technology today 2005 issue 4 - Raytheon


technology today 2005 issue 4 - Raytheon






How Raytheon is Leveraging

Technology to Ensure

“No Doubt”

2005 Issue 4

A Message from Greg Shelton

Ask ETMQ online


Editor’s Supplement

2005 Issue 3:

Materials for Space Applications

(page 12) was co-authored by

James Chow, Kurt Ketola,

Jeanne Felber and Donald Gilbert,,

not Dan Gilbert.


Retired Vice President of Engineering, Technology, Manufacturing & Quality

It has been my pleasure to serve this company and its legacy incarnations for

the past 33 years. I have seen the evolution of a great company during my

tenure and I wish to say that, during this evolution, we have built an absolutely

incredible company.

Today’s Raytheon is a world leader in technology and products that are

unmatched in the world. Without question, Raytheon is the premier leader in

Radar Systems throughout the world. Raytheon is the world leader in Missile

Systems. We are the integrator for the next generation Navy’s new platforms,

and have some of the best aircraft coming to market with the new Hawker 4000

business jet.

This issue of technology today is focused on how we leverage technology to

ensure Mission Assurance — how the products, service and support we provide

our customers are the very best.

This will be my last issue of technology today as I retire from Raytheon. I will

miss all of my friends across the company. Without question, my career at

Raytheon has left a very positive impact on my life. I am proud to say I have

had a small part in the success of this company and its terrific people.

I have “no doubt” you will all continue this heritage to deliver the very

best technology, products and services to meet our customers’ needs

and expectations.

It has been my pleasure and honor to serve with all of you.

Thank you,

Greg Shelton


technology today is published

quarterly by the Office of Engineering,

Technology, Manufacturing & Quality

Vice President (retired)

Greg Shelton

Vice President (acting)

Peter Pao

Managing Editors

Mardi Balgochian Scalise

Lee Ann Sousa

Art Director

Debra Graham


Alain Ekmalian

Publication Coordinator

Carol Danner

Expert Reviewer

Kevin Marler


Mission Assurance and Technology

Q&A with Greg Shelton 4

The Role of Technology in Mission Assurance 6

Delivering Increased Readiness and Enabling Mission Success 8

Future Opportunities for Raytheon

in Unmanned Airborne Systems 11

Hawker 4000 Mission Assurance 12

Nanotechnology for Mission Assurance 14

Leadership Perspective – Peter Pao 15

OPA Technology Enhances Mission Assurance 16

Meeting the Challenges of RoHS 18

Eye on Technology

Architecture & Systems Integration 20

Materials and Structures 22

RF Systems 23

EO/Lasers 24

People: Raytheon’s Greatest Asset 25

In Memoriam – Steven L. Kiser 25

CMMI Accomplishments 26

CFM Profile: Electronic Warfare Systems 27

Industry Conferences and Symposia 28

NDIA 5th Annual CMMI Technology Conference 30

MathMovesU 31

The Raytheon Process Asset Library 32

A Six Sigma Success 33

Patent Recognition 34

Future Events 36


We’ve seen a lot of changes in 2005. We have grown as a company and as a magazine.

With two editors now at the helm of this ever-growing publication, technology today

will continue to evolve as a best practice and valued resource.

We are committed to bringing you the best of Raytheon’s technology. As we focus more

on Mission Assurance and becoming a Mission Solutions Integrator, we must think like a

Prime, continue to meet our customers’ needs and provide them with the performance,

relationships and solutions necessary for their mission success.


John Barksdale

We can’t do that without exceptional people to advance our technology; however, there

Ron Coleman

is a real danger of depleting our country’s talent pool of engineers and technologists in

Lorenzo Cortes

the not-too-distant future. To that end, we’re introducing MathMovesU, Raytheon’s

John Cacciatore

Rich Crowley

Richard Docter

Kristen Giddens Pinto-Coelho

exclusive program with nationally recognized MATHCOUNTS® (page 31). Look for more

information in the coming months about how Raytheon will increase our focus on

educating our nation’s children in math and science. Future engineers will be able to

build upon the cutting-edge technology that Raytheon has established.

John Gunther

Let’s celebrate the success we’ve enjoyed as we look forward to bringing you the very

Theresa Huerta

Cathy Ibrahim

Dwayne Johnston

Joan Mahoney

best technology today has to offer in 2006 and beyond.

Heather McKenna

Mardi Balgochian Scalise Lee Ann Sousa

Kevin Riley We welcome your comments and suggestions. Go to technology

MATHCOUNTS is a registered trademark of today via and visit the Interact section, or

the MATHCOUNTS Foundation.

email us at


Mission Assurance:

Raytheon’s “No Doubt” Philosophy

In his last Q&A before

retiring, Greg Shelton sat

down with the editors of

technology today to discuss

Mission Assurance.

Can you define Mission Assurance?

What does it mean to our different

Raytheon professionals (hardware,

software, Operations, etc.)?

Mission Assurance should not be viewed as

a new “thing.” Mission Assurance is the

“No Doubt” philosophy that Raytheon


Chairman and CEO Bill Swanson talks

about: that there must be no doubt that

our products will work in the field when

they are needed. That implies a level of

commitment from all of us to ensure that

the products we deliver will work, and that

our products are backed by the best service

and support we can provide. Without question,

Raytheon provides the most advanced

technology in the world around our products.

Along with this technology, we need

to provide the processes and discipline to

make certain that, when we deliver these

leading-edge products, our warfighters and

customers feel confident that our products

will protect them when they are thrust in

harm’s way.

We hear a lot about “No

Doubt,” but what does

Mission Assurance mean

to our customers? How

does it affect company


I believe the “No Doubt”

framework of Mission

Assurance is about delivering

rock-solid products the

warfighter or customer

expects. If we do this consistently,

we will have an

unbeatable reputation with

our customers. If our customers

truly believe we are

committed to providing

this “No Doubt” capability,

they will come back to us

for even more products

and services. The other

side of this discussion is

also true: If we fail to deliver

a quality product that

does not protect our

warfighter and customer,

we will surely lose the business

we have. So, to me,

Mission Assurance is about

meeting our obligations

to our customers and

providing them with the quality products

and services they expect. If we do this,

there will also be “No Doubt” that our customers

will be with us for the long haul.

How have you seen the focus or direction

of Mission Assurance change throughout

the years?

Mission Assurance has progressed and

become crisper. I believe our Quality evolution

from Quality circles to Total Quality

Management to Continuous Measures, and

to Raytheon Six Sigma, CMM® and

CMMI® all have helped us on our Mission

Assurance journey. The Malcolm Baldridge

award for Quality encompasses a lot of the

measures of sound processes and customerfocused

Mission Assurance. But, when I

reflect back on this, what they have all

missed — and what Raytheon is focused

on — is a commitment to the total product

lifecycle support for our customers. It is

more than just delivering quality from the

production floor…Mission Assurance and

total lifecycle support must revolve around

the actual user to make certain we are

meeting his or her needs in the environment

and manner that the product will

be used, now and in the future.

How can we leverage technology to achieve

our Mission Assurance goals? What key

technologies are positioning Raytheon as

a leader?

Without question, our common architecture

for programs such as Distributed Common

Ground Systems, DD(X) and Missile-as-anode

framework all help us to develop

products in a timely manner that will

address the plug-and-play needs of our customers.

They also fit into the framework of

spiral development that will enable new

technologies to evolve the product and

adapt to user needs. Advanced Concept

Technology Demonstrations and quick-reaction

programs must meet the basic objectives

of Mission Assurance before they are

incorporated into the user community. Too

often, these products are fielded before

we have thought out the full impact of

field support, product reliability or simple

operator-use concerns.

How is Mission Assurance related to

Customer Focused Marketing?

Mission Assurance is an enabler of

Raytheon’s Customer Focused Marketing:

We must focus on achieving 100 percent

customer success on time, every time. On

the flip side, Mission Assurance is enabled

by culture, people, processes and tools, so it

all ties together. If you think of it from a

Performance point of view, Mission

Assurance means “promises made, promises

kept.” From a Relationships perspective,

we look at relationships built upon customer

involvement and mutual trust — a

partnership, really. And from a Solutions

vantage point, it’s obvious that Mission

Assurance means providing products that

work and services and support the customer

throughout the entire product

lifecycle. It also means that we make the

extra effort to understand the customers’

needs and meet them by working together.

So if a Raytheon employee thinks that he or

she has nothing to do with Mission

Assurance, they are surely mistaken.

Mission Assurance is not just the responsibility

of engineers, program managers or

other ETMQ professionals — we all play a

role. We all have an interest in

Performance, Relationships and Solutions

and, on that level, Mission Assurance

should be more than just Bill Swanson’s

philosophy; it should be everyone’s.

Capability Maturity Model and CMMI are registered

in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie

Mellon University.

Raytheon Six Sigma is a trademark of Raytheon Company.


Dr. Jaynarayan Lala

Engineering Fellow


The Role of

Technology in



A Position Paper for the Mission Assurance Panel

Mission Assurance Forum June 13–15, 2005 Dallas, Texas

Raytheon’s “no doubt” Mission Assurance

vision and goal, espoused by company

leadership for its products, are

achievable through a three-pronged

strategy centering on process,

people and technology. The three prongs

can be thought of as three legs of a stool

— that is, they collectively support Mission

Assurance goals. Raytheon’s IPDS, CMMI®

and Raytheon Six Sigma initiatives

embody the process strategy while extensive

training and learning programs

result in a highly qualified workforce.

Complementing these core elements is

the role technology plays in enabling

mission success.

Fault-Tolerant and

Dependable Systems


Obviously perfection is not possible. Even

with the best processes and well-trained

people, it is not possible to construct hardware

and software that is defect and errorfree.

Therefore, during the course of a mission,

one can expect hardware components

to fail and software to encounter errors.

These imperfections have been mitigated by

the use of fault-tolerant techniques. Faulttolerance

is a mature discipline that enables

us to design system architectures that can

continue to provide full system functionality

and meet expected user requirements even

when some parts of the system are

impaired. It is possible to incorporate sensors,

algorithms and redundancies into the

system to detect and isolate faults and

errors, and reconfigure the good components

such that they can continue to execute

mission-critical functions, thereby providing

graceful degradation. Technology

exists today to build into systems an arbitrarily

high degree of fault-tolerance, giving

the user unprecedented levels of reliability

and availability. Mission needs and the criticality

of the mission (or the consequences

of a mission failure) govern the choice of

how dependable to make a system. Once

these high level considerations have defined

the required mission reliability, availability

and maintainability, the system architecture

can be designed to provide the required

level of dependability. However, one of the

keys to achieving these goals at a minimum

cost and in a timely manner is to incorporate

fault-tolerance attributes into the system

design at a very early stage. The introduction

of fault-tolerance later in the

design cycle can preclude many efficient

solutions and may even require major architectural


Information Assurance &

Survivable Systems


Cyber attacks have emerged as a major

new threat to mission success. Until very

recently, Department of Defense (DoD)

weapon systems and command and control

networks were “air-gapped,” i.e., totally

isolated into their own operational environment.

With the advent of the internet, this

is no longer the case. Global networks facilitate

fast and efficient movement of information,

whether it is intelligence, surveillance,

reconnaissance, or command and

control, to where it is needed. The networked

sensors, weapons, and Command,

Control, Communications, Computers,

Intelligence, Surveillance and

Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems can reduce

the sensor-to-shooter loops, and provide

many other benefits of network-centric

warfare. Unfortunately, they also open up

military systems to intentional, malicious

attacks in cyber space. As a result, DoD has

instituted new Information Assurance

requirements to guarantee data integrity,

confidentiality and availability, and to provide

for authentication and non-repudiation.

Information Assurance is a key component

of Mission Assurance. Just as unintentional

hardware and software malfunctions

can jeopardize a mission, so can intentional


The technology to deal with intrusions and

cyber attacks is just emerging. Some

progress has been made in detecting intrusions,

but detecting inventive attacks is still

a challenge and trying to increase detection

rates results in unacceptably large false positive

rates. Even when intrusion detection

systems mature and become better at

catching intruders, the attackers will continue

to invent newer mechanisms to break

into attractive targets. Furthermore, as

newer hardware and software components

and systems are installed, they introduce

novel vulnerabilities that can be exploited

by attackers. As mentioned before, perfection

is impossible. So, it is safe to assume

that vulnerabilities will continue to exist

even as old vulnerabilities are discovered

and patched up.

To get ahead of this “arms race,” the

Defense Advanced Research Projects

Agency (DARPA) initiated a suite of programs

in Information Assurance &

Survivability, including “Intrusion Tolerant

Systems,” later renamed “Organically

Assured & Survivable Information Systems.”

The objectives of the program included

development and demonstrations of architectures,

tools and techniques that will

enable information systems to continue to

perform their intended functions and meet

user needs even in the presence of attacks

and intrusions and compromised components.

Intrusion tolerance technologies can

provide information assurance and constitute

another technological tool to achieve

Mission Assurance.

Cognitive Systems


So far, we have discussed various impairments

to the system that can be overcome

to ensure mission success. Implicit in this

discussion is the notion of requirementsdriven

design. We expect the user to articulate

mission requirements, operational environment,

constraints and so on. We design

to meet those requirements, then test and

evaluate the system to verify the design and

to ensure that the system was built right.

The user also performs validation to ensure

not only that the system was built right but

also that the right system was built. But

what if the user did not anticipate the right

requirements or operational scenario or

environmental conditions? The designer can

absolve any responsibility if the system fails

to function correctly under such circumstances

— but that offers little satisfaction if

the mission is impaired.

Our leadership wants us to design and build

systems that can work even when they are

“outside the specs”*. One can see the

motivation for this desire. Just as it is

impossible to design perfect, fault-free

hardware and software, so it is with specifying

user needs, requirements and operational

environment. Rapid prototyping and

spiral development methodologies can be

used to gradually refine requirements and

system design, in the hope of homing-in on

real user needs. However, there is a limit to

how accurately one can forecast all possible

scenarios before a system is deployed. New

technologies are needed that will enable

the construction of systems that fully expect

to encounter unspecified and undefined

conditions and to work through those

conditions more gracefully than is currently

the norm. One promising set of enabling

technologies is in the arena of cognitive


A cognitive system is one that has explicit

representations of its goals and its structure;

it can reason using those representations,

including planning ahead and anticipating

likely events; it can explain itself and be told

what to do; and it can learn from its experience

so that it performs better tomorrow

than it did today. DARPA created the

Information Processing Technology Office in

2002 to focus on developing cognitive systems,

with a special emphasis on learning.

These forward-looking technologies may

make it possible to design and build systems

that recognize when they have

stepped into the unknown, explore and

examine their environment, take tentative

actions, deliberate and reflect on the results

of those actions, and reformulate a new

strategy if initial actions do not produce

desired results. This is what human beings

do. If we can impart cognition to systems,

maybe they can think their way out of

unforeseen situations.

Jaynarayan H. Lala


* Daniel L. Smith, President Integrated Defense Systems,

Quarterly Road Show, April 2005, and personal dialogue

with author.

CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

by Carnegie Mellon University.

Raytheon Six Sigma is a trademark of Raytheon Company.


Delivering Increased Readiness and Enabling Mission Success

Raytheon Mission Support Integrated Solution Sets

Market Drivers: Logistics


World geopolitical changes of the past

15 years indicate a new and emerging

threat of smaller regional conflicts and a

need for jointness and net-centricity.

Asymmetrical threats that occur without

warning and increased warfighting velocity

require U.S. and allied forces to transform

and become smaller and more mobile,

lethal, survivable and sustainable.

Force transformation provides an opportunity

to do things better, faster and less expensively

when it comes to systems, platforms

and products. It also provides the impetus

to make significant advances in our logistics

support to meet our customers’ needs to

enhance, upgrade and support their existing

products to maximize their capability

and readiness. Force transformation combined

with increased budget pressures dictates

a new approach to product support,

called logistics transformation.

Raytheon understands that our customers

require new, more comprehensive integrated

approaches to support and logistics —

which is why our dedication to Mission

Support and our modular integrated

solution sets begin with concept development

and refinement, and extend through

modernization and upgrade.

Mission Support:

Raytheon’s Response to

Logistics Transformation

Mission Support is Raytheon’s integrated

approach to helping our customers address

their logistics transformation challenges and

ensure mission success. It is applicable to all

Raytheon products and customers —

domestic and international, defense and

civil. Mission Support is an augmentation of

our traditional way of thinking about product

support; it comprises traditional products

support, third-party support for the

products and systems of other original

equipment manufacturers, and next-generation

logistics transformation support.


Raytheon has traditionally had tremendous

success as a technology company, but, until

recently, we hadn’t applied a systems

approach to the logistics and support side

of the business. We are doing that now

with Mission Support.

Today, Raytheon is building reliability,

maintainability and supportability into

products and systems up front, and then

using prognostics and information management

to accelerate and improve support

for the mission.

Predicting Needs, Sensing

Problems and Responding

With Solutions

As a Mission Systems Integrator, Raytheon

is uniquely positioned to partner with our

customers to predict their needs, sense

potential problems and respond with solutions

that provide our customers with the

right products, systems and capabilities

whenever and wherever they need them.

Raytheon is helping our customers move to

combined international logistics and mobility

by ensuring they know the location and

condition of all assets. This allows more

flexible use of assets and enables tailored

logistics support to meet mission objectives

in specific situations.

As a Mission Support provider, Raytheon is

present throughout the total lifecycle, delivering

operational readiness and helping our

customers achieve their missions. Raytheon

is taking a holistic, mission-focused

approach to support — using information

management to implement a common netenabled

architecture for planning, warfighting

and logistics. Because our expertise is in

designing, developing and integrating systems,

we’re not tied to specific platforms;

rather we are able to act as an “honest

broker” for our customers when developing

solutions to complex problems.

Integrating the Solution Sets

Raytheon leverages its strengths as an electronics

integrator and systems engineering

powerhouse to provide an optimum set of

integrated solutions for our customers’

critical logistics challenges.

Our solution sets are the elements we use

to implement Mission Support for our customers.

They are modular, interoperable

networked elements that allow Raytheon to

implement any combination of elements to

tailor solutions to a customer's needs without

reinventing the elements each time.

The solution sets enable efficient service

delivery across the multiple boundaries that

challenge our customers daily and often

cause sub-optimal performance. They manage

and process data into information,

making quick decisions possible throughout

the lifecycle, while enabling acquisition,

logistics and operational communities to

share information and ensure that the right

assets are in the right place, at the right

time, every time, for every customer.

Leveraging Former Successes

Raytheon is developing the elements so

they may be used individually or integrated

to maximize value. We are also creating a

reference architecture that enables us to

transport solutions from one program, customer

or system to another, thereby leveraging

former investments and successes to

develop new solutions.

Once an element has been developed and

implemented as a solution, Raytheon replicates

and proliferates the solution across

various systems while continuing to improve

it. The improvements made after initial

implementation are then fed back into the

original program and system and included

in all the programs to which we will apply

the solution in the future. It is a cycle that

benefits all involved by applying the most

advanced technology while preventing the

need to invest in developing a brand new


Solution sets enhance capability and readiness of forces in theater.

Using Spiral Development

and a Model-based


A “spiral maturity approach” allows us to

work with our customers and industry partners

to develop and implement our solution

sets. This enables us to mitigate development

costs while increasing service levels

for our customers as our solution sets

evolve, providing enhanced value as they

mature over time.

Raytheon’s integrated systems approach to

developing solutions applies an open

model-based architecture and enables the

quick integration of legacy systems, as well

as insertion of new technology. Our architecture

is flexible and scalable, allows the

use of any combination of solution sets and

often eliminates the costly need to redesign

for each new application. This flexibility

enables transformation at the customer’s

pace, whether incremental, evolutionary

or revolutionary.

Benefiting the Customer

and Generating Growth for


Logistics transformation is a growth area

for Raytheon, and we can enable our customers

to transform by infusing technology

and re-engineered business processes. We

are looking outside our market at the commercial

sector — where the market has

driven industries to be more competitive

(i.e., better, faster, cheaper) — and applying

the lessons they’ve learned. We are also

using existing technologies and integrating

and applying them in new ways, which

benefits our customers and increases our

speed to market.

Raytheon’s integrated solution sets address

the entire range of logistics and system

support requirements and are applicable

throughout the program lifecycle — from

acquisition to planning to operations. The

solution sets create an integrated, netenabled

environment for our customers

quickly, affordably and efficiently, to provide

actionable information to optimize readiness

for our customer.

Continued on page 10

Raytheon’s Integrated

Solution Sets

Raytheon increases readiness by

ensuring our customers have

products, systems and capabilities

whenever and wherever they

need them, using our integrated

solution sets:

Condition-Based Maintenance:

Real-time net-enabled sense and

respond diagnostics and prognostics

increase operational availability of

new and legacy systems

Integrated Information

Management: Net-enabled,

integrated “publish-and-subscribe”

operating environment

Integrated Supply Chain

Management: Rapid, repeatable,

predictable, reliable, measurable,

on-demand supply chain


Logistics Modeling and Simulation:

Optimization capability for data,

information and decision processing

Obsolescence Management:

Leveraging data to extend the life of

aging systems and proactively manage

obsolescence throughout the

entire life cycle

Total Asset Visibility: Enabling

real-time asset visibility from

manufacture to disposal

Training and Performance Support:

Enabling successful mission

outcomes through optimum

preparedness and sustained readiness


Enabling Mission Success

Continued from page 9

Integrated Information

Management Applied: WISDM

Raytheon has implemented a very successful

program to manage support for the

Standard Missile under the Weapon

Integrated System of Data Management

(WISDM) contract with the U.S. Navy’s

Integrated Warfare Systems. WISDM integrates

all of the customer’s legacy systems,

enabling sub-component-level tracking of

missiles and systems on ships.

The system tracks data from the manufacturing-as-built

to missile firings on the ship.

Covering the full spectrum enables the customer

to evaluate reliability in the field and

accurately predict what the total system

is doing.

WISDM enables Raytheon and the Navy to

determine, for example, which of 12 components

needs to be swapped out to

extend the life two years. This enables asneeded

maintenance instead of doing traditional

scheduled maintenance and sending

all 12 components to the depot whether

they need it or not.




Mission Support is a key part of Raytheon’s

strategy. The following terms are helpful in

understanding Raytheon’s approach to

enabling customer success through

Raytheon Mission Support and our integrated

solution set offering, which is being

developed by solution-set leaders across

the company.

Mission Assurance. Mission Assurance is

the promise we make to our customers

that our systems and services are the most

reliable in the world. Anything that has the

Raytheon name on it — product, capability,

technology, system, service — is going to


The WISDM solution — based on a system

Raytheon had previously implemented to

track Patriot assets for the U.S. Army on a

separate program — is an example of a single

application of the company’s

Information Integration Management solution

set. The WISDM approach is already

growing beyond the Standard Missile. The

customer has asked Raytheon to implement

a similar solution with other ship systems,

including the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile

and the Rolling Airframe Missile.

Performance-Based Logistics

Contracts Drive Efficiencies

Performance-based logistics (PBL) contracts

ensure that all aspects of an acquisition are

structured around the purpose of the

work to be performed — the customer’s

mission — rather than around how the

work is to be performed.

Raytheon understands what is required to

drive performance through all phases of the

customer’s mission. Raytheon’s experience

in developing and executing PBL contracts

(PBLs), are contracting — rather than technological

— solutions, and are a critical element

of our Mission Support offering.

work, and the customer can count on it

without a doubt.

Mission Systems Integrator. A Mission

Systems Integrator is what we are.

Raytheon leverages its domain knowledge

across core technologies to develop integrated

mission systems that address our

customers’ top priorities.

Mission Support. Mission Support is a

service we offer. Raytheon partners with

our customer to ensure they have product,

systems, and capability wherever and

whenever they need it, providing total lifecycle

support that predicts customer needs,

senses potential problems and responds

proactively with appropriate solutions to

enhance availability, enable customer readiness

and facilitate mission success.

Combined with our experience designing

and implementing PBLs, Raytheon’s Mission

Support integrated solution set offerings

deliver increased value to our customer by

measuring and improving performance on

key metrics such as operational availability,

operational reliability, cost per unit usage,

logistics response time, logistics footprint

and total lifecycle cost.

Delivering Transformational

Integrated Logistics Solutions

Our customers can rely on Raytheon to be

there throughout the total lifecycle, partnering

with them to develop integrated, netenabled

solutions designed to achieve mission

success. Through Mission Support and

our integrated solution sets, we can predict

customer needs, sense potential problems

and proactively respond with solutions.

For more information about Raytheon

Mission Support and the integrated solution

sets, visit


John Gatti

RTSC Vice President of Engineering,

Technology and Program Performance

Integrated Solution Sets. Our integrated

solution sets are the elements or tools we

use to implement Mission Support for our

customers. The methodology with which

we develop, apply and integrate our solution

sets maximizes value to our customers

while solving their most-pressing problems.

Mission Support is about partnering with

our customer to ensure they have product,

systems, and capability they need. When

you think Mission Support, think about

availability — Raytheon will be there for

the customer whenever and wherever they

need us.

Sue Baumgarten

Corporate Vice President and

RTSC Deputy General Manager

Future Opportunities for Raytheon in

Unmanned Airborne Systems

Future opportunities for Raytheon in

unmanned airborne system (UAS) technologies

are very promising based on our current

work on existing UAS technology and

upcoming efforts to provide interoperability

between manned and unmanned systems.

While a large portion of our work is in

airborne Intelligence, Surveillance and

Reconnaissance (ISR), we also have tremendous

promise in the development of solutions

for unmanned strike platforms.

Raytheon is a world leader in the development,

production and support of advanced

sensors and integrated solutions for both

manned and unmanned aircraft. Our customers

include the military services and

industry partners such as Northrop

Grumman and Boeing. Industry and the

military rely on Raytheon to provide the

capability for their UAS technologies to

provide the best sensor data. Therefore,

our products and capabilities must help

ensure mission success for our customers.

First, in the field of high-altitude, longendurance

(HALE) systems, Raytheon is

responsible for a critical portion of the

Global Hawk system. This year, Raytheon

Integrated Airborne Systems (IAS) delivered

the first production configuration

Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS), which combines

electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) capability

with a radar. In the future, Raytheon will

provide the enhanced ISS (EISS) for the

B-model Global Hawk, offering twice as

much capability as the current system.

Raytheon also has recently supported the

Navy’s Trident Warrior exercise with a

Global Hawk stationed on the West Coast.

The success of Trident Warrior will further

our Global Hawk Maritime Demonstration

(GHMD) efforts.

Apart from EISS, Raytheon is also developing

the Multi-platform Radar Technology

Insertion Program (MP-RTIP) radar for

Global Hawk with our industry partner,

Northrop Grumman. The MP-RTIP is a scalable

radar system that the Air Force will also

use for its E-10A Multi-mission Command

and Control Aircraft. The Global Hawk array

will be shorter than the E-10A array. Other

HALE opportunities in which we pursue

work include the Navy’s Broad Area Maritime

Surveillance (BAMS) requirement. A future

BAMS solution will help the Navy utilize a

persistent maritime surveillance capability

for the fleet — an opportunity for Raytheon

to help the Navy accomplish its mission.

Raytheon is also a key contributor to the

field of medium-altitude, long-endurance

(MALE) systems. Raytheon’s Precision Attack

& Surveillance Systems group in McKinney,

Texas, produces the Multi-spectral Tracking

System (MTS) series sensor pods for the

Predator UAS developed by General Atomics.

The MTS is a pod that combines EO/IR

capability into a single system. Usually, MTS

pods are mounted on the lower half of the

Predator’s nose. These systems are in high

demand and play a vital role in the global

war on terror. The Predator/MTS combination

can be used to help warfighters identify

and target enemy forces.

One of the most promising future developments

for Raytheon is in the area of

unmanned combat airborne systems. The

joint Air Force-Navy Joint Unmanned

Combat Air System (J-UCAS) is designed for

the mission of suppression and destruction

of enemy air defenses. In 2005, Raytheon

was chosen by both Boeing and Northrop

Grumman to provide the electronic support

measures (ESM) and radar sensor systems

for their respective J-UCAS solutions.

The Northrop Grumman J-UCAS decision

in particular was a major breakthrough

for Raytheon. Northrop’s incorporating

Raytheon’s air combat radar into their system

of systems is an example of Raytheon’s

increasing technological leadership on

our way to becoming a provider of total

solutions ourselves.

One of the key missions of the IAS organization

is to develop architectures where

manned and unmanned systems can operate

together in the same environment.

Warfighters now rely on data from both

manned and unmanned systems. Without

this data, they would have difficulty accomplishing

their mission. The military’s increasing

reliance on HALE and MALE systems in

no way diminishes the importance of

manned systems on the battlefield.

IAS systems for manned aircraft include the

ASARS-2A radar for the U-2 program and

the Airborne Stand-Off Radar (ASTOR) for

the British Ministry of Defence. Since the

sensors for manned and unmanned systems

share many features, we aim to create solutions

that exploit the capabilities of both

the manned and unmanned platforms. IAS

also is developing solutions for the E-10A

aircraft separate from MP-RTIP as part of

the weapon systems integrator (WSI) team.

Raytheon is well-positioned to take a leadership

role in the development, production

and delivery of UAS systems. This includes

both sensor and mission systems integration

work, which will allow the company to

implement common solutions across both

manned and unmanned systems. We are

working to provide Mission Assurance with

systems and solutions that work the first

time, every time.

Tom Kennedy

Vice President, Integrated Airborne Systems


Hawker 4000 Mission Assurance:

Integrating Reliability, Maintainability,

System Safety and Supportability (RMSS)

into the Concurrent Engineering Process

Underlying Business Trends

In General Aviation

Global competition within general aviation

is dictating that reducing the operating cost

of our products is paramount to our success.

