Osirys - Newsletter - February 2015


Osirys - Newsletter - February 2015

OSIRYSForest based composites forfaçades and interior partitions toimprove indoor air quality innew builds and restorationContentsIntroductionProject OverviewArchitectural ComponentsLight Foam BiocompositesCork Insulation forBiocomposite PanelsGraphene Additives inBiopolymersBiocomposites With GoodOutdoor DurabilityPhotocatalytic CoatingsCase Study: Southern EuropeIndustrial Stakeholder PanelContactProject Partnerswww.osirysproject.euOSIRYS NewsletterIssue 1 - February 2015

Project OverviewAimsThe OSIRYS project will aim to improveindoor environmental quality and energyefficiency by developing forest-basedbiocomposites for façades and interiorpartitions to be applied in retrofitting andnew building construction.ConceptIndoor air quality and emissions frombuilding materials have been, over thelast several decades, a major challengefor scientists, industry and consumers.Traditional construction materialscontribute to contaminants such as VOCs,formaldehyde, particulates and fibres.OSIRYS partners will work with new ecoinnovativebuilding materials, which are ableto provide a healthier indoor environment,to develop a holistic solution to thecurrent emissions challenges facing theconstruction industry.DevelopmentA practical solution for façades and interiorpartitions will be developed ready to beapplied in building retrofitting and newconstruction. These will demonstrate avariety of functionalities able to meet thestrictest requisites of the Building Code andwill be showcased in real-life applications.OutcomesThe new materials will improve air qualityby eliminating micro-organisms, increasingthermal and acoustic insulation andcontrolling breathability of the constructionsystems.Biocomposite ProfileMultifunction LayerWeather ResistantOutdoor PanelLight Foam PanelCork-Based PanelFire Resistant PanelWaterproofMembraneThe figures above left and above right show an scheme of the elements and products that can bemanufactured by the development of an easily assembled modular multi-layer envelope based onbiocomposites. As can be seen, besides complete façade systems, light envelopes and partition walls can beobtained. These products will be developed within the project.Newsletter Issue 1 - February 20153

Multi-layered Wall Systemmany of the same materials, while differingin the design and engineering. Some ofthe most remarkable components to beengineered are the structural profiles ineach of these products. Our first graphenereinforced pultrusions are being producedand tested at lab scale, and by the endof 2015 full-scaled simulations will beconducted. The multi-layered and curtainwall systems will also share the exteriorpanels as a component. One should notforget the importance of aesthetics andcladding in an approach to the market.By the end of the project the goal is to bringthese products up to a technology readinesslevel of 7, which is a demonstration ofpilot production. For this we target theintegration of the products in two buildingsin Europe: one in Spain and the other inSweden. For performance and marketabilityit is important to test our products in thedisparate climates of Europe.Newsletter Issue 1 - February 20155

160°C 140°C 125°CCell structures of three extrusion foamed bio-polymer samples with varying die temperaturesbut slightly lower than the strength of hardgypsum board. The weight of this newsolution was approximately 3.5 – 4 kg/m 2 - approximately 2 to 3 times lower thantraditional gypsum board at 8.8 - 11.3 kg/m 2 .Bio-Polymer foamingIn OSIRYS, extrusion foamed bio-basedthermoplastics are being developed asa core for an internal insulation board.The research has up to now focused onthe optimisation of foam and processparameters in lab-scale extrusion foaming,and in initial trials using a pilot-scale tandemextrusion line. The biobased materials aredeveloped by TECNARO GmbH.In laboratory scale tests lignin-basedthermoplastic materials were foamed tofind preliminary processing parameters. Forthese bio-based materials, the optimumtemperature for successful foaming wasfound. The foam density reached 40-100kg/m 3 depending on the material usedand the process parameters. The foamstructures of selected samples are visiblein the figures above, showing a closed-cellstructure with mean cell size about 100 µmwhen a die temperature of 125°C is used. Athigher temperatures the density too high forour application.For the up-scaling of polymer foaming, apilot-scale tandem extrusion line owned byVTT is used. The trials so far have beendone using lignin-based thermoplasticmaterial and PLA. In the initial experimentswith PLA, a foam board with a thickness of10 mm, width of 70 mm, density of 60 kg/m 3 and average cell size of 500 µm wasobtained (see image below). Throughputin the experiments was 7.2 kg/h, and thedimensions can be increased by usinghigher throughput rate.PLA foam board structure in macroNewsletter Issue 1 - February 20157

