Insulin.

medicinemosul.uomosul.edu.iq

Insulin.

DIABETUS MELLITUSDONE BY:


diabetes mellitus is usually alifelong (chronic) disease inwhich there are high levels ofsugar in the blood.


Insulin is a hormone produced bythe pancreas to control bloodsugar. Diabetes can be caused by1. too little insulin,2. resistance to insulin,3. or both.The role of insulin is to move glucosefrom the bloodstream into muscle,fat, and liver cells, where it can beused as fuel.


There are two major types of diabetesType 1 diabetes:can occur at any age, but it is most oftendiagnosed in children, teens, or youngadults. In this disease, the body makeslittle or no insulin. Daily injections of insulinare needed. The exact cause isunknown.Type 2 diabetes:makes up most diabetes cases. It mostoften occurs in adulthood. However,because of high obesity rates, teens andyoung adults are now being diagnosed


is high blood sugar that developsduring pregnancy in a woman whodoes not have diabetes.


• Blurry vision• Excess thirst• Fatigue• Hunger• Urinating often• Weight loss• Frequent infections, such as gumor skin infections and bladderinfections


A urine analysis may show highsugar. However, a urine test alonedoes not diagnose diabetes.To confirm the diagnosis, one ormore of the following blood testsmust be done.


Fasting glucose leveldiabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than126 mg/dL twice. Hemoglobin A1c test --Normal: Less than 5.7%Pre-diabetes: 5.7% - 6.4%Diabetes: 6.5% or higher


Treating both type 1 diabetes. andtype 2 diabetes involves diet, medicines, and exercise.


Treatments for type 1 diabetesTreatment for type 1 diabetesinvolves insulin injections .


Insulin. Anyone who has type 1 diabetesneeds insulin therapy to survive. Some peoplewith type 2 diabetes also need insulin therapy.Because stomach enzymes interfere withinsulin taken by mouth, oral insulin isn't anoption for lowering blood sugar. Often insulinis injected using a fine needle and syringe oran insulin pen — a device that looks like anink pen.An insulin pump also may be an option.Many types of insulin are available, includingrapid-acting insulin, long-acting insulin andintermediate options. Depending on yourneeds, your doctor may prescribe a mixture ofinsulin types to use throughout the day and


In some people who have type 1diabetes, a pancreas transplantmay be an option. With asuccessful pancreas transplant,you would no longer need insulintherapy. But transplants aren'talways successful — and theseprocedures pose serious risks.


Oral medications.Some stimulate the pancreas toproduce and release more insulin.Others inhibit the production andrelease of glucose from your liver,which means you need less insulin totransport sugar into the cells..


Bariatric surgery. people with type 2who also have a body mass indexover 35 may benefit from this type ofsurgery.People who've undergone gastricbypass have seen significantimprovements in their blood sugarlevels.


Long-term complications of diabetesdevelop gradually. The longer you havediabetes — and the less controlled yourblood sugar — the higher the risk ofcomplications. Eventually, diabetescomplications may be disabling or evenlife-threatening. Possible complicationsinclude:1) Cardiovascular disease. includingcoronary artery disease (angina), strokeand atherosclerosis .2) Nerve damage (neuropathy).3) Kidney damage (nephropathy).4) Eye damage (retinopathy).5) Foot damage.6) Skin and mouth conditions


Keeping an ideal body weight and anactive lifestyle may prevent type 2diabetes.There is no way yet to prevent type 1diabetes.

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines