WSS

Wavelength

Selective Switch

XPM

Cross-Phase

Modulation

WWAN

WWDM

XAUI

xDSL

XENPAK

XFP

Wireless Wide

area Network

Wide WDM

10 Gigabit Ethernet

Attachment Unit

Interface

Any variant

of the Digital

Subscriber Line

technology

Fiber Optic

Transceiver

Module

conforming to

10GigE Standard

10-Gigabit Small

Form-factor

Pluggable

xPON

xVOD

xWDM

y/y

ZWP

ZWPF

X version of

Passive Optical

Network

X version (or

form) of Video

on Demand (i.e.,

Subscription,

Near, etc.)

Non-specific

form of Wave

Multiplex

Year Over Year

Zero Water Peak

Zero Water Peak

Fiber

xHTML

Extensible

Hypertext

Markup

Language

XMI

XML

Metadata

Interchange

XML

Extensible

Markup

language

XMOD

Cross Modulation


230 Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms

For more information, visit the Technical Services section

of our web site and the Blonder Tongue “Broadband

Reference Guide”.

A

Access List: List kept by routers to control access to or

from the router for a number of services.

Address Mask: Bit combination used to describe which

portion of an address refers to the network or subnet

and which part refers to the host. mask.also subnet mask.

Administrative Distance: A rate of the trustworthiness of

a routing information source. The higher the value, the

lower the trustworthiness rating.

Amplification: The act of increasing the amplitude or

strength of a signal.

Amplifier: Device used to increase strength of TV signals.

Amplitude Modulation: A process whereby the amplitude

of a single frequency carrier is varied in accordance with the

instantaneous values of a modulating wave.

Analog Signal: A signal which is continually variable and

not expressed by discrete states of amplitude, frequency,

or phase.

Agile (Frequency Agile): The capability to change channels

quickly and easily, usually by setting switches, i.e. agile

modulator, agile processor.

Application Layer: Layer 7 of the OSI reference model.

This layer provides services to application processes (such

as electronic mail, file transfer, and terminal emulation).

Provides user authentication.

ATSC (Advanced Television System Committee): A digital

television format standard that will replace the US analog

NTSC television system by February 17, 2009. The high

definition television standards defined by the ATSC produce

wide screen 16:9 images up to 1920×1080 pixels in

size, more than six times the display resolution of NTSC. In

lieu of an HD broadcast, up to six standard-definition “virtual

channels” can be broadcast over a 6 MHz TV station.

Attenuator: Device used to reduce signal strength.

Automatic Gain Control (AGC): A feature of some amplifiers

and radio receivers which provides a substantially

constant output even though the signal input varies

over wide limits.

B

Bandwidth: A range of frequencies (a portion of spectrum)

defined by upper and lower frequency limits.

Bit-Error Rate: In a digital communications system, the

fraction of bits transmitted that are received incorrectly.

Bit Rate (Baud): The speed at which digital information is

transmitted, usually expressed in bits per second.

Block Size: Number of hosts that can be used in a subnet.

Block sizes typically can be used in increments of 4, 8, 16,

32, 64 and 128.

Bridge: A deivce for connecting two segments of a

network using identical protocols to communicate and

transmitting packets between them. Operates at the Data

Link layer, layer 2 of the OSI model. The purpose of the

bridge is to filter, send or flood any incoming frame, based

on MAC address of that particular frame.

Broadcast Address: Special address reserved for sending a

message to all stations. Generally, a broadcast address is a

MAC destination address of all ones.

Broadcast Domain: The set of all devices that will receive

broadcast frames originating from any device within the

set. Broadcast domains are typically bounded by routers

because routers do not forward broadcast frames.

C

Cable Equalizer: Device used to counter the effects of

cable slope. Can be a stand alone device or an optional

plug-in module for an amplifier.

Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (C/N Ratio or CNR): The difference in

amplitude of a carrier, and the noise power that is present

in that portion of spectrum occupied by the carrier.

See Noise.

Cascade: Term used when referring to amplifiers serially

connected.

Cherry Picker: Type of headend system where a desired

limited number of channels are selected from a CATV feed,

rather than distributing all of the available CATV channels

common in schools.

