2012 | London, Siemens CoC Cities_Tel Aviv Yafo (EIA)

Environmental Assessment Report

Environmental Assessment Report

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Tel Aviv Yafo

Environmental Report

Siemens CoC Cities

Urban Development

By Julie Alexander, Director – Urban Development, Siemens CoC &

Sofia Asteriadi – Urban Development Graduate, Siemens CoC

This report was produced by Siemens in consultation with city

stakeholders and interested parties. Views were sought from

executive stakeholdes and key decision makers including the

Mayor of Tel Aviv - Yafo, Ron Huldai.


This report is based on publicly available information and should not

be relied upon for accuracy in detail. Siemens accepts no

responsibility for the data cited in this report.

Tel Aviv Yafo


Siemens Report

January 2013


The city of Tel Aviv Yafo invited Siemens plc to visit the city to discuss the

issues they face in terms of their transport network and improvements

that can be made to public transport to combat increasing private car

ownership and its effects on road traffic. Siemens have been invited to

provide independent thought on transportation plans, which may lead

to reduced congestion and greening of the transport sector.

In addition, the city seeks to reduce the carbon impacts of its built

environment and invited Siemens to consider how this may also feed

into future plans to green the city.

City Plans for Tel Aviv Yafo

Tel Aviv Yafo is developing a reputation in academia and seeks to

develop the education sector to enhance its global standing and

economic growth. Attracting students from across the globe and to

compete with the best universities in the world lies at the heart of the

city’s aspirations.

Tel Aviv Yafo is also the regional home to some of the worlds leading IT

and communications companies. Retaining those companies in the

local environment and providing for growth in this sector is also key to

the future plans for the city.

Tel Aviv Yafo hopes to combine both the academic and high tech

sectors to develop a future in green technology to secure its place as a

world-leading city in sustainable innovations.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Siemens Overview

Tel Aviv Yafo has grown organically over recent years creating

success in its chosen sectors, leading to an increase in population,

economic growth and enhanced wealth. These circumstances

naturally lead to an expanding city boundary with new housing

development, which in turn requires new supporting infrastructure.

Current trends suggest that Tel Aviv Yafo will continue to build on its

reputation and attract further inward investment leading to selfperpetuating


Dealing with the challenges of creating a secure infrastructure, future

proofed for further development and prepared for technological

advances is key to the success of the city.

Meeting the expectations of a digitally aware generation and staying

at the forefront of such an industry on the world stage, requires

central leadership and active involvement in the operations of local

companies, energy providers, transport operators and in the

behaviours of the local population.

This report seeks to identify the opportunities that exist for the city, and

the plans that can be put in place drawing on our international

experience and expertise in developing new trends for change.

The city

Population: 406,200 (188,000


Area: 52km2

Connectivity: 75% homes on


Employed: 371,700

Employees: 36% live in the city, 56%

live in the metropolitan region

Finance sector: 39% of national


Growth trend: 16% over 8 years

Growth target: 420,000 by 2020

Electricity Consumption: 60%

from Buildings

Energy Consumption: 35%

Residential & Commercial

Targets: 20% GHG by 2020

Targets: 10% renewable energy by



SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Carbon Data - The Bigger Picture

Israel has experienced a growth in energy use over the last decade, rising

at around 2% per capita, per annum. This is amongst the highest in the


With the move to the use of natural gas in major energy generation, the

increase in absolute carbon emissions across Israel will slow in pace, but

with the projected growth across Israel energy consumption will continue

to rise.

The Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) predicts that the production of

electricity will increase to 74million kWh in 2020 and that by the same date,

Israel will produce 60Mt (million tonnes) of carbon dioxide per capita.

Carbon dioxide emissions from across the world vary significantly based on

the level of industrialisation, the governmental policy on energy

generation, transportation and localised factors influenced by human


A comparison of carbon emissions per capita from a selection of countries

around the world are shown below in million tonnes (metric).

Also included is the percentage change in emissions since 1996 which

gives an indication of the rate of change and direction of travel.

With the proposed growth in population for Tel Aviv Yafo, the Mayor can

play a key role in not only limiting the increasing trends towards

carbonisation, but can reverse this trend on a city scale, decoupling

growth and carbon, making Tel Aviv a city leader in the region, pioneering

the green economy.

The report goes on to consider the changes that the Mayor of Tel Aviv Yafo

can implement or encourage through co-operation with city stakeholders

and the wider community to promote the green economy.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

More than 80% of the predicted

growth in transport emissions is

expected to come from road




SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Transportation Networks

Congestion in

Toronto costs

US$3.3bn per year,

1.2% of GDP


For cities to grow and prosper

they need to attract inward

investment from businesses who

have identified the need to

locate in a particular region. One

of the major attractiveness factors

for businesses in their decisions to

invest is a fully integrated, highly

efficient transportation network.

The network not only needs to

transport people internationally

and inter-regionally, it also needs

to transport people quickly and

reliably in their local environment.

