Tunnel lighting - THORN Lighting


Tunnel lighting - THORN Lighting

Tunnel lighting

ContentsIntroduction 2 - 3Tunnel lighting criteria 4 - 5Types of tunnel lighting 6 - 9Thorn expertise 10Controlling tunnel lighting 11Product testing 12Products 13 - 15Case studies 16 - 17Applications gallery 18International references 19As our road networks become more crowded, the use oftunnels and underpasses is expanding, both to improvetraffic flow, and to protect local environments fromincreased traffic exposure.Within tunnels, where maintenance access can be limited,and where corrosive atmospheric conditions are common,reliable performance of the lighting system is critical, as isthe need for the absolute minimum of operationalmaintenance requirements.The objectives oftunnel lightingThe aims of tunnel lighting are:• Firstly, to allow traffic to enter, pass through and exit the enclosedsection safely• Secondly, to do so without impeding the through-flow of traffic.These aims are achieved by the adequate illumination of the tunnelinterior, which allows drivers to quickly adjust to the light within,identify possible obstacles, and negotiate their passage withoutreducing speed.These requirements apply during the day when the contrast betweenoutside and inside is significant and at night when it is less, butreversed.2

Tunnel lighting criteriaGood tunnel lighting allows users to enter, pass throughand exit the enclosed section safely and comfortablyThe 5 zones of tunnellightingCIE guidance (CIE 88-1990)states that the amount of lightrequired within a tunnel isdependent on the level of lightoutside and on the point insidethe tunnel at which visualadaptation of the user mustoccur.When planning the lighting of atunnel, there are 5 key areas toconsider:1 Access zoneNot within the tunnel itself, this isthe stretch of road leading to itsentrance.From this zone, drivers must beable to see into the tunnel inorder to detect possible obstaclesand to drive into the tunnelwithout reducing speed.The driver’s capacity to adapt inthe access zone governs thelighting level in the next part ofthe tunnel. One of the methodsused by CIE to calculate visualadaptation is the L 20 method,which considers the averageluminance from environment, skyand road in a visual cone of20°, centred on the line of sightof the driver from the beginningof the access zone (see below).2 Threshold zoneThis zone is equal in length to the‘stopping distance’. In the firstpart of this zone, the requiredluminance must remain constantand is linked to the outsideluminance (L 20 ) and trafficconditions. At the end of thezone, the luminance levelprovided can be quickly reducedto 40% of the initial value.3 Transition zoneOver the distance of thetransition zone, luminance isreduced progressively to reachthe level required in the interiorzone. The reduction stages mustnot exceed a ratio of 1:3 as theyare linked to the capacity of thehuman eye to adapt to theenvironment and, thus, timerelated.The end of the transitionzone is reached when theluminance is equal to 3 times theinterior level.4 Interior zoneThis is the area betweentransition and exit zones, oftenthe longest stretch of tunnel.Lighting levels are linked to thespeed and density of traffic, asoutlined in the table below.Luminance to be maintainedin interior zoneExtra urban, low traffic,low speed (70km/h) 2 to 6cd/m 2Highway 4 to10cd/m 2Urban 4 to10cd/m 25 Exit zoneThe part of the tunnel betweeninterior zone and portal. In thiszone, during the day time, thevision of a driver approachingthe exit is influenced bybrightness outside the tunnel.The human eye can adapt itselfalmost instantly from low to highlight levels, thus the processesmentioned when entering thetunnel are not reversed.However, reinforced lighting maybe required in some cases wherecontrast is needed in front of orbehind the driver when the exit isnot visible, or when the exit actsas entrance in case of emergencyor maintenance works where partof a twin tunnel may be closed.The length is a maximum 50mand the light level 5 times theinterior zone level.Visual adjustmentThe visual adjustment from highluminance to low luminancewhile driving is notinstantaneous.This is cause of 2disability phenomena:20 ° 10 °AStopping distance2. Temporal adaptation: humaneyes need more time to adaptfrom brightness to darkness thanthe reverse. During this period ofadaptation, the distance travelledis a critical factor.1 Access zoneL 20(outside luminance)Lth(thresholdluminance)2 Threshold zone1. Spatial adaptation: the largedifference in luminance betweenthe outside and the inside of thetunnel will impede the vision ofthe driver when he is at theadaptation point (‘A’, opposite).The “Black Hole” phenomenonengenders a feeling ofdiscomfort and insecurity.StoppingpointAdaptationpointStoppingdistance (SD)APortal4Direction of travel