CIDR: CIDR allows routers to group routes together in

order to cut down on the quantity of routing information

carried by the core routers. With CIDR, several IP networks

appear to networks outside the group as a single, larger

entity.

Class A Network: Part of Internet Protocal hierarchical

addressing scheme. Class A networks have only 8 bits

for defining networks and 24 bits for defining hosts and

subnets on each network.

Class B Network: Part of Internet Protocal hierarchical

addressing scheme. Class B networks have 16 bits for

defining networks and 16 bits for defining hosts and

subnets on each network.

Class C Network: Part of Internet Protocal hierarchical

addressing scheme. Class A networks have 24 bits for

defining networks and 8 bits for defining hosts and

subnets on each network.

Classful Routing: Routing protocols that do not send

subnet mask information when a route update is sent.

Classless Routing: Routing protocols that send subnet

mask information in the routing updates. Classless

Routing allows Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) and

supernetting.


231

Combiner: Device, which permits combining of several

signals into one output with a high degree of isolation

between, inputs. Usually used for combining outputs of

processors and modulators.

Community: In SNMP, a logical group of managed devices

and NMSs in the same administrative domain.

Community String: Text string that acts as a password

and is used to authenticate messages sent between a

management station and a router containing a SNMP

agent. The community string is sent in every packet

between the manager and the agent.

Connectionless: Data transfer without the existence of a

virtual circuit. It has low overhead, uses best-effort delivery

and is not reliable.

Connection-Oriented: Data transfer method that sets

up a virtual circuit before any data is transferred. Uses

acknowledgement and flow control for reliable data

transfer.

Console: In SNMP (Simple Network Management

Protocol), a software program that has the capability of

interacting with an agent, including examining or changing

the values of the data objects in the agent's Management

Information Base (MIB).

Composite Triple Beat Distortion (CTB): CTB in an important

distortion measurement of analog CATV systems. It is

mainly caused by second order distortion in distribution

systems.

Couplers: In fiber optics, a device which links three or

more fibers, providing two or more paths for the transmission

signal.

D

Data Link Layer: Layer 2 of the OSI reference model. This

layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link.

The data link layer is concerned with physical addressing,

network topology, line discipline, error notification,

ordered delivery of frames, and flow control. The IEEE has

divided this layer into two sublayers: The MAC sublayer

and the LLC sublayer.

Decibel (dB): A logarithmic unit of measure expressing the

ratio of two discrete levels, input and output for example,

of power, voltage, or current. May be used to denote either

loss (-dB) or gain (+dB).

Decibel-Millivolts (dBmV): The dB denotes a ratio between

two levels (see Decibel) but the qualifying term mV

establishes one of the levels as a reference. Zero dBmV

(0 dBmV) is one millivolt (0.001 or 10-1 volts) measured

across a 75 Ohm impedance.

Decibel-Milliwatt (dBm): A unit of power. Decibels referenced

to a unit of one milliwatt. Zero dbM = 1 mW.

Decibel-Watt (dBW): A unit of power. Decibels referred to

a unit of one watt. Zero dBW = 1 Watt.

Demodulator: Device that provides baseband audio and

video outputs from a TV channel input.

DHCP : A TCP/IP protocol that dynamically assigns an IP

address to a computer. Dynamic addressing simplifies

network administration because the software keeps

track of IP addresses rather than requiring a network

administrator to do so.

Digital signal: A signal which is expressed by discrete

states. Information may be assigned value or meaning by

combinations of the discrete states of the signal using a

code of pulses or digits.

Directional coupler: A network or device that divides

the input signal in a fixed ratio between the output and

tap ports.

Diplexer: A device used to combine or separate two

signals. A U/V band separator is one example of a diplexer.

Dish: A parabolic antenna used for satellite reception.

Dynamic Routing: Routing that adjusts automatically to

network topology or traffic changes. Also called adaptive

routing.

E

Equalizer, cable: A network designed to compensate for the

frequency/loss characteristics of a cable, so as to permit

the system to pass all frequencies in a uniform manner.