Such a network should provide

inter-connected, multi-modal

options, which require long term

planning and dedicated


With the transport sector being

responsible for a quarter of global

carbon emissions, 73% of which

comes from land transport, it is also

critical that transport networks

invest in green options and in

environmentally sustainable

technology solutions.

Current status of Tel Aviv Yafo Transport Network

Rail: Investment in Tel Aviv to

Jerusalem rail link

Metro: Investment in links from

South to East and South to


Bus: No significant planned


Private Car: Investment in road


Cycle: Moderate investment in

cycle lane network.

More people are moving to cars to commute to work and improvement

in road networks without usage restrictions further promotes this travel


The increase in private car ownership is a factor of increasing wealth, but

in Tel Aviv Yafo trends show that people are choosing to use private

transport to commute to work. Unabated car usage will result in

consequential impacts, which will reduce the city’s overall attractiveness

for investment. Those impacts can be identified as:

• Heavy congestion

• Time lost at work, resulting in lowered productivity

• Lost productivity leading to lowered GDP

• Air Pollution

• Pollution related health impacts and costs

• Increased carbon emissions

• Time lost at home, resulting in poorer quality of life

Tel Aviv Yafo needs to develop a clear strategy for ‘modal shift’, to move

people away from car use and onto more sustainable modes of



SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Creating a sustainable transport network

To avoid the risks arising from increased private car use, Tel Aviv Yafo

should develop a long term Transportation Strategy which encourages

people onto public transport and allows for growth as the city expands

and population increases, but should also be tied into a city led Carbon

Reduction Strategy.

Whilst public transportation is a better environmental option than

private cars, the network should be developed to limit emissions and be

as efficient as possible. A growing network will inevitably demand more

from the energy grid and use additional fuel, so greening the transport

network will limit energy and fuel demand, and air pollution.

To ensure success, the Transport Strategy should allow for a number of

key factors. The strategies need to be put in place to set the

foundations for transformation. These should focus on a number of key


• Avoid or reduce number of journeys taken – denser settlements,

localise production and consumption.

• Shift to a greener mode – moving people onto greener public


• Improve vehicle technology – use fuel-efficient vehicles,

improve occupancy, eco-driving, electrification, introduce

driver advisory systems on trains, regenerative breaking.

Enabling the transformation

To capture all the facets of a

successful multi-modal transport

strategy, a combination of

approaches need to be


Physical Integration – modal

choice and land use planning.

As plans to expand housing in the

city evolve, and areas for

development are identified, the

transportation planners and city

should work with the operators to

ensure that an integrated land use

and transportation policy is

developed. Locating housing in

areas not served by public

transport will lead to an increased

use of private cars.

Fare Integration – pay one fare

across all modes and services.

By using a system of fare payments

such as the Oyster Card system

used in London, people can travel

with ease across the city, regardless

of the mode of public transport. This

avoids time lost in making fare

payments and allows for cash free

travel on a daily basis. Allowing

people to pay online optimises the

system and makes daily travel on

public transport more convenient.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Route Integration – ensure

timetabling and transport routes are


By working with train and bus

operators, the city can help coordinate

a multi-modal

transportation route planner. All

areas of the city should be covered

by public transport services to

encourage people onto the

network for a convenient commute

to work.

Information Integration – web

based real time information to allow

journey planning across modes.

The city can work with all operators

to host a web based real time

information journey planner which

will allow people to interrogate the

public transport networks for direct

routes across the city regardless of

mode or time of day. Updates on

disruptions and changes to services

can be communicated to all users

prior to starting their journey, and

through web based

communications, users can be

notified in advance of major

planned disruptions. Increasing

awareness through advertising and

publicity programmes will help

encourage people to make the

move from cars to public transport.

Institutional Integration – ensure all

transport operators work together

for citywide benefits.

Key to the success of integrated

public transport networks and to

ensure optimal use and

participation, the city should take

the lead on delivering a coordinated

network of services.

Ensuring operators work with the city

and fostering collaboration is a key

role the city can play in creating a

more sustainable transport solution.

Regulations can also be used to set

standards across the city with

regards to the type of vehicles

entering the city and restrictions on

access to help encourage the

modal shift.

Economic Mechanisms –

incentivisation schemes.

Incentivisation schemes can also

be used to encourage people to

use public transport or cleaner

fuels in vehicles. Multi-purpose

travel cards providing savings for

multiple journeys promote the use

of the public transport network;

these may include the cost of

travel and discounted access to

attractions or facilities.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Examples of developing new

inner city transport infrastructure

Concern from residents and merchants over long term disturbance of building

new infrastructure has to be addressed with a supporting masterplan for key areas

around the city. Stations attract commercial investment and development should

be encouraged in those locations promising long term financial gain in both

property prices and increased trade. Such projects can be used as a catalyst to

provide regeneration or renaissance of areas falling into degradation.

Developers should be encouraged to develop mixed use sites providing a variety

of residential and commercial properties in these locations. All development

proposals should be accompanied by environmental statements illustrating how

minimal disturbance will be experienced during the construction process, and

how any merchants will be protected or compensated with temporary

commercial space to serve the local community during the period of disturbance.

