museumVIEWSA quarterly newsletter for small and mid-sized art museums Spring 2007CONTEMPORARYMUSEUM DESIGNby ScottJ. TildenThe first American art museum buildingwas erected by painter Rembrandt Peale andhis father Charles Willson Peale in 1813.Subsequently, Peale’s sons founded smallmuseums in Baltimore, New York City, andUtica. Spectacles and musical performancesaccompanied the exhibitions of art and naturalhistory. P.T. Barnum purchased these museumslater and brought to them his unique style ofshowmanship. However, the major growth ofAmerican art museums awaited the end of the19th century. The Metropolitan Museum of Artopened in 1872 and the Museum of Fine Arts inBoston and the Philadelphia Museum of Art,both in 1876. Today over 1300 Americanmuseums display their own collections andmount temporary shows. In addition, Americanmuseum directors and trustees have used thevery architecture of the museum to attractvisitors.Initially the larger museums created monumentalstructures inspired by the Beaux Artsmovement. Then, beginning in 1938, manymuseums built structures reflecting the idealsof “Modern” architecture.As their institutions grew and prospered,American museum directors and trustees reliedmore and more on the marketing value ofcutting-edge architectural design to drawvisitors. Lengthy competitions produced aninternational array of architects who wereretained to create structures with aesthetic valueas important as the collections inside.The museum designs that emerged representsome of their architects’ most innovative work.The challenges are enormous, mainly becausemuseums have two diametrically opposed functions:to display art and to conserve it. Museumvisitors typically want to approach a painting orsculpture closely and want high levels of light.Conversely, curators and conservators seek tolimit light and the public’s proximity to the art,while also controlling temperature, humidity,and air quality levels.In addition to the display of art, there aremany other design problems that relate to museumvisitors: attracting the public; developing afunctional plan for galleries and public spaces;integrating the museum into the neighborhood;achieving luxury, tranquility, and voluptuousness;and enhancing the visitor’s aesthetic experience.Equally important, but not discussed inthis essay, are intra-museum considerations suchas creating working space for museum staff andcomplying with municipal codes.ATTRACTING THE PUBLICIn 1943, José Luis Sert, Fernand Léger, andSigfried Giedion spoke of the need for publicbuilding design to move beyond simple functionalconsiderations. “The people want thebuildings that represent their social and communitylife to give more than functional fulfillment.They want their aspirations for monumentality,joy, pride, and excitement to be satisfied.”Few contemporary museums illustrate thisconcept of monumentality as well as theMilwaukee Art Museum, Santiago Calatrava’smagnificent winged structure beside LakeMichigan. Given its scale and highly imaginativedesign, the Milwaukee Art Museum hasbecome an international Mecca for worshipers[Information for the following was taken from anarticle by Martha Morris, associate professor ofMuseum Studies at George Washington University(DC) for a 2004 issue of AAM’s Museum News.]Factors that lead to successful building programsbegin with a simple idea: “We need todo something about this!” The drama thenunfolds.Building programs that are strategicallyplanned, support the museum’s vision and thecommunity’s needs, and arebuilt to face down the challengesof funding and implementationare more likely tosucceed than those that don’t.Success requires a master plan,feasibility studies and businessplans, the use of consultants,and the involvement of stakeholders.In addition, it requiresflexibility in the considerationof what is possible and what is not,and openness to a variety of newideas. Complete and total commitmentto the project is crucial.Otherwise, it’s very simple.STRATEGIC PLANNINGStrategic plans support longtermvisions of improved facilities,more accessible locations, better collectionshowcases, larger educational facilities,bigger auditoriums, and more. It could take ayear or more to develop a program, collectof architecture and art. Some465,552 people visited thenew museum building in2002, the year of its completion.This compares toapproximately 165,000 visitorsin 1999 and 2000. Thesefigures are all the more impressive when comparedto the population of Milwaukee, which is597,000.Of course, this rise in attendance was preciselythe goal of the Milwaukee Art Museumtrustees. In fact, the broader goal of local businessmenand politicians was to use the buildingto re-brand the museum and the city itselfwhere “beer, brats, and Laverne and Shirley”had been the prevailing image. “The art museumhas put us in a new league,”plans and estimates of space needs and fundraisingpossibilities, and conduct competitionsfor the best architect for the job.PROGRAM PLANNINGContinued on page 3EXPANSION: A COMPLEX PATH TO SUCCESS OR FAILUREDeveloping a program plan takes timeand care. It should involve all departmentheads, senior staff, and the board’s buildingcommittee–a coming together to determineexactly the needs of themuseum. “All assumptionsregarding programneeds, spacerequirements and adjacencies,and human andtechnical requirementsshould be explicitlylisted and then testedand re-tested for validity,with the help of outsideexperts, includingexperienced museumprofessionals…. Thewell done programplan will simplify andguide architect selection,design, and construction.It will alsohelp control costs byreducing the need tochange orders,” saidDan Monroe, president of the Peabody EssexMuseum (MA) which was engaged in a majorbuilding program.Continued on back pageTop left: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (NY): Detail of façade. Wright, Gwathmey.Right: National Gallery of Art, East Building (DC): South side. Pei.
2DIRECTORS’ CORNERWHAT DOESA MUSEUMDIRECTOR DO?by Frank RobinsonAbove all, we are guardians.❖We are guardians of the museum’s fiscalintegrity. We keep watch over balanced budgets,protect the endowment, pay attention tofundraising and other revenue sources, are frugalwith expenditures, make long-range plans,and, most important, have honest and open dealingswith colleagues, friends of the museum,and the general public.❖We are guardians of the staff. We promoteand protect our personnel, their morale and theirsense of community; we raise their salarieswhen we can; we avoid favoritism and cliques;we encourage their professional growth andtheir ability to do their jobs successfully. We tryto be a positive force in helping them to behappy and productive.❖We are guardians of the museum’s mission.We keep the museum focused on core functions:preserving and presenting the objects in themuseum’s care, educating and serving our variousaudiences, and maintaining the museum as aplace of intellectual excitement and fun.2006 STATSON CAPITAL CAMPAIGNSThe following statistics, published by theAmerican Association of Museums, were drawnfrom canvassing 186 museums that are activelyengaged in capital campaigns, building improvements,and expansions.• 23 percent are engaged in a capital campaignwith a median goal of $10 million (threetimes the size of the corresponding endowment).Both the likelihood of engaging in a capitalcampaign and the size of the campaign goalincrease with the age of the institution.• 50 percent have begun or completed buildingconstruction, renovation, or expansion in thepast tree years.• The median costs of new building construction,renovation, and expansion are $3.6 million,$1.2 million, and $362,000 respectively.• The median costs per square foot of newbuilding construction, renovation, and expansionare $232, $234, and $94 respectively.• The median size of new building construction,renovation, and expansion is 17,000,15,000, and 5,000 square feet respectively.• Respondents collectively spent over $3.5 billionon building construction and renovation inthe past three years.❖We are guardiansof the museum’sreputation. We nurturethe museum’simage among allconstituencies: thestaff, the trustees,and the public. Weare responsible forensuring that themuseum’s publicface is open andhonest, that it isprominent andrespected in its collegeor university,in its community,and among museumprofessionals ingeneral.Milwaukee Art Museum (WI): Bridge to museum (wings are opened and extended when wind speedsare safe). Saarinen, Kahler, Calatrava.❖We are guardians of the museum’s professionalstandards. We maintain the ongoingscholarship of the institution and its staff, andwe make continuing contributions to our fieldsof expertise. At the same time, we insist on highstandards in every aspect of the museum, fromhuman relations to facilities management tosecurity. And we help our profession as a wholeto maintain those high standards.❖We are guardians of our trustees. We help tochoose them and keep them; we make sure theyare informed about and involved in the museum;we take them on as partners in the effort tomaintain a thriving institution. We protect themfrom distractions such as irrelevant issuesand staff squabbles; and we protectour staff from too much trustee involvementin the day-to-day running of themuseum. We serve as a bridge betweentrustees and staff, helping each to communicatewith the other. We protect andnurture this precious resource.❖We are guardians of the visitors’experience. We see to the rights of visitorsto clean bathrooms, polite and helpfulguards, clear and accurate labels andother information about the displays,and an eager and accessible professionalstaff.❖We are guardians of the building, allthe physical facilities, and the gardensand grounds. This is a key part of thevisitors’ experience, as well as a sourceof pride. Sometimes, the building itselfis one of the most important works ofart in the museum’s collection. Attentionto it includes its care behind the sceneswhere people work and the collectionsare stored.❖We are guardians of the museum’sfuture. We must be concerned with notonly five-year plans and new wings,charitable remainder trusts, bequests,long-term fiscal health, donors, andpotential donors, but also the museum’svalues, its dedication to its special field,to the quality of its acquisitions andexhibitions, its respect for people—staff,donors, and visitors, and its commitment toservice and scholarship. The director is paid tothink about the future, and to worry about it❖Above all, we are guardians of our collections,our acquisitions (and deaccessions),our exhibitions–what is on the walls of ourgalleries–and the quality of care, management,and publication of those objects. In the mostimmediate, everyday, and practical sense, if thedirector is a success in all his responsibilities,but fails in this one, he or she has failed. Thisis the core– and the point– of all the otheractivities of the museum.Sadly, all of the above has very little todo with how we allocate our time on a typicalday or year. The majority of our time, of course,is spent on fundraising, and the social responsibilitiesconnected with that part of the job.Nevertheless, what is outlined above is howwe will be judged (and how we should judgeourselves). If we do everything right, the moneywill come. People—staff, trustees, donors, visitors,and the general public—recognize quality.[Frank Robinson is the Richard J. SchwartzDirector of the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Artat Cornell University (NY)] ❏museumVIEWSEditor: Lila ShermanPublisher: Museum Views, Ltd.2 Peter Cooper Road, New York, NY 10010212-677-3415museumVIEWS is supported by grants from theHorace W. Goldsmith Foundationand Bloomberg.museumVIEWS is published 4 times a year:Winter (January 1), Spring ( April 1), Summer(July 1), and Fall (October 1), Deadlines forlistings and art work are November 15,February 15, May 15, and August 15.