Ethernet: A specification for a transmission system

including Layers 1 and2 of the OSI 7-layer model using

the CSMA/CD access method and operates over various

types of cables at 10 Mbps. In common usage, "Ethernet"

refers to both the DIX (DEC - Intel - Xerox) version of this

specification or to the IEEE version, moreformally known

as "802.3".

F

FCC: Federal Communications Commission. Regulatory

agency that sets communication standards in the US.

Filter: Device used to reject or pass a specified

frequency or range of frequencies. Some

examples are band-pass filters, notch filters,

channel elimination filter, low & high pass filters.

Firewall: Router or access server, or several routers

or access servers, designated as a buffer between any

connected public networks and a private network. A

firewall router uses access lists and other methods to

ensure the security of the private network.

Frame: In data networks, the information packet and all of

the preceding and succeeding signals necessary (flag bytes,

preambles, frame checks, abort sequences, etc.) to convey

it along the data link

G

Gain: An increase in power produced by an amplifier and

expressed in decibels. See Amplifier.


232

Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms

Gateway: A TCP/IP router that routes packets between

different network numbers.

Get: In SNMP, a command given by the Console to retrieve

a single data structure from a MIB.

Guardband: A portion of spectrum left vacant and not utilized

between two carriers or bands of carriers, to provide

a margin of safety against mutual interference.

H

Headend (HE): The equipment where all signals are

received, processed and combined prior to distribution.

Hertz (Hz): Frequency of periodic oscillations, expressed

in cycles per second.

Heterodyne: The process of mixing two frequencies

together to generate frequencies of their sum and difference.

This process is used for channel conversion.

Heterodyne Signal Processor: A unit employed in CATV

systems to convert a carrier frequency to an intermediate

frequency (IF). The intermediate frequency carrier may

then be filtered, regulated, or otherwise conditioned, and

then heterodyned back to either the original carrier frequency,

or to a completely new carrier frequency.

Highband: The radio spectrum between 174 and 216

megahertz (MHz). Standard television channels 7 through

13 fall within this spectrum.

Hub: A common connection point for computers and

devices in a network that takes an incoming signal and

repeats it on all other ports.

Hyperband: CATV channels AA thru YY (numeric

equivalents-37 thru 61) failing in the frequency range of

300 to 450 MHz.

I

Impedance: Circuit characteristic (voltage divided by current).

TV distribution has standardized on 75-Ohm and

300-Ohm.

Insertion Loss: The loss introduced into a cable or system

by the Insertion of a device or network expressed in

decibels. See Loss.

Interference: Noise or other disturbances such as spurious

signals that, when introduced to a desired signal, reduce

the intelligibility of the information carried on that signal.

IP Address: a 32-bit address assigned to hosts using the

TCP/IP protocol. Each computer/device on the public

internet has a unique IP address. An example of an IP

address is 192.168.1.

IP Multicast: Routing technique that allows IP traffic to be

propagated from one source to a number of destinations

or from many sources to many destinations. Rather than

sending one packet to each destination, one packet is sent

to a multicast group identified by a single IP destination

group address.

Isolation: Electrical separation (or loss) between two

locations or pieces of equipment. Degree of isolation

usually specified in dB.

K

Ku Band: Range of frequencies used in satellite transmissions.

Common uplink frequency for U.S. domestic

satellites is 14 to 14.5 GHz with a downlink frequency of

11.7 to 12.2 GHz.

L

LAN: A communication infrastructure that supports data

and resource sharing within a small area (


Multicast Group: Dynamically determined group of IP

hosts identified by a single IP multicast address.DIX (DEC

- Intel - Xerox) version of this specification or to the IEEE

version, moreformally known as "802.3".

Multimode Fiber: A fiber that supports propagation of

more than one mode of a given wavelength.

Multiplexer: A device which combines two or more optical

signals onto one communications channel.

N

Network Address: Network layer address referring to a

logical, rather than a physical, network device. Also called

a protocol address.

Network Layer: Layer 3 of the OSI reference model. This

layer provides connectivity and path selection between

two end systems. The network layer is the layer at which

routing occurs. Corresponds roughly with the path control

layer of the SNA model.

Noise Figure (NF): A measure of how much noise an active

device, such as a TV amplifier, adds to the thermal noise

level constant of –59 dBmV

O

Oscillator: A circuit generating an alternating current wave

at some specific frequency.

P

Passive: Describing a device which does not contribute

energy to the signal it passes.

Phaselock: The control of an oscillator such that its output

signal maintains a constant phase angle relative to a second,

reference signal.

Photodetector: Any device which detects light, generally

producing an electronic signal with intensity proportional

to that of the incident light.

Photodiode: A diode designed to produce photo-current

by absorbing light. Photodiodes are

used for the detection of optical power and for

the conversion of optical power to electrical power.

PING (Packet Internet Groper): A command used to test

connectivity to a device over a TCP/IP network.

Power: Energy per unit of time.

Pre-Amplifier: Low noise amplifier usually mounted in

close proximity to a receiving antenna. Used to compensate

for down lead losses.

Q

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM): Digital

modulation format where information is conveyed in the

amplitude and phase of a carrier signal.

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK): Form of Phase

Shift Keying in which two bits are modulated at once,

selecting one of four possible carrier phase shifts (0, 90,

180, or 270 degrees). QPSK allows the signal to carry

twice as much information as ordinary PSK using the

same bandwidth. QPSK is used for satellite transmission of

MPEG-2 video, cable modems, video-conferencing, cellular

phone systems, and other forms of digital communication

over an RF carrier.

R

Receiver: A device that detects and converts a signal

after transmission over a communications network from

a transmitter.

Remote Local Origination: Closed-circuit program generated

some place other than the headend. Example:

Sub-channel origination.

Repeater: A signal amplification device, often used along

cables to extend transmission distances.

Return loss: A ratio expressed in dB between the reflected

signal and the total signal applied to a device.

RFI: Radio Frequency Interference. Undesired RF signals.

Router: A device that routes/forwards data across a

networks.

RTP: defines a standardized packet format for

delivering audio and video over IP network.

S

Session Layer: The layer in the OSI 7-Layer Model that is

concerned with managing the resources required for the

session between two computers.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N Ratio): The difference in

amplitude of a signal (before modulation or after detection

of a modulated carrier), and the noise present in the

spectrum occupied by the signal, when both are measured

at the same point in the system.

Single-Mode Fiber: An optical waveguide through which

only one mode will propagate.

Slope: Difference in attenuation between specified low

and high frequencies.

SNMP: A de facto standard for management of networked

devices using a simple request-response data retrieval

mechanism.

Splitter: A network or device that divides its input energy

equally between two outputs.

Strip Amplifier: Slang expression for a channelized highoutput

AGC’d amplifier used in processing VHF or UHF

channels in a headend.

Sub-Band: The radio spectrum between 5 and 40 MHz.

Subnet : A portion of a network that shares a common

address component but is on a different segment than the

rest of the network.

Subnet Address: Portion of an IP address that is specified

as the subnetwork by the subnet mask. See also IP address,

233


234

Basic Glossary of CATV & IPTV Terms

subnet mask, and subnetwork.

Subnet Mask: A representation of a user's Internet

address where all of the bit positions corresponding to

the user's network and subnetwork id are 1's and the bit

corresponding to the user's host id are 0's.

Super-Band: The radio spectrum between 216 and approx.

400 MHz.

Switch: A switch is a device that forwards packets between

nodes based on the packet's destination node address

(either hardware or protocol).

T

Tap, Subscriber: A device that diverts a predetermined

amount of its input energy to one or more tap outputs. The

remaining balance of the input energy is presented to a tap

output port for propagation farther out into the system.

Tap, optical: A device for extracting a portion of the optical

signal from a fiber.

Telnet : A Telnet program allows a user at a terminal or

PC to log in to a remote computer and run a program and

execute other Unix commands.

Termination: Resistive device at end of distribution line or

unused outputs of equipment to avoid reflections (ghost).

Thru-Line Loss: Insertion loss of a tapoff.

Transmitter-Fiber: In a fiber optic system, the device

which converts a modulated electrical signal into an optical

signal for transmission through a fiber. A transmitter

typically consists of a light source (LED or diode laser) and

driving electronics.

Transmitter: A device that launches signals into a

communications network, to be collected by a receiver

on the other end.