The latest techniques in tunnelling allow for sound and vibration protection and

can cover 100m per week. This allow for tunnelling to occur in close proximity to

existing buildings causing minimum disturbance to local businesses.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Good examples of developing new rail infrastructure in

inner cities can be seen in London with the Crossrail

development running directly along London’s main

shopping thoroughfare and the Dockland Light Railway

linking previously disconnected parts of the city.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Greening the Network

To achieve a successful, fully integrated network a combination of

strategies is needed to achieve improved air quality, reduced carbon

emissions and improved safety.

IES (Integrated Environmental Strategies) and European Environment

Agency suggest that emission reductions of 70% are possible with the right

policies and investments covering all forms public transport, with about

two thirds of those coming from measures to improve vehicle fuel and


Greening Buses

The move towards electric

powered and hydrogen fuel cell

technology in buses is increasing

around the globe. The city of

London undertook research into

the links between air pollution and

health, and concluded that

creating a greener network of

public transport would help reduce

the incidents respiratory related

disease. It was further estimated

that the economic cost of the

health impacts of poor air quality in

London is £2bn, £15bn across the

UK. It was found that

approximately half of London’s

pollution came from taxis, buses

and vans, and by converting all of

these vehicles to electric power

would reduce air pollution across

the city by 25%, with reductions in

the central London area of around

65%. As well as the noise reduction

benefits arising from electric

vehicles, over 300,000 tonnes of

carbon emissions would also be


In the UK, the cost of electricity is

currently approximately one fifth of

diesel (cost per mile) and with the

increased demand, battery costs

are also in decline. In London, bus

operators would spend £1.7bn on

diesel fuel in the next 10 years,

whereas the cost of running

electric buses would be £280m.

A similar pricing exercise could be

undertaken for Tel Aviv Yafo to

establish the benefits of introducing

such a scheme in the local context.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

From London studies, it was established that typical savings from

electrifying road transport in the city would be as follows:

• Over three years an electric taxi driver will be £8,000 better off.

• An electric bus would save £17,000 in fuel costs per year.

• An electric van operator will be £3,000 per year better off.

London also invested in fuel cell buses with their zero emissions to aid its

commitment to the 2050 carbon reductions targets.

Fuel cell buses are extremely quiet, offer a smooth and almost vibrationfree

ride, are nearly two times more fuel efficient than a diesel-powered

bus and are emission-free, generating no soot or smog-forming pollutants.

Compared to a diesel version, these buses reduce nitrogen oxide

emissions equivalent to removing 77 cars from the road per year and

create the same carbon dioxide benefits as planting 31 acres of forest.

Greening Trains

Moving people from private cars to

public transport will have a huge

impact on the reduction of

emissions as people travel en masse

rather than each burning gallons of

fuel on independent journeys.

Railways are a good example of

moving people collectively to

reduce carbon impacts and are

considered a sustainable form of


With a move away from diesel,

railways are powered by electricity,

which is typically generated from

burning fossil fuels and as such, does

not make this form of transport a

zero carbon emitter. 90% of a

metro’s carbon footprint comes

from electricity use. As railways

move to electrification, the grid will

need to decarbonise to realise the

full benefits. So the city needs to

work with energy providers to green

the energy supply, and with rail

operators to green the railways

and reduce their energy demand.

Examples from other countries

include regulations to reduce

emissions in a ‘polluter pays’

format. Energy companies can

also be required to reduce

emissions by greening the energy

mix or providing incentives to their

own users to reduce consumption

through publicity campaigns or



SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Avoiding rising energy costs in railways

Typically, step changes in transportation operations do not occur without

government intervention, be that regulation or incentivisation. Looking to

the future, it is critical that policies are put in place today to avoid risks that

may hugely impact the use of the railway system. Some of the risks are:

• The impact of falling energy reserves

• Increased cost of power

• Carbon pricing

• The non-decarbonisation of the electricity supply

All of the above are likely to result in an increased cost to the railway

network, which in turn will be passed on to passengers, and as such with the

guidance of governmental authorities, every effort should be made by

both the train operating companies and manufacturers to reduce energy

consumption from rolling stock, traction, signalling and stations.


• Minimize delays / manage dwell


• Split trains where suburban


• Vary Speeds

• Vary fares

• Vary speeds

• Coasting

• ATC / ATR Settings

• Off-peak Service frequency




• Modern Aux. Equipment

(eg. AFC)

• Escalator sensors and


• Adjust air conditioning

• LED Lighting

Reducing Energy


• Lesser used sections: premetro

light rail

• Intelligent ventilation to lower


• Higher Voltage

• Low-loss Conductor (eg. AL)

• Line-side capacitors

• Underground or elevated?

• Track Profile / curvature


Rolling Stock

• Regenerative Braking

• Adjust Saloon Temp.

(According to pax load)

• Articulation/light weight bodies

• Through-gang ways /


• Flywheels

• Onboard Controls

• Aluminium bodies


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Reducing the Impact of Private Vehicles in the City

Some journeys by private vehicle are necessary as people travel through

the city for work or personal reasons. Freight vehicles are also necessary

for delivering goods and products across the city.