DefinitionsAccess zone luminance L 20The average value of the luminance in a 20°cone of the driver’s visual field from theaccess zone and centred on the tunnelentrance.Contrast revealing coefficient qcThe ratio between the luminance at the roadsurface and the vertical illuminance Ev at aspecific location in the tunnel qc=L/Ev. Themethod of tunnel lighting may be defined interms of the contrast ratio in three ways:symmetric lighting, counterbeam lighting andpro-beam lighting (see pages 6 - 7).Entrance and exit portalsThe entrance portal of the tunnel is the partof the tunnel construction that corresponds tothe beginning of the covered part of thetunnel, or - when open sun-screens are used -to the beginning of the sun-screens. The exitportal corresponds to the end of the coveredpart of the tunnel, or - when open sunscreensare used - to the end of the sunscreens.Exit zoneThe exit zone is the part of the tunnel where,during the daytime, the vision of a driverapproaching the exit is predominatelyinfluenced by the brightness outside thetunnel. The exit zone begins at the end ofthe interior zone. It ends at the tunnel’s exitportal.Interior zone luminance (L in )The average luminance in the interior zonewhich constitutes the background fieldagainst which objects will be visible tousers.Parting zoneThe parting zone is the first part of the openroad directly after the exit. The parting zoneis not a part of the tunnel but it is closelyrelated to the tunnel lighting. It is advisedthat the length of the parting zone equalstwo times the stopping distance. A length ofmore than 200m is not necessary.Stopping point (SP)The position within the access zone on theapproach road at a distance equal to thestopping distance (SD) from the tunnelentrance.Stopping distance (SD)The theoretical forward distance required bya driver at a given speed in order to stopwhen faced with an unexpected hazard onthe carriageway.This takes into account perception andreaction time as well as road surface.Threshold zone luminance (L th )The average luminance in the threshold zonewhich constitutes the background fieldagainst which objects will be visible todrivers in the access zone between thestopping point and adaptation point.Traffic flowThe number of vehicles passing a specificpoint in a stated time in stated direction(s).In tunnel design, peak hour traffic, vehiclesper hour per lane, will be used.Transition zone luminance (L tr )The average luminance in the transitionzone which constitutes the background fieldagainst which objects will be visible to drivers.Veiling luminanceThe overall luminance veil consisting of thecontribution of the transient adaptation andstray light from optical media, from theatmosphere and from the vehicle windscreen.4 Interior zone zone5 ExitLtr(transitionluminance)Lin(interior luminance)Lex(exit luminance)PortalParting zone2 x SD5

Types of tunnel lightingTunnel road lighting must provide comfort and safety andmaximise the visual performance of users.Symmetrical andasymmetrical lightingUsed generally for transition andinterior zones for long tunnels,and in short tunnels, or lowspeed tunnels for all zones.Asymmetrical lighting can alsobe a means of reinforcing theluminance level in one waytunnels.Asymmetric counter beamlightingTo reinforce the luminance leveland at the same time accentuatethe negative contrast of potentialobstacles. Counter beam lightingis achieved with asymmetricallight distribution facing into thetraffic flow, both in the directionof the on coming driver and inthe run of the road. The beamstops sharply at the vertical planepassing through the luminaire.No light is directed with the flowof traffic. This generates negativecontrast and enhances visualadaptation.Pro beam lightingIn some circumstances, positivecontrast must be reinforced,often in the exit zone where theexit is visible. In these cases,asymmetric light distribution isused in the same way as counterbeam but with direction of thetraffic and is called ‘pro beam’.In dual carriage way tunnels,counter beam at entrance canact as pro beam at exit.This technique is notrecommended as the roadluminance is very low, creatingtoo big a disparity between theexit zone and the parting zone.Other factorsAs well as the above, furtherfactors must be taken intoconsideration when preparingtunnel lighting. These include theshape of the portal, type anddensity of traffic, traffic signage,contribution of wall luminance,orientation of tunnel, and manyothers. National, European andInternational legislation andguidance sets out minimumstandards for tunnel lighting.Relevant legislationCEN TC 169/WG 6Technical Report Final Draft08.2001.CETUDossier pilote des tunnels -November 2000.CIE 88-1990Guide for the lighting of roads,tunnels and underpasses.DIN 67524:8 1992Beleuchtung von Straßen tunnelsand Unterfuhrugen Teil 1:Allgemeine Gutemerk-male andRichtwerte Teil 2: Berechnungund Messung.SN 150915:1997Offentliche BeleuchtungStraßentunnels, -Galereinunterfuhrungen.NSV 1991Aanbevelingen voor deverlichting van lange tunnels voorhet gemotoriseerde verkeer.BS 5489-2: 2003Roadlighting Part 2: Code ofPractice for the design of roadlighting.UNI 11095:2003Luce e illuminazione -Illuminazione delle galerie.Day time lighting of tunnels for different lengths(CIE-Guide for the lighting of tunnels and underpasses)When lighting a tunnel, its length, geometry and immediate environment must be taken into account as well as traffic densities.Differing light levels are set for each project, according to the governing standards summarised below:Length of tunnel 125mIs exit fully visible when viewed fromstopping distance in front of tunnel?- yes yes no no no yes yes no no no no -Is daylight penetration good or poor? - - - good good poor - - good good good poorIs wall reflectance high (>0.4) or low (

Ceiling mounting: symmetrical lighting (mainly using fluorescent fittings)Ceiling mounting: symmetrical lightingWall mounting: asymmetrical lightingCeiling mounting: aymmetrical counter beam lightingCeiling mounting: asymmetrical pro beam lighting (not recommended)7

8Tunnel lighting must allow vehicles toenter, pass through and exit theenclosed section safely withoutimpeding the through-flow of traffic.

Thorn expertise - creating thebest tunnel lighting and visibilityOur in-house developmentprogrammes employ specialisedsoftware that helps producehighly engineered optics, tooptimise lighting systems and toallow our lighting engineers toprovide maximum safety andcomfort for tunnel users.Lighting a tunnel is a complexand specialised task. Thorn hasdeveloped dedicated lightingsystems and services to assistplanners from concept toimplementation, managementand servicing.While luminance levels are usedfor accurate theoreticalassessment, in practice,illuminance is more often used.Thorn assessment studies,therefore, are executed usingluminance values, with resultspresented as illuminance values.It is commonly accepted in roadlighting that, even with the mostaccurate calculations andmodelling to give the lightinglevels required by the moststringent standards, there is asubstantial difference betweenwhat the mathematical lightingconditions are, and what eachindividual driver subjectively seesin reality. This is especially truefor tunnel lighting, where suchsharp contrasts in light levelsprevail.Thorn in-house visibilitymodelling softwareAt Thorn we have addressed thisproblem head on. Continuousresearch and development hasled to more sophisticated anddetailed understanding of lightingand its effects on vision. Alongwith rapid advances in IT, thishas allowed us to developdedicated in-house softwarewhich combines mathematicalmodels of physiological stimuliwith conventional lightingmodelling parameters to generateresults which are, visually, as wellas mathematically, accuratebeyond alternative visualmodelling techniques.Thanks to an impressive numberof variables, our software is aunique and accurate tool. Itverifies the ability of a givenlighting system to meet the visualcriteria set by all national andinternational standards regardingdetection of obstacles on theroad, within the allocated time.Thorn software measures anticipated lightfalling on a series of facets, in order tocalculate luminance gradients on targetobjects.Helping lighting designersand tunnel usersTaking into account criteria fromthe tunnel exterior and interior,the software generates a table ofvisibility levels (VL) that shows theextreme influence of daylight onthe values of VL on targets in theentrance and threshold zones ofthe tunnel.Experiments demonstrate that theminimum Level of Visibility (VL)should have a value equal to orgreater than 7 to ensuredetection of planar or sphericaltargets. Though in Thorn’s currentcalculations, the target size maynot exactly represent a potentialobstacle in a tunnel, they showthe behaviour of light on real,multifaceted objects whosediffuse reflectance can bemodified and therefore theyrepresent a real visual scenariofor tunnel users.The design of the lighting systemneeded for a tunnel is the job ofexperienced designers whodefine the scheme, the choice ofthe lighting system, the type andnumber of luminaires and theirappropriate light distribution.Thorn’s visibility softwareprovides invaluable new inputinto the design of optics fortunnel fittings making it easier fordesigners to create lightingsystems and light distributionschemes for tunnels that maximisethe visual performance andcomfort of users.Thorn visibility modelling software indicates the ‘real’ visibility of objects asperceived by the tunnel user, as well as the mathematically calculated levelsrequired to meet the relevant standards.10

Controlling tunnel lightingFor the light-critical approachareas and interiors of tunnels,close control of light levels isessential. Levels of lightoutside the tunnel, time ofday, speed and density oftraffic, all influence the lightingrequirements within. We offerfully integrated control systemsto meet these demands.Thorn tunnel lightingcontrolThorn offers a comprehensiverange of tunnel luminairesparalleled by a wide variety oflighting controls adapted totunnel applications:• From basic to technologicallyadvanced, highly innovativesystems• Fluorescent and HID lampsolutions• Integration of up to date gearoptions• Easy to install and operatesystems• Cost efficient systems• Optimisation of safetyconditionsFrom simple standard on/offoperation, to complex stepdimming or security networks,Thorn provides the bestprofessional assistance inadvising and offering the rightsystem to meet the requirement.DSI and DALI controls forfluorescent lamps• Digital dimming for HF gears operatingfluorescent lamps• Unique cablingBenefits• Group management• Extendible installation• Capability to interface DSI and DALIcontrols with analogue 1 - 10V commandon existing installations• Ease of installation thanks tonon-polarised command wires• Enhanced safety of operation as signalsnot subjected to interferencePower switch controls for HID lamps• Manual or automated power reductionfor HS lampsBenefits• Ease of installation as integrated incontrol gear• Cost efficient options• Suitable for threshold and central zonesPower line controls for HID lamps• Automated but re-programmable controls• Detailed feedback on supply, status logs,dates, times and burning hoursBenefits• Group management• Individual control and monitoring• Upgradable installation• Possible remote access option viacentral server• Capacity to interface the system withdata base• Low installation and operation costs• Reduced maintenance schedulesPLC manages electrical networkand operates cameraComputer softwareassesses cameradata and issuesinstructions to comboxCombox issues commandsto individual luminairesaccording to pre-set criteriaLight fittings switchedon/off or dimmedExternal cameramonitors lightlevels and trafficflow in real timeStopping distance11

Tough luminaires for tough environmentsSalts, sulphur pollutants, exhaust fumes consisting ofhydrocarbons and organics in tunnels can result inthe presence of sulphuric or nitric acid.Impact resistance testingOptic designPhotometric measurementAssembly and quality controlWater ingress protection testingCorrosion testingGear testingIn any given tunnel environment,there may be moisture, salts,sulphur pollutants, exhaust fumesconsisting of hydrocarbons andorganics, fuels and oils, soot,dust and strong washingdetergents from jet cleaning.Furthermore, analysis of watersamples identifies the followingcompounds: toluene, sulphate,zinc, sulphide, molybdenum,cadmium, beryllium and mercury.Clearly some of these compoundsare the result of corrosionproducts. Sodium chloride andother chlorides used for road deicingcan add to the chemicalcocktail.Depending on the region (marineatmospheres or long mountaintunnels, for instance), thesechemical combinations can resultin the presence of sulphuric ornitric acid!Luminaires installed in suchenvironments can get rapidlycontaminated. There is no rainfallto wash away the deposits thatsettle, condense or get splashedon their surfaces. Regularmaintenance can alleviate theconditions, but, in general, this isusually impractical due to thelogistics of access, tunnel closureand cost.In such hostile environments, itis vital to choose designs andmaterials that create luminaireswhose function and effectivenesswill not be compromised.Thorn’s tunnel luminaire rangesare designed to withstand ‘tunnellife’ and are made of the highestquality materials, integrating thelatest developments in terms ofingress protection, shock andvibration resistance as well as arange of features to facilitateease of access and maintenance.12

TitanTitus• Sturdy construction• Dedicated to FDH 49W lamps• Quick change gear traydesign• Shallow profile• Set of attachments• 4 long closing plates• Slim lightweight profile• Axial or lateral surfacemountingApplicationsIdeal for lighting service oremergency areas.Suitable for traffic, pedestrianand train tunnels.EquipmentGlare hoods, wire guards, polemounting brackets.LampsMax. 70W HSE-I (SE/I) Highpressure sodium internal ignitor.Cap: E27Min. 70W/Max. 100W HST(ST) High pressure sodium.Cap: E27/E40Max. 110W HSE (SE) Highpressure sodium. Cap: E27Min. 70W/Max. 100W HIE(ME) Metal halide.Cap: E27/E40Min. 80W/Max. 125W HME(QE) Mercury. Cap: E27Min. 2x18W/Max. 2x26WTC-D (FSQ) Compact fluorescent.Cap: G 24d-2/G: 24d-3Max. 1x200W A80/m(IAA-80/m) Incandescent.Cap: E27Materials/FinishHousing - LM6 marine gradealuminium powder coat finishHinges, locks and fixings -stainless steelEnclosure - borosilicateglass lens.Sturdy one piece bulkheadTitan DIP with wire guardTitan with glare hoodApplicationsSymmetrical and asymmetriclight distribution.Suitable for urban tunnels,underpasses and galleries.EquipmentLouvres, dimming devices,mounting brackets supplied tomeet project requirements.LampsMax. 2x49W T16 (FDH) Linearfluorescent. Cap: G5Materials/FinishHousing - powder coatedgalvanised steel with anodisedaluminium locking plates, orstainless steel with anodisedpowder coated locking bars.Enclosure – 4mm thicktoughened flat glass.Reflector in 99.8% purealuminium.StandardsDesigned to comply withEN60598-1/IEC598-1 andEN60598-2-3/IEC598-2-3Class I ElectricalIK08/5 NmIP65Dimensions135x248x1534mmTitus - galvanised steel versionLouvre attachment for light controlAdjustable mounting bracketStandardsClass 1 ElectricalIP65/IP66Dimensions370x254x179mmEmergency version of TitanEasily operated, strong locking bar offerssecurity and ingress protection1320 / 54W1620 / 49W1351653701234 / 54W1534 / 49W248179179254370FC 1298 / 54WFC 1598 / 49W13