CONTEMPORARY MUSEUM DESIGNcontinued from page 1says business executive and trustee DonaldBaumgartner.Yet entering the major leagues came at a veryhigh price. The project’s budget rose from $35million to $125 million, based on higher-thananticipatedconstruction costs and major additionslike the wing-like sunscreen or brise soleil,underground garage, and landscaping. Theresulting fund-raising drive nearly drained thephilanthropic coffers of the city and saddled themuseum with $29 million in debt, which wasretired in 2006.DEVELOPING A FUNCTIONAL PLANArchitect Philip Johnson observed, “Lookingat pictures is quite easy, and museum architectureshould be a matter of arranging spaces forseeing art. This was done well by Stirling andSchinkel. If you just follow their example, you’llbe all right. Hang them in a simple room, andcreate an enfilade of rooms so you know whichway you are going. The sense of orientation isabsolutely essential.”Well-designed museums have a number ofvisual cues such as outside windows, inner courtyards,or a gridwork ofhallways that orient thevisitor. Karl FriedrichSchinkel incorporated avariety of these orientationcues in his 1823design for the AltesMuseum in Berlin. Hismodel of museum configurationcalled for arectangular-shapedbuilding with a centralrotunda, grand stair, astring of galleries, innercourtyards, and windowsand skylights. His planinfluenced museumtypology for over a century.An excellentAmerican example ofSchinkel’s typology isthe original NationalGallery of Art building,designed by John Russell Pope.Quite different but equally rational in plan isI.M. Pei’s East Wing of the National Gallery ofArt. In a sense, he updated elements ofSchinkel’s plan. Instead of a central rotunda witha stone domed ceiling, he designed a large openspace at the museum’s entry with a metal spaceframeceiling. He used both a staircase and escalatorwith an intriguing scooped-out wall detail.However Pei’s design for the gallery spaces differedgreatly from Schinkel.Armed with the discovery that the optimaltime for viewing art is about 45 minutes, whichtranslated to a comfortable stroll through about10,000 square feet of gallery space, Pei’s architecturalteam came up with a highly novel solution.They created three hexagonal-shaped gallerieson each floor at the corners of the triangular-shapedbuilding. Orientation and relaxationspaces were provided between the corner galleriesand by the entrance atrium space, soimportant in the Schinkel model.DISPLAYING THE ARTArtists, curators, art historians, architects, andmuseum visitors all have their distinct viewpointson the perfect way to display art. GermanNeo-Expressionist Georg Baselitz, in his essay“Four Walls and Light from Above or Else NoPainting on the Wall,” described his requirementsfor gallery spaces: “High walls, few doors,no side windows, light from above, no partitions,no baseboards, no base moldings, no paneling,no shiny floors, and finally, no color either.”Alternative solutions to the display of art andgallery design have come from a variety ofsources. German art historian Heinrich Wölfflinnoted, “The most important relationship of art isto the historical evolution of its predecessors.The relationship between a painting and anotherpainting is more important than the relationshipbetween a painting and its subject matter.”Wölfflin’s approach is applied spatially at theSolomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Visitors tothe Frank Lloyd Wright-designed museum canview artwork of a particular period on the nearestwall or look across the atrium space and viewthe past or the future of an artist or movement.Des Moines Art Center (IA): I.M. Pei building from central courtyard. Saarinen, Pei, Meier.Wright wanted visitors to view paintings the waythe original artist did: tilted, unglazed, unframed,and in changing light conditions. In his museum,given the outward slanting walls, the paintingsand building would combine into an organicintegrity. The primary light source would be thelight dome with limited artificial light as needed.Wright abhorred stark white on gallery walls. Hepreferred a soft ivory, considering it “luminousreceptive,sympathetically self-effacing, insteadof competitive or antagonistic.”Wright’s design was as controversial at itsconception as it is today. During the museum’sdesign phase, 21 leading artists, complained toDirector James Johnson Sweeney: “The basicconcept of curvilinear slope for the presentationof painting and sculpture indicates a callous disregardfor the fundamental rectilinear frame ofreference necessary for the adequate visual contemplationof works of art. We strongly urge thetrustees of the Guggenheim Museum to reconsiderthe plans for the new building.”Three months before his death at the age of91, and over his objections, the museum wallswere painted stark white, the canvases werehung bolt upright, and high levels of artificiallighting were used. Later the upper ramps wereconverted to storage. The drive-through entrancewas glazed in for a restaurant and gift shop. Thecafé was converted into a storage and restorationarea. Even with the recent restorations of thebuilding, we do not have the opportunity toexperience Wright’s vision of the display of art.INTEGRATING THE MUSEUMINTO ITS NEIGHBORHOODToday architects often speak of context in thedevelopment of their designs. Some are inspiredby and respond to the architecture surroundingtheir building site. Some emulate the scale, materials,or details of adjacent buildings. FrankGehry, for example, described the genesis of thedesign for the proposed addition to the CorcoranGallery of Art in Washington, D.C.: “One of themain goals of the project is to harmonize old andnew, respecting the integrity of the originalBeaux-Arts building designed by Ernest Flaggwhile leading the Corcoran architecturally intothe twenty-firstcentury. Thedesign compositionallyunifiesthe city block byderiving thelanguage for theresponse fromErnest Flagg’shemicycle on thecorner of NewYork Avenue and17th Street.”Perhaps a moreconvincing exampleof a museumbeing sensitivelyintegrated into aneighborhood isthe Yale Centerfor British Art byLouis Kahn. He did not blindly copy the campus’sGothic revival architectural style. Insteadhe responded subtly to the scale of the surroundingbuildings and the business and social contextof the neighborhood.While stylistically distinct from its neighboringbuildings, Kahn’s museum is similar inheight to its neighbors. The Chapel Street façadeis broken into ten distinct but repeating bays,making the building appear less massive andmonolithic. On a bright day, other Yale buildings,especially the 1927 Art Gallery, are reflected inthe Center’s windows. Unlike Gehry’s choice ofshining titanium, Kahn specified that the steelsurface of the Center be non-reflective—like“lead” or “pewter,”Street-side shops incorporated into the buildingmost strongly integrate the museum into thecampus and the city. The windows and doorsalong the sidewalks welcome passersby inside.A garden and restaurant below grade also invitevisitors to linger and enjoy the use of buildingand grounds. Kahn commented, “The shopsalong the sidewalk were inspired by the generalfeelings of the students of Yale.Continued on page 43
4CONTEMPORARY MUSEUM DESIGNCONTEMPORARY MUSEUM DESIGNcontinued from page 3I felt that they had a wonderful point in notforgetting the continuity of the shopping characteristicsof the street. I therefore dedicated thelower floors to commercial activities, and thebuilding is above.” In addition, civic leadersdemanded shops to help restore a city that hadbeen decimated by attempts at “urban renewal.”ACHIEVING LUXURY, TRANQUILITY,AND VOLUPTUOUSNESSLike Matisse withhis paintings, ErnstBeyeler sought “luxury,calm, and voluptuousness”in Renzo Piano’sdesign for his museumin Basel, Switzerland.Few architects haveachieved these goalswith such grace asTod Williams andBillie Tsien with theirdesign for theAmerican Folk ArtMuseum in New York.Although a relativelysmall structure at 40’wide, 100’ long, and85’ high, this “house ofart” attracts considerableattention for the beautyof its materials. As the architects have stated, “Itis important that the façade of the building havea powerful presence, because it is surrounded bythe much larger Museum of Modern Art.” Aftermuch experimentation, they selected for thefaçade, tombasil, an alloy of copper, zinc, manganese,and zinc that is commonly used for boatpropellers, fire-hose nozzles, and grave-markers.The color of the 63 tombasil panels varies bytime of day and differences in atmospheric conditions.The walls catch the light of the sun as itrises and sets, east and west along 53rd Street.