The city can act to reduce the impact of those vehicles by ensuring that

they are as clean as possible, reducing air pollutants, and can also

reduce any journeys that are not absolutely necessary by introducing

measures which discourage people from using their car or van.

Examples of successful schemes employed in London are discussed



charging in

London reduced

the volume of

traffic by 15% in

2003 – 2004.


Congestion charging

Since 17 February 2003 motorists driving into central London on a weekday

between 7am and 6.30pm have been charged a fee to do so, starting at

£5 per day when the scheme opened, rising to its current cost of £10.

Motorists are made aware of the charged zone by roadside signs and

painted symbols on the roadway. The perimeter was carefully designed

and modelled to balance the need to reduce the number of vehicles

entering the city, whilst keeping the number of cordon crossing points to a

minimum and trying to minimise the development of 'rat runs'. 580 cameras

in 127 locations around London record all vehicles entering the congestion

charge area. This scheme has resulted in over 20% fewer vehicles travelling

through London each day, and traffic jams have reduced by 30%.

Scheme Objectives

• enhancing economy/efficiency by improving journey times and reliability for both public and private


• enhancing the environment by reducing congestion, leading to a reduction in emissions

• due to decreases in traffic, cycling and walking become more preferable.

Intended Improvements

• reduce congestion;

• improve vehicle speeds;

• increase bus patronage ;

• improve journey time reliability;

• make the distribution of goods more reliable, sustainable and efficient; and

• provide Transport for London with an income to be invested in transport, such as improving bus



SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

The benefits to London from congestion charging as recorded

• 21% reduction in congestion within the original charging zone

comparing to pre-charge levels (70,000 fewer cars a day)

• 6% increase in bus passengers during charging hours.

• 12% increase in cycle journeys

Medical evidence suggests that poor air quality results in major health

problems including serious respiratory and cardio-vascular illness, and

ultimately premature death.

The main pollutants of concern for Greater London are particulate matter

(PM10), ozone and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Where congestion exists, and

when vehicles continually stop and start and collect at junctions, air

pollution is particularly bad. In the UK, air pollution results in 50,000

premature deaths per year, 4,267 of those in London.

10% increase in

urban density results

in a 3.5% reduction in

vehicle fuel


Imperial College,


One of the key reasons, and desired benefits of introducing the

congestion charge in London was to help limit the effects of air pollution.

Air quality monitoring takes place on a continual basis to monitor the

level of pollutants in the air, which is now targeted through European


Following the introduction of the congestion charge, and after a period

of 3 years, the following data shows changes to air pollutants:

Air quality improvements (over 24hr average):

NOx reduced by 2.5%

PM10 reduced by 4.2%

CO2 reduced by 6.5%

Costs of the congestion charge scheme:

Capital: £36m per year over an 8-year period

Operational: £64m per year over an 8-year period.

Low Emissions Zone

An alternative option would be to introduce a Low Emissions Zone (LEZ) in

central Tel Aviv-Yafo. This is a defined area, which can only be entered by

vehicles meeting certain emissions criteria or standards. Whilst this is not

designed to reduce the number of vehicles travelling through the city, it

ensures cleaner vehicles leading directly to improved air quality. A

number of northern European cities have been running these zones for

many years including Stockholm and Gothenburg.

London introduced an LEZ in 2008, which operates 24 hours per day. In

January 2012, more stringent standards were introduced, further reducing

the level of pollutants. The standards employed are consistent with

European vehicle emissions standards.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

The options are twofold:

US$1bn spent on

public transport

creates 360,000

jobs, 9% higher

than jobs created

in road

maintenance, and

19% higher than

new road projects.


A manually operated scheme which relies on vehicle registration

information and roadside checks could be employed. The costs of

implementing such a scheme in London were costed at approximately


An automatically enforced scheme operated via cameras for vehicle

recognition which could be employed in conjunction with a congestion

charging scheme and ANPR cameras would cost in the region of £6m for

set up with running costs of approximately £5m. The likely income

generated would be in the region of £1m - £4m per year. This would not

be a self-financing scheme and would have to be supported by public


Air quality improvements (after 3 year implementation):

NOx reduced by 3.8%

PM10 reduced by 23%

Economic Benefits

Investing in the green transport infrastructure creates new economic

opportunities. Developing the green economy provides new opportunities

for academic research and for technology companies, engineers and

manufacturing to establish new markets.

Investment in public transport networks can also create employment in

design and delivery of the infrastructure, managing services and ongoing


Where policy drivers, regulation and incentive schemes are created,

markets can evolve. Developing opportunities for start up companies and

the creation of a knowledge hub, where sector experts can gather and

share knowledge will help establish Tel Aviv-Yafo as a regional leader in

this field.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

11 cities are in the top 50% GDP per capita in the North American pattern –heavily car reliant.

28 cities are in the top 50% GDP per capita in the European pattern – strong reliance on public transport.