It is no longer acceptable for a design

to only achieve its aerodynamic performance

requirements; the design must also be

operational and supportable at a competitive

cost. Market movement is toward

guaranteed maintenance plans (GMP) with

significant penalties for non-performance

becoming essential to aircraft sales.

HAWKER 4000 Initiative To

Meet New Business Trends

Objective: To develop the capability within

the Hawker 4000 design team to introduce

and sustain a fully operational and supportable

airplane that meets customer objectives,

including aerodynamic performance,

reliability, maintainability, system safety and

supportability at a competitive cost.

Result: A Customer-Driven


Aircraft owners today are looking for an

effective business tool as opposed to just

an executive conveyance. Many fly at utilization

rates approaching that of airlines.

On the Hawker 4000, the focus is on reliability,

maintainability, system safety, and

supportability (RMSS) design attributes that

provide a safe, reliable, and supportable

design in this competitive marketplace. Our

focus on quality RMSS technical performance

is integrated into every phase of the

design process. RMSS representation on all

design integrated product teams (IPTs) has

influenced the design to meet technical


performance requirements (market needs)

while being optimized for supportability

and reliability.

Customer satisfaction has been maximized

and partnerships achieved by incorporating

customer feedback acquired from the

Hawker 4000 Maintenance Advisory Team

(MAT). The MAT was assembled to provide

field experience input into the early design


RMSS Attributes

Key RMSS design goals and attributes associated

with the Hawker 4000 include the


Outstanding dispatch reliability

Operational availability of missionessential


Low maintenance man-hours/flight hour

Minimum time to repair. The Hawker

4000 incorporates many features that

focus on maintenance, readiness, and

Mission Assurance (getting the job done

on schedule). Some examples include:

– The Hawker 4000 will be certified for

both on-condition and fixed-interval

maintenance. By eliminating unnecessary

inspections, we optimize readiness

rates, minimize life cycle cost

(LCC), and sustain the appropriate levels

of inherent reliability and safety of

the equipment. The minimum routine

inspection interval for the Hawker

4000 is 600 flight hours.

– Line-replaceable units (LRUs) and linereplaceable

modules (LRMs) provide

for easy access, removal and replacement

and minimize both inventory

and maintenance downtime. Easy

accessibility is particularly important

for mission critical items, 98 percent

of which meet the requirement of

“one deep.”

– The Hawker 4000 uses electronic diagnostic

technology that provides a

built-in test (BIT) capability that detects

99 percent of mission-affecting failures

and fault isolates 98.5 percent of

those failures to a single LRU/LRM

with no removals required for diagnostic

purposes. This technology minimizes

maintenance downtime and

repeated “No Fault Found” cycles to

reduce the maintenance man-hours/

flight hour (MMH/FH).

– The Central Maintenance Computer

(CMC) provides technicians with a single

interface to most aircraft systems.

The CMC is accessed through a cockpit

multi-function display (MFD) or

alternatively through an external laptop

PC. BIT-detected failures are displayed

in “plain English” and aircraft

maintenance manual procedures

linked via CD-ROM can be viewed. A

full electronic maintenance library is

available on CD-ROM. The CMC also

provides the interface to an electronic

display for control system rigging.

– The Hawker 4000 avionics equipment

is easily accessed and located inside

the pressure vessel (a controlled environment)

allowing for improved reliability,

reduced maintenance downtime

and improved readiness.


aerodynamic performance, reliability,

maintainability, system safety

and supportability

– The landing gear system is free of

scheduled overhaul. Carbon brakes

allow for longer life (1200 landings).

These two features also minimize

maintenance downtime and improve


– The Hawker 4000 radome is hinged

and slides out from the front to

provide easy access to the weather

radar, batteries and power distribution


– Lead acid batteries were chosen

because they are less expensive than

NICAD batteries, are maintenance free,

have decreased scheduled maintenance

requirements and are disposable

at failure or life limit.

– The reliability achieved by airline manufacturers

utilizing Cryofit® hydraulic

connectors has been outstanding.

With that knowledge in mind, we

incorporated the use of Cryofits into

the Hawker 4000, thereby reducing

the probability of failure and further

minimizing maintenance downtime.

– The cockpit windshield is constructed

of an improved reliability glass and is

installed with a dry seal. Redundant

heating elements are exterior to the

windshield. These features also promote

reduced maintenance downtime

and increased readiness.

– The air conditioning system uses two

cooling packs for further built-in

redundancy and maximized readiness.

Successful Integration

Raytheon Aircraft’s Hawker 4000 is a reflection

on the global competition and the dramatic

change brought about by fractional

ownership. It is an expression of state-ofthe

art design achieved by paradigm

shifts — from the aircraft solution to the

total enterprise solution, from capital cost

focus to life-cycle cost focus. Thus, the

Hawker 4000 is a high-utilization business

jet offering airline-type dispatch reliability.

The structured RMSS/ILS IPT approach has

achieved its technical and economic goals

by controlling RMSS features of the design.

The recent purchase ($1B) by NetJets® Inc.

of 50 Hawker 4000 airplanes is testimony

to the success of the Hawker 4000 RMSS

IPT design approach and commitment to

RMSS excellence. Visibility of key market

discriminators such as a predicted dispatch

reliability, operational availability and projected

maintenance operating cost played a

key role in their decision to purchase the

Hawker 4000.

Larry Locke

NetJets Inc. is a Berkshire Hathaway company.



for Mission Assurance

in Next-Generation Systems

As performance requirements continue to

push state-of-the-art sensors and electronics

packages into smaller, lighter, more capable

systems and cost requirements drive us to

reevaluate our traditional approaches and

manufacturing processes, the ability to control

materials at smaller scales — even at a

molecular scale — becomes critical. In fact,

achieving 100 percent customer success —

every time — in this environment of

increasingly demanding requirements will

necessitate mastery of the small. We must

be able to manipulate product performance

down to the micro- and nano-scales.

The scale down to 10–9 meters is interesting

because this is both the characteristic

length of these new structures and the size

where nature realizes the fundamental

properties of materials. For example,

crystalline defects are typically 0.1–100nm

and grain boundaries in metals are approximately

10–100nm. By controlling morphology

at the nanometer scale, we can begin

to affect the fundamental properties of

materials in ways never before available.

Additionally, the high surface area of these

materials creates unique opportunities for

applications like detector systems.

The last decade and a half has seen remarkable

developments as our understanding of

nanotechnology comes into focus. Industrywide,

research and development in this area

has grown by 30 percent annually. For our

part, Raytheon began two major efforts

early. Starting in 1984, Raytheon’s

Advanced Products Center in Dallas, Texas,

used nanotechnology to demonstrate resonant

tunneling and

quantum well devices that greatly improve

bandwidth, speed and power utilization in

microelectronics. Starting in 1991,

Raytheon’s Advanced Materials Laboratory

in Andover, Mass., used nanotechnology to

develop and produce several of the world’s

leading ceramic materials.


Raytheon’s role as a founding member of

the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnology

(ISN) in 2003 set the stage for our largescale

involvement in nanotechnology and

galvanized Raytheon’s commitment to bring

nanotechnology from science to systems.

ISN’s mission is to transform today’s cotton/nylon

fatigues and bulky equipment

belts to a sleek, lightweight battlesuit that

provides everything from responsive armor

to medical monitoring to communications

— in one integrated system. Raytheon provides

the ISN with expertise on detectors

and sensors and on the integration of

diverse technologies into practical working

systems to protect the soldier.

Nanoscience advancements in the past

decade-and-a-half now make it practical to

consider near-term product applications.

Raytheon is applying nanotechnology in

three focus areas:

Nanoelectronics for increasing circuit

density, faster response time, higher reliability

of devices and lower losses. Current

activities are developing detectors and

sources for terahertz (1,000 GHz) applications.

Quantum dots for use in novel

electro-optic (EO)/laser applications.

Development activities are creating technologies

for cost-effective conformal

infrared detectors and faster recovery

time lasers.

Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers

for increasing strength, stiffness, and

impact resistance in structures; for

improving the thermal response of thermal

interfaces; for improving interconnect

performance; and, for their unique

electrical properties in radio frequency

applications. Development activities are

characterizing materials, developing manufacturing

tools and capabilities and

proving material property improvements

in each of these areas.

Integrated Nanoelectronics

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

Implementing nanotechology requires not

only a fundamental understanding of the

behavior of materials at this scale, but also

a mastery of the tools for assembling,

testing and characterizing these materials.

Understanding the statistical variability of

raw materials, component manufacturing

process capability and environmentally

induced changes on system-level performance

are each essential. Doing this so that

we leave “no doubt” for the users of our

products, Raytheon uses all of the tools and

processes developed during its long history

of innovation: IPDS, Raytheon Six Sigma,

statistical design and performance modeling

at all levels from component to system-ofsystems.

We have formed a cross-company

team to leverage the best ideas and

resources from our Space and Airborne

Systems, Missile Systems, Integrated

Defense Systems and Network Centric

Systems businesses. We are engaging our

suppliers with increased levels of partnership

and collaboration.

In the long-term future, the application

areas affected by nanotechnology are

almost endless. The Foresight Institute, a

leading organization shaping the

thoughts and developments in nanotechnology,

makes the following statement:

“Nanotechnology is shaping up to be

the next industrial revolution. Not since

the 19th century has a wave of technology

cut across so many aspects of how

we work and live. The challenge for

today is how to shape the development

of nanotechnology so its best potential

can be realized.”

Raytheon’s vision for systems based on

integrated nanotechnology means costeffective,

higher performance, multifunctional

systems for our next generation

of products.

Interestingly, as we master the small, the

users of Raytheon’s systems may never

realize just how much thought, expertise

and control go into those products. Since

the smallest thing that can been seen by

the human eye is still 10,000 times larger

than the nano design scale (for a point

of comparison, imagine light poles vs.

sewing needles), the expertise that

enables our next generation products

will not be obvious — except in the performance

it enables.

Raytheon’s commitment to bring nanotechnology

from science to practical

systems is helping the early adopters and

advancing our capability. In doing this,

Raytheon is helping to ensure the mission

success of our warfighters in spite

of the complexities and severe demands

in the next-generation battlefield.

Michael Liggett

Raytheon Six Sigma is a trademark of Raytheon Company.


Dr. Peter Pao



The Meaning of

Mission Assurance

Mission Assurance has been the chief focus

of Raytheon for the past two years. It

means different things to different people,

but to me, it can be defined in two words:

“no doubt.” Our warfighters must have

absolute confidence that we will always be

on time and our equipment will always

work. In other words, our warfighters need

to know they can trust us. Mission

Assurance is our way to earn that trust.

I’ve learned much about the meaning of

Mission Assurance through a series of personal

experiences. In the winter of 1989 at

Misawa Air Force Base in Japan, I was with

a young electronic maintenance crew led by

an equally young sergeant. They worked

extremely hard, they worked very long

hours, and they worked in bitterly cold

weather. Someone handed the young sergeant

a note informing him of the death of

his father in Hawaii. He was barely able to

control his tears, but before he dashed to

the airport, he talked to his people one at a

time, giving them assignments. This experience

taught me that our warfighters are

deeply dedicated, so therefore we can be

no less.

Shortly afterward on the same trip, I visited

two Air Force bases in Alaska. The temperature

was about minus-40 degrees and

daylight was scant. Despite the difficult

operating environment, our soldiers were

extremely dedicated to their jobs. Ever

resourceful, they found innovative ways to

maintain the equipment that we supplied.

That’s why when one of the sergeants

showed me the long row of broken radar

transmitters waiting for repair, I felt

ashamed. I learned first hand that we needed

to do our job differently.

Two years later, while at Air University in

Montgomery, Ala., to give a lecture on software,

I watched a telecast of our F-15s

heading into combat in the initial air strike

of the first Gulf War. At the time we all

feared many pilots would not return. I

found myself praying, “Let our radar work,”

since a failure would have resulted in our

pilots facing anti-aircraft fire to find the target

again. It was a reminder that Raytheon’s

work is very serious. It means life or death

to our pilots.

In 1994, the Air Force awarded us a contract

to upgrade the APG-63(v1) program.

The requirements were simple: system reliability

and availability. When you stop to

think of it, this is the true essence of

Mission Assurance: “When I need it, it will

be there … and it will work.” As it turned

out, we beat all program requirements. The

specification was to improve reliability 10

times, yet by applying the principles of

Raytheon Six Sigma, we managed 14.

But the most important lesson I learned

was that leaders “walk the talk” and lead

the team at all times, demanding no

doubt without exception. To me, that is

Mission Assurance.

Raytheon Six Sigma is a trademark of Raytheon Company.


Raytheon’s Optical Phased Array Technology Enhances Mission Assurance


A new generation of Raytheon technologies

is empowering the extension of

communications into the vastly increased

bandwidth domain of the optical spectrum.

Reliable communications is key to accomplishing

most Department of Defense

(DoD) missions. Raytheon has long been a

leading provider of state-of-the-art radio

frequency (RF) and microwave communication

systems for the DoD, ranging from

miniature tactical radios to large strategic

satellite systems. These communications

systems provide the warfighter with a situational

awareness that greatly enhances

Mission Assurance. At Raytheon, we are

leveraging our technology base and

Raytheon’s Mission Assurance focus to help

the DoD implement ultra-high bandwidth

optical communications systems.

The U.S. government recently set forth a

far-reaching vision for an “internet in the

sky,” a mesh network of ad-hoc laser communication

(lasercom) links to bring ultrahigh

bandwidth to warfighters anywhere

on the globe. As part of this Transformational

Communications Architecture (TCA), a new

constellation of geosynchronous satellites

was envisioned, interconnected via high

bandwidth optical links between the satellites

and an Airborne Network Layer of

high-flying assets. This network is illustrated

in the figure on page 17, and a brief

overview was presented in technology

today 2005 issue 2.

The figure illustrates only the simplest network

involving satellite and airborne nodes.

Growing bandwidth demand will require

an evolution to a mesh network including

air-to-air links among the aircraft, as well

as additional links to lower-level assets. The

mesh network provides more efficient use

of resources, much higher reliability, and

lends itself to all-optical operations. Mesh

networks are adaptable to multiple classes

of service, and the mesh connectivity provides

redundancy and a higher probability

that data will reach its destination, even

with degraded inter-node connections.

When a node is lost, or the path to it is

degraded, the link can be reestablished by

rerouting around that node. Such optical

path diversity is important because of

potential atmospheric impairments on


free-space optical spans. Aboard high-altitude

unmanned aerial vehicles and satellites,

multi-node lasercom will enable ad

hoc networking among users and enhance

future military communications. Such a mesh

network, however, must support multiple

links at each node, a requirement that is

difficult to meet with conventional

mechanically based lasercom terminals.

Although the government needs simultaneous

connectivity to multiple assets and

desires multiple links per node, there was

no a priori technical solution that fit the

constraints of conventional laser beam control

and practical size, weight, and power

(SWaP) concerns. With conventional optomechanical

systems based on telescopic

beam directors, a separate beam control

system is required at each end of a link,

and the requirement of multiple simultaneous

links for each air and space node

results in unacceptable SWaP levels.