“Our desire was to clad the building in a materialthat was both common and amazing, and thatwould show a connection with the handmadequality of folk art. We wanted the building toreflect the direct connection between heartand hand.”Other materials selected for the building areequally common, but in their application lendrichness to the interior spaces. Concrete slabsthroughout the building are terrazzo, ground toproduce a smooth finish that reveals the stoneaggregate. Poured-in-place concrete walls arebush hammered. Douglas fir, with its warmreddish hue, was used for the gallery floors.Solid wood rails run along steel handrails. Thissame wood is also used in a woven manner as abalustrade wall. Cherry wood was used for thecustom-made benches in the gallery and tablesin the library.ENHANCING THEAESTHETIC EXPERIENCEArtist and writer, Brian O’Doherty in hisbook “Inside the White Cube” provides ananalysis of perhaps the most familiar form ofModern and contemporary exhibit space and itsmeaning. “A gallery is constructed along laws asrigorous as those for building a medieval church.The outside world must not come in, so windowsare usually sealed off. Walls are painted white.The ceiling becomes the source of light. Art existsin a kind of eternity of display, and though thereis lots of ‘period’ (late Modern) there is no time.”Raphael Moneo dramatically applies theseprinciples in his design for the galleries of OldMasters, Impressionists, and Post-Impressionistsin the Audrey Jones Beck Building of theMuseum of Fine Arts in Houston. “I put all ofMuseum of Fine Arts, Houston (TX): Northwest corner of Moneo building (light towerson roof). Watkin, Franzheim, Mies van der Rohe, Morris, Moneo.my interest in the interior. I wanted it to be dramaticand scenographic, with each sequence ofspaces and images being different.” Light towersilluminate the galleries which are enhanced withrich materials: bronze for the door jambs; oak,limestone, terrazzo, and granite for the floors;and walls painted muted shades of peach, green,and gray. There is a sense of isolation from theworld that allows visitors to enter into a meditativestate and develop an intimate relationshipwith the art. In Moneo’s galleries people remainsilent or talk in hushed tones.In glaring contrast is Zaha Hadid’s newContemporary Arts Center in Cincinnati, Ohio.Hadid breaks through the box. She creates concreteforms that extend beyond the rectangularboundaries of the building with its narrow site indowntown Cincinnati. She designs galleries andpublic spaces with slanting walls and floors. Sheseeks to integrate the museum and the world, thestreet, and the gallery. Her “urban carpet” bringsthe street and concrete sidewalk inside the buildingand allows it to curve up the inside wall andramps. It celebrates movement as it winds itsway throughout the museum. The artwork islocated in public spaces and galleries, which fosterscontinuous interaction of the visitors with theobjects. Openings and balconies allow visitors tolook at art and other visitors. The design fosters acollective, public encounter of art as opposed to aprivate, meditative aesthetic experience.THE IDEAL SETTING:DISPLAYING THE ARTArchitects of museums strive to design idealsettings for viewing art. The most successfultranscend technical considerations and createspaces suffused with energy, light, and life.As architect Tadao Ando observed, “You want tobe able to help sustain the life of each work bygiving it a living condition, a sense of spatialenergy that can include nature and natural light,things that are not always perfectly controllable.A museum is not simply a display case, but aspace that brings life to what is inside it.”[Scott Tilden is an author and editor of books on architecture.His latest is Architecture for Art: American ArtMuseums 1938-2008, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2004.He has also lectured extensively on contemporary museumarchitecture at many museums across the country.]ARCHITECTUREFOR ARTArchitecture for Art: American ArtMuseums 1938-2008, edited by Scott J.Tilden, photography by Paul Rocheleau(Harry N. Abrams, 2004) documents theevolution of museum missions, functions,and design over a seventy-year period. Bymeans of insightful narrative and dramaticphotography, it explores the exceptionalarchitecture of thirty-nine American artmuseums located in cities and small towns.The book begins in 1938 with the creationof the MoMA (NY) and ends in 2008with what was to be the completion of the expansionof the Corcoran Gallery of Art (DC). (Theplans for the Gehry expansion were canceled in2005.) The criteria used in the selection processincluded quality of design, geographic breadth,and span of styles from Modernist to Post-Modern and beyond.For each museum, Tilden provides basic facts,critical reviews, and statements by both the directorand the architect on the collection, theprograms, and the building. The result is a bookreflecting the multiple perspectives of directors,architects, scholars, and critics.In his preface, Tilden explains:“The UnitedStates truly suffers from an embarrassment ofriches in regard to its art museums. Since 1970more than six hundred new art museums haveopened in the country, bringing the totalto more than thirteenhundred.Major art museumsreported a growth in the1990’s of 113 percent in museum endowments,483 percent in capital improvements, 50percent in donated artwork, andContinued on page 9
springtimeVIEWSCaliforniaBerkeley Art Museum, University ofCalifornia, Berkeley ❐ Through June24: “Measure of Time” Artists’attempts to capture time in variousforms—compressed, frozen, fragmented,accelerated, and slowed down. ❐“Selections from the Collection”Rubens, Rothko, Smith, and some newacquisitions.Palo Alto Arts Center ❐ Through Apr.29: “Correspondence: Masami Teraoka& Ukiyo-e” Watercolors by Teraokaalongside woodblock prints thatinspired him; “Actor! Actor!” Theintersection of art and theater, withemphasis on Asian artifacts: Nohmasks, Ukiyo-e prints, Indonesianshadow and French paper puppets,set and costume designs, and more.Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento ❐Through May 6: “Yosemite 1938: Onthe Trail with Ansel Adams andGeorgia O’Keeffe” From an albumcrafted by Adams after a trek withO’Keefe and friends, including someof his most famous images; “Palkee:Wedding Conveyances of North India”Carved wooden panels used to carrybrides in wedding ceremonies of theSantal tribe in Northern India; 1stshowing in the West. ❐ “Homes for theDisembodied: An Installation by MaryTuma” (May 24) Honoring Palestinianwomen who have died and those thatcarry on: 25-foot-tall black chiffondresses.Museum of Photographic Arts, SanDiego ❐ “Tell Me a Story: NarrativePhotography Now” (May 13)Contemporary artists using fable,fiction, and cinematic conventions.Museum” (June 10) Twigs, grass, roots,ferns, and bark transformed: the varietyof materials and techniques from tribeto tribe. ❐ “Zip, Bop, and Whir: Toysof the 20th Century”(July 8) Playthingsthat roll, float, fly, and construct.Wadsworth Atheneum Museum ofArt, Hartford ❐ “ConnecticutContemporary” (July 15) Eight artistseach select one artist who in turnselects one artist: a show of 24 contemporaryConnecticut artists.Yale Center for British Art, NewHaven ❐ “Paul Mellon’s Legacy: APassion for British Art” (July 29) Forthe centennial of the museum’sfounder, a show of treasures from hiscollection: drawings and watercolorsby Hogarth, Rowlandson, Blake, andTurner; prints; rare books; 15th-20thcenturymanuscripts; and more.Mill Museum, Willimantic ❐“Gingerbread Gems of Willimantic,Connecticut” (July) Victorian architecture.District of ColumbiaSmithsonian Institution ❐At theSackler Gallery: “East of Eden:Gardens in Asian Art” (May 13)Garden imagery in hand scrolls, hangingscrolls, folding screens, manuscriptpaintings, lacquer objects, and ceramicsand textiles, 12th century to the present.Textile Museum ❐ “Red” (July 8)Textiles from the Americas, Africa,Asia, and the Middle East that communicatewith the color red including anAIDS lapel ribbon and a Peruvian borderfragment from 300 BCE - 500 CE.Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg❐ “Florida Collects Folk Art” (July 8)A who’s who in folk art, includingmany African-Americans.Cornell Fine Arts Museum, WinterPark ❐ Through May 20: “AfricanAmerican Artists in the JacquelineBradley and Clarence Otis, Jr.Collection” Modern and contemporarypainting, photography, sculpture, andmixed media; “Henry Matisse’s Jazz”The illustrated book, each page begunas a cut-out: a masterpiece in modernprintmaking; “Diverse Africa:Ambassador and Mrs. Ulric Haynes, Jr.Collection” Tribal art and jewelryfrom the Bedouin and Berber tribes ofTunisia, the Benin Kingdom ofNigeria, and the Ashanti of Ghana,among others.Vero Beach Museum of Art ❐ “TheReality of Things: Trompe L’Oeil inAmerica” (May 6) From 19th-centuryhyper-real through contemporary illusion.❐ “George Rickey KineticSculpture: A Retrospective” (May 14)50-year survey of indoor and outdoorsculptures.GeorgiaGeorgia Museum of Art, Athens ❐“The Jackleg Testament” A dark taletold in graphic woodcut prints that thencome alive in an animated film.HawaiiHonolulu Academy of Arts ❐ “AVision of the World: The Anna RiceCooke Collection at the HonoluluAcademy of Arts” (May 27) Thefounder’s collection, especially Koreanceramics, celebrating 80 years inIllinoisMuseum of Contemporary Art,Chicago ❐ “Rudolf Stingel: Painting”(May 27) Retrospective of an artistwho seeks to defy the system, demystifythe artist, and involve the viewer. ❐“MCA EXPOSED: Defining Momentsin Photography, 1967-2007” (July 29)The artistic evolution of photography,from Sherman’s untitled film stills toBoltanski’s Les Enfants de Dijon, andStreuli’s Chicago ’99.Smart Museum of Art, University ofChicago ❐ “Cosmophilia: Islamic Artfrom the David Collection,Copenhagen” (May 20) A millenniumof work exemplifying cosmophilia(“love of ornament”) from Spain toIndia. ❐ “Exported Visions: EarlyTwentieth-Century JapaneseWoodblock Prints” (June 10) Images ofJapan made for Western consumption.Northern Illinois University ArtMuseum, DeKalb ❐ Through May 12:“The Uncertainty Principle: Drawing inthe Golden Age of Worry”Contemporary artists expressing their(and our) uncertainties; “Josef Albers:Formulation: Articulation” Serigraphsprovide an overview of his theories.Krannert Art Museum, University ofIllinois, Urbana-Champaign ❐“Commerce and Consumption: Worksfrom the Permanent Collection” (May13) A companion exhibition to the prior“Branded and On Display.”IndianaSouth Bend Regional Museum of Art❐ “African American Arts Associationat the SBRMA” (May 6) Emerging,established, and non-mainstream artists.Cantor Arts Center, StanfordUniversity, Stanford ❐ “In theAmerican West: Photographs byRichard Avedon” (May 6) Repriseof the 1985 Amon Carter Museumexhibition: the results of an odysseythrough 13 states and 199 towns fromTexas to Idaho. ❐ “Bare Witness:Photographs by Gordon Parks” (July 1)Retrospective: the 1940’s urban andrural poor, the Civil Rights movement,works for Vogue and Life magazines,film shots. and finally, writings.ColoradoSangre de Cristo Arts Center, Pueblo❐ “Ay, México!” The art and culture ofMexico in three exhibitions: ThroughMay 12: “The Legend of the Chromes”Mexican calendar legends; “Viva LaRevolución!” Coin collection thattells the story of the MexicanRevolution of 1910; “TradiciónMéxico” (May 5) Mexican andAmerican painters and photographers.