New markets which have arisen around the world as a result of greener

transport networks include:

Telecommunication and technology services

• Shared vehicle systems

• Car clubs

• Public transportation operators

• Cycle schemes

• Intelligent transport systems

• Commercial advertising

• Low carbon vehicle technology

• Alternative fuels

• Vehicle maintenance

Investment in

public transport in

Europe would

yield over 2 times

the value to the



Reports from McKinsey (2010) suggest that investing in green transport

can produce the most cost-efficient actions to reduce carbon emissions.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

The Built Environment

Energy consumption is growing at an ever-increasing rate across the

world and cleaner methods of generation need to be found. Whilst

Israel is moving its power generation and distribution from oil to

natural gas as a cleaner form of energy, further moves need to be

made towards electrification to allow for future storage,

management and balancing of energy production and


In Israel, 60% of electricity consumption is from buildings, and with a

16% growth in population over the last 8 years, and the city’s own

aspiration to increase population by a further 5% to 420,000 in the

next 8 years, there will be a greater demand for homes and domestic

technology, work space and supporting community facilities, and

therefore a much greater demand on the electricity supply.

As wealth increases there will be further demand on electricity with

people demanding more technical solutions to make their lives more

efficient and more connected. The transition to digitisation brings its

own hunger for electricity and with it comes concentrated demands

on the energy distribution network. Electrification steers away from

the use of natural gas and oil but still requires the use of precious

natural resources; however, opportunities to change the energy mix

become more achievable.

The building sector globally is

responsible for:

30% of resource


12% of fresh water use

10% of energy on

manufacturing building


40% of solid waste from

buildings in developed


Solutions need to be adopted to limit energy use and to green the

energy supply so that the impact of a growing population, and the

buildings required to accommodate them do not place excessive

demands on the energy supply and result in a sudden growth in

carbon emissions.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

The Picture Today in Israel

Already energy demands are increasing and changes in

temperature are causing high demands for cooling as was

illustrated in 2012, when the heat wave resulted in a spike in

energy consumption causing the network to reach near

capacity, putting the country at risk of power outages. At

that time, people were advised not to use electrical

appliances during daytime to allow for energy supplies to

be directed to more critical uses. If the changing climate

continues to create extreme weather events, energy

balancing will become a necessity. Tel Aviv-Yafo needs to

start a process for city resilience, which includes not only

publicly sponsored programmes, but also technological

change and citizen engagement.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Carbon Reduction Strategy for the Built


Israel’s target to reduce GHG by 20% by 2020

provides a framework within which Tel Aviv-Yafo

can frame a city wide Carbon Reduction

Strategy for the Built Environment. Such a

strategy can also help influence and impact

the country’s target to achieve 10% of energy

generation from renewable sources.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Reducing Emissions from Buildings

With buildings in Israel being responsible for 60% of electricity consumption,

and 35% of total energy consumption arising from domestic and

commercial buildings, a Carbon Reduction Strategy can be developed to

target both old and new buildings across the sectors.

A recent study by Royal Institution of Chartered

Surveyors compared 893 green certified

buildings to 10,000 non-green certified

buildings. Research demonstrated that the

green certified buildings rented for on average

6% higher and transacted for an average of

16% more than non-green certified buildings.

New Buildings

To ensure new building stock

meets good standards of

environmental performance,

policies can be introduced at the

local Planning stage to ensure

that new developments have

designed in solutions that reduce

energy consumption and feature

renewable energy generation.

This approach to local Planning

policy has existed in the UK for 10

years where building design

codes are used as a baseline

design standard and

enhancements of over 40%

(carbon dioxide reduction) are

now a requirement within the

basic design. In addition to this

renewable energy generation of

typically 10% is also required within

the demise of the building


A zero carbon timeline has also

been developed for buildings in

the UK requiring all new homes to

be zero carbon by 2016, and all

new non-domestic buildings to be

zero carbon by 2019.

The policies, which are continually in

development with industry partners,

require minimum passive design

standards, efficient building systems,

renewable energy generation and

also the possibility of offsite

generation, also known as Allowable


Additional costs are a result of

enhanced standards but these are

accounted for in the procurement

of land, having a direct impact on

the land value. Over time it is

expected that with the rising cost of

fuel, people will demand more

efficient buildings, paying less on

their energy bill and will therefore

pay a premium for homes with

energy efficiency at the core of their

design. Energy Performance

Certificates, showing energy and

carbon dioxide ratings, are required

across the European Union,

illustrating to buyers the energy

performance of the building.

A study of 5,375


buildings in the

USA showed that

in new buildings,

the use of energy

efficient lighting,


ventilation, air

conditioning and

shading can

reduce energy

consumption by


(GRIFFIN et al 2006)


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Value of Peak Power

Utility transmission and distribution

(T&D) systems generally run at less

than 50% capacity. However,

during periods of peak electricity

use, the generation and T&D

systems may be close to

overloaded. The benefits of

reduced consumption are largest

during periods of peak power

consumption – avoided congestion

costs, reduced power quality and

reliability problems and reduced

pollution. The value of peak

reduction is not just in avoided

purchase of electricity, but also in

avoided capacity and associated

T&D costs.