Raytheon worked with the customer at the

TCA-planning level and showed how lightweight

optical phased array (OPA) technology

has the potential to enable multiple

simultaneous high-bandwidth links between

each satellite and the network of aircraft,

and among the air-based network nodes,

without exceeding practical SWaP limits.

This resulted in a new spiral development

program to prepare Raytheon’s OPA-based

lasercom technology for TCA. We are

presently working towards an effective solution

to a greatly enhanced customer vision.

This vignette and the ensuing developmental

efforts offer a good illustration of the

four pillars of Mission Assurance in action:

Mission Enhancement, Mission Definition,

Mission Support and Mission Execution.

Mission Enhancement for TCA was

achieved through applying Raytheon OPA

technology to a new business area. (technology

today 2005 issue 2 briefly describes

what OPAs are and how they work.)

Whereas conventional beam control technologies

using gimbaled telescopes would

allow the simultaneous formation of a few

high-bandwidth lasercom links within a single

theatre, the new OPA-based architecture

allows the simultaneous formation of

many high-bandwidth links over the entire

globe, and even extending to low earth

orbit constellations, thereby providing a path

to realizing a greatly enhanced mission

vision. The figure compares schematically

the theatre-sized area for which multiple

simultaneous links would be possible with

prior technologies and the full global capability

possible with the Raytheon approach.

The OPA technology allows multiple simultaneous

links to multiple theatres, as well as

multiple simultaneous links between theatres.

Mission Definition phases are now

underway. Raytheon personnel have been

collaborating with government counterparts

to establish how the new enhanced

mission should best be accomplished. The

flexibility of OPA-based satellite terminals

not only enables the desired multiple simultaneous

links per node, but also offers mission

options unforeseen in the original

TCA. Raytheon’s terminal architecture is

modular and reconfigurable. Our approach

uses OPAs as building blocks to adaptively

configure an array of redundant transmit

and receive apertures for each node. The

multiplicity of transmit and receive apertures

not only supports the requirement for

multiple simultaneous links, but also allows

programmable bandwidth allocation for

each link. These new mission options must

be folded into broadened concepts of

operations (CONOPS) for TCA, which, in

turn, involves continuing interaction with

established customer working groups.

Raytheon’s OPA-based design features precision

steering with full beam agility without

any moving parts and minimal SWaP.

Owing to their high performance and small

SWaP, OPAs are well suited for applications

requiring multiple independent apertures.

In addition to the advantages of affordability,

low weight, high reliability with no moving

parts and completely independent

steering of multiple beams, OPAs also provide

an unprecedented degree of flexible

link dynamics. The ability of OPAs to combine,

fan out and independently steer

arrays of beams enables a multi-access,

bandwidth-on-demand capability. The programmable

nature of the new terminals

offers the potential of a changing number

of asymmetric links according to the actual

bandwidth needs of the users, rather than

Information dominance through optical phased arrays

a fixed number of symmetric links of fixed

bandwidth. For the highest-bandwidth

users, the multiple apertures of a node can

be coherently combined to affect the larger

power-aperture product required to close a

link at the higher bandwidth. For lowerbandwidth

links, the multiple apertures can

be programmed to support multiple independent

links, and each such link can be

time and spatially multiplexed to support

an even higher number of independent

lower-bandwidth users. This adaptability is

made possible by the agility of electronically

steered OPA terminals, and will allow a

large number of low-bandwidth users to

be serviced by satellite assets that would

otherwise have allowed only a single highbandwidth


Mission Support aspects of Mission

Assurance have already begun to be

addressed under the current spiral development

technology maturation efforts. OPAs

inherently offer the potential for significant

improvements of system reliability. In the

Raytheon space-borne terminals, conventional

gimbals are replaced by OPAs which

have no moving parts and higher reliability.

OPAs also offer additional potential for

improved system maintainability, resulting

from the computer programmable nature

of the devices. As an example, an OPAbased

optical aperture can be reprogrammed

or recalibrated mid-mission as

the need arises. This flexibility is a powerful

maintainability option for space-borne systems

for which normal maintenance activities

are simply not possible. Furthermore,

the very nature of a distributed system of

multiple apertures can also be advantageously

used to implement programmable

spares and aperture reuse when components


It is our job to make sure that this remarkable

potential for improved reliability and

maintainability can be both attained and

supported over the operating lifetime of

the lasercom system. To this end, all components,

including the OPAs and the entire

system, must be properly engineered for

the mission and its special environment in

order to ensure the requisite high reliability

standards of a space-borne system. The

first step is to build in reliability and maintainability

right from the system-concept

and research and development phases, as

is currently being done; but, we must also

continue to work with the customer to

ensure that these efforts can be rigorously

continued throughout all of the ensuing

engineering, development and implementation


Future versions of Raytheon’s OPA technology

will enable multi-function electro-optic

(EO) systems, providing a single conformal

aperture to support not only lasercom, but

also laser radar, countermeasures, identification

and laser weapons. Such multi-functionality

has not previously been possible

for EO systems. In addition to enhancing

performance, it will, just as importantly,

promote higher levels of weapons system

integration and a correspondingly higher

level of Mission Assurance. As an example,

high-resolution battlefield assessment will

become immediately available to both the

warfighter and the entire chain of command

through the tight integration of a

combination of on-board high-resolution

sensors and high-bandwidth lasercom,

both enabled by common-aperture OPA

beam control.

Both the lasercom architecture described

here and even newer multi-function systems

are still in their infancy. Although significant

development work remains to be

done before operational systems can be

fielded, it is not too early to embrace the

fourth aspect of Mission Assurance:

Mission Execution. Simply put, we,

Raytheon, must plan and execute our

development efforts so that we can guarantee

that the new lasercom systems will

work as intended and meet or exceed all

customer requirements.

Raytheon’s new OPA technology is indeed

raising the bar. It is leveraging the emergence

of new capabilities and, in the

process, it offers the opportunity to set

new standards for Mission Assurance.

Dr. Terry A. Dorschner

Dr. Michael Holz


Meeting the Challenges of RoHS

The worldwide movement towards reduction of hazardous substances

As the Cheshire cat explained in Alice in

Wonderland, maintaining your position

requires continuous exertion. Nowhere is

this advice more pertinent than with

Raytheon’s need to maintain its high level

of Mission Assurance despite the challenges

posed by the worldwide movement

toward the reduction of hazardous

substances (RoHS).

European RoHS legislation, together with

other regulations and market forces, are

leading a revolution in the materials used to

manufacture all electronics. Because the

suppliers of the electronic components and

assemblies that Raytheon purchases also

serve the wider electronics industry, they

will respond to the needs of the majority of

their customers. As it happens, military

electronics represents a very small fraction

of the entire electronics market. This presents

a special challenge for Raytheon.














Figure 1. Military electronics represents a

tiny fraction of the overall electronics market.

Raytheon’s electronic assemblies are often

called upon to perform in harsh environments

for extended periods of time — and

with unquestioned reliability. This is in contrast

to the vast majority of electronic products

which are subject to fairly benign environments

for much shorter periods of time,

and where the consequences of failure are

often trivial. (For example, today’s cell

phone has an average life expectancy of

18 months.) Therefore, the new materials

and processes that are being implemented

by the larger electronics industry may or

may not be suitable for Raytheon usage.


Transition to Lead-Free


Chief among these changes, in terms of

impact on our industry, is the elimination of

lead (Pb), one of the principal constituents

of solder. The worldwide transition to leadfree

solder is having a major impact on all

electronics manufacturers. It’s affecting not

only the solder compositions, but also the

construction of electronic components and

printed circuit boards, and the modification

of all the processes associated with their

manufacture and assembly. Even though

there is no current mandate for Raytheon

to implement lead-free manufacturing in

the vast majority of our products, changes

are already being made. In fact, many of

the components Raytheon purchases are

suitable for lead-free assembly.

Over the long-term, it’s likely that Raytheon

will need to use an increasing number of

fully lead-free assemblies. It might start

when we purchase commercial off-the-shelf

products that, starting in July 2006, must

be RoHS-compliant to be sold commercially

in Europe — a trend which may accelerate.

Finally, if lead-free manufacturing becomes

the de facto standard of the electronics

industry, it may become impractical to cling

to the legacy tin-lead processes.

A similar situation exists with many of the

other materials affected by RoHS, including

hexavalent chromium (which Raytheon uses

extensively for corrosion prevention on aluminum),

cadmium, mercury and certain

brominated flame retardants. Each of these

materials will post their own unique set of

challenges, and the transition will need

careful management if Mission Assurance is

to be maintained.

Raytheon Takes Proactive


Fortunately, Raytheon did not wait for

these issues to arrive at our doorstep before

acting; instead we began to exert ourselves

several years ago in anticipation of these


The first challenge to maintaining unquestioned

reliability that arose was the issue of

tin whiskers, a phenomenon that has

caused failures in electronics since the

1940s (Figure 2). The time-honored solution

to the problem involves alloying tin plating

with lead. Many of our commercial component

suppliers have begun to eliminate the

use of lead in their tin platings for compliance

with RoHS requirements.

Figure 2. A tin whisker bridges the layers of an internal via within a bus bar assembly.

Unfortunately, this has led to the revival of

the risk posed by tin whiskers. Recognizing

the situation, the commercial industry has

been working to develop a new set of standards.

However, commercial suppliers are

unwilling to assume any liability for safetycritical

with military products that incorporate

tin. The draft standard therefore simply

indicates that the use of tin is not suitable

for such applications. A large number of

component suppliers that elected to use

pure tin have therefore effectively abandoned

our industry.

What was required was a parallel response

tailored to the needs of our industry.

Raytheon has assumed a leading role on

the issue, forming an industry-wide working

group in 2003. The group, which

includes our government customers, has

served as a focal point for discussions. From

these discussions a variety of notices and

significant results pertaining to tin whisker

risks and their mitigation has been published.

To wit, Raytheon pioneered standardized

procedures for risk assessment

and mitigation implementation, which have

since been adopted into new aerospace

industry standards. Raytheon also partnered

with the U.S. Navy and the University of

Maryland CALCE Center in proposing and

executing a program funded by the Office

of Naval Research to qualify a robotic

process that can replace tin plating with

tin-lead. Because of Raytheon’s numerous

timely efforts, high levels of Mission

Assurance are being maintained in spite

of the disruption created by the introduction

of tin.

Joining Forces to Maintain

Mission Assurance

The next challenge that we are grappling

with is the use of lead-free array attach

components such as ball grid arrays (BGAs)

and chip scale packages (CSPs) when used

in combination with a tin-lead solder

process. Raytheon is working with the Joint

Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP), an

industry-wide consortium, on issues relating

to the use of lead-free solder and compo-

nents. In addition, Raytheon is performing

independent process development and reliability

studies (see Figure 3). Although the

results of the studies are not yet known,

one thing is clear: Raytheon is proactively

taking steps to ensure that Mission

Assurance is maintained when

confronted with these new lead-free

package styles.

Raytheon is also preparing for the

inevitability of fielding fully lead-free assemblies

in the future. To better leverage our

efforts, the company is partnering with a

number of consortia and working groups

within the industry. We are actively participating

with the Lead-free Electronics in

Aerospace Project-Working Group (LEAP-

WG), the Massachusetts Toxic Use

Reduction Initiative (TURI) Lead-Free Project,

the University of Maryland CALCE consortium

and the JG-PP. We are also engaged in

internal research targeted at our specific

needs and internal processes. Our goal in

these efforts, as always, is to ensure that

reliability and mission success will not be

compromised despite the disruptions.

Although the technical challenges are significant,

preserving Mission Assurance in

the face of these RoHS-driven disruptions

involves much more than pure technical

challenges. New and modified procedures

must be adopted by many functions,

including Operations, Supply Chain

Management, Environmental Health and

Safety, Subcontracts and Legal. Understanding

the need for widespread internal cooperation,

Raytheon has assembled a high-level

cross-functional team to coordinate activities

in this area. The team will ensure that

all of our processes function together

smoothly within the new environment.

Raytheon’s response to the challenges

posed by RoHS is proactive, cross-functional,

integrated internally across our businesses

and coordinated with our customers and

partners. We believe that all of this exertion

will allow the company to continue providing

unquestioned reliability in the face of

external challenges.

Dave Pinsky

Figure 3. A cross-section of a lead-free solder ball that has been attached using tin-lead

solder is revealed.





Fort Wayne


Key Net-centric


Today’s modern battlespace is highlycomplex

and requires a network-centric

capability. The amount of complex data

available to the modern warfighter is so

prolific that it can be overwhelming.

Therefore, effective automated information

management is vital to success in this new

warfare environment. New methods for

dealing with large amounts of data need to

be developed so that the warfighter has the

information they need — when they need

it. Tools to help the warfighter assimilate

that data and make accurate, timely decisions

are also a necessity.

Raytheon Fort Wayne, Ind., has identified

several key technologies that support the

The Fort Wayne Capabilities Demonstration Team

integration of both legacy and next-generation

systems into the future battlespace.

These include ontologies, intelligent

agents, information and data fusion,

automated decision-making, interactive

planning, adversarial planning and

cognitive radios.

Our work with ontologies and intelligent

agents began with the Common Relevant

Operational Picture (CROP) research and

development project. This effort laid the

foundation for applying agent technology

to determine situational relevance and provide

the warfighter with enhanced decisionmaking

capabilities. A key driver of this

project was to define an ontology, or standard

vocabulary, that represented the

Command and Control problem space for

the notional “Battle of Ault Park”. The

ontology consisted of the domain objects

and their relationships and was developed

using the DARPA Agent Markup Language

with the Ontology Inference Layer

(DAML+OIL). The purpose of the ontology

was to provide a machine-readable standard

vocabulary that was used to build a knowledge

base representing the specifics of the

Ault Park scenario. Software agents used

the knowledge base to make decisions

about the data in the problem domain.

These decisions went beyond static filtering;

they added a cognitive aspect by providing

a mechanism to add contextual reasoning

and the potential to learn from past experience

or prior knowledge. The CROP effort

gave Raytheon Fort Wayne hands-on experience

working with ontologies and intelligent

agents. Plans are ongoing to evolve

CROP to enhance our understanding and

identify specific applications within our

production systems.

The second evolution of ontology work

resulted in a study of automated policy.

This project is funded by the Raytheon IDEA

program. The Automated Policy project is

evaluating the feasibility and flexibility of

automated policy by prototyping a notional

system that uses an ontology to describe

the policies’ rules and relationships, a fact

base that describes the current situation of

the domain, and an inference engine that

reasons on both the ontology and the fact

base to derive the proper course of action.