Graphene Additives in BiopolymersThe use of graphene to improve mechanical and fire performancePrevious studies have shown thatbiocomposites manufactured fromnatural materials such as fibres and bioderivedpolymers, offer a sustainablealternative to traditional polymers andcomposites, but at present they are onlyavailable at industrial level for use insemi-structural applications.The incorporation of additives tobiopolymers has been studied in orderto improve mechanical properties andadhesion between matrix and fibres.The addition of graphene nanoplatelets topolymers has offered significant potentialfor the development of advanced materialsand various applications due to their highsurface area, which can have a dramaticimpact on mechanical and fire resistanceproperties. Graphene has been regarded asone of the most promising reinforcementsfor the next generation of high performancecomposites. However, carbonaceousnanostructures’ outstanding properties havebeen restrained by technical challengessuch as dispersion and interfacial bondingfor load transfer to the resin.Although adding graphene can greatlyimprove properties such modulus,toughness and fatigue properties, stronginterfacial adhesion between the grapheneplatelet and the composite matrix iscrucial to achieving these gains. Interfacialadhesion can be greatly improved by thechemical functionalisation of the graphenesurface, which can also aid plateletdispersion in the matrix.The choice of strategy is directly relatedto the nature of the polymeric matrix.In this way, applicable examples haveused radical chemistry and a number ofGraphene nanoplateletsother chemistries for assuring an optimalcompatibility degree.In common with other composites, theprocessability of biocomposites can becomplex and has a relatively low output.Subsequently, new technologies need to beadapted to the behaviour of the bio-basedmaterials. Pultrusion technology is useful,but it has some limitations when used toprocess natural fibres and bio-based resins.Therefore, work is required to understandthe new biomaterials and graphene, and toimprove the proper formulation of the resin,process parameters and also to achievea suitable dispersion of graphene as afirst step of the process. In order to avoidfibre breakage other modifications such ashomogeneous curing, minimised residencetime and processing temperature arerequired.In this project, an innovative pultrusionprocess was performed minimising fibretension and reducing curing time. As aresult, demonstrators of pultruded profileshave been manufactured incorporatingnovel materials, graphene nanoplateletsand bio-based resin.Newsletter Issue 1 - February 20159

Biocomposites With Good Outdoor DurabilityBiocomposite with good outdoor durability - coatings for outdoor use.Durability is one of the key issues in thedevelopment of fibre reinforced polymercomposites for construction.Since the application of FRP in theconstruction industry is quite recent,there is little knowledge of the short andlong term behaviour of these materials.The durability of FRP structures dependsboth on specific environmental conditions(alkalinity, moisture, temperature) and longterm effects (creep and relaxation, fatigueloading) among others.One of the objectives of the OSIRYSproject is to minimise the influence ofenvironmental factors and improve biocompositesoutdoor durability. To thatend, several protection strategies are nowcommercially available and will be testedduring this project.All these efforts are moving towards theobjective of increasing the use of biocompositesin the construction marketand to obtain more market penetration bymanufacturing components that fulfil allthe technical requirements from this verydemanding market.Applying a protection layer (coating) onthe exposed surfaceThere are two main ways to improveoutdoor performance of compositematerials. Either applying an externalprotection layer (coating) on the exposedsurface or modifying the resin formulation,adding additives to bring intrinsic propertiesto the matrix. In OSIRYS it was decided toapply external coatings to protect the biocompositeagainst deterioration causedby external factors such as UV rays,wind, rain and thermal changes, reducingmaintenance and increasing the life of thebuilding.On the basis of a deep analysis of most ofthe state of the art products commerciallyavailable, six coatings were selectedtaking into account several factors such asdesign requirements, process requirements(processability, price) and service conditions(service temperature, humidity degree).These coatings were applied by a roller onbio-composite laminates, see figure below.Compatibility and performance of thecoatings with the raw materials selectedto fabricate the bio-composite laminateswas evaluated by means of several tests,following either ASTM or EU standards(adhesion test, abrasion test, impact test). Asummary of the results obtained from all thetests carried out on the selected coatingscan be found in the table (right).From these results it is clear that mostof the coatings showed good impact andabrasion resistance and adhesion to thesubstrate. However, selection of the mostappropriate coating depends also on thefinal application and additional testing isneeded, such as:10 Osirys Project

