Jasna Tomic, CALSTART - California Public Utilities Commission

cpuc.ca.gov

Jasna Tomic, CALSTART - California Public Utilities Commission

Vehicle-to-Grid Opportunities

Clean Transportation

Technologies and Solutions

Jasna Tomic

Plug-in Electric Vehicle Integration Issues

California Public Utilities Commission

San Francisco, CA

July 15, 2009


Copyright CALSTART 2009

Power Grid Changing

•“Smart Grid”

• Integrating Distributed Generation

• Increasing generation from renewables

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Vehicle to Grid- Integration of

Transportation and Power Grid

Arrows indicate direction of power flow

(Kempton &Tomic, JPS, 2005) 2


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Battery Size and Daily

Driving of EVs and PHEVs

Battery size in EVs

15- 50 kWh

PHEVs 10 – 15 kWh

Daily driving is ~ 30

miles per day

Lots of unused energy

storage!

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EDV

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Uses for V2G Power

Base-load Power

Peak Power

Ancillary Services

Energy Storage

turbine

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Electricity Market Prices

• Ancillary Services Capacity Price

– Frequency Regulation $15-55/MW-h

- Spinning Reserves $20/MW-h

Capacity price ($/MW-h) +

Energy price ($/MWh)

Energy Price

• Baseload Power 2-10 c/kWh

• Peak Power 5-80 c/kWh

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V2G Provides New Source of

Distributed Generation

•50% of cars as EDVs increase electric load ?

100 Million cars

x 15,000 Miles per year / 4.8 Miles per kWh

= 312 Billion kWh per year at off-peak times

= 7 % of 2020 total national load

•With V2G, these EDVs also provide a huge power

resource:

100 M cars x 15 kW x 0.5 avail. = 750 GW of DG

> 70% of 2020 national electric power

capacity!

Conclusion: Even 50% of cars as EDV, IF they have

V2G, probably REDUCE grid infrastructure requirements

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Vehicles & Electric Grid

• Two large sector that can be

integrated

• Smart interaction between vehicle

fleet, grid and intermittent renewable

• Large, low-cost storage for

renewables

• Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) power as

bridging technology

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Benefits of V2G

• Cost of EVs & PHEVs is relatively high

• V2G provides revenue to owner and helps

offset that higher cost

• Dual use for clean transportation and grid

power support - shared capital cost

• Encourages early adoption of EVs & PHEVs

• Distributed generation

• Energy storage for grid and integration of

renewable sources

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Recommendations

• V2G can be integrated and implemented in

limited deployment now

• TOU rates would support controlled

charging

• Allowing discharging of EVs and other

distributed generation back to the grid

provides greater benefit to the grid

– Use of stored electricity, grid stability, new

generation capacity

• With installation of ‘smart grid’ deploy in

parallel new applications and technologies

such as V2G that really put the smart grid

to use

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Jasna Tomic

JTomic@calstart.org

626-744-5600

Clean Transportation

Technologies and Solutions SM

www.calstart.org


Copyright CALSTART 2009

Ancillary Services

Market

• Ancillary services ensure electric power grid is

stable and reliable

• Regulation: On-line generation synchronized to

the grid to respond to demand variations (voltage

and frequency). Energy is increased/decreased

instantly (~2-3 min) via automatic generation

control (AGC)

• Spinning Reserves: Generating capacity

synchronized and ready to respond for ~10 min in

case of power failures.

• Require units operating but not producing energy

• Payments consist of:

Capacity price ($/MW-h) + Energy price ($/MWh)

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