A policy-enabled capability can benefit a

system that is complex (e.g., one that

requires great expertise in a subject matter)

and/or dynamic. It does this by separating

the policies from the software. This separation

allows for not only a more dynamic

environment, but also keeps the policies

closer to the policy makers. Some examples

of military policy include Commander’s

Guidance, Rules of Engagement and

Course of Action. Military commanders use

policy to allow or restrict missions, pair

weapons with targets, allocate airspace,

and request coordination, among others

uses. Other examples of policy include

security management, spectrum management

and policies governing role-based

access to information. The Automated

Policy project supports Raytheon Fort

Wayne in determining how this knowledge

can be applied within our production



The Information Fusion Engine (IFE) is an

integrated data fusion prototype system —

performing Level 1, 2 and portions of Level

3 fusion. It also provides automated support

of Level 4 fusion (response management).

Using advanced software algorithms and

artificial intelligence processing techniques

to fuse traditional and intelligence sensor

data, the IFE system provides data fusion

capability for multiple applications, including

intelligence analysis workstations and

ground station/airborne applications.

Multiple source information (sensor

processed) from different sensor types (both

organic and non-organic) is fused together

to provide tracking, ID determination and

situation assessment through fusion levels

2/3. An extensive mission-specific database

and knowledge base is an integral part of

the IFE system. The system includes an

embedded inference engine and an

extremely efficient pattern matcher. A

sophisticated C3 environmental simulator,

developed using object-oriented programming

techniques, was used to support the

development and testing of the fusion concepts.

Key fusion algorithms that were

designed, implemented and tested include

an advanced Kalman filter tracker for both

kinematic and attribute association, an

identification algorithm, and a robust spatial/temporal

pattern matcher for recognizing

specific weapon system/threat processes

in the presence of noise and with limited

sensor capabilities. On-going efforts for the

IFE are focused on extending the engine

architecture to support integration in a service-oriented

architecture (SOA) environment

and on migrating the engine to support

unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications.

Interactive planning and adversarial planning

are key concepts currently being

explored at Raytheon Fort Wayne.

Interactive planning capabilities are being

developed to support the production systems

at Fort Wayne and are aligned with

the DARPA research in this area. Potential

exploration avenues relating to interactive

planning include planning in uncertainty

and evaluation of plan-vs-actual to allow

learning within the planning function.

Raytheon Fort Wayne is currently working

adversarial planning cooperatively with HRL

(formerly Hughes Research Lab). Adversarial

planning is based on being able to predict a

given Red Team response to a Blue Team

action. The Adversarial Planning project is

based on a net-centric framework with

plug-in agents and on a planning

graph/planning repair paradigm that uses

interaction with analogical reasoning and

decision support agents to predict responses

and “repair” the plan. The adversarial

planner is entered in the International

Planning Competition, which will allow

developers to learn more about the work

being performed in this area by other

groups. The ability to assist the warfighter

in planning is a core competency needed

for modern warfare.

Robust, reliable and timely communications

for ground units operating in highly mobile

and unpredictable urban environments is

urgently needed and is one of the great

remaining communications challenges for

transforming our military into an effective

net-centric force. Units at the edge of the

battlespace need to communicate and

exchange information. The rise of urban

warfare requires connectivity when separated

by urban structures, when inside and

outside of buildings and when under electronic

communications attack. In addition,

the very dynamic nature of urban warfare

requires individuals to be able to communicate

with other squads and units quickly

and without preplanning.

Raytheon Fort Wayne is developing cognitive

radio technology as a means to finally

bring assured communications to ground

units in the urban battlefield. Past attempts

to solve this challenge have made use of

increasingly sophisticated, state-of-the-art

hardware, waveforms and networking protocols,

and have provided only moderate

success. Modern software defined radios

(SDR), however, now provide a means for

bringing advanced cognitive and collaborative

approaches to the challenge. Raytheon

Fort Wayne recognizes that assured communications

and robust sharing of information

inter-squad and intra-squad in challenging

environments (i.e., urban combat)

will only be provided by a system that is

cognizant of the communication needs, the

environmental conditions and the scenario

being executed. The system must also use

this information in a collaborative environment

to adapt communication links at the


data link and physical layers. Our research is

aligned with DARPA’s cognitive radio goals

and applies modern automated reasoning

and distributed processing technology to

advance the state-of-the-art in urban combat

communications. We are developing

innovative approaches for automated learning

and shared understanding of the

dynamic communications environment.

Cognitive engines, residing in all the individual

warfighter’s SDR radios, will use distributed

radio resources to maintain collective

situation awareness knowledge and to collaborate

on the radio and network decisions

necessary for assured communications and

information sharing.

Raytheon Fort Wayne has shown its commitment

to the advancement of key technologies

by establishing a virtual technical

staff (VTS) that brings together representatives

from across the entire site to share

ideas, leverage ongoing efforts, and be

proponents of the development and

application of new technologies. The VTS

is led by the Raytheon Fort Wayne site

technical director, Dr. Joan Mahoney, who

ensures that path-finding activities are in

accordance with the site’s strategic goals

and provide the best solutions for

our customers.

A September 2005 initiative of the Fort

Wayne VTS was to create an operationallyoriented

integrated demonstration environment

to showcase the Mission Systems

Integration capabilities of the Fort Wayne

site. This demonstration integrated 17

systems within a two-week time period.

It was very well received by Raytheon vice

president of Quality, Peter Pao, and and the

Network Centric Systems (NCS) Engineering

Leadership Team. The integration effort will

serve as a pillar of the Enterprise Net-

Centric Integration Capability (E-NIC) initiatives

for NCS. Moreover, it will allow the

capabilities to be shown in the context of

military operations, illustrating the synergy

of our applied key technologies.

Paula Moss

Kathie Irk

Martin Stern, Ph.D.







for Mission


The ultimate goal of Mission Assurance in

engineering is to produce superior products

through engineering excellence. Every day

engineers integrate products from all

aspects of the product life cycle to create

the best final output that meets the customer’s

requirements and fulfills its end-use

objective. The evolution of environmental

compliance is a prime example of this in the

mechanical and materials area.

Environmental requirements are constantly

changing programmatically and globally;

our customers demand compliance without

compromising reliability or performance.

Engineering communities all over Raytheon

have been working these issues for over

10 years with the ultimate goal being to

balance environmental compliance and

performance. The following are some

examples of successes in this arena.

Network Centric Systems, Precision

Technology, Lemmon Ave, Dallas —

Eliminating Environmental Hazards

at the Design Level

Our process engineering efforts in Raytheon

Precision Manufacturing (RPM) include a

strong focus toward elimination of hazardous

materials. The approach includes our

process engineers, our Environmental

Health and Safety team and our operators.

A key place in the engineering process

where there is a large impact to environmental

requirements is the elimination of

materials used by design mandate. Through

concurrent engineering development of

new part designs, process engineers recommend

materials and processes that provide

the lowest net use of hazardous materials

while still meeting design performance

requirements. Making progress in these

areas requires coordination between

Design, Manufacturing and industry

specification organizations. Specific

examples include:

Replaced chromium plating with electroless

nickel plating in all but the most

demanding wear resistance applications.

At this point, we fabricate only two legacy

parts that require chromium plating.


Encouraged designers to select chemical

finishing process options that do not

mandate chromate seal steps (anodize,

passivate, etc.).

Developed two new aluminum casting

alloys (F357 and E357) to replace beryllium-containing

versions (A357 and D357).

Today, all castings sourced by RPM permit

the foundry to use the beryllium-free version.

As these new alloys become the primary

available material, future designs

will mandate the beryllium-free version.

Created a performance-based paint specification

(rather than “chemical formulation

based”), so designers can specify a

level of performance, yet allow manufacturers

to apply the most environmentallyfriendly

qualified paint system that meets

these requirements. This approach was

required due to the moving target of

paint formulations and air permit requirements

from state to state. The solution

involved a Joint Group on Acquisition

Pollution Prevention (JGAPP) Single

Process Initiative Block Change that

allowed implementation for the range of

programs we support.

This is not an exhaustive list, just a summary

of some of the projects supported. Our

process engineers keep these principles in

mind as they develop and maintain the

processes under their cognizance. Rich

Spitzer, process engineering manager for

RPM, can provide a more recent update.

Raytheon views the subject of hazardous

material elimination as a process — not a

destination. It is a marathon, not a sprint.

There will always be an opportunity to

make our designs better, our workplace

safer and our environment cleaner.

Space and Airborne Systems (SAS)

Engineering, McKinney, Texas —

Chromate Replacement on Fasteners

The F-16 MMC program out of SAS in

McKinney, Texas has recently completed an

effort to replace zinc chromate for wet

installation of fasteners. It was imperative

that our selection of an alternative needed

to survive future environmental restrictions,

such as VOC reduction and the elimination

of carcinogens and teratogens, while maintaining

the high standard of performance

we have delivered for decades. Engineering

analyzed several possible alternatives

against criteria in categories including environmental

health and safety (EHS), performance,

procurement and producibility.

Ultimately, MIL-PRF-85582 Class N was the

most environmentally friendly, however

water-borne primers are not recommended

for wet installation of fasteners. Therefore,

we decided to use MIL-PRF-23377 Class N

which has two vendors approved for the

qualified product list, was the next best

ranked in the EHS criteria, and outperforms

the baseline zinc chromate. Although the

MIL-PRF-23377 Class N still contains some

VOC, the elimination of hexavalent chromium

is an important step toward meeting all

of our future environmental compliance.

Integrated Defense Systems

Engineering, IADC, Andover, Mass. —

Water-Borne Chemical Agent Resistant


In 2005, Patriot, HAWK, CLAWS, SLAM-

RAAM, and JLENS changed the baseline

paint topcoat material used on all equipment

from a solvent-based coating to a

water-dispersible material. For the past 25

years, the Army has required that all ground

equipment be painted with a solvent-based

chemical agent resistant coating per specifications

MIL-C-53039 or MIL-C-46168.

Recently the Army Research Lab developed

a water-dispersible material which conforms

to specification MIL-DTL-64159. The performance

properties of the new material are

equal or better than the solvent-based system.

The water dispersible material offers

improved flexibility, color retention and mar

resistance. Material conforming to specification

MIL-DTL-64159 contains zero hazardous

air pollutants and 60 percent fewer

volatile organic compounds. In addition to

the environmental benefits offered by the

paint material as packaged, additional VOC

reduction is realized because the material is

thinned with water, and spray guns and

equipment may be cleaned up with water

as well. All future Army programs will incorporate

MIL-DTL-64159 into the design.

Robert Steffen

Meredith Bonin

Michael Chittick


A New Spin

on Radar Receivers:

The Development

of the

Low Band Digital

Receiver (LBDR)

Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems

located in El Segundo, Calif. has developed

the next generation Low Band

Digital Receiver (LBDR) architecture for

multiple VHF (very high frequency) and

UHF (ultra high frequency) radar applications.

The LBDR architecture consists of

building blocks that allow for specific customer-tailored

configurations. Although

current developments are radar based, the

architecture can be made to support communication,

electronic warfare and intelligence

gathering applications.


The LBDR was initially conceived as part of

a shared U.S. Navy — Office of Naval

Research (USN-ONR) and Raytheon

Advanced Concepts and Technology

(Raytheon ACT) technology study in the

late 1990s. The goal was to incorporate

current state-of-the-art commercial-offthe-shelf

(COTS) analog, radio frequency

(RF), and digital components to provide a

configurable, low cost and highly producible

common Digital Receiver architecture.

The effort resulted in a highly integrated

mixed signal (RF and digital) receiver

providing four digital receiver channels

on a single VME-style 6U module.

The LBDR uses a single down-conversion

radio frequency (RF) plan and high speed

digital pre-processing to provide spurious

spectral purity and high dynamic range.

The four RF channels are fed into a high

speed analog to digital converter (ADC),

that interfaces with a high-speed reprogrammable

field programmable gate

arrays (FPGA), and applicable specific integrated

circuits (ASIC) that perform the

remainder of the digital preprocessing

(e.g., IQ detection, filtering, etc.).

Figure 1: Convection cooled VME style

LBDR module

The LBDR architecture provides the capability

to add custom RF front ends or low

noise blocks (LNBs) that are specifically

designed for unique customer needs.

Raytheon presently provides two LNB

designs. The first is a coaxial copper analog

LNB that offers extremely low noise,

high dynamic range, and the other LNB

uses an RF photonic module that accepts

RF optical inputs for long distance RF

energy transfer. The benefit of the optic

LNB is its capability to separate the front

end of the LBDR from the back end by

several kilometers.

The commercial digital I/Q ASICs and

field-programmable gate array (FPGA)

preprocessor contains a numerical controlled

oscillator (NCO) for signal translation

and spurious signal control, digital

filtering for equalization processing, and

digital waveform processing (filters) for

bandwidth optimization. The equalization

filters precisely match each channel’s

phase and gain performance, eliminating

the need for expensive matched RF filters

in each channel, and the waveform processing

provides bandwidths from a few

KHz up to


Prognostics for

Combat Systems

of the Future

New Raytheon weapon and sensor systems

contracts include requirements for

prognostics, which predict failures in subsystems

before they occur so repairs can be

done ahead of time. Prognostics have frequently

been used on large mechanical

systems such as jet engines, hydroelectric

plant turbines and large industrial systems

where failures can be catastrophic or, at the

very least, expensive.

Predictions of failure are based on

lifespan calculations (e.g., replace parts at

90 percent of predicted wearout lifetime),

vibration spectrum or amplitude (e.g.,

replace parts when vibration increases at

a particular frequency), and

process parameters (e.g., replace parts

when yield drops below a limit).

These methods have been used for many

years in mechanical systems, but not with

electronic systems. The mechanical systems

usually have well-defined wearout characteristics

that can be exploited to predict

failure. Unfortunately, most electronic

systems — especially digital ones — don’t

change much until actual failure. Only a few

university and industry studies have

explored the application of prognostics to

electronics. The obvious approaches are to

use the known effects of temperature,

humidity and vibration on lifespan.

Figure 1. EO system

Typical military system requirements are to

predict 75 percent of failures that prevent

mission completion within 96 hours of the

actual failure time, and a 95 percent probability

of a failure if one is predicted. Figure 1

illustrates an Electro-Optic (EO) system in

advanced development, which includes

a mix of electronics and mechanical

servo systems.

Raytheon is using four approaches to solve

the prognostic problem:

Conventional BIT, capturing intermittents

Stress measurement, predicting lifespan

Selective redundancy

Measuring changes in process parameters

We are using extensive conventional BIT to

capture actual faults as they occur. Many

faults will appear intermittently in certain

conditions before becoming hard faults that

occur regularly. For example, timing or frequency

faults may first appear as intermittents

during temperature extremes or

warm-up, but eventually may become constant

problems. Prognostic software will

keep track of intermittent BIT fault frequency

and use that as a parameter in predicting

a future system fault that prevents operation.

The BIT fault log and prognostics history

will be contained in each line replaceable

unit (LRU) and then returned to the repair

depot. Because the system stress level at the

time of the latest fault is recorded with each

BIT fault, the depot can replicate the system

temperature, vibration and humidity at the

time of the fault. (Many faults only occur

under particular stresses, which is why so

many returns to depot for repair become

“could not duplicate” diagnoses.)