❐ “Encuentro: A Leo TangumaCommunity Sculptural Mural Project”(Apr. 27) 30-foot mural in three panelsthat feature the mythological LaLlorona, a woman weeping forher dead children.ConnecticutBruce Museum, Greenwich ❐“Weaving a Collection: NativeAmerican Baskets from the BruceKentucky Gateway Museum Center. Coxe Allen & Assoc., architect. Photo by Louis Browning.FloridaBoca Raton Museum of Art ❐Through June 3: “Jeanne Hilary: Eden”Large scale photographs of small townsacross America; “Ernest TrovaRetrospective” Forty years of variationson the theme of the human journeythrough life, in paintings, graphics,assemblages, and sculpture; “TheIsadore and Kelly Friedman BequestMemorial Exhibition” Paintings, sculpture,and photographs by modern masters:Dubuffet, Leger, Marsh, Rivers,Steiglitz, Cartier-Bresson, and Newton.operation. ❐ “Paintings by KirkKurokawa” (May 29) Portraits. ❐“Ukiyo-E Exhibition” (May 20)Japanese wood-block prints. ❐Through May 6: “Lost MaritimeCivilizations of Ancient China: 8000Years” Archaeological discoveries thatlink Southeast China to modernPolynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia;“Hawaii Quilt Guild Exhibition”Annual showing of a variety of stylesand techniques. ❐ Through May 10-31:“The Moon Show” Paintings withlunar themes; “George Wollard”Solo exhibit.KansasUlrich Museum of Art, Wichita ❐“Marsden Hartley: American Modern”(Apr. 29) Retrospective.KentuckySpeed Art Museum, Louisville“Building Books: The Art of DavidMacaulay” (May 13) Interactive for thefamily: original works of art, studies,sketchbooks, book dummies, manuscripts,correspondence, and artifacts.❐ “From Folk to Modern: KentuckyPottery, 1900-1950” (June 24)Utilitarian crocks, jars, and vesselsand decorative objects.MainePortland Museum of Art ❐ “2007Portland Museum of Art Biennial”(June 11) New work by Maine artists.MarylandBaltimore Museum of Art ❐“Pissarro: Creating the ImpressionistLandscape” (May 13) The transformativedecade (1864-1874): from traditionalFrench landscape toImpressionism.Walters Art Museum, Baltimore ❐“Untamed: The Art of Antoine-LouisBarye” (May 6) 19th-century animalsculptor and teacher to Rodin shownfor the first time in many moons:bronze sculptures, oil paintings,5
springtimeVIEWScontinuedwatercolors, and sketches. ❐ “FloralStill-Life Paintings from the Collectionof Jane and Robert Meyerhoff” (June10) Delacroix, Cézanne, Klimt,Magritte, Matisse, Nolde, and others.MassachusettsInstitute of Contemporary Art,Boston ❐ “Momentum 7: MisakiKawai” (July 8) Pop works createdfrom papier-mâché, wood, fabric,stickers, and yarn.Fuller Craft Museum, Brockton ❐Through May 6: “Carter Smith:Shibori Treasures” Fiber installation;“Drawing with Fire” Glass sculpture;“RISD Routes”McMullen Museum of Art, BostonCollege, Chestnut Hill ❐ “A New Key:Modern Belgian Art from the SimonCollection” (July 22) Late 19th centuryto World War II: Magritte, Ensor,Delvaux, Claus, Smet, Permeke,and others.Peabody Essex Museum, Salem ❐Through June 3: “Epic India: Paintingsby M.F. Husain” Works brought togetherfrom three undertakings (in 1971,1983, and 1990) to paint the Indian epicMahabharata; “A Sense of Place: AnArtist’s Tribute to the Seven Continents”Seven large hand-painted textiles.Mount Holyoke College Art Museum,South Hadley ❐ “Excavating Egypt:Great Discoveries from the PetrieMuseum of Egyptian Archaeology,University College, London” (July)Egyptian works of art found by Britisharchaeologist Sir William FlindersPetrie: one of the world’s earliest dresses(circa 2400 BCE), gold mummymasks, photomurals of excavations inprogress, rare archival materials, videopresentations, and more.Rose Art Museum, BrandeisUniversity, Waltham ❐ “John Armleder:Everything is not Enough” (July 29)First U.S. exhibition of furniture sculptures,paintings, light installations, wallpaintings, and large-scale installationsby the eclectic founder of the artisticgroup Ecart in Switzerland.MichiganUniversity of Michigan Museum ofArt, Ann Arbor ❐ “Imagining Eden:Connecting Landscapes” (June 3)Images of parks, golf courses, gardens,and cemeteries demonstrate the humanimpulse to shape the landscape andstrive for order and harmony.Jacob Gallery, Wayne State University,Detroit ❐ “Where We Come From”(May 25) Text, photos, and videoassembled in answer to the question toother Palestinians throughout the world:“If I could do something for you, anywherein Palestine, what would it be?”Kresge Art Museum, Michigan StateUniversity, East Lansing ❐ “Circus:The Art of the Strange & Curious” (July27) Carved and painted wooden scalemodels of performers, wagons, circusbanners, and more.Flint Institute of Arts ❐ “OscarBluemner” (May 27) Works on paper.❐ “Artists of the Great Lakes: 1910-1960” (Aug. 19) Paintings, prints, anddrawings.Lauren RogersMuseum of Art,Laurel ❐ “JauneQuick-to-SeeSmith: Made inAmerica” (Apr. 29)Survey in paintings,drawings,and prints; NativeAmerican lifecontrasts withAmericanconsumerism.MissouriLaumeierSculpture Park,St. Louis ❐ “KarenOliver: A CloserLook” (May 13)Pedestrian objectsin use sculpturally.MontanaMissoula Art Museum ❐ “NativeIdentity in Flux: Reflections from theMAM Contemporary American IndianArt Collection” (Apr. 28) Quick-to-SeeSmith, Stewart, Ambrose Smith, Pepion,and others. ❐ “Unwrapped II: NewGifts to the Permanent Collection” (May5) ❐ “Women Beyond Borders” (June7) Assemblages made from an identicalsmall box form by women artists fromaround the world. ❐ “Blake Haygood”(June 30) A printmaker’s paintings.Montana Museum of Art & Culture,University of Montana, Missoula ❐“Marilyn Bruya: Recent and PastWorks” (June 30) Work exploring socialjustice, culture, and environmentalissues.New JerseyHunterdon Museum of Art, Clinton ❐Through June 3: “Barbara Klein”Abstract art; “Feminist Art Project”Contemporary American women artists.Monmouth Museum ❐ “MarshMeditations: A Celebration of theHamilton-Trenton Bordentown Marshwith the Works of the Princeton ArtistsAlliance” (June 10) Local artists look atthe marsh in a variety of mediums.Rutgers-Camden Center for the Arts,Rutgers University, Rutgers ❐ “FromGeneration to Generation” (May 14-25)Graduating art students, professors, andalumni artists.New MexicoUNM Art Museum, University of NewMexico, Albuquerque ❐ Through June10: “Private Reserves—Art of theImagination” Where the driving force isinvention rather than mirroring ofworlds; “A Familiar Marriage:Connecting Pictures and Words”Illustrated texts, including Hockney’sGrimm’s Fairy Tales. ❐ “DeliberateGestures/The Photographic Portrait”(May 20) The relationship betweenportrait photographer and subject.New YorkAlbany Museum of Art ❐ ThroughMay 27: “Paul Cushman: The Work andthe World of a New York State Potter,1800-1850” An historical look at thisBlock Museum of Art (IL). Dirk Lohan, architect. Photo courtesy of the museum.upstate potter who operated a smallceramics business; “Clay Connections:What Ceramics Tell Us” Objects thatconnect Albany to the rest of the world:Dutch Majolica, English faience,Chinese export porcelains, and Englishtransfer-printed tableware; “ContainingHistory: Contemporary Ceramics fromRegional Potters” Modern takes on thepast in pottery.Hillwood Art Museum, Brookville ❐“Paul Villinski: Air Chair” (July 3) ❐“Art of the Americas: The CollectionRevealed” (Spring) Pre-Columbianobjects of stone, clay, wood, and textile.Kupferberg Center for the Arts,Queens College, Flushing ❐ “IslamicArt in Image and Object” (May 31)Photographs of Khalili Collection ofIslamic Art and objects from othercollections.Hofstra University Museum,Hempstead ❐ “Twardowicz & Dodson:Artists in Parallel” (May11)Retrospective of husband andwife artists.Heckscher Museum of Art,Huntington ❐ “Ansel Adams andEdwin Land: Art, Science, andInvention—Photographs from thePolaroid Collection” (June 25) Adam’spart in the development of the Polaroid.Islip Art Museum ❐ “SurfaceImpressions” (June 3) How contemporaryartists treat the surfaces of theircanvases, sculptures, and mixedmediaworks.Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art,Cornell University, Ithaca ❐ ThroughJune 24: “Ningyo: Japanese Dolls fromthe Goldstein Collection” Festival dollsmade for show, not play; “Listening toBamboo: Japanese Baskets from theHarris Collection” From the Meiji era(1868-1912) to the present. ❐ ThroughJuly 8: “Walk in Beauty: DiscoveringAmerican Indian Art” ContemporaryNative American painting and sculpture;“Scattered Gold and MidnightGloss: Japanese Lacquer from theAnbinder Collection” Boxes with golddesigns; “Performing Desire:Constructs of Feminine Beauty andSexuality in Japanese Art”The role of the feminine inart. ❐ “Ursula vonRydingsvard” (July 15)Recent works with gougedwood surfaces. ❐ “AFocused Collection: TheHudson River School”(June 17) Cropsey, Church,Heade, Bradford, Sonntag,and others.Bard Graduate Center,New York City ❐ “BrunoMathsson: Designer andArchitect” (June 10)Furniture, architecturaldrawings, photographs, andmodels by this key figurein 20th-century Modernism.El Museo Del Barrio, NewYork City ❐ “TheDisappeared (Los Desaparecidos)”(June 17) Visual responses to thekidnapping and killing (the “disappearance”)of thousands by repressivemilitary dictatorships in Latin Americafrom the 1950’s through the 1980’s.Grey Art Gallery, New YorkUniversity, New York City ❐ “Beyondthe White Cube: A Retrospective ofBrian O’Doherty/Patrick Ireland”Paintings, sculpture, installations, anddrawings from an artist with multipseudonyms, the most famous, PatrickIreland, used as a political protesterand then assumed for his subsequentartwork.Guggenheim Museum, New York City❐ “The Hugo Boss Prize 2006: TacitaDean” (June 6) Drawings, sound, foundphotographs, and 16mm films by therecipient of this award for significantdevelopment in contemporary art.Jewish Museum, New York City ❐“Dateline Israel: New Photography andVideo Art” (Aug. 5) Works made afterthe year 2000 show how political realitiesin an evolving country influencecreative endeavor. ❐ “Landslide”Shifting geographic borders, like thosein the Middle East, are the subject ofthis animation installation involvingsoftware, video projection, and sculpture.Museum of American Illustrators,Society of Illustrators, New York City❐ “49th Annual Exhibition” (Apr. 28)Juried.Museum of Arts & Design, New YorkCity ❐ Through June 17: “Radical Lace& Subversive Knitting” Needle- andhook-work that makes political or personalstatements; “ContemporaryNetsuke: Masterful Miniatures” An oldart form flourishes once more.Metropolitan Museum of Art, NewYork City ❐ “Louis Comfort Tiffanyand Laurelton Hall—An Artist’sCountry Estate” (May 20) Remnants6
and designs from the 84-room, 8-levelhouse, all of which were designed byTiffany: windows, panels, fountains,vases, portraits, prints, pottery, exoticobjects, and a never-before exhibitedSteinway piano. ❐ “Barcelona andModernity: Gaudi to Dali” (June 3)Work created in Barcelona between1888 (Barcelona Universal Exposition)and 1936 (Fascist regime of Franco):Picasso, Miro, Dali, Gaudi, and others.❐ “Venice and the Islamic World, 828-1797” (July 8) Objects of art, glass,metalwork, carpets, textiles, manuscripts,and luxury goods brought toVenice from Islamic lands in the easternMediterranean, and how they influencedVenetian art and design. ❐ “FrankStella: Painting into Architecture” (May1-July 29) Drawings, models, and relatedpaintings and sculpture from structuresthe artist designed over the last10 years.Museum of Modern Art, New YorkCity ❐ “Jeff Wall” (May 14) Survey ofphotographs taken from 1970’s to thepresent. ❐ “Image-Breaking, Image-Making” (June 11) Contemporaryabstract art that uses cartoons andcomic-book images to comment onsocial issues. ❐ Through May 21:“Artistic Collaborations: 50 Years atUniversal Limited Art Editions” Artistsfrom the mid-1960’s ventured to thisLong Island print-making workshop toexplore an unfamiliar medium, andothers from the mid-1980’s whoexperimented further; “Live/Work:Performance into Drawing” Drawingsthat document specific performanceworks, and those that speak to the physicalprocess, materials, or practicesthrough which they were created:Acconci, Beuys, Cage, Pollock,Oldenburg, and others. ❐ “AbbasKlarostami: Image Maker” (May 28)Iranian film director’s meditative movingimage installation projected in asynchronized loop on five differentscreens.Rubin Art Museum, New York City ❐“Illumination, Lynn Davis” (July 16)Photographs paired with selectionsfrom the museum’s collection.Loeb Art Center, Vassar College,Poughkeepsie ❐ “Chikanobu:Modernity and Nostalgia in JapanesePrints” (May 13) Woodblock printsand a painting by a popular artist fromthe Meiji period (1868-1912).George Eastman House, Rochester ❐“Ghosts in the Landscape: VietnamRevisited” (May 6) Platinum prints byex-combat Marine who was stationedin Vietnam and who then later returnedas a photographer.Hudson River Museum, Yonkers ❐“Contemporary Photography and theGarden—Deceits and Fantasies” (May20) American and European takes onthe garden, from tranquil to dangerous.North CarolinaAsheville Art Museum ❐ “BlackMountain College: Collaborations andInterdisciplinary Dialogues” (May 13)Third and final exhibition in a seriesthat explored collaborative work at thecollege, this time with Cage’s TheatrePiece #1 and Fuller’s geodesic dome.Mint Museums, Charlotte ❐ At theMint Museum of Art: “VantagePointVI: Tom Hunter: ContemporaryNarratives” (July 8) Large format photographs,often with historical references,that tell contemporary tales;“Twisted” (May 27) Works associatedwith the word twisted, either physicallyor psychologically. ❐ “PersonalPreferences: Paintings from the JimCraig & Randy Johnson Collection”(June 3) Also pastels, works on paper,antique stained glass, antique Americanand English furniture, silver, crystal,and porcelain. ❐ “Mirth and Mayhem:Staffordshire Figures, 1810-1835”Corning Museum of Glass (NY): Steuben Glass studio building. Harrison, Birkerts, Smith-Miller.(April 29) ❐ At the Mint Museum ofCraft + Design: “Observations—Works by Ann Wollf” (July 29)Retrospective: watercolors, drawings,and sculptures in bronze and glass.North Carolina Museum of Art,Raleigh ❐ “Temples and Tombs:Treasures of Egyptian Art from theBritish Museum” (July 8) Sculptures,reliefs, papyri, jewelry, cosmetic objects,and funerary items from before the 3rdDynasty (c. 2686 BCE) to the 4thcenturyRoman occupation.OhioTaft Museum of Art, Cincinnati ❐“Hiram Powers: Genius in Marble”(May 18-Aug 12) 19th-centurysculptor from Cincinnati.Kimbell Art Museum (TX): Southwest corner. Kahn.Dayton Art Institute ❐ Through June:“Around the Bend: MonumentalSteel Sculpture by Bret Price” Outdoorexhibit surrounding the museum,related documentary photos inside.Southern Ohio Museum, Portsmouth❐ “Slow Time: The Folk Art of Noahand Charley Kinney” (June 30) Farmboys, brothers, each of whom producedhis own vision.PennsylvaniaAllentown Art Museum ❐“Chushingura: Loyalty and Revenge inEighteenth-Century Japan” (May 27)18th- and 19th-century woodblockartists, including work by Kuniyoshiand Toyukuni, all depict a famousJapanese tale. ❐ “Knights in ShiningArmor: Myth and Reality, 1450-1650”(June 3) Armor, swords, and daggers;paintings, prints, and tapestries.Lehigh University Art Galleries,Bethlehem ❐ “Area Artists 2007” (June8) Multimedia works, paintings, photography.❐ “Where’s Joe? The Ghost ofBethlehem Steel, Part V: TheoAnderson” (June 30) Color digital photography.❐ “Works on Paper from theLUAG Collection” (July 28) A widevariety of works and new acquisitions.Berman Museum of Art, UrsinusCollege, Collegeville ❐ “A Sense ofPlace: Photographs by Bob Reichley”(June 15) Images of America and theworld.Michener Art Museum,Doylestown/New Hope ❐ InDoylestown: “Aging in America: TheYears Ahead” (June 24) B/W photographsby photojournalist Ed Kashishatter the stereotypes of aging. ❐ InNew Hope: “Wild by Design: 200 Yearsof Innovation and Artistry in AmericanQuilts” (June 3) From early 1800’s tothe present: innovations in color,abstraction, figuration, and more.Williams Center for the Arts,Lafayette College, Easton ❐ “Armourd’Armor: Fear, Fantasy, and Fashion inthe New Age” (May 6) Inventors andartists create modern-day protection.Lancaster Museum of Art ❐ “The Artof the Brick” (May 20) Works createdfrom LEGO bricks. ❐ Through May 20:“Full Circle” Studies of the circle andsemi-circle on canvas, and in glass andstone sculptures fashioned with a diamondsaw and hand chisel; “Feathers,Fins, Fur, and Folks” Carved and paintedwood and metal sculptures of fish,animals, and people.Hoyt Institute of Fine Arts, NewCastle ❐ “34th Annual Hoyt RegionalJuried Art Exhibition” (May 18)Institute of Contemporary Art,University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia ❐ “Karen Kilimnik” Firstmajor survey: “scatter” sculptures,drawings, paintings, photography, andvideo.Philadelphia Art Alliance,Philadelphia ❐ Through May 6:“Realms: New Ceramics by BeanFinneran” Abstract sculptures evocativeof animals and nature; “Gravity: AGlass and Multimedia Installation byJon Clark and Angus Powers, withSound by Jessie Daniels” A “cycle oftime and energy evolution”; “GameBoys: Photographs by ShaunaFrischkorn” Portraits of teenage boysimmersed in gaming; “BachelorPortraits: Photographs by JustynaBadach” Men pictured with their mostvalued possessions; “Tara O’Brien:Entelechy” Books as living things;“Of Memory [and Listening]: NewWork by Brenton Good” Architectonic2-dimensional works documenting theartist’s choices through the process ofcreating.Philadelphia Museum of Art ❐“Thomas Chimes: Adventures in‘Pataphysics’” (May 6) 50-year retrospective:early landscapes, abstractpaintings, crafted metal boxes withhidden messages, sepia-toned portraitsof writers and artists, and 3”x 3” whitepaintings. ❐ Through June: “Fantasticand Functional Animals in Indian Art”Miniature paintings, both natural andsupernatural; “Conserving a TibetanAltar” Late 19th- early 20th-centuryaltar restored. ❐ “Ike Taiga andTokuyama Gyokuran: Japanese Mastersof the Brush” (July 22) 18th-centuryink painting: screens, hand scrolls,hanging scrolls, albums, and fans.Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh❐ “Gritty Brits: New LondonArchitecture” (June 3) Photographsand models from a new generation ofLondon architects. ❐ “Mezzotints in18th Century Life” (May 20) The partplayed in society by the 18th-centurymedium (mezzotints) of the day and itssubsequent revival. ❐ “Forum 59: PhilCollins” (July 1) Third and final videoinstallment in a series entitled the worldwon’t listen, filmed on location in Asia.❐ “Lighting from the Collection”(June) From 18th-century candlesticksto Modernist aluminum lamps.7
springtimeVIEWScontinuedFrick Art & Historical Center,Pittsburgh ❐ “The Powerful Hand ofGeorge Bellows: Drawings from theBoston Public Library” (June 17)Preparatory work for paintings and lithographsand finished illustrations formagazines and newspapers showAmerican life and Bellows’ inner circle.Mattress Factory, Pittsburgh ❐“Neither Here Nor There: IndianArtists in America” (June 23) Part of ayear-long celebration of the Indianexperience in the global community.Reading Public Museum ❐ “RecentAcquisitions” (June 17) A pre-Columbian Mayan ceramic vessel,etchings by Whistler and Millet, marineprints, sculpture, and more. ❐ “TheNature of Holography” (April 29)Natural and wildlife images, and thehistory of holography. ❐“Contemporary Latin American FolkArt from the San Antonio Museum ofArt” (July 15) Folk art produced overthe last 100 years.Palmer Museum of Art, PennsylvaniaState University, University Park ❐“Early Soviet Photography” (May 6)1920’s and ’30’s: the idealized collectivestate. ❐ “Old Master Prints fromthe Permanent Collection” (May 20)Dürer, Beham, and Rembrandt, andlesser lights.South CarolinaGibbes Museum of Art, Charleston ❐“Grandeur Saved: Photographs of theAiken-Rhett House by MichaelEastman” (May 13) Large scale photosof the most intact townhouse fromantebellum Charleston.Columbia Museum of Art ❐ ThroughJuly 17: “From Pissarro to Picasso:European Works on Paper”Watercolors, pastels, and drawings;“A Foreign Affair: American ArtistsAbroad” Scenes by American artists,created as they traveled abroad:Cassatt, Chase, Henri, Marin,Prendergast, and others. ❐ “JacobLawrence: The Migration Series” (June24) Sixteen panels tracing the journeyof African Americans from the South tothe North during and after WWI. ❐“The Birds of America: Audubon Printsby Julius Bien” (May 13) Five printsmade of Audubon’s paintings usingBien’s original copperplates.TennesseeFrist Center for the Visual Arts,Nashville ❐ Through June 3: “Matisse,Picasso, and the School of Paris:Masterpieces from the BaltimoreMuseum of Art” The artists who madeParis the center of modern art andculture; “Hiraki Sawa: Going Places,Sitting Down” Video dreamscapesusing toys, books, and householdobjects as props. ❐ “Brushed withLight: Masters of American Watercolorfrom the Brooklyn Museum” (May 4-July 22) Chronological survey ofwatercolor landscapes, late-18ththrough mid-20th centuries: Moran,Homer, Sargent, Hopper, Zorach,Avery, and others.Dixon Gallery and Gardens,Memphis ❐ “Modernism in AmericanSilver: 20th-Century Design” (July 15)Flatware, compotes, cocktail shakes,and other unique objects spanning theentire spectrum of American modernistsilver and silver plate.TexasOld Jail Art Center, Albany ❐ “Clayand Ash: New Work by Sandria Hu”(May 13) Paintings—handmade constructionssignifying rain, wind, soilmovement, fire, and other environmentaloccurrences.Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth ❐“Drama and Desire: Japanese Paintingsfrom the Floating World, 1690-1850”(Apr. 29) Scrolls, banners, theatricalsigns, even lanterns capturing momentsfrom the pleasure centers of 17thcenturyEdo (present day Tokyo).Griswold House (CT). Restoration by Interdesign, Ltd.Photo by Joe Standart.McNay Art Museum, San Antonio ❐Through July 29: “ARTMatters 11:Lynda Benglis” Two- and three-dimensionalworks; “Madame Butterfly:From Puccini to Miss Saigon”Manuscripts, posters, playbills,costumes, and programs marking the100th anniversary of the opera.UtahBrigham Young University Museumof Art, Provo ❐ “Beholding Salvation:Images of Christ” (June 16) The life ofJesus in paintings, prints, icons, illuminatedmanuscripts, and sculpture. ❐“Paths to Impressionism: French andAmerican Landscape Paintings fromthe Worcester Art Museum” (July 8)Corot, Inness, Monet, Sargent, Sisley,and others who spurned the aristocraticand historical in favor of depictingrealistic rural and, later, urban landscapesand ordinary working people.“The Quiet Landscapes of William B.Post” (May 28) Platinum prints by acontemporary of the AmericanImpressionist painters.Salt Lake Art Center ❐ “Resonanceand Return: Social DocumentaryPhotography, 1935-Present” (May 19)Photographers for social change, thenand now: Evans, Lange, and many others.❐ Through May 30: “Fab Ab: NewAcrylic Abstraction” The latest;“Eileen Doktorski: Domestic Arsenal”Installation on domestic violence.VirginiaUniversity of Virginia Art Museum,Charlottesville ❐ “Collecting Heritage:Native American Art at the Museum”(June 24) A look at native people in theearly 20th century. ❐ “The Art ofMartin Hardie: Prints and Drawingsfrom the Collection” (May 23) The creativeoutput of a scholar, curator, writeron art, and printmaker. ❐“Bazzle/Brown-Epstein/Jones: Alumniin the Arts” (June 3) Three UV alumsand their work. ❐ “PerfectedLandscapes: Views from theCollection” (June 8) Prints, drawings,and photographs exploring the landscapeand how it can express the socialclimate of an era.Daura Gallery, Lynchburg College❐ Through May 12: “Of Course ICan! The Effect of Advertisements inWorld War II” Posters, cookbooks,and other objects that motivatedwomen to go all out for the war; “TheSocial and Cultural History of theTattoo” From tribal society to moderntimes.Piedmont Arts Association,Martinsville ❐ “Expressions” (June29) Paintings, drawings sculpture,fiber works, and photography byregional artists.Chrylser Museum of Art, Norfolk ❐“From Goya to Sorolla: Masterpiecesfrom the Hispanic Society ofAmerica” (June 11) Spanish contributionsthrough the ages, fromClassicism to Impressionism.Art Museum, Radford University,Radford ❐ “Alison Weld” (May 11)Expressionistic brushwork highlightedwith fake fur, vinyl, and artificial flowers.❐ “Selections from the PermanentCollection” (July 27) Recent acquisitionsand old favorites.University of Richmond Museums ❐At the Lora Robins Gallery of Designfrom Nature: “Parian Porcelain: ANineteenth-Century Passion” (May 27)The impact of these European andAmerican wares–from busts to figuresto decorative pitchers–on popular cultureand decorative arts; “Traditions inMiniature: The Louise WestbrookCollection of Chinese Ceramics” (May27) Pieces from 3000 BCE to 1911;“Native Plants of Virginia: Selectionsfrom the University of RichmondHerbarium” (June 24) Specimens, photos,and botanical illustrations ofVirginia’s flora, including medicinalplants found by early colonists. ❐ Atthe Joel and Lila Harnett Museum ofArt: “Arise! A Suite of Prints by FredWilson” (July 15) Works that focus onthe artist’s concerns about race, perception,and relationships. ❐ “A SlaveShip Speaks: The Wreck of theHenrietta Marie” (May 18) Artifactsfrom an 18th-century sunken ship: thelargest collection of slave shackles andEnglish-made pewter-ware ever foundin one place, Venetian glass tradebeads, stock iron trade bars, basins,bowls, bottles, and the ship’s bell. ❐“News of the Colonies: Prints, Maps,and Perceptions of the New World”(Apr. 28) On the 400th anniversary ofthe founding of Jamestown, earlyimpressions by explorers and colonists.WashingtonHenry Art Gallery, Seattle ❐“Elusive Signs: Bruce Nauman Workswith Light” (May 6) From early neonworks to later clown drawings limnedin neon. ❐ “Carsten Höller: NeonCircle” (May 13) Multi-sensoryinteractive installation.WisconsinKenosha Public Museum ❐ “Life’sWork: The Woodblocks and Prints ofMona Noe” (June) Retrospective:hand-carved printing blocks.Charles Allis Art Museum,Milwaukee ❐ “Language ofComposition: Works by RalphSelensky” (April 29) Painter/photographerinspired by restaurant life. ❐“Nocturnal Nature: Works by ElizabethAustin” (June 10) Mystical landscapesmounted on plastic panels. ❐ “Surveyof Wisconsin Art NOW” (July 29)Contemporary regional artists.Kohler Arts Center, Sheboygan“Laced with History” (May 20)Contemporary sculptures, drawings,paintings, and jewelry using (orreferencing) lace and a history of thecraft. ❐ Through Apr. 29: “Joe Fig:Studio Visit” Detailed miniaturizedversions of other artist’s studios; “FiberOptics: Fine Art Quilts” Contemporarynotions on quilting. ❐ “Kehinde Wiley:Made in China” (June 17) Alteringhistorical stances: Mao’s propagandaposters overlaid with young black menre-evaluate stereotypes. ❐Art Museum of Western Virginia (VA). Randall Stout architect. Rendering courtesy of the museum.856
ARCHITECTURE FOR ARTcontinued from page 420 percent in museum attendance. Nowhere wasthis prosperity more evident than in the creationof new museum buildings. These structures capturedthe public’simagination, stirreddebate, and becameone of the principalreasons for museumvisits.“Starting in 1938,with the Museum ofModern Art in NewYork and continuingthrough the presentday, museum directorsand trustees haveretained Modernistand contemporaryarchitects to createstructures with aestheticvalues as significantas the collectionsthey weredesigned to hold….They designed museumsthat have becomearchitectural icons,including theAmerican Folk Art Museum (NY): Façade. Williams, Tsien.GREEN GROW THE MUSEUMS[The AAM publication Museum News featured an extensivearticle by Sarah Brophy and Elizabeth Wylie entitled“It’s Easy Being Green: Museums and the GreenMovement.” The authors’ wide-ranging research intothe growing phenomenon of environmentally-consciousconstruction projects indicated the increasing commitmentto greenness in the museum community.]“In 2004 the Brooklyn Children’s Museum(BCM) began construction to double the size ofthe museum. During the initial planning process,the building owner, the City of New York, was‘looking for ways to promote environmentalquality, contain future energy costs, and savetaxpayers money by making a special effort topursue high-performance buildings,’ says PaulPearson, vice president of programs at BCM.Yale Center for British Art (CT): North end of building showing sunken commercial plaza. Kahn.Guggenheim, Kimbell, Whitney, Getty, and EastBuilding of the National Gallery of Art.“…What characterizes this period is not simplya large number of newor expanded museums bygreat architects but a significantchange in the missionof many American artmuseums. Like livingorganisms, museums haveevolved and grown functionallymore complex….Most museums are nowseeking to meet not onlythe aesthetic needs of theircustomers but also theirdining, shopping, education,entertainment, andsocial needs….