CoatingThickness(μm)Impact testImpact MarkDisbondmentMin. Max. Min. Max.AdhesionTestCrystic Fireguard 180 - 190 No No No No 4BThermoshield ECT 170 - 180 No Yes No No 3BThermoshield ACCENT 160 - 170 No Yes No No 3BLumiflon without primer 200 - 220 No Yes No No 4BLumiflon with primer 300 - 330 No No No No 5BFireproof water based Varnish 55 - 70 No No No No 4BIntumescent Varnish 80 - 100 Yes Yes No No 3B• Durability test to identify the colour, glossand mechanical properties lost when thecoated material is exposed to differentclimatic conditions: for that, acceleratedtests are carried out using a QUV testingmachine.• Fire test to investigate fire performanceof the samples and check whether or notthey fulfil the requirements for an exteriorfaçade (cone calorimetric test).Regarding the durability test, all the relevantstandards for coatings and compositematerials were identified in order to selectthe most appropriate ones for the product.In addition, the study of the climaticconditions of different European countrieswas done to define the most appropriatetesting conditions for carrying out theaccelerated weathering tests in the QUV.Preliminary results on OSIRYS laminatesare shown in the image (right). Laminate 1is a non-coated sample and is used as areference. Laminates 2 and 3 were coatedwith two different transparent fire retardantcoatings. The coated samples remainunchanged from their initial appearanceafter the first 500 hours of the test. Themost severe changes were observed for theuncoated sample including a loss of colour,brightness and original appearance.So, as expected, the use of coatings helpsto improve the outdoor durability of the biocomposites.The task now is to quantify and optimise thecoatings.Newsletter Issue 1 - February 201511

Photocatalytic CoatingsPhotocatalytic coatings to improve indoor air quality.Indoor air pollutants impact humanhealth, comfort and efficiency. The maincontributing sources of VOC are motorvehicle exhaust, household products,paints, solvents and volatile additives inadhesives used in furniture, carpets andother floor covers.One technology to remove VOC is the useof heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation(PCO). Operating at room temperature,PCO can degrade a broad range ofcontaminants without significant energyinput. Inactivation of microorganisms isthe most important mechanism to avoidmicrobial growth on surfaces, which isnormally connected to biofilm developmentin nature as well as on technical orconstruction materials. Thus, anti-microbialstrategies mean to inactivate bacteria, fungiand algae cells to prevent contaminationwhich may influence the optical as well asfunctional properties and can be, in seriouscases, the origin of illnesses.The available commercial products toremove VOCs are mainly for outdoorapplications and most require UV lightirradiation to be effective. One of the maininnovations of the OSIRYS project will bethe development of a photocatalytic systemable to be active under visible light.Coatings for indoor applications are typicallyapplied onto base materials like paper,textiles, wood or metal. The biocompositesdeveloped in the OSIRYS project will have apolymeric surface which is in general morehydrophobic than typical indoor surfaces.VOCs in rooms, and biofilms on indoorfaçades,impact human health and comfort.The biocomposites developed will befurnished with a multifunctional coatingTest setup to evaluate inactivation of microorganismswhich decomposes the VOC and preventsthe formation of biofilm. These functionswill be achieved by preparing formulationswith photocatalytic active additives. Theformulations prepared by the projectpartner SICC will be applied to the selectedmaterials and characterised with regard totheir activity to decompose selected VOCsand to inactivate relevant microorganisms.To evaluate the activity of the differentcommercial and new synthesizedmaterials, the first objective for projectpartner Fraunhofer IGB was to build upand establish suitable methods for paintsas well as powder materials. One taskwas to develop suitable test-setups toanalyse VOC degradation capacity of photocatalytically active surfaces and powders.A further task was to develop a methodto evaluate the antimicrobial properties ofphoto-catalytically active surfaces. The testsetups have given information about thedegradation activity corresponding to theoxidation activity for titanium oxide basedmaterials under relevant environmentalconditions in a reproducible way. It alsoallows the comparison of different materialsin a relatively short time.12 OSIRYS Project