Transcoder: Also Transmodulator. Changing a signal’s

modulation scheme to a different modulation for bandwidth

efficiency or system requirements.

Transponder: A frequency converter (translator) aboard a

satellite that changes the uplink signal to the downlink signal

and provides amplifications. Typical C-Band domestic

satellites have 24 transponders.

Transport Protocol: The Protocol Layer of the OSI 7-Layer

Model that is concerned with management of the data

flow between source and destination.

Trap: A device used to attenuate specific frequencies

of channels.

Trap: In SNMP, a message sent from the Agent to the

Console when the Agent detects that condition defined by

the network manager has occurred.

Two-way: Describing a transmission system, which can

transport signals in both directions simultaneously.

T-1 Carrier System: A digital transport signal (1.5 Mbps).

A 24-channel, transistorized, time-division, pulse-code

modulation, voice carrier used on exchange cable to provide

short-haul trunks.

U

UDP: A protocol within the TCP/IP protocol suite that

is used in place of TCP when a reliable delivery is not

required. There is less processing of UDP packets than

there is for TCP. UDP is widely used for streaming audio

and video, voice over IP (VoIP) and videoconferencing,

because there is no time to retransmit erroneous or

dropped packets.

Uplink: Transmission from earth to a satellite.

V

Vestigial Side Band (VSB): In amplitude-modulated transmissions,

a portion of only one sideband of a modulated

carrier. The modulated carrier is passed through a filter

having a graduated cut-off characteristic near the carrier

frequency.

Video: 1. Pertaining to the signal which carries a television

picture. 2. Describing the 4 MHz band of frequencies which

constitutes a television signal.

W

Watt: The Unit of Electric Power.

Waveguide: Any device which guides electromagnetic

waves along a path defined by the physical construction

of the device.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM): The provision

of two or more channels over a common optical

waveguide, the channels being differentiated by optical

wavelength.

8VSB: The 8-level vestigial sideband modulation method

adopted for terrestrial broadcast of the ATSC digital television

standard in the United States, Canada, and other

countries.


Useful Websites

235

www.antennaweb.org: off-air antenna reports (see page 140 for sample)

www.tvfool.com: off-air antenna reports

www.fcc.gov: Federal Communications Commission - CATV rules

Useful Websites:

http://acronyms.silmaril.ie/cgi-bin/uncgi/acronyms: Acronym Search

www.lyngsat.com: www.antennaweb.org satellite – off-air information (see page 139 for sample)

antenna reports

www.satsig.net: www.tvfool.com – satellite off-air antenna signals reports information

www.satelliteguys.us: www.fcc.gov - Federal Communications satellite forums Commission - CATV rules

www.geo-orbit.org: http://acronyms.silmaril.ie/cgi-bin/uncgi/acronyms satellite lookup

- Acronym Search

www.lyngsat.com - satellite information

www.satnews.com: glossary

www.satsig.net - satellite signals information

www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037:

www.satelliteguys.us – satellite forums

rules for telecommunications

www.scte.org: www.geo-orbit.org Society - satellite of Cable lookup Television Engineers

www.satnews.com - glossary

www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037 - rules for telecommunications

www.scte.org - Society of Cable Television Engineers

Useful Publications

Useful Publications:

Cable Television by William Grant (text book)

Society of Cable Television Engineers, Inc.

140 Philips Road

Exton, PA 19341-1318

Phone: 610-363-6888

Fax: 610-363-5898

Wireless Cable and SMATV by Steve Berkhoff and Frank Baylin

Baylin Publications (paperback)

1905 Mariposa

Boulder, CO 80302

Phone: 303-449-4551

Fax:303-939-8720


One Jake Brown Road

Old Bridge, NJ 08857

TEL: 732-679-4000

FAX: 732-679-4353

800-523-6049

www.blondertongue.com

Please Visit our Website for a List of

Company Contacts and Literature Requests.

©2014 Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved.

Specifications are subject to change without notice.

Trademarks are the property of their respective owner.


Rev 12.0


Encoders Digital CATV Edge & IP CATV

One Jake Brown Road, Old Bridge, NJ 08857

Phone: 800-523-6049 • Fax: 732-679-4353

www.blondertongue.com

$8.95 USA

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