“Each of [these] museumfunctions requires ashared or distinct spaceand represents a correspondingnew design problemfor the architect.Perhaps the most pressingproblem confronting thearchitect of a museumAfter completion in late 2007, the new building’shigh performance features, which include ageothermal heating and cooling system, willsave more than $100,000 annually in energycosts. It was a collaborative decision to gogreen.”A new trend in museum design has thusbegun. In fact, in the last ten years, more than20 museums or museum-like institutions haveadded green buildings or were “born green.”Others follow green practices in their day-to-dayoperations.Some of the techniques that make forgreenness are derived from sheer necessity. Forexample: High-performance, energy efficientsystems reduce energy costs. It is a given thathigh utility bills can hinder program allocations,staff positions,even majorexhibitions orother projects.Sustainable systems,services,and materialscan help toreduce thoseescalating costs.Choosingdurable materialsreducesreplacementcosts as well asthe demand onthe environment.And,choosing sustainableandquickly renewablematerials(fast-growingtoday is how to generate a cutting-edge exteriordesign, that stimulates the imagination of theviewer. Neighboring hotels, businesses, andlocal governments often encourage museumsto create buildings that appeal to tourists andresidents…. In addition to designing a strikingfaçade, the architect must develop an interiorplan with spaces that perform the specific functionsand meld into a coherent building. Thedifficulties are multiplied if the architect has towork with existing structures and create newwings…. Controversy surrounds plans thatcall for tearing down and replacing existingmuseum structures…. ” ❑Except whereotherwise stated,all photographs inthis issue were takenby Paul Rocheleaufor Architecture forArt: AmericanArt Museums 1938-2008, Harry N.Abrams, 2004.bamboo, plywood) leaves intact those materialsthat take years, even centuries, to replace.Looking into the future at possible replacementcosts can be hugely cost effective. Brophyand Wylie cite carpeting as a prime example:“Using carpet tiles instead of single-piece installationallows single-area replacement for stainsinstead of a complete re-installation, whichreduces your cost and reduces the environmentaldemands of both manufacturing and disposal.”Who would have thought!Integrated design methods, bringing architects,engineers, lighting and landscape designers,and other consultants together to work collaboratively,is the best way to control projectcosts. “Team” efforts produce the best resultsboth economically and environmentally.The green project in progress—a greenmuseum aborning or a green addition to a traditionalbuilding—can become the center of environmentallyfocused marketing and fund-raising,made easier by the civic/community/worldimportance of environmental issues. Witness theexperience at BCM: “It was much easier thanwe expected from a funding standpoint. We hadtremendous enthusiasm among our stakeholdersthat helped carry it along. Private funders recognizedthat our project was more than just abuilding expansion, but a model project: onethat demonstrated a commitment to addressingenvironmental issues, advancing innovation indesign and increasing public awareness aboutsustainable design. City, state, and federal legislatorsrecognized that our project supported theirefforts and recent legislation promoting energyconservation.”More and more, state and local governmentssupport green initiatives. Many states andprivate foundations have clean-energy funds thatencourage the use of renewableContinued on page 119
10NEWSBRIEFSNEWSBRIEFS – and other items of interestMET UNVEILS NEW GALLERIESAfter 5 years of construction and 15 years ofplanning, the Metropolitan Museum of Art (NY)has announced the opening of its “museum withinthe museum,” new Greek and Roman galleries thatwill display an unrivaled collection of Hellenistic,Etruscan, South Italian, and Roman art, much of itunseen for generations.VIRTUAL GALA REPLACESTRADITIONAL FUNDRAISERThe McNay Art Museum (TX) has eschewedthe traditional fundraiser for the virtues of a virtualgala. Tickets for the non-party go for $500 per person,or $5,000-$15,000 for a table. “Stay at homeand party” in your pj’s to enjoy “an evening NOTworth attending.”BOTERO SPURNEDIN U.S. MUSEUMSFernando Botero’s series of paintings anddrawings depicting the torturing of prisoners at theAbu Ghraib prison in Iraq, though spurned by manyart museums in the United States, were on displayin the Doe Library at the University of California,Berkeley. Sponsored by the university’s Center forLatin American Studies, the show will go on to themuseum at the American University in Washington,DC, for November and December, 2007.Botero has offered to donate the series of some80 works to a museum in the U.S. or Baghdad willingto accept them, but has had no takers. None areincluded in the Botero retrospective currently ontour in the U.S. Botero plans to include a selectionof them in upcoming European exhibitionsSOLD PAINTING RETURNS HOMEAsher B. Durand’s Kindred Spirits, sold bythe New York Public Library in 2005, is back intown—on display at the Brooklyn Museum in asolo Durand exhibition (through July 29). It willtravel also to Washington (DC) and San Diego(CA).New owner and Wal-Mart heiress Alice Waltonpurchased the painting for $35 million, beating outthe combined buying power of the National Galleryof Art and the Metropolitan Museum. In its future,the painting will be loaned to a New York Citymuseum while awaiting the projected 2009 completionof the Crystal Bridges Museum of AmericanArt in Bentonville, Arkansas, Ms. Walton’s currentpreoccupation.In another attempted purchase of ThomasEakins’ The Gross Clinic for her museum, Ms.Walton was foiled by the last ditch efforts of thePhiladelphia Art Museum and the PennsylvaniaAcademy of the Fine Arts (where Eakins taught) toraise $68 million. They did so in a phenomenal 45days in order that Eakins’ painting remain inPhiladelphia where it has hung at the ThomasJefferson medical school since 1878.MET DROPS REPRO CHARGESIn a letter to The Art Newspaper, a happyscholar reported that the Metropolitan Museum ofArt has dropped charges for reproductions of manyof the works in its collection when they are beingused for “scholarly publications with print runs ofless than 2,000 copies.” Bravo!WAR ON CANVASFollowing a tradition that goes back to WorldWar I, U.S. military artists have documented thewar in Iraq, augmenting a collection of some15,403 works that are held in a basement occupiedby the Army Art Collection in Washington DC.With no acquisition capability, the collection relieson donations.The works painted in Iraq are, for the most part,realistic, but limited.They show no ancientsites, Islamic symbolsor clerics, casualties, orIraqis. Army artists aremandated to “paintwhat you can, pleasemake it somethingthat’s recognizable,”says combat artistMaster SergeantChristopher Thiel, whopaints from photographs.“They don’t appreciate cubism.”Works from the Army Art Collection can beseen at www.army.mil/cmh-pg/art/A&I/artwork.htmor at the Defense Information School website atwww.dinfos.osd.mil/dinfoswebFRACTALS OR NOT FRACTALS?The 32 small paintings discovered in thestorage locker of Herbert and Mercedes Matterand attributed to Jackson Pollock have been underscrutiny for their authenticity by scholars andscientists alike.University of Oregon physicist Richard Taylorcontends that Pollock’s bona fide drip paintingsconform to the fractals in nature—a self-replicatinggeometry on multiple scales (large shapes replicatingthe small shapes created at the edges of thepaint splatters). This phenomenon, he says, doesnot occur in the small Matter paintings.Researchers at Case Western Reserve University(OH), however, dispute his findings. Pollock’spaintings, they say, do not show fractal characteristics.This, in agreement with an art historian andPollock expert at Case Western who believes that afractal analysis should not be a factor in the attributionof the paintings.And from another source, Harvard University’sStraus Center for Conservation, carbon dating, electronmicroscopic and spectroscopic examinationsrevealed that in several cases the materials and pigmentsused were not available prior to 1950, somenot available until after Pollock’s death in 1956.More to come. Fractal or not, the first publicshowings of the Matter collection will take place atthe Everson Museum of Art in Syracuse, NY fromJune 16-Sept. 2, and the McMullen Museum ofArt at Boston College from Sept. 1-Dec. 9.PARTNERSHIPSThe partnership between the Miami ArtMuseum (FL) and Miami Art Central, an alternativeart space, has resulted in MAC@MAM. MACwill produce exhibitions and contemporary art programmingthat will be displayed at MAM. Theirfirst collaboration took place earlier this year, ashow of works by Peter Friedl and Tacita Dean.The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (TX) andthe National Museum of Korea in Seoul announceda partnership that produced a two-year loan of 45Korean works of art dating from 3000 B.C. to thepresent, some of which will be seen for the firsttime outside Korea. The group will inaugurate anew, 2,200-square-foot Korean gallery, supported inpart by a grant from the Korea Foundation andscheduled to open in December. It is the first movein a long-term plan to increase the focus on Asianart with other new galleries forChinese, Indian, Indonesian,Southeast Asian, and Japaneseart.The French government hasjoined the efforts to help NewOrleans, France’s former colonialcapital, recover economicallyand culturally from the devastationof Hurricane Katrina byCorcoran Gallery of Art (DC): Renderings oforganizing and financing twoaddition and remodeling. Flagg, Platt, Gehry.major art exhibitions. “Femme,femme, femme: Paintings of Women in FrenchSociety from Daumier to Picasso from the Museumof France”—works by Manet, Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, and others from museums all overFrance—is on view at the New Orleans Museum ofArt through June 2. “Four Hundred Years of FrenchPresence in Louisiana” featuring historical documentsthat pertain to the state’s colonial historyopened at the Historic New Orleans Collection inthe French Quarter in March.The Italian government has made an agreementwith the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, after thereturn in January of 13 ancient artifacts that Italianauthorities claim were illegally excavated. Themuseum and the Ministry of Culture say that theaccord provides for the loan of “significant worksfrom Italy to the MFA,…establishes a process bywhich the MFA and Italy will exchange informationwith respect to the museum’s future acquisitions ofItalian antiquities,…and envisions collaboration inthe areas of scholarship, conservation, archaeologicalinvestigation, and exhibition planning.”The University of California Berkeley ArtMuseum and Pacific Film Archive has partneredwith the Museum of Contemporary Art, SanDiego to jointly acquire major new video works byJoan Jonas and Eija-Liisa Ahtila. The terms of thejoint purchase include evenly sharing costs associatedwith acquiring and maintaining the works, andan agreement that each work will only be shown inone location at a time. Costs for conserving andstoring them will be split between the two institutions.In a joint statement the directors of the twomuseums commented: “As the international marketfor contemporary art continues to flourish, thisunusual joint acquisition marks an increasinglyimportant trend for small and mid-Continued on page 11