Thus, energy benefits of green

buildings need to be quantified not

solely based on reduced energy

use but also on reduced peak

electricity demand.





A The highest standards of sustainable design and construction should be

achieved in London to improve the environmental performance of new

developments and to adapt to the effects of climate change over their


Planning decisions

B Development proposals should demonstrate that sustainable design

standards are integral to the proposal, including its construction and

operation, and ensure that they are considered at the beginning of the

design process.

(The London Plan, Greater London Authority)


Solar thermal


Ground Source Heat

Water Source Heat

Wind turbines

Bio Fuel

Fuel Cell technology



Waste to energy



Reducing Energy


Energy Solutions



Building Management Systems

Fan Power

Air chillers

Mechanical Ventilation

Pumps and fans

Efficient lighting

Smart Metering

Escalator sensors and speed

Utilisation of waste heat

Refrigeration systems



PSD Installations

Investment in large scale

off site renewable energy


Retrofit programmes

Community infrastructure levy

Decentralisation networks



Passive Design


Building Materials

Glazing specification

Glazing ratios

Air permeability

Thermal Bridging




SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

The largest and third largest electricity demands, respectively, in California

during a typical 50,000 MW peak load period are commercial air

conditioning – representing 15% of peak load, and commercial lighting –

representing 11% of peak load. By encouraging integrated design and

awarding credit for optimization of building energy systems, LEED provides

strong incentives to cut both of these peak demand uses. (USGBC)

Rating Systems

Building rating tools are another methodology to compliment the

integration of energy efficient design. Responding to issues such as

water consumption, transportation, pollution and biodiversity, the rating

methods go beyond energy consumption and provide a more holistic

overview to the design and construction of sustainable buildings and

their environment.

Planning policy in the UK requires the use of these tools in the design

and construction of new buildings ensuring that sustainable design

standards become business as usual.

In both the UK and USA, governments have led the way in the

introduction of sustainable design, being the first to introduce the rating

systems as a requirement in their new buildings and pushing the rating

levels higher through time. Other countries such as Singapore, Australia,

Qatar and Abu Dhabi have followed this trend, developing rating

systems particular to their own environment.



Singapore – Green Mark

Abu Dhabi – Estidama

Qatar – QSAS

Australia – Green Star


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Retrofit Programmes

To enable the greening of the built

environment, the city should

consider the potential for retrofit.

With over 70% of the current

building stock still in use in 50 years,

and with the rising costs of energy,

the need to make these buildings

more efficient will impact both

carbon emissions and affordability.

A number of solutions can be

introduced to ensure the efficiency

of buildings, and these are

dependent on the type of building,

the use of the building and its

surrounding environment.

Reducing wastage and limiting the

unnecessary use of energy is driving

the retrofit market in northern


In France in 2006, the number of jobs carrying

out insulation retrofit was 9,700 and in insulation

material production was 7,150. By the end of

2012 this is expected to increase to 21,000 and

15,000 respectively. (ADEME 2008)

Buildings erected with poor

performance standards can

improve their efficiency by over

20% with the introduction of new

technology and design


The single most effective solution for

reducing energy consumption is the

removal of old and inefficient

cooling and heating systems.

Wastage from boilers and chillers

results in very high carbon emissions

as well as other pollutants including

NOx and refrigerants.

Ensuring that heat and coolth are

retained is also critical to ensuring

reduced waste. Insulating buildings

and reducing air leakage should

be undertaken across the building

stock. European countries with their

carbon emissions reductions

targets are now focussing on their

large stocks of existing buildings as

the greatest emitters across the

building stock. This is also creating

new markets and skills

development across these



SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Greening the Energy Supply

Energy demand is continuing to grow and with a population increase in Tel

Aviv Yafo in future years, security of supply is paramount. Renewable

energy is possible at a building scale to satisfy base load demands from

buildings, but that however is only the micro picture. A pathway to large

scale renewable energy should be mapped out to provide a greening of

the energy supply which will help balance peak load demands and insure

the city against the potential rises in energy prices through time as fossil

fuels become more costly.

In 2005 OECD

countries accounted

for 77% of global

investment in

renewable energy.

By 2008, non OECD

countries accounted

for 40%. (Bloomberg

New Energy Finance


Worldwide investment in

renewable energy grew by a

factor of 7 from US$19 billion in

2004 to US$143 billion in 2010. For

OECD countries, the share of

renewable energy sources in

energy demand rose from 4.6% in

1973 to 7.7% in 2009.

A move away from fossil fuels also

has indirect benefits in the

reduction of air pollutants. Burning

fossil fuels in the USA cost US$120

billion a year in health costs in

2010.The International Energy

Agency predicts that the cost of

air pollution is likely to treble by


Additional benefits from moving to

renewable energy include the

positive impacts on biodiversity

and improved water quality which

can experience acidification from

the burning of fossil fuels.

For electricity delivery, existing

grids can be expanded to wider

development areas based on

renewable sources of energy.

Alternatively micro-grids can be

installed to link communities to a

smaller scale locally sited energy

generating plant. Off-grid

connections can also be made

where renewable energy is

generated locally at a single point

of demand. Intelligent Planning

should enable the most

appropriate method with future

expansion and flexibility in mind.