Aluminium Gothard7823B series Continuous locking bar Counter beam optics Easily accessible gear tray and lamp• Lightweight construction• Continuous closing clip• Front opening without tools• Removable gear and easyaccess to lamp andconnectionsEquipmentTerminal block, fuse, cableglands, sockets, cable length,fixing brackets supplied to meetproject requirements.Materials/FinishHousing – extruded AIMgSialuminium powder coated80 micronsHinge and locking bar ofextruded AIMgSi anodisedaluminium.Enclosure – 5mm thick,toughened flat glass.Reflector – 99.8% purealuminium.StandardsDesigned to comply withEN60598-1/IEC598-1 andEN60598-2-3/IEC598-2-3Class I ElectricalIK08/5 NmIP667823B seriesApplicationsAsymmetrical light distribution,counter beam, pro beam.For road tunnels, urban tunnelsAdaptation and transition zones.LampsMin. 1x50W/Max. 2x400WHST (ST) High pressure sodium.Cap: E27/E40Min. 1x250W/Max. 2x400WHIT (MT) Metal halide.Cap: E40Min. 36W/Max. 66W LST-HY(LSE) Low pressure sodium.Cap: BY22dMin. 28W/Max. 54W T16(FDH) Linear fluorescent.Cap: G5Min. 36W/Max. 58W T26 (FD)Linear fluorescent.Cap: G13Min. 55W/Max. 80W TC-SEL(FSDH) Compact fluorescent.Cap: 2G71857823B series and 7824B series3387824B seriesApplicationsSymmetrical light distribution.For road tunnels, urban tunnels,underpasses, galleries,adaptation and transition zones.LampsMin. 1x50W/Max. 2x400WHST (ST) High pressure sodium.Cap: E27/E40Min. 1x250W/Max. 2x400WHIT (MT) Metal halide.Cap: E40Min. 36W/Max. 66W LST-HY(LSE) Low pressure sodium.Cap: BY22dMin. 28W/Max. 54W T16(FDH) Linear fluorescent.Cap: G5Min. 36W/Max. 58W T26 (FD)Linear fluorescent.Cap: G13Min. 55W/Max. 80W TC-SEL(FSDH) Compact fluorescent.Cap: 2G7760 - 15811857826 series3387826 seriesApplicationsSymmetrical light distribution.For urban tunnels, underpasses,galleries.LampsMin. 1x50W/Max. 1x100WHST (ST) High pressure sodium.Cap: E27/E40Min. 35W/Max. 55W LST (LS)Low pressure sodium.Cap: BY22dMin. 42W/Max. 57W TC-TEL(FSMH) Compact fluorescent.Cap: GX24q4/GX24q540814

Steel Gothard7830 series One piece enclosure for easy front access Easily removable gear tray Secure stainless steel clips allowtool-free operation• 3 reinforced high strengthclosing clips• Front opens without tools• Removable gear and easyaccess to lamp andconnections• Shallow profileEquipmentTerminal block, fuse, cableglands, cable length, fixingbrackets supplied to meet projectrequirements.Materials/FinishHousing – stainless steel(EN1.4404) powdercoated 80pm.Hinges and locks –stainless steel.Enclosure – 5mm thicktoughened flat glass.Reflector – 99.8% purealuminium.StandardsDesigned to comply withEN60598-1/IEC598-1 andEN60598-2-3/iEC 598-2-3Class 1 ElectricalIK08/5 NmIP657827 seriesApplicationsAsymmetrical, counter beam, probeam light distribution.For road tunnels, urban tunnels,underpasses, adaptation andtransition zones.LampsMin. 1x50W/Max. 2x400WHST (ST) High pressure sodium.Cap: E27/E40Min. 36W/Max. 66W LST-HY(LSE) Low pressure sodium.Cap: BY22dMin. 55W/Max. 80W TC-SEL(FSDH) Compact fluorescent.Cap: 2G7Min. 1x250W/Max. 2x400WHIT (MT) Metal halide.Cap: E402057828 seriesApplicationsSymmetrical light distribution.For road tunnels, urban tunnels,underpasses, adaptation andtransition zones.LampsMin. 1x50W/Max. 2x400WHST (ST) High pressure sodium.Cap: E27/E40Min. 36W/Max. 66W LST-HY(LSE) Low pressure sodium.Cap: BY22dMin. 55W/Max. 80W TC-SEL(FSDH) Compact fluorescent.Cap: 2G7Min. 1x250W/Max. 2x400WHIT (MT) Metal halide.Cap: E407827 series and 7828 series 7830 series332755 - 16251172507830 seriesApplicationsSymmetrical light distribution.For road tunnels, urban tunnels,underpasses, adaptation andtransition zones.LampsMin. 28W/Max. 54W T16(FDH) Linear fluorescent.Cap: G5Min. 36W/Max. 58W T26 (FD)Linear fluorescent.Cap: G131325 - 162515