Case Study: Southern EuropeHousing block in San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, SPAIN.VISESA is the public housingcorporation of the Basque Governmentand is in charge of most of the socialhousing developments in the BasqueCountry. The average range of thehousing developments is between30 and 200 flats per block, withhigh construction standards andrequirements and at the same time,enhancing new technical improvementsand research activities, such as theOSIRYS project.One of the most important aspects ofthe OSIRYS project is to assess and toverify the technical performance of newmaterials based on forest biocomposites,and the best way to test this performanceis to apply it on real construction sites andcommon use basis of the future users. Forthis reason, and considering the possibleEuropean climate situations, the project willprovide two demos, one in northern Europeand another one in southern Europe,developed by VISESA. Therefore VISESA’scommitment is to provide a typical socialhousing block that could represent theaverage housing standard in the countryand at the same time, to have the chanceto monitor the material performance onreal basis, according to a standard familybehaviour.In order to comply with the OSIRYSproject planning and VISESA’s possibleoptions to provide a real demo, a socialhousing block has been chosen inSan Sebastian, the second largest cityand metropolitan area in the BasqueCountry with a total 326,000 inhabitants.Construction PlotThe proposed housing block is located inthe Morlans neighbourhood, in the centraldistrict and linked to other neighbourhoods,in a former gas plan plot, where a newresidential development has been carriedout since 2005. Since then, nine housingblocks and some other public facilities havebeen developed and our housing block isthe last empty plot in the area.VISESA has developed the design projectand is currently at the construction technicalproject development process that willinclude all the technical requirements andspecifications (both of the Spanish buildingcodes and VISESA extra sustainabilityrequirements) for the bid tender process tobe carried out by mid 2015.Newsletter Issue 1 - February 201513

The proposed building is a rectangularshaped housing block, 7 storeys high andwith 70 flats divided by three stairs. Theselected flat to install the OSIRYS projectmaterial is a three bedroom flat with doubleor cross ventilation (North-South façades)and a typical layout with three bedrooms,two complete bathrooms, living room,kitchen with clothing lines, reception halland the necessary corridors with a total 85square metres.The aim is to apply the OSIRYS projectbiocomposite material in this block, bothon façades and in the interior partitionwalls, approximately 100 square metresof material on each situation. Once theconstruction is finished, the monitoringactivities will be carried out in two differentflats, a regular one and the one withthe OSIRYS project material, in order tocompare the air quality and emissionsstandards considered in the project, alongwith the analysis of possible performance toprovide a healthier indoor environment andcost effectiveness assessment.14 OSIRYS Project

Industrial Stakeholder PanelYou are invited to join the OSIRYS Industrial Stakeholder PanelMembers of the panel will receiveadvance information about newtechnologies developed during theproject’s life span.The Stakeholder Panel will provide aforum for two-way discussion. StakeholderPanel members will receive advanceinformation about the new technologiesand will have the ability to steer the projectoutcomes, while consortium partners willreceive external feedback and commercialperspectives on their developments.Indoor air quality and emissions frombuilding materials have been a majorchallenge for scientists, industry andconsumers, as traditional constructionmaterials contribute contaminants. As amember you will have a vested interest inthe innovative materials and technologiesdeveloped within the project.Panel Members will:• receive advance information on projectprogress, including development of newmaterials and technologies.• have the opportunity to steer the projectoutcomes to be industry-relevant.• provide feedback and commercialperspectives on the project.The OSIRYS project will look to improveindoor environmental quality and energyefficiency by developing forest-based biocompositesand products for façades andinterior partitions. These new technologiescan then be applied in retrofitting and newbuilding construction.Join and Influence OutcomesMembers will have the opportunityto meet with the consortium partnersat several workshops as well asparticipating in active discussions onthe project’s professional LinkedIngroup.To join, please visitosirysproject.eu/stakeholder-groupor contact:Miriam Garcia, Tecnaliamiriam.garcia@tecnalia.comJames Taylor, NetComposites Ltdjames.taylor@netcomposites.comNewsletter Issue 1 - February 201515

OSIRYSForest based composites forfaçades and interior partitions toimprove indoor air quality innew builds and restorationwww.osirysproject.euContactFor further information on OSIRYS, or to join theIndustrial Stakeholder Group, please contact:Dr. Miriam Garcia, PhD.TECNALIAMateriales Innovadores y Sostenibles /Innovative and Sustainable MaterialsM: +34 647 402 327E: miriam.garcia@tecnalia.comThis project has received funding from theEuropean Union’s Seventh FrameworkProgramme for research, technologicaldevelopment and demonstration undergrant agreement no 609067.Project PartnersCopyright © NetComposites 2015

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