With national targets of 10%

energy generation from

renewable sources, clear guidelines

should be provided to energy

providers and developers for the

future generation of renewable

energy. By introducing new policy,

a growth in the manufacturing

sector is likely to be experienced,

as has been the case in countries

such as China.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

Behavioural Change

Helping building users to understand

the energy consumption patterns of

their behaviour can dramatically

reduce consumption. In order to

realise energy savings, it is not

sufficient to provide technology

alone. Users should be informed

and trained in how to use buildings

designed for low energy

consumption. Providing

sophisticated technology can be

confusing for users and with a lack

of instruction, can result in higher

consumption. Knowing when to

open ventilation mechanisms

instead of turning on air

conditioning, or shading the glazing

in hours of sunlight can significantly

affect the users comfort and avoid

the use of expensive cooling


Users should also be provided with

information regarding the efficiency

of the products they use in their

building. The difference between

high and low efficiency products

can be up to 50%. As people are

educated on the benefits of energy

efficient appliances, they will make

informed choices upon purchase,

which will drive manufacturers to

develop greener products.

Additionally, providing users with

real time information in the form of

meters can help users understand

what technologies are using

energy, how much energy is being

used and carbon being emitted,

how much energy use costs, and

when the energy is being used

needlessly. Domestic appliances

are responsible for up to 27% of

household energy consumption,

and in commercial buildings, office

equipment is the fastest growing

area of consumption. Evidence

suggests that armed with this real

time information, users will reduce

their consumption patters.

In Germany and

the UK, real time


provided to


properties reduced


consumption by 5-

10%. (Luhmann





SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

It is estimated that for every US$ 1billion

invested in building efficiency retrofit, 10-14

direct jobs are created, and 3 – 4 indirect

jobs (UNEP).

Creating Change

To encourage investment in

greening the built environment, life

cycle assessments are critical to

show the net present value of

higher capital investments.

Incentives have to be established

to kick start the market, and there

are a number of interventions

available to the city to promote

this change.

Regulatory and control

mechanisms have to be

developed and monitored. These

should also be updated over time

to keep pace with technological

advances. This provides a sound

basis upon which the change can

commence. Performance based

codes also allow for energy

performance labelling which helps

raise the profile of a green building

through design and auditing. The

EU introduced the Energy

Performance of Buildings Directive

requiring mandatory Energy

Performance Certificates which

have to be provided upon sale or

lease of a property.

Economic based instruments such

as Energy Performance Contracts

(EPC) where the contractor is paid

in relation to the energy savings

achieved, is proving successful in

many countries.

Also, a cap and trade scheme

such as the UK’s Carbon

Reduction Commitment (CRC) is a

scheme based on the polluter

pays philosophy.

Fiscal instruments include carbon

taxes and tax exemptions or grants

and loans. In the UK, many

programmes have been made

available for low income families

to increase insulation or install new

boilers. Loans have also been

made available to start up

businesses to develop new

products in this growing market.

Middle income households can be

provided with loans at preferential

rates to encourage green

investment. The Asian

Development bank has actively

supported green buildings and

other energy efficiency

programmes through creditguarantee

schemes, and the UK is

considering setting up a Green

Investment Bank on a similar basis.

There is a growing and active

market in this field and countries

are developing various solutions to

help end users green their own

buildings. It is expected that total

investments towards new energyefficient

buildings and retrofits is

expected to exceed US$150

million by the end of 2012.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development


Public leadership is essential for these

programmes. Retrofitting public

buildings provides a good example to

the people of the city showing

commitment at the highest levels.

Also, public procurement is a perfect

route to helping supply chains

convert to a greener business model.

A Price Waterhouse Coopers survey

of seven European countries suggests

that where public procurement is

applied, 70% reduction in carbon

emissions is achieved. This is a

mechanism Tel Aviv-Yafo can

introduce to encourage their own

supply chain to operate responsibly.

Working with energy providers to

reduce carbon emissions and

requiring formal reductions

“Delivering the


[Mayor’s Climate

Change] Strategy could deliver

200k new jobs. We are driving

this forward through our range

of climate change programmes.

These are developing investment

opportunities and business models

Property’. By encouraging this

that we expect to be replicated by

private sector finance.”

The Renewable Energy Industry generates between

1.8 and 4 times more jobs per MW installed than the


conventional energy sector.

Economic Benefits

Supporting the development and

construction industry is critical to

ensure a smooth integration of new

methods and solutions. Providing

training and up-skilling, will create a

new industry in this field as has been

the case in other countries. The


creation of green collar jobs with economic potential of policy making.

industry experts and design

In 2010 more than 3.5 million people

professionals leading the way in worldwide were estimated to be

carbon reduction and further jobs working in this sector. In Germany,

being created with new skills and between 2004 and 2008, 117,500 new

new technologies for the

jobs were created.

construction industry.