Sensors in each LRU measure 3-axis acceleration,

temperature and humidity. There are

well-known formulas for the effects of each

on system lifespan. Each formula includes a

constant dependent

on the actual

design of the system,

which will

have to be estimated


highly accelerated

live testing (HALT)

and from experience

in the field.

The prognostic

software will integrate


effects over time

to produce a running estimate of the

amount of each unit’s used lifespan and

how much lifespan remains.

Both failure prediction and fault detection

involve tradeoffs between probability of

predicting failures and false alarm rate. The

smaller the variations used for detection

and prediction, the more faults will be

detected or predicted, but the more false

alarms will be generated. We plan to use a

technique called multivariate state estimation

(MSE) to improve both at the same

time. MSE allows the correlation of changes

in one parameter with changes in another.

Experience may indicate that power supply

voltages increase slightly as the temperature

goes up. Tighter limits on the power supply,

adjusted upward in response to a temperature

increase, allow detection of faults or

prediction of faults sooner, without false

alarms caused by variations in temperature.

One of the objectives of the early testing

program is the detection of these correlations

and the adjustment of the MSE

algorithm to match.

Figure 2. Improved prediction with MSE data

Many system performance measures will be

used to detect deterioration prior to actual

failure. Examples include gimbal rates, currents

used in different operating modes,

voltage levels, error rates and system electrical

noise levels. As parameters approach an

out-of-tolerance level, the software will predict

when an actual fault is expected to

occur. Figure 2 shows the effect of MSE

using system parameters, stress integration

and lifespan prediction to estimate the

probability of failure for the next mission.

Instead of a low probability of failure spread

over nearly a thousand hours (blue curve),

we are able to predict a probability of

greater than 60 percent that failure will be

between 1,250 and 1,350 hours (green

curve). This data lets a crew remove and

replace an LRU predicted to be unreliable

before the start of a mission.

The electronic content of military systems is

increasing rapidly. Our future systems

require enhanced built-in tests, redundancy,

and repair-before-failure to ensure that they

work when the warfighter needs them. This

reduces mean time between repairs, but

increases mission effective reliability.

Paul Barton


PEOPLE: Raytheon’s Greatest Asset

Dr. Neal Pfeiffer of Raytheon Aircraft

Company in Wichita, Kan., has been selected

to receive the American Institute of

Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 2005

Piper General Aviation Award. The Piper

General Aviation Award is presented for

outstanding contributions leading to the

advancement of general aviation. Dr.

Pfeiffer was selected for the award to recognize

his creative development and application

of computational methods for aerodynamic

design and the estimation of aircraft

loads and mission performance, which

greatly contributed to the success of new

business-jet aircraft. ***

Dan Smith, president of Raytheon

Integrated Defense Systems (IDS), was

recently inducted into the Ancient Order of

Saint Barbara, an honorary military society

of the U.S. Field Artillery. The Ancient Order

is the most distinguished level of the Order

of Saint Barbara and is conferred upon military

personnel and civilians who have

achieved long-term, exceptional service to

the Air Defense Artillery. ***

In Memoriam – Steven L. Kiser

Senior Applications Engineer at Raytheon

Network Centric Systems in Fort Wayne, passed

away on Monday, Nov. 14, 2005

By Dr. Joan Mahoney and friends of Steve Kiser

Steve Kiser’s service to his

country and to “his” Special

Forces began with his

Vietnam tour which involved

significant time on the

ground and in the mountains

providing special communications support to

U.S. forces in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

The specifics of that tour will never be fully

known, much less appreciated. That is where

and when it all started.

At Raytheon, Steve was a continuing contributor

to real-world combat solutions via his support

of AFSOC, SPECWARCOM and other

organizations. He traveled extensively in this

role, sometimes participating in military operational

missions. More recently, he supported

the AFRL BAO National Action Team at the

request of then Air Force Secretary Jim Roche

who, on the eve of Iraqi Freedom, asked the

industry to rally to help spiral the latest technologies

into communications and targeting

kits for the forward air controllers. Steve

The honor recognizes Smith’s role in developing

and producing Raytheon's advanced,

highly reliable integrated air and missile

defense products, such as the Patriot

Missile Defense System. As a retired lieutenant

commander from the U.S. Navy and

president of IDS, Smith is vitally aware of

the critical need for Raytheon to deliver

reliable products that dependably protect

our troops in battle.

Find more information about the legend of

Saint Barbara at

pao/pabarbar.htm ***

The NITEworks Approach to

Capability Through Partnering was

selected as the “Most Innovative Project

Team” at the inaugural IEE Awards for

Innovation in Engineering held in London

on Sept. 14, 2005. Jeff Carter, on secondment

to the team from Raytheon

Systems Limited Advanced Programmes

since December 2003, and Nashka

Draska represented Raytheon on this cross

-industry team. Carter accepted the award

answered that call just as he had so many other

times. This National Action Team further automated

the tactical target designation/strike

process through the application of existing

technology and innovative methods. Steve’s

contributions were employed in numerous

high-value strikes during Iraqi Freedom.

Evolving from Steve’s National Action Team

success is the Mission Systems Integration Lab

and the Enhanced Situational Awareness Suite

(ESAS). The Lab, located in the Fort Wayne

facility, enables the continuing improvement

and expansion of ESAS with direct warfighter

participation. This system is expected to be

employed on many Special Operations Forces

(SOF) platforms, and will give the SOF

warfighter a critical tactical advantage, saving

lives and enabling mission success.

Steve is described as a faithful servant to his

country, to his employer and to his God. He

worked tirelessly to help give warfighters the

advantages they need. He embodied the qualities

and characteristics coveted by all SOF

organizations. He never sought the spotlight,

but always strived for perfection knowing he

was making a difference. He lived his life and

will always be remembered as a true quiet professional

and patriot. Steve had a great sense of

for NITEworks. The NITEworks Ministry of

Defence/Industry team was praised for the

high degree of customer involvement, organizational


and collaboration.

The IEE Awards was launched in 2005 to

recognize excellence in engineering innovation

across a range of industry sectors and

engineering disciplines. For more information,


Six design engineers at Raytheon’s

Glenrothes, Scotland, site have joined an

elite group of British engineers who have

gained the prestigious Advanced Designers

Certificate for Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

design. Steve Carstairs, Gerry

Sturgeon, John Feerick, Gerry

McKeown, John Smith and Alex

Young were congratulated by Raytheon’s

Andrew Watson, Head of Power & Control.

The success of the Glenrothes six brings the

total of PCB design engineers awarded the

Advanced Certificate to 18 throughout the

U.K. and Ireland.

humor and embodied the spirit and passion of

customer focus in its truest sense. Not many of

us can say we have made a real difference — a

real difference that saved lives and touched

people — but Steve can, did and will continue

to do so. He touched all of us.

“If you worked with Steve for even a short

period of time, you quickly recognized that

Steve was unassuming, extremely knowledgeable

and passionate about what he did, that no

job was too small, and that frustration only

resulted when things were not accomplished

quickly enough,” said John Garcher, Air Force

Research Lab. “Steve was the ultimate ‘handson’

type of guy — whether it was lugging a

radio system to Wright-Patterson Air Force

base for a meeting to demonstrate a new communications

capability, or donning a flight suit

and flying in the back of an MC-130 special

operations aircraft in the hot summer at

Hurlburt Field, Florida, to make sure the

Raytheon communication system worked as

advertised and that the warfighter got the

capability needed. Above all else, Steve exemplified

the Air Force core values of ‘integrity

first, service before self and excellence in all

we do.’ Steve will be missed.”


Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)


Space and Airborne Systems Achieves Raytheon First

Business-wide CMMI Level 3 Certification

Largest scope appraisal for $4 billion business

Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS)

was recently rated by the Center for

Systems Management (CSM) as having successfully

reached Capability Maturity Model

Integration (CMMI®) Level 3 in accordance

with the standards established by the

Software Engineering Institute (SEI) for

process maturity in hardware, systems and

software engineering. This is the first time a

Raytheon business has been rated Level 3

across all of its locations in all three disciplines,

and it is believed to be the largest

scope appraisal completed by any business

the size of SAS.

The SAS organization in McKinney, Texas,

was rated Level 5 in software in a previous

appraisal. This Level 5 rating will stand until

the next appraisal, leading the way for the

rest of the organization in its drive to

achieve Level 5 across the board.

Former SAS President Jack Kelble pointed

out the significance of the achievement. “It

means our customers can rest assured that

when they work with SAS, they will know

we’re integrated throughout all our engineering

disciplines. By integrating our functions,

regions and businesses into one

process, we have taken a different approach

than our industry peers, giving us a significant

competitive edge in the marketplace.”

That single process, the SAS Enterprise

Management System (EMS) was deployed

to all of Engineering, Quality, Program

Management and Supply Chain — some

7,000 employees. Under EMS, all programs

follow a common process, which they are

able to tailor to meet specific program needs.


While there is no explicit CMMI model to

include hardware design activities such as

electrical and mechanical design, SAS

brought forward hardware development

plans — including organizational competency

models, training certifications for

hardware engineers, mechanical design

drawings, electronic schematics, component

design reviews, peer reviews and test

results — to demonstrate maturity in its

hardware disciplines.

Linda Kovar, senior programs manager, Air

Combat Avionics, led the CMMI appraisal

team. She noted that predictable performance

begins with well-understood, welldocumented

processes that can be repeatedly

followed. “We are telling our customers

that we are capable of working as a

team, across our organization, to a defined

level of performance,” Kovar said.

“We brought the legacy systems together

and synergized them,” said Bob Kern, former

SAS Engineering vice president. “Now

we’re able to transfer technical work much

more efficiently between locations and balance

out resource constraints in one part of

the business with areas of under-utilization

in another.”

Kovar credited the team’s success to a dedicated,

highly skilled enterprise process

group, active local site management and

executive leadership that believed in and

drove the vision.

“The team’s efforts more than paid off,”

Kovar said, “not just in terms of the business-wide

Level 3 achievement, but in the

way the process itself has positively impacted

employees and the business.”

“[CMMI] allows us to focus our people

around a common definable goal, one that

has clear, tangible benefits to the business. I

am excessively proud of what this team has

accomplished,” said Nancy Fleischer, SAS

process integration lead.

John Barksdale,

Raytheon Integrated Defense

Systems Business Achieves

Defense Industry Recognized

CMMI® Level 4 Rating

Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems (IDS)

business recently achieved a CMMI Level 4

maturity rating resulting from an independent

appraisal conducted on its Systems,

Software and Hardware Engineering organizations.

This evaluation validates IDS

process maturity as well as disciplined

sustained application.

Sponsored by the U.S. Department of

Defense (DoD), the CMMI Product Team,

consisted of representatives from industry,

defense and the Software Engineering

Institute. CMMI measures business process

maturity levels and provides DoD with a

way to assess risks and determine the level

of process maturity that a company has

achieved. It helps DoD predict performance,

and CMMI maturity level ratings are often a

prerequisite or discriminator for companies

bidding on defense contracts.

“Achieving CMMI Level 4 is extremely

important to us,” IDS President Dan

Smith said. “It validates for us and for

our customers that Raytheon IDS has statistical

process controls in place to ensure

performance and Mission Assurance. This

is particularly important in this period of

high growth for our business to fulfill

our customer’s expectation for Mission


“Achieving Level 4 is an important milestone

for validating our processes and

systems for more than 6,000 engineers

in our distributed operations model,”

said Mark Russell, vice president for IDS

Engineering. “No matter where you are

located or what project you work, we all

use the same process, reducing variability

and ensuring the same high quality from

project to project.”

Russell explained that an independent

team of appraisers, led by Ralph

Williams, president of Cooliemon, Inc., a

Florida-based independent expert on

business improvement, spent four weeks

at Raytheon IDS reviewing approximately

7,000 documents and interviewing 160

engineers, project and program managers

before granting the Level 4 rating.

“What makes this appraisal significant is

its range and scope,” said Robert Smith,

IDS engineering director for Strategic

Development, Raytheon Six Sigma and

Processes. “Others in the industry choose

to pursue CMMI ratings for a particular

facility, sector or project — piecemeal.

We’ve chosen to pursue a Level 4 rating

for our entire business. Because all of

our functional areas are integrated and

mutually supporting, we think this

broader approach makes better sense

and provides the best value to our


CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark

Office by Carnegie Mellon University.

Raytheon Six Sigma is a trademark of Raytheon Company.

SAS’ Electronic Warfare Systems

exemplifies Customer

Focused Marketing

One Company effort lands Raytheon a

$10 million award for new radar

warning receiver technology


With the collaboration of Missile Systems (MS), Space

and Airborne Systems (SAS) and Network Centric

Systems (NCS), SAS’ Electronic Warfare Systems (EWS)

in Goleta, Calif., has won a $10 million contract for an

advanced concept technology demonstration of Advanced

tactical targeting technology (AT3) for Warner Robins Air

Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Ga. Key to this

success are James Taylor, who manages the AT3 programs

at Tucson, Ariz.; Dan Pinda, chief engineer for AT3; and

Dennis O’Donoghue, lead on the Situational Awareness Data Link modifications for AT3 at NCS.

The technology will be demonstrated in 2007 on three F-16 Block 30 aircraft using EWS’ digital

radar warning receiver, the ALR-69A(V). The aircraft will be networked to share precise signal

measurements in a timely manner, providing 360-degree coverage to rapidly and accurately locate

radio frequency (RF) emitters from any angle of arrival without use of external hardware. This

demonstration will build upon MS’ 2003 success of a U.S. Air Force Research Labs/Defense

Advanced Research Agency (DARPA) AT3 advanced technical demonstration. The contract also

contains $11 million in options for additional test phases of the program.


Team members from Raytheon MS developed the targeting technology, with NCS adding the

required datalink technology (SADL) to successfully integrate the disparate functionalities into

the ALR-69A(V). The team’s shared efforts resulted in lower cost, lower risk and added value to

the customer.

“The award represents a One Company effort and would not have been possible without MS’

and NCS’ expertise,” said Pat Hurley, vice president and general manager for EWS. “This is the

type of collaboration that distinguishes Raytheon from our competition: 100 percent Mission

Systems Integration.”

The team will continue to work together on this new contract. “The collaboration will enable us

to demonstrate a technology that is more rapid and accurate than previous approaches,” said Rob

Deaton, senior program manager leading the AT3 ACTD. “It will bring improved situational

awareness to the U.S. Air Force fleet, as well as a capability for multiplatform geolocation to support

their ‘sensors forward’ concept of operation. This is only possible by pulling together subject

matter experts from other parts of the company.”


ALR-69A AT3 is the first implementation of net-centric attack operations on fighter aircraft. AT3

will dramatically reduce the time required by our forces to break the enemy kill chain at a time

and place of the warfighter’s choosing. AT3 is a true force multiplier.

By moving into a “net-centric” mode, detection and targeting systems/sensors can work together,

and different sensors on different aircraft can work together automatically to share information,

reduce reaction time and offer more precise targeting information so that enemy threats can be

identified and defeated. In general, it instills in warfighters more confidence and, more importantly,

more capability to anticipate and defeat threats.

The U.S. Air Force is planning to equip with AT3 technology on additional platforms such as the

F-15. EWS plans to participate in a demonstration test for the F-15 at Wright Patterson Air Force

base in early 2006.

The ALR-69A(V) receiver system used for the AT3 demonstration is an upgrade of the ALR-

69(V), which is currently installed on U.S. Air Force C-130, F-16, A-10, and MH-53 aircraft.

Raytheon was awarded the ALR-69A(V) program in August 2001.

For more information, visit


Enabling Mission Assurance

by Making Connections

and Sharing Knowledge

Merriam Webster defines collaboration as

“working jointly with others or together,

especially in an intellectual endeavor.”

Raytheon brings life to that concept each

year with its annual engineering symposia.

In September 2005, more than 350 engineers

and technologists from across the

company came together once more to

collaborate and share their experiences

at the Mechanical and Materials

Technology Network (MMTN)

Engineering Symposium, held

at the Loews Ventana Canyon Resort in

Tucson, Ariz.


This year’s event, themed “Networking to

Provide Superior Solutions,” focused on

Raytheon’s technical performance to build

strong relationships with our internal and

external customers and peers, and provide

solutions to technical and logistic challenges

we face. Over the three-day event,

190 papers and 28 posters were presented

on topics ranging from engineering solutions

for infrared dome materials and

Scalable Electronics Architecture (SEA) to

tin Whisker risk mitigation using the results

of the Navy Robotic Solder Project.

Several guest speakers engaged and

enlightened attendees at the plenary sessions,

including Peter Pao, vice president of

Technology, who spoke about what

Mission Assurance means to Raytheon. “It

means that when our customers need our

products, our products will work — that

idea should temper everything we do

because the products that we design really

are a matter of life and death.” Col. Robert

F. Barry, U.S. Army, summed it up most succinctly

when he stated, “…after being shot

at in Panama, I thought to myself, ‘I hope

the guy that designed my Kevlar, the guy

that designed my body armor, the guy who

built my M-16 thought that what he or she

was doing was more than just a job,’

because out there it’s very, very personal.

It’s somebody trying to kill you, so the things

that engineers do need to be personal.”

The networking opportunities and ability to

share knowledge and innovative technologies

with your peers across the company

are key enablers to Raytheon’s growth in

the Mission Systems Integration arena.

According to Michael Liggett, Raytheon’s

Mechanical and Materials Technology area

director, “one of the things that would

really help our competitive position across

the company is if we leverage more contacts

across the businesses; this event is a

perfect example of how to do this.”

Dean Cash, Net-Centric Operations enterprise

priority lead remarked about the need

for us at Raytheon to connect with one

another. He commented on the value of

events like this symposium as being “a

viable, informal group of people interacting

that gets a lot of business done over the

autonomous businesses that exist in

Raytheon. Our engineers cross those borders

very easily and quite often. We need

to continue to make these connection

opportunities more robust.” He sees events

like this as an opportunity to “hold a mirror

up to ourselves, and what you see is

part of the solution and part of the problem.

But you control 100 percent of what

you see — that’s exciting!”

Fall Symposia and Expositions

If you want to connect with more of your

peers and get more involved with the technologies

being used throughout the company,

visit the Raytheon Technology

Networks website at

rayeng/technetworks/welcome.html and

join a Technology Interest Group (TIG) from

any of the six technology networks that

interest you.

Raytheon was the corporate sponsor of

American Institute of

Aeronautics and Astronautics

(AIAA) Space 2005 Conference

and Exposition, held August

30–September 1 in Long Beach, Calif.

“Expanding the Envelope of Space” was

the theme of this annual conference, which

drew nearly a thousand participants from

the technical space community, including

the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA,

the National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration (NOAA), and industry and

educational institutions.

After former Space and Airborne Systems

President Jack Kelble welcomed the audi-

ence, Raytheon Chairman and CEO Bill

Swanson offered opening remarks with a

brief story about Robert Goddard, a physics

professor at Clark University in Worcester,

Mass. Despite previous attempts, on March

16, 1926, Goddard built a 10-ft. liquid-propellant

rocket he dubbed “Nell” and took it

to his Aunt Effie’s farm. He set it up in a

field and asked an assistant to light its fuse

with a blowtorch. At first it didn’t respond,

but then it lurched upwards at 60 m.p.h.

before hitting a cabbage patch 184 ft.

away. The entire flight lasted just over two

seconds, but it was the lengthiest liquidfueled

rocket flight ever conducted.

Swanson explained that the results may not

have been stellar, but Goddard expanded

the envelope of space, ignited a passion

and is now known as the father of modern

rocket science.

Back in our modern-day conference, Greg

Shelton moderated a panel entitled

“Assuring Mission Success: How Can We

Achieve It Consistently?” with participating

panel members Joseph Rouge, National

Security Space Office, SES, Associate

Director; Bryan O’Connor, NASA, Chief

Safety and Mission Assurance Officer; Mal

O’Neill, Lockheed Martin VP of

Engineering; and Raj Desai, VP, Aerospace

& Defense, IBM E&T Services. Many other

Raytheon papers were presented throughout

the two-day event.

Meanwhile, in the exhibit hall, children of

all ages were treated to AIAA’s Education

Alley, designed to get kids interested in

math and science. Young students, their

teachers and parents encountered “mad

scientists” performing experiments, exciting

space technology demos and exhibits, a virtual

visit to the South Pole, games, contests,

celebrity guests and the chance to

ride in “Newton’s Rocket Car.”

Exhibitors included major aerospace companies,

educational institutions, and government

agencies such as NASA and the

Air Force Research Laboratory. As a committed

advocate of U.S. math and science

education, Raytheon was a primary force in

this year’s Education Alley activities. To Bill

Swanson, improving math and science education

is only part of the solution to developing

tomorrow’s technology leaders.

The Processing Systems

Technology Network (PSTN)

Mini-Expo, themed “Processing,

Applications and Enabling Technologies for

Software Defined Radios (SDR),” showcased

techniques used in the design of

SDRs in many of Raytheon’s

products such as communications systems,

sensors, signal intelligence and more.

Hosted by the Fort Wayne, Ind., site on

Oct. 25–26, the event began with demos

of some of Fort Wayne’s products.

Fort Wayne site executive Wayne Iurillo

opened the expo with a welcoming speech

to the 115 attendees, and Jim Brown,

Raytheon AP/SDR program manager, provided

a keynote address detailing Software

Communications Architecture (SCA), Joint

Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS), and SDR history

and current activities, along with

Raytheon’s interests in these areas.

Raytheon engineers shared best practices of

design activities across the different disciplines

via 39 papers covering processing

systems, new processors, system engineering

of processing systems, cognitive communications

techniques, digital receivers,

FPGA/ASIC design, packaging and materials,

plus detailed coverage of the design of

SDRs — a little something for everyone. A

panel discussion regarding the use of opensource

software was held, along with a

field programmable gate array (FPGA)

birds-of-a-feather session. The final activity

of the expo was a Network Centric Warfare

demo at the Fort Wayne facility that graphically

demonstrated the force-multiplying

capabilities enabled by Raytheon products

and networking techniques.


The National Defense

Industrial Association’s

(NDIA) fifth annual

Capability Maturity Model

Integration (CMMI®)



held in November,

2005 in Denver,

Colo., was once

again a great



by the Software


Institute and

Carnegie Mellon

University, this conference

provides the

opportunity for CMMI

users of all levels and businesses,

ranging from the

Department of Defense (DoD) to TIME

Magazine, to collaborate not only with

each other, but with the sponsors, developers,

appraisers, trainers and implementers

of CMMI, exchanging new ideas and

broadening their scope on the CMMI

progress and maturity in the industry.

It was noted that today’s military is

enveloped in a highly complex technology

and along with it, comes the challenge of

managing it. LTG Joseph Yakovac, USA,

Military Deputy, Office of the Secretary of

the Army, Acquisition, Logistics &

Technology offered a military point of view

on CMMI, its progress and use: “We try to

do things to enable re-use across a ‘family’

so we can drop the cost of ownership for

us, long term, as well as simplify our

processes.” CMMI is helping them achieve

this goal.

CMMI is much more than achieving a level.

Companies, such as Raytheon, that recognize

this are better positioned to lead the

way to achieving true CMMI success —

continual process improvement. “Raytheon

is one of the prime leaders in the direction

of process improvement,” said Mike

Phillips, a CMMI project manager at the

Software Engineering Institute (SEI). This


stems in part from Raytheon’s continued

partnership with the SEI and commitment

to setting the highest process standards in

the industry. Phillips added, “I’ve been on

recent appraisals where I’ve been able to

see that it isn’t just writing the words, it’s

walking the walk. I’ve been very

impressed with what I’ve seen

[from Raytheon] in that


NDIA 5th Annual CMMI

Technology Conference

CMMI, Raytheon’s

primary maturity

model, is an

indicator of

what we do

and how

appraisals and

assessments are

performed to

determine the

maturity of our

processes. In accordance with that model,

Raytheon executes those process standards

utilizing integrated product teams with an

emphasis on Mission Assurance. On a

panel discussion, John Evers, Raytheon

Engineering Common Program (RECP)

CMMI and IPDS project manager, shared

his view on where Raytheon is headed.

Evers stated that Raytheon is currently at

CMMI level 3 across the board and growing.

“Our goal is to deliver systems that

meet the customers needs, that there’s no

doubt that they’re going to perform the

way they need to.” The greatest benefits

come when utilizing these processes from

the start, deploying from the beginning,

with greater emphasis on deployment

activities rather than around development

processes. “Working and joining with our

customers is a key part of that. It’s a joint

interest,” said Evers. “Our real hope is to

make sure we’re doing the right measure

of improvements for our customers. Again,

it comes back to working with them on a

joint basis, finding out the right thing to do

to be successful and helping them with

their mission and objectives. Basically our

objective is our customer’s success.”

Bob Rassa, Raytheon’s Space and Airborne

Systems (SAS) Director of System

Supportability, chair of the Systems

Engineering division of NDIA and CMMI

industry sponsor, said “Raytheon is perceived

as more meticulous than many,

because we don’t go for a high [CMMI]

level; we go for reasonable levels and we

do it across the board.” Raytheon exemplified

this concept at the last repeat appraisal

conducted on its SAS business. Instead

of pushing for levels 4 or 5, they continued

on another level 3, which expanded to the

entire organization, including hardware

and design. “We’re not using a slimmed

down organization to go for a high rating

in order to obtain the level,” said Rassa.

“People know this and they say, ok…

Raytheon is doing it right.”

To learn more about NDIA and the programs

it offers, visit the NDIA website. For

more information on the upcoming 2006

NDIA CMMI Technology Conference, visit


Marceline Pribonic

CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

by Carnegie Mellon University.

Focusing on young people

to help them focus on math

Raytheon’s success over the years has

been built on the talent of engineers and

technologists who have imagined and

designed some of the world’s most

advanced defense systems. One of the

company’s ongoing challenges is to continuously

fill its employee pipeline with bright

individuals who possess the skills needed to

build upon this tradition of innovation and

Mission Assurance.

However, the U.S. is losing its edge on the

world’s technology industry. The U.S. currently

ranks 14 out of the top 19 developed

countries when it comes to the number of

students receiving degrees in science and

engineering. To compound the issue, math

skills among America’s youth have

remained flat for nearly 30 years, while

other countries’ students’ math skills have

improved exponentially. A recent survey

commissioned by Raytheon also revealed

that 84 percent of middle school students

would rather clean their room, eat their

vegetables, go to the dentist or take out

the garbage than learn math.

That’s why Raytheon has developed


MathMovesU is a new program for

Raytheon — a whole new way of exciting

middle school students about math. We

created MathMovesU because we know

that, to reach young people and wake

them up to the possibilities of math, we

had to do something different. By opening

up young minds to the infinite possibilities

of math today, we can engage and inspire

the engineers of tomorrow.

MathMovesU is an educational initiative

that’s not in the classroom. It’s on

the Web — where most youngsters

spend their time. The initiative

rewards students with prizes, such

as a soccer ball autographed by Mia

Hamm, for solving math questions.

It showcases cool careers that are

related to math — what kid isn’t

thrilled by video games, roller

coasters or music? MathMovesU

also provides scholarships to students

and grants to teachers and

schools making a difference.

As a company, we know that who we partner

with reflects our image. That’s why we’ve

carefully chosen a nonprofit partner for

MathMovesU. Since 1984, MATHCOUNTS®

has been promoting excellence in math

among U.S. middle school students through

math competitions and coaching. Based on

national standards, the MATHCOUNTS curriculum

is designed by educators from the

National Council of Teachers of

Mathematics. Every middle school across

the country receives a free curriculum handbook

each year. Raytheon is a national

sponsor of MATHCOUNTS and our

employees donate their time as coaches or

volunteers at local competitions.

With MATHCOUNTS, Raytheon hopes that

MathMovesU will make a difference in how

our country’s children look at math. We

need to make a difference today so our

children can make a difference tomorrow.

For more information on MathMovesU and

information on how to get involved, visit

Vanessa Leong

MATHCOUNTS is a registered trademark of

the MATHCOUNTS Foundation.


The Raytheon Process Asset Library

How it can work for Mission Assurance

The Raytheon Process Asset Library

(RayPAL) provides a corporate repository for

process-related material. The process materials

available today are primarily enablers

(job aids), but RayPAL can also house other

process documentation such as work

instructions, policies and methods.

The primary objective in implementing

RayPAL is to provide a common interactive

repository of assets for businesses and sites,

thus promoting the One Company initiative.

Another direct RayPAL benefit is increased

cost effectiveness and productivity, since

shared assets are more easily maintained.

RayPAL is particularly useful in support of

company wide initiatives like Mission

Assurance or Capability Maturity Model

Integration (CMMI®). As each business executes

a Mission Assurance compliance plan,

local process definitions and associated

Mission Assurance enablers are stored in

RayPAL. Each business can then leverage what

other businesses have already generated.

RayPAL, which is accessible from the

Integrated Product Development System

(IPDS), currently contains over 2,800 assets.

These assets include gate checklists, specification

templates, planning templates, etc.

in support of the various tasks itemized

within IPDS. Each task within IPDS has its

own (context-sensitive) set of enablers available

via the left-hand margin (see Figure 1).

The specific enablers seen also depend on

the selected “Site Context.” This RayPAL

feature allows each business to set its own

“Business” context, so that only businessendorsed

process items are normally displayed

to the user.

Assets Available in Task Context From

Within IPDS.


As Mission Assurance is incorporated into

IPDS in the upcoming release 3.0, these

assets can be obtained in this context.

Assets may also be retrieved directly from

RayPAL through an extensive search capability

— either simple (keyword) or advanced.

In the next release of RayPAL (version 3.4),

the search will accommodate Mission

Assurance by assigning assets to a Mission

Assurance provisions paragraph number.

The search page (both simple and

advanced) is available through the RayPAL

home page at

All Raytheon users may submit assets into

RayPAL with a minimum of required information.