Case study 1Chiptchak Mosquee Tunnel, TurkmenistanTunnel typeUrban underpass2 way trafficOne tubeTechnical dataLength: 74mWidth: 24mSpeed limit 80km/hLighting systemAluminium asymmetric GothardWall mounted, tilted 15º3000250020001500Day time lighting layoutThreshold zone Transition zone Interior zone12m250020001500100020x 7823B ST 400W (55klm)10x 7823B ST 250W (33klm)56x 7823B ST 100W (10klm)1000500500Night time lighting layoutThreshold zone Transition zone Interior zone12m150010001000500500Plan schematic showing day time lighting layoutDaylight penetrationInterior zoneTransition zoneThreshold zone47.5m 8m16mExitEntranceTraffic directionFittings kept lit at nightTraffic directionExit Entrance12m12m16m 8m 47.5mThreshold zoneTransition zoneInterior zoneDaylight penetration20x 7823B ST 400W (55klm)10x 7823B ST 250W (33klm)56x 7823B ST 100W (10klm)Fittings kept lit at night16

Case study 2Katerini Tunnel, GreeceThreshold zoneSD = 180m132m48mTransition zone220mInterior zone524mThe national motorway,when completed, will run acrossGreece from Patras to Evzoni,via Athens and Thessaloniki.Three tunnels requiring a fulltunnel lighting system areconstructed in the Katerini area.Maintained%252 100176 8050100 405830200.5 S.D.L thcd/m 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20L tr = L ( 1.9 + t )-1.4 th with L = 100%tht = time in sec.Tunnel descriptionLong motorway tunnel.2 tubes - 3 lanes carriageway.281010854321t. sec.100km/h0m 100m 200m 300m 400m 500mTechnical dataLength: Right tube - 1100mLeft tube - 1100mSpeed limit: 100 km/hTraffic flow: medium less than1,000 vehicles per hour.Stopping distance (SD):180m on wet road.Determination of L th :Right tube entrance:L 20 = 3.500cd/m 2Left tube entrance:L 20 = 5.000cd/m 2Lighting system: counterbeamand symmetricType of fitting: counterbeam andsymmetric fittingsk = L th /L 20 = 0.072 for counterbeam lighting systemand for SD = 180mMaintenance factor: 0.70Right tube detailsThreshold zoneLth to be maintained: L 20 x k =252cd/m 2Length = 180m = SDThreshold zone 1: 132m L th =252cd/m 2 maintainedThreshold zone 2: 48m L th =176 cd/m 2 maintainedTransition zoneThe end of the transition zone isreached when the luminance is 3times the interior luminance levelAs the traffic flow is medium, themaintained level in the interiorzone shall be 10cd/m 2 or 4% ofthe threshold zone level.Length = 220m = given by CIEcurveTransition zone 1:30m L tr = 100cd/m 2 maintainedTransition zone 2:55m L th = 58cd/m 2 maintainedTransition zone 3:135m L th = 28cd/m 2 maintainedInterior zoneLength = 524mL in = 10cd/m 2 maintainedExit zoneLuminance of the exit zone isequal to 5 times the interior zoneluminanceLength = 180mL ex = 50cd/m 2 maintainedLighting fitting arrangementDay timeThreshold and transition zones are lit by counter beam fittings. Interior and exit zones are litby symmetric fittings.EntranceAccesszoneZonescounter beam asymmetricNight timeAll zones are lit by symmetric fittings.EntranceAccesszone180mThresholdzoneLength(m)180mThresholdzonecounter beam asymmetric220mTransitionzoneNo offittingsper tube220mTransitionzoneDay time524mInterior zone524mInterior zoneasymmetric beamCounter beam400W 250Wasymmetric beam180mExit zone180mExit zoneLane 1Lane 2Lane 3Symmetric150W 250WThreshold 1 180 276 276Transition 220 104 40 64Interior right 524 256 196* 60Exit 180 86 30* 56*common to day time and night timeLane 1Lane 2Lane 3ExitExitZonesLength(m)No offittingsper tubeNight timeCounter beam400W 250WSymmetric150W 250WThreshold 1 180 32 32Transition 220 36 36Interior right 524 88 88Exit 180 30 3017

International referencesFaeroe Islands150 fittings(ST 1x250W,LS-E 1x35W)NorwayLerdal Tunnel1,400 fittings(ST 1x70-400W, LS-E1x35W, FD 58 W)Sweden3,100 fittings(ST 1x70W. 1x150W, 1x250W,1x400W, FD 58W HF)Iceland500 fittings(ST 1x250W,LS-E 1x35W)UKMedway Tunnel1149 fittings(ST 1x400W,FD 58W HFdimmable)FranceGometz la Ville386 fittings(ST 2x70W, 2x250W,2x400W)Taiwan2nd Freeway Part II10,250 fittings(ST 1x150W, 1x400W)CroatiaSopac655 fittings(ST 150/100W,power reduction)GreeceTaxiarchis Tunnel1,054 fittings(ST 1x150W, 1x250W1x400W)IsraelHar Hatzofim Tunnel400 fittings(ST 2x400W, 2x250W,2x100W ST 1x400W,1x250W, 1x150W,1x100W)U.A.E.Kalba Tunnel (Sharjah)464 fittings(ST 2x250W, 2x400W,150W+400W, ST 1x150W,1x250W)SingaporeHolland/ Farrer Road Tunnels350 fittings(FD 58W HFD)BruneiPusar Ulak radial road740 fittings(ST 1x400W, 2x400W428 FD 58W HF)Hong KongKCRC West Rail CC1,474 fittings(ST 2x400W, 250W,FD 58W HF2)19

Lighting people and placesThorn Lighting Main OfficesHead OfficeThorn Lighting Holdings LimitedSilver Screens, Screen 2, Elstree Way,Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FETel: (44) 1708 766033Fax: (44) 1708 776238E-mail: info@thornlight.comWebsite: www.thornlighting.comAustraliaThorn Lighting Pty Limited, 13 Cooper Street,P O Box 188, Smithfield, NSW 2164, AustraliaTel: (61) 2 9604 4300Fax: (61) 2 9604 4588E-mail: info@thornlight.com.auWebsite: www.thornlight.com.auThorn DNT Airfield Lighting Pty Limited,P O Box 548, Unit 2, 7-9 Newcastle Road, Bayswater,Melbourne, Victoria 3153, AustraliaTel: (61) 3 9720 3233Fax: (61) 3 9720 8233E-mail: enquiries@thornlight.com.auWebsite: www.thornairfield.comAustriaThorn Licht GesmbH, Erzherzog Karl-Straße 57,Wien A-1220, AustriaTel: (43) 1 202 66 11Fax: (43) 1 202 66 11 12E-mail: office@thorn.atChinaThorn Lighting (Guangzhou) Limited,(Factory & Guangzhou Office), No 1 Yi Heng Road,Eastern Section, GETDD, Guangzhou 510760, ChinaTel: (86) 20 8224 1706Fax: (86) 20 8224 5777E-mail: gzhthorn@public.guangzhou.gd.cnThorn Lighting (Tianjin) Company Ltd, 332 Hongqi Road,Tianjin 300190, ChinaTel: (86) 22 8369 2303Fax: (86) 22 8369 2302E-mail: thorntj@public.tpt.tj.cnThorn Lighting (Guangzhou) Limited,Shanghai Branch Office, Room 2609, Union Building,100 Yanan Road East, Shanghai 200002, ChinaTel: (86) 21 6323 0800Fax: (86) 21 6373 1626E-mail: thornsha@public.sta.net.cnThorn Lighting (Guangzhou) Limited,Beijing Branch Office, Room 519, China World Tower I,China World Trade Centre, Beijing 100004, ChinaTel: (86) 10 6505 4601Fax: (86) 10 6505 4603E-mail: thornbj@public.bta.net.cnCzech RepublicThorn Lighting CS, spol., Jaselska 6, Praha 6,160 00 Czech RepublicTel: (42) 02 2431 5252Fax: (42) 02 3332 6313E-mail: thorn@thornlight.czWebsite: www.thornlight.czDenmarkThorn & Jakobsson, Industrivej Vest 41,DK-6600 Vejen, DenmarkTel: (45) 7696 3600Fax: (45) 7696 3601E-mail: thorn@jakobsson.dkWebsite: www.thorn-jakobsson.dkEstoniaThorn Lighting Oy Eesti Filiaal, Laki 12-308,10621 Tallinn, EstoniaTel: (372) 656 3505Fax: (372) 656 3227E-mail: ando@thorn.eeFinlandThorn Lighting Oy, Airport Plaza Business Park,Ayritie 12A, 01510 Vantaa, FinlandTel: (358) 9 549 222Fax: (358) 9 549 22300E-mail: asiakaspalvelu@thornlight.fiWebsite: www.thornlight.fiFranceThorn Europhane SA, 156 Boulevard Haussmann,Cedex 08, Paris 75379, FranceTel: (33) 1 49 53 6262Fax: (33) 1 49 53 6240Website: www.thorn.frHong KongThorn Lighting (Hong Kong) Limited, Unit 4301,Level 43, Tower 1, Metroplaza, 223 Hing Fong Road,Kwai Chung, N.T., Hong KongTel: (852) 2578 4303Fax: (852) 2887 0247E-mail: info@thorn.com.hkWebsite: www.thorn.com.hkThorn Lighting (HK) LtdMacau Branch, Room 306, 3/F Marina Gardens,876 Avenida da Amizade, Macau, ChinaTel: (853) 702 971/702 972Fax: (853) 702 970E-mail: thorn@macau.ctm.netWebsite: www.thorn.com.hkHungaryThorn Lighting Hungary Kft, West Gate Business Park,Torokbalint, To Park H-2045, HungaryTel: (36) 23 501 570Fax: (36) 23 418 120IrelandThorn Lighting (Ireland) Limited,320 Harold’s Cross Road, Dublin 6W, IrelandTel: (353) 1 4922 877Fax: (353) 1 4922 724E-mail: enq.dublin@thornlight.comItalyThorn Europhane Spa, Via G Di Vittorio, 2,Cadriano di Granarolo, Bologna 40057, ItalyTel: (39) 051 763391Fax: (39) 051 763088E-mail: info@thornlighting.itWebsite: www.thornlighting.itLatviaThorn Lighting Oy, Representative Office,Skolas Street 21-216, Riga LV 1010, LatviaTel: (37) 7 332 660Fax: (37) 7 332 660LithuaniaThorn Lighting Oy, Representative Office,Kalvariju Street 1, Vilnius 2005, LithuaniaTel: (370) 5 2 750 701Fax: (370) 5 2 731 480New ZealandThorn Lighting (NZ) Ltd, 399 Rosebank Road,P O Box 71134, Rosebank, Auckland 7, New ZealandTel: (64) 9 828 7155Fax: (64) 9 828 7591NorwayThorn Lighting AS, Industriveien 11, P O Box 63,Skytta 1483, NorwayTel: (47) 6706 2233Fax: (47) 6706 0351E-mail: s.kvernberg@thornlight.noPolandThorn Lighting Polska Sp.z.o.o., Ul. Gazowa 26A,Wroclaw 50-513, PolandTel: (48) 71 7833 740Fax: (48) 71 3366 029E-mail: thorn@thornlight.plWebsite: www.thornlight.plRussiaThorn Lighting Oy, Park Place, Leninskiy Prosp.,113/1 Office D 110, Moscow 117198, RussiaTel: (7) 095 956 59 39Fax: (7) 095 956 59 40E-mail: office.moscow@thorn.ruWebsite: www.thorn.ruThorn Lighting Oy, Representative Office, Europa House,1 Artilleriiskaya, St Petersburg 191104, RussiaTel: (7) 812 118 8112Fax: (7) 812 118 8119E-mail: office.petersburg@thorn.ruWebsite: www.thorn.ruSingaporeThorn Lighting (Singapore) Pte Ltd, 5 Kaki Bukit Crescent,04-02 Koyotech Building, 416238 SingaporeTel: (65) 6844 5800Fax: (65) 6745 7707E-mail: info@thornlight.com.sgWebsite: www.thornlight.com.sgSwedenThorn Lighting AB, Industrigatan, Box 305,SE-261 23 Landskrona, SwedenTel: (46) 418 520 00Fax: (46) 418 265 74E-mail: thorn@thornlight.seWebsite: www.thornlight.seUnited Arab EmiratesThorn Lighting Ltd DubaiAl Shoala Building, Office 301,Block E, PO Box 1200, Deira, Dubai, UAETel: (971) 4 2940181Fax: (971) 4 2948838e-mail: tlluae@emirates.net.aeThorn Gulf LLCAl Shoala Building, Office 301/2,Block E, PO Box 1200, Deira, Dubai, UAETel: (971) 4 2948938Fax: (971) 4 2948838e-mail: thorng@emirates.net.aeUnited KingdomThorn Lighting Limited, Silver Screens, Screen 2,Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FETel: (44) 1708 766033Fax: (44) 1708 776238E-mail: brochures@thornlight.comWebsite: www.thornlighting.co.ukThorn Airfield Lighting, Silver Screens, Screen 2,Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FETel: (44) 1708 776289Fax: (44) 1708 776285E-mail: airfield@thornlight.com or thornagluk@aol.comWebsite: www.thornairfield.comExport SalesThorn Lighting Limited, 156 Boulevard Haussmann,Cedex 08, Paris 75379, FranceTel: (33) 1 49 53 6262Fax: (33) 1 49 53 6240Thorn Lighting Limited, Silver Screens, Screen 2,Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FETel: (44) 1708 776284Fax: (44) 1708 741827e-mail: international.sales@thornlight.comwww.thornlighting.comThorn Lighting is constantly developing and improving its products. All descriptions, illustrations, drawings and specifications in this publication present only general particulars and shall not form partof any contract. The right is reserved to change specifications without prior notification or public announcement. All goods supplied by the company are supplied subject to the company's GeneralConditions of Sale, a copy of which is available on request. All measurements are in millimetres and weights in kilograms unless otherwise stated.Publication No: 283(INT) Publication Date: 8/04

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