This sector also provides an

opportunity to engage the informal

sector and improve working


encourages programmes such as

‘Feed-In-Tariff’ where building users

generating their own energy not only

receive free energy but are paid per

kWh of energy produced from the

energy provider. This cost is then

spread across the bills of the wider

client base in the energy pricing

Finally, following the financial crisis,

some long term institutional investors

including pension funds are seeking

to balance their portfolio. Green

buildings diversify the asset class and

can help generate earnings. This is

becoming known as ‘Responsible

stakeholder engagement, cities can

create new demand at a local level.

presents itself to the world as a

resilient city, capable of realizing

energy security, presenting itself as

resource efficient, and providing a

sound base for inward investment.

The potential for job creation in the

renewable energy sector should also

be considered when assessing the

Jobs created in wind energy have

more than doubled between 2005

and 2009 with over 500,000 people

working in the sector by that time.

conditions across the industry with

training programmes targeting new The results from Bloomberg New


Energy Finance also show that jobs in

solar energy could expect a net

Indirect benefits will also

arise over creation of 591,000 jobs between

time as the City of Tel Aviv Yafo 2008 and 2025.


SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development


Final Recommendations

London’s Green Economy has

grown by 13% in the past 5 years

boosting the city’s finances by £1.3

billion, and creating 15,000 jobs.

Taking some of this thinking and

applying it to Tel Aviv Yafo can help

kick start a new evolution for the


To enable the city to advance

towards a green economy, a

Carbon Reduction Strategy should

be developed. This would consist of

developing a baseline for the city,

recording all emissions at a given

point and developing targets with

an established timeline. The city can

then direct what percentage

reductions are desired and propose

solutions and implementation

programmes to help achieve these

targets. By guiding stakeholders

towards a target, the marketplace

will be prompted into developing

new solutions that will further spur

activity and consequential

greening across all sectors. New

business opportunities will arise for

small and medium sized enterprises

who will identify gaps in the market

place which will need to be filled by

innovative and affordable solutions.

To provide a more integrated

transportation service and to ensure

that a structured and targeted

approach is applied across the city,

it is recommended that a

Sustainable Transport Strategy is

developed in conjunction with

transport operators and city

stakeholders. This will provide a

framework within which all

participants can work.

The strategy can inform land use

Planning by mapping the

infrastructure plans against

development plans and create

new and extended routes to service

all areas of the city and ensure cross

operator integration to provide

reliable and efficient services to the

end user.

The Sustainable Transportation

Strategy can further address targets

already set out in the Carbon

Reduction Strategy which will act to

encourage operators, designers and

manufacturers to reduce energy

consumption and carbon emissions

from this sector.

Carbon reduction within the built

environment can be targeted via

Town Planning regulations. By requiring

new build property to meet carbon

reduction standards, a step change in

the building industry will occur. A

baseline building standard is required

upon which a reduction strategy can

be developed. With reductions of up

to 50% being possible in Tel Aviv Yafo.

An approved calculation method

should be used to ensure consistency

across building types.

A requirement for developments to

generate a certain percentage of

their energy requirements through

micro (building integrated) renewable

technologies is also an approach

which can be used to reduce fossil

fuel consumption from buildings.

This took place in England through a

local Town Planning policy precedent

within one London Borough which

resulted in full scale adoption by other

Boroughs in their Planning policy. It is

now typical for London Boroughs to

ask for a 10% renewable energy

contribution from their developments.

With the proposed increase in

population expected in the coming

years, a significant impact in reducing

emissions from new build property can

be achieved in this way. Specialist

design solutions should be developed

to ensure the correct approach is



SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development

To further enable the meeting of

targets, the city of Tel Aviv Yafo

could also introduce a programme

to promote retrofit solutions to the

existing building stock. Working with

utility companies to achieve carbon

reductions can help access all

households, commercial properties

and other energy consuming

buildings through servicing

contracts, and can encourage end

users to change behaviours and

introduce new solutions to help curb

the unnecessary use of fossil based


“The Agency, together with

the City of Buenos Aires Bank,

grants credits with subsidized

rates to SMEs (small and

medium enterprises) working

on environmental improvement

projects. Moreover, within the

framework of the incentives

program, the Agency is working

since 2008 in the granting of nonrefundable

contributions for SMEs

working toward more sustainable

production (29 have been granted

since 2008 with a maximum of

AR$60,000 per project).”

Further incentivisation programmes

can be introduced to help

encourage building owners and

users to incorporate renewable


The feed-in-tariff and renewable

heat incentives in the UK have seen

a significant uptake in the

integration of renewable energy


Larger scale energy generation

solutions should also be considered

to help achieve targets but require

long term planning. Solutions that

allow energy generation through the

use of waste to heat technology

can not only reduce the problems in

tackling various waste streams, but

also green the energy mix.

Greening the built environment

provides not only a much needed

reversal of the current trends in

carbon emissions from vehicles and

buildings but also provides

significant indirect benefits including

improved health, productivity and

wellbeing of those who live and

work within those spaces. Creating

new markets for jobs and products

will incentivise industry to respond,

further enhancing economic growth

and wealth creation.





SIEMENS / CoC Cities – Urban Development



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