NEWSBRIEFSNEWSBRIEFS continued from page 10size institutions seeking to add works by leadingartists to their collections. It also demonstrates how,in a competitive field, collaborations can offer museumsan innovative opportunity for growth.”J. Paul Getty Museum (CA): Central courtyardfrom exhibitions pavilion. Meier.JUDD STUDIO AND HOMETO BECOME MUSEUMMinimalist aficionados will be pleased to learnthat the SoHo (101 Spring Street, NYC) home ofDonald Judd has opened for tours limited to a minimalisteight people each Friday at $30 each ($15 forseniors).A five-story industrial building that Judd boughtand refitted for his purposes in1968, it houses hundredsof objects including his own works and thoseof his contemporaries whom he admired—Oldenburg, Flavin, Stella Reinhardt, and countlessothers. According to his own precept that the placementof a work of art is vital to a viewer’s understanding,the house, operated by the foundation establishedin his will, is a permanent installation. TheSpartan décor is as he left it: the furniture that he andothers designed, aluminum and plywood floor pieces,aluminum and plexiglas wall installations, and paintedworks on walls and floors.Other venues maintained by the foundation arelocated in Marfa, Texas, properties that display Judd’sown work as well as installations by other artistsA GIFT IS A GIFT IS A GIFTIn making a partial gift to a museum—the donorgiving only a percentage interest in an artwork—thedonor has been allowed an equivalent tax deductionwith the proviso that the museum has the right toexhibit the work for a period of time equivalent to itscurrent interest in the work. In past practice, the workof art generally stayed with the donor indefinitely,since each year another donation of another fractionof the work would result in a larger tax deduction.Recently, the rules have changed. Now, a partiallydonated work must be turned over within 10 years ofthe original gift. In addition, after the first gift ismade, the value of the work is frozen, thus preventingdonors from profiting from a rising art market.The tightened rules have been criticized by bothdonors and institutions. They remove many of theincentives for fractional giving, says Glen D. Lowry,director of the Museum of Modern Art (NY), makingthe practice “almost impossible to use” and affectingthe ability of donors to make gifts.30-YEAR-OLD“FACTORY”CELEBRATES INDIAIn its 30th years of displayingand fostering “cutting-edge” art, theMattress Factory (PA) has grown froma small artist collective to a recognizedmuseum that exhibits new work by over300 artists in an integrated residencyand exhibition program. New since itsinception are the education programthat schools visitors in new ways toexperience art; an archive that serves asan art-historical resource; and eight separateproperties, all rehabilitated buildingswithin walking distance, that housegalleries, artist apartments, offices, andan education studio. Still, it remains ahaven for contemporary artists. And,those asked to participate in an exhibitionare provided with travel expenses, a place tolive, a per diem allowance, any materials needed,technical assistance, and an honorarium.To celebrate its anniversary the Mattress Factorypresents “India: New Installations.” During a junketto India, Curator Michael Olijnyk and DirectorBarbara Luderowski selected ten artists to participatein two exhibitions throughout the year. The participantswill travel to Pittsburgh, live in residence at themuseum, and create new work on site in the gallery.A full year of educational programs, cultural activities,family programs, and a film festival in partnershipwith the Museum of Modern Art (NY) andthe Indo-American Arts Council will compliment“New Installations.”“More and more, India is having a great influenceon world economics and politics. It is an interestingtime to invite these artists to come to the States andprovide a window into one of the oldest cultures inthe world as it goes through a rebirth on a globalscale,” says Curator Olijnyk. ❏GREEN GROW THE MUSEUMScontinued from page 9energy (solar, wind, water), and are predisposedto fund green enterprises.Another by-product of greenness is theintrinsic educationalopportunity providedby the mere fact ofbeing environmentallysavvy. Pittsburgh’sChildren’s Museumcreated “Be a GreenSleuth,” a booklet andprogram that encouragesvisitors to searchfor green aspects of thebuilding—recycledobjects, solar power, oreven slow-flowingplumbing. The BMCplans to put its solarpower and what itFair “Tips”The annual art fair seasoncan be pleasure or pain, dependingon how you play the game. Arts &Antiques magazine published anadvisory on how to maneuver themass movement into armories, galleries,openings, events, and so on.Here are seven suggestions:1. “Just Go.” Despite the proliferationof these events and the incursioninto your life, you may be missingsomething if you don’t.2. “Travel Savvy.” Travel packagesare offered through designated travelagents to the major fairs. If not bookingthrough an agent, go to the hotelsthat have relationships with museumsor galleries in the city: they could getyou complimentary tickets. And don’tforget to schedule the biennials, or theevery-five-or-ten-year events.3. “Develop Relationships withDealers.” As they travel around theworld, they become your eyes on themarketplace, but they need to knowwhat you’re looking for, how muchyou want to spend, and your longtermgoals, collection-wise.4. “Think Outside the Box” New,unexpected discoveries can happen,despite a fixed mind-set; fairs oftenoffer lectures from which you canlearn; fairs are places where you canbe bowled over by a work of artunexpectedly.5. “Seek Advice.” Many fairs offeradvisory services.6. “Splurge on Benefit Tickets.” Itpays to view the fair first. At somefairs, benefit tickets will buy VIPstatus; at others a VIP is a VIP by invitationonly.7. “Don’t Be Shy.” Even if you’renot in the buying mode, you will learnsomething from talkative dealers; theylove to discourse on their wares.accomplishes and its renewable resources onexhibit.The bottom line has been proven, sayBrophy and Wylie:“Sustainable practice in museumsserves our whole community—notjust the audienceinside…but those all around us.It is service to the whole communitywe inhabit, with all itsmembers benefiting frommuseums even if they don’twalk in our doors. It’s the ultimateprogrammatic outreach:connecting with an expandedaudience by reaching themliterally where they live.” ❏University of Wyoming Art Museum:East end of museum from upper level,showing outdoor sculpture court. Predock.11
museumVIEWS2 Peter Cooper RoadNew York, NY 10010Non-Profit Org.U.S. PostagePAIDPermit No.9513New York, NYContemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati (OH):North side of main lobby. Hadid.ExpansionExpansion continued from page 1ARCHITECT SELECTIONWell known architects, though often anincentive to funders and audiences, can sometimestake their expertise as law. This is notgood. Whoever designs the building must committo collaboration with the museum and itsstaff.COST ESTIMATINGOperations costs must be tied to designdecisions. The scope and the quality of theproject determine the costs, both the first costsof construction and the long-term operationalcosts. Quality of spaces, finishes, and buildingsystems all have an impact on maintenance andutility costs.FUNDING SOURCESBoard members, matching grants fromfoundations, state and local government grants,bond issues, corporate sponsorships, membershipsolicitations, retail development partnershipsare a few sources to be tapped. Fundsshould be sought not only for capital expenses,but also for start-up staff, marketing, and ongoingoperations, which often translates toincreasing the endowment.But, the cost of additional square footageoften surpasses earned revenue and attendance.Feasibility studies in advance of the opening ofa new facility can soften the blow of loweredattendance by estimating future attendance andoperating costs.Creative thinking can bring new sources ofearned income; mixed-use development, forexample, can finance a building program andestablish long-term stability.PROJECT MANAGEMENTSome museums develop steering committeescomprised of board and staff members tomonitor progress and adherence to the buildingprogram. Others hire professional project managers.And still others use consultants not onlyin the planning stage, but also for estimating,design, staffing, market research, post-openingevaluation, and/or fund raising.After selecting an architect, a museumshould select a general contractor. He or shewill provide a check for the architect on costestimates and constructability. Independentfirms can also review lighting, and mechanicaland electrical plans and specifications.STAY OPEN? OR CLOSE?To balance ongoing public service againsta prolonged project that entails additional costsand inconvenience to public and staff is difficult.Some museums move to alternative spaceswith scaled back programs. Others close completely,freeing staff to focus on planning forthe new facility. Closing, however, can lead toloss of income from admissions and retail operationsand result in staff cutbacks.One museum that closed developed a“wellness program” for its concerned staff of80. Perks such as massage therapy, yoga, languageclasses, and peer education (staff sharingskills with each other) were effective in keepingmoral high and enhanced team building.GOOD COMMUNICATIONThe Internet is an excellent tool to keepboard, staff, funders, and public informedthroughout the building program. Highlightingprogress via project timelines and liveWebcams, and appealing for funds for the capitalcampaign can all be effective with clear andconsistent messages. ❏Denver Art Museum (CO) expansion.Model photo courtesy of the museum.