Once submitted, an asset is

screened and endorsed before becoming

available to the general public. To submit an

asset, go to


RayPAL is also interested in learning your

views on the system — what works, what

doesn’t, and what you think might improve

RayPAL. You can submit your comments to

Since RayPAL’s initial release in 2003,

numerous capabilities have been incorporated

into the system. RayPAL has been developed

to accommodate separate business

needs for a PAL by providing the following

key capabilities and benefits:

Each business has local control (endorsement)

of assets without the overhead

costs of storage, control, reporting and


Enablers available for each task

are indicated by dark blue text

with quantities in ( ). Grey text

indicates no enablers of that

type are available.

Each business can establish local endorsement


Each business can reference material

stored in RayPAL just as they would in

Docushare or any other repository.

Each business can obtain usage reports

(downloads) and asset ratings/reviews

and aging to enhance asset management

and improvement.

Each business has access to all other

sites’ assets for process refinement.

Assets are organized by discipline to

enhance facility to subject matter experts

and domain searching.

It promotes the “one stop” shopping for

process material.

Users within local organizations can easily

populate, access and control asset.s

– Web-accessible from company Intranet

– Proprietary and ITAR screening capable

– Assets retain site and business heritage

upon submittal

It supports the local numbering of assets

for local indexing and searches.

Each business can participate in a coordinated

RayPAL improvement process.

These new RayPAL capabilities let users of

existing business-owned PALs determine the

feasibility of transitioning to RayPAL in the

future. To assist in a transition, RayPAL is

capable of a bulk submit, which transfers

numerous files in one upload, thus reducing

the effort required for moving an established

library. As businesses transition to

RayPAL, the sharing potential increases

markedly, enabling businesses to readily

leverage newly developed material and

adapt to company initiatives like Mission


RayPAL is designed to meet the growing

needs of businesses by providing a common

repository for process-related assets. Using

RayPAL alleviates the need for each business

to have its own repositories, thereby reducing

the costs associated with ongoing maintenance

and development.

Steve Clark

John Evers

CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

by Carnegie Mellon University.

A Six Sigma Success: Improving Communications

from Warehouse to Battlefield

Mission Assurance means making sure

that your customer experiences operational

success. The Raytheon Six Sigma (R6σ®)

team for Maintenance Management

Information System (MMIS) Extension-

Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC)

exemplified this principle by achieving over

24 percent improvement in operational

availability of the AN/AAS-52 Multi-Spectral

Targeting System (MTS). The MTS is a turreted

sensor platform with a laser designator

used on the U.S. Air Force’s Predator

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the

U.S. Navy’s H-60R and S helicopters.

This project began when George Cefoldo,

a new R6σ Expert at Space and Airborne

Systems (SAS), asked customers at the

NSWC, in Crane, Ind., “What keeps you

up at night?”

NSWC replied, “Logistics problems. Our

fear is a loss of control over the units we

field. We have all this logistics data but no

way to use it to identify what spare parts

we need and where to send those parts.”

Envisioning a Solution

These discussions inspired SAS and the

NSWC to form a R6σ team to address

this problem. The team visualized an integrated

online solution that would support

configuration management and the Failure

Reporting Analysis and Corrective Action

System (FRACAS), as well as provide accurate,

up-to-the-minute asset management

and inventory control worldwide. The team

brainstormed priorities and concerns about

the logistics process and defined mission

success in the eyes of the customer.

The key need was timely, accurate information

that would allow inventory and service

personnel to route the right parts and consumables

to the right places at the right

time — without requiring a large increase

in spending on materials and parts.

Specifically, the customer needed an integrated,

secure, easy-to-use tool for all of

their data that would support world access

using locally available infrastructure and

permit single-point data entry at the source.

Turning an Idea Into Reality

The team began by assessing a range of

commercially available tools to support this

vision. The EAGLE MMIS tool, created by

Raytheon Technical Services Company, met

all end-user requirements and also offered

rapid customized development and excellent

user support.

The data needed to support the desired

functionality was originally entered manually

into three separate, differently structured

databases and seven spreadsheets. The

users of this information are scattered

around the globe, and often have access

only via local Internet service providers and

land lines or satellite phone. Because of the

low baud rate and reliability of these connections,

users communicated information

primarily by e-mail. The data was then transcribed

into the appropriate system.

Numerous Real-Time Benefits

The new EAGLE MMIS tool offers a secure,

wholly Web-based system, permitting users

to view and enter data without the need to

transfer large packets of data over the narrow

pipes available at their sites. The MMIS

team moved information from all historical

sources into the new system, familiarized

personnel with the new tool and process,

and put the new tool in service. This represented

a transformational change for the

users, allowing real-time input and reporting

as opposed to a 45-day cycle, which

included five transcriptions of data. “This is

the answer,” affirmed Jerry Parsons of NSWC.

MTS EO/IR tracking system

The communication improvements and failure

analysis tools in MMIS enabled

improvements in quality, reliability and service

of fielded units. The quality measure

most important to warfighters is equipment

availability, which increased 24.6 percent

from May 2004 through August 2005. The

cycle time needed to create an inventory

consumption report decreased from 45

days to real time. MMIS reports are now

accessible anywhere in the world rather

than pre-MMIS reports that were housed

and available only in Texas and Indiana.

The MMIS tool currently tracks 36,000 items

warehoused or used worldwide in the war

on terrorism. Analysis reports built into the

tool provide trend information on spare

assets, and consumable usage rates prevent

shortages at remote locations and downtime

of the mission asset. When the predictive

logistics feature is added to MMIS, an

assembly or subassembly can be replaced

during routine maintenance and prior to it

reaching a failure point in the field.

The MMIS Extension-NSWC project illustrates

the key principles of Mission

Assurance at Raytheon: understanding the

customer’s need and acting flexibly and

creatively to achieve customer success.

Larri Ann Rosser

Raytheon Six Sigma is a trademark of Raytheon

Company. R6s is a Raytheon Company trademark

registered in the United States and Europe.


U.S. Patents

Issued to Raytheon

At Raytheon, we encourage people to

work on technological challenges that keep

America strong and develop innovative

commercial products. Part of that process is

identifying and protecting our intellectual

property. Once again, the United States

Patent Office has recognized our engineers

and technologists for their contributions in

their fields of interest. We compliment our

inventors who were awarded patents from

August through November 2005.



6923681 Electrical assembly for solderless interconnection

of circuit boards in a stacked configuration



6924218 (Metamorphic hemt) sulfide encapsulation

passivation technique


6925563 Multiplication of modular numbers


6926238 Support structure with y-shaped support stand




6927383 Radiation hardened visible p-i-n detector




6927654 Corrosion resistant waveguide systems

and method



6927654 Method for designing a deployment



6927654 Adaptive glint reduction method and system


6931960 Leadscrew mechanical drive with

differential leadscrew follower structure


6931994 Tandem warhead


6934591 Figure eight hysteresis control method and

follow-up system





6937471 Method and apparatus for removing heat

from a circuit (phase change cooling system for high

power active phased arrays or similar high thermal

density electronics)




6941040 Selectable filter module for optical fiber

transmission system, and method of filtering light


6941850 Self-contained airborne smart weapon

umbilical control cable




6943897 Method of fabricating and inspecting a

transparent optical element having a parabolic

optical-quality lateral surface



6946647 Multicolor staring missile sensor system


6946880 Compact balun for rejecting common mode

electromagnetic fields



6947117 Broadband optical beam steering system

and device


6948080 System and method for minimizing upsets in

digital microcircuits via ambient radiation monitoring


6949707 Periodic interleaved star with vias

electromagnetic bandgap structure for microstrip and

flip chip on board applications



6949978 Efficient broadband switching-mode





6952001 Integrity bound situational awareness and

weapon targeting








6952153 Electrical transformer (planar magnetic

assembly with embedded core transformers)




6952345 Method and apparatus for cooling

heat-generating structure (multilayer coldplate for cooling

active electronically scanned arrays using subambient

cooling system)







6952513 Method and apparatus for effecting

alignment in an optical apparatus


6954173 Techniques for measurement of deformation

of electronically scanned antenna array structures



6957550 Method and apparatus for extracting noncondensable

gases in a cooling system (air removal

mechanism for sub-ambient cooling system)



6958665 Micro electro-mechanical system phase shifter






6958670 Offset connector with compressible conductor


6959753 Construction of phase change material

embedded electronic circuit boards and electronic circuit

board assemblies using porous and fibrous media


6961016 Estimating an antenna pointing error by

determining polarization (beam-pointing determination




6961171 Phase conjugate relay mirror apparatus for

high energy laser system and method




6963312 Slot for decade band tapered slot antenna

and method of making and configuring same



6963442 Low-noise, switchable RF-lightwave synthesizer





6965349 Phased array antenna



6965472 Nonreciprocal optical element with independent

control of transmission opposite directions




6967282 Flip chip mmic on board performance using

periodic electromagnetic bandgap structures






6967539 Low phase-noise local oscillator and method




6967766 Zigzag slab laser amplifier with integral

reflective surface and method


6967793 Lens assembly with externally adjustable

lens spacing, and method for its assembly


6968970 Ammunition shipping and storage container

and method




6969103 Mobile battle center and command table for

a mobile battle center (table, ruggedized, special purpose)



6969840 Imaging optical system including a

telescope and an uncooled warm-stop structure



6969849 Mass spectrometer for entrained particles,

and method for measuring masses of the particles




6970128 Motion compensated synthetic aperture

imaging system and methods for imaging








6970142 Antenna configuration for reduced radar

comlpexity (automotive)

International Patents Issued to Raytheon

Congratulations to Raytheon technologists

from all over the world. We would like to

acknowledge international patents issued

from August through November 2005. These

inventors are responsible for keeping the

company on the cutting edge, and we salute

their innovation and contributions.

Titles are those on the U.S. patents; actual titles on

foreign counterparts are sometimes modified and not

recorded. While we strive to list current international

patents, many foreign patents issue much later than the

corresponding U.S. patents and may not be reflected yet.



2002243934 Vehicle trip determination system and

method (determination of vehicle trips in an open

ticket electronic toll collection system with arbitrary

road geometry)





1485730 An adaptive system and method for

radar detection




2400512 All-weather precision guidance of distributed








1399721 Method and apparatus providing focal plane

array active thermal control elements






2400512 Dissolvable thrust vector control vane



1360549 Liquid crystal device and manufacturing





1364247 Lightweight head-mounted display


1135669 Integrated system for line-of-sight

stabilization and auto-alignment of off-gimbal

electro-optical passive and active electro-optical








1317774 Method and system for temperature gradient

control in an electronic system (temperature gradient

control with local heat transfer enhancement in

cooling tubes captured in an aluminum silicon carbide

metal matrix composite body)





3723587 Radar system and components therefore for

transmitting an electromagnetic signal underwater


3709032 Radar system





3709022 Analog-to-digital conversion system




519706 Cascode amplifier




511814 Low cost, large scale RF hybrid package for

simple assembly onto mixed signal printed wiring






509876 Mobile biometric identification system

(distributed mobile biometric indentification system

with a centralized server and mobile workstations)


522451 Radar system



319892 Digital center line filter




319865 High-speed data register for laser









319387 Blur film for infrared optical applications



319613 Centered longitudinal shunt slot fed by a

resonant offset ridge iris




319777 Vehicle having a ceramic radome affixed

thereto by a complaint metallic “t-flexure element”








970533 Standard boxhorn array architecture using

folded junctions




2257649 Common aperture reflector antenna with

improved feed design




926511 Air traffic control system


Future Events

Raytheon’s 5th Annual

Systems and Software

Engineering Symposium

Creating Mission Assurance

Through Innovative and

Integrated Systems and

Software Technologies


March 28–30, 2006

Marriott Denver Tech Center

Denver, Colorado

Raytheon’s fifth annual Systems and

Software Engineering Symposium is devoted

to fostering increased teaming and technical

collaboration on current developments,

capabilities and future directions

among systems, software and information

technology disciplines. The symposium provides

a forum to increase understanding of

Raytheon’s expertise in these areas, and to

build and cultivate networking among our

technologists and engineering personnel.

This year’s event will focus on Raytheondeveloped

and emerging technologies that

are important to our company’s role as a

technology leader in the Aerospace/Defense

industry. As technology is always expanding,

the impacts and effects of Information

Technology on engineering disciplines will

also be addressed.

While Raytheon continues the integration of

engineering disciplines into a cohesive unit,

we need to aggressively exploit existing and

emerging technological competencies along

with networked interoperable common

product architectures, COTS products and

integrated engineering processes, while

ensuring customer inclusion, acceptance

and satisfaction. Our relentless challenge is

to find better ways to collaborate in bringing

innovative, high quality integrated turnkey

solutions to our customers for less cost

and within shorter schedules.

For more information visit http://home.ray.


* * *

18th Annual Systems and

Software Technology


Transforming: Business,

Security, Warfighting


May 1–4, 2006

Salt Palace Convention Center

Salt Lake City, Utah

In its eighteenth year, the Systems and

Software Technology Conference (SSTC) is

the premier joint services systems and software

technology conference in the

Department of Defense (DoD) and co-sponsored

by the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps,

U.S. Navy, Department of the Navy, U.S. Air

Force, Defense Information Systems Agency

(DISA) and Utah State University Extension.

SSTC continues to provide this premier

forum in the DoD to enhance attendees’

professional skills and knowledge of systems

and software technologies and policies,

enabling them to improve the capabilities

they provide to the warfighter.

For more information visit

Do you have a great idea for an article?

We are always looking for ways to connect with you — our engineering, technology, manufacturing

and quality professionals. If you have an article or an idea for an article regarding technical

achievements, customer solutions, relationships, Mission Assurance, etc., send it along. If

your topic aligns with a future issue of technology today or is appropriate for an online article,

we will be happy to consider it and will contact you for more information. Send your article

ideas or suggestions to We want to hear from you!

Raytheon’s 8th Annual

Electro-Optical Systems



– Coming Soon –

May 2–4 2006

Fess Parker Resort

Goleta, California

* * *

Raytheon’s 7th Annual RF


Expanding the Spectrum of

Systems Solutions


– Coming Soon –

May 15–18, 2006

Intercontinental Hotel

Dallas, Texas

Raytheon announces the eighth annual RF

Symposium devoted to the exchange of

information on RF/microwave, millimeter

wave and associated technology. Sponsored

by the Raytheon RF Systems Technology

Network (RFSTN) and the Analog, RF, MW

Engineering Council (ARMEC), this

company-wide symposium provides the

RF/microwave technical communities,

business segments and HRL with a forum

to exchange information on existing capabilities,

emerging developments and future

directions. The symposium fosters the

sharing of Raytheon’s collective expertise

in RF technology and communication

between its technical leaders.

For more information, visit


* * *

Raytheon’s Mission

Assurance Forum

Sponsored by the Operations

and Quality Councils


– Coming Soon –

June 28–30, 2006

Washington D.C.

Copyright © 2005 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.

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