Purpose: PersuadeThis section describes the key characteristics of “persuade or argue” purpose writing.Using the Scoring RubricThe progress indicators in the scoring rubric have been developed to help teachersunderstand and evaluate their students’ progress and achievement in writing. Teachers areasked to make a “best-fit” judgement as to the level at which their student’s writing mostpredominantly sits for each of the seven content areas: Audience Awareness and Purpose,Content/Ideas, Structure/Organisation, Language Resources, Grammar, Spelling, andPunctuation.Deep FeaturesAudience Awareness and Purpose:This function of writing centres on an assumption that a writer must convince a particularreader, whether real or imagined, through the presentation of relevant points withsupporting evidence. There are many types of persuasive texts, with variations in focus,but the main focus here is to argue a position or to persuade a reader to a particular pointof view.Content/Ideas:A thesis or position statement provides the reader with the context. In the body of the text,there are main points with elaboration, usually in the form of supporting evidence. Thispart of the text takes the reader through a structured and logical presentation ofinformation (i.e., evidence and/or illustration) to support the writer’s position or thesis. Theconclusion re-states the writer’s position and/or makes a recommendation for action aboutwhat ought or ought not to be done.Structure/Organisation:There is a focus on objects and ideas, rather than events, happenings or processes.Information and ideas are grouped logically and linked thematically. Organising devicessuch as paragraphing and conjunctions are used to show relations among content itemsor ideas.Language Resources:Arguments name and describe, in noun phrases, generalised participants or abstractconcepts (e.g., parents or the gun-control lobby). Arguments employ declarative or statingmood choices to make statements of fact and offer personal opinions on the topic.Precise, descriptive, factual language is employed to give detail and credibility to theargument. Persuasive or emotive language is commonly used to add to the impact on thereader and make the argument seem powerful. There may be use of idiomatic (e.g.,regional or local) language to appeal to readers’ senses and emotions. Technicallanguage related to the topic (where appropriate) adds authority to the text andwriter.Verbs are used to make clear the state of play and many existing and relational verbsare used (i.e., being and having verbs such as is, are, have, belongs to). The choice anduse of verb-vocabulary often reflects the desire to create particular information-ladenmeanings for the reader.Modals (e.g., auxiliaries that demonstrate, possibility, probability, usuality or obligationsuch as must, might, can, ought, should, may) are used to give information about thedegree of obligation or certainty involved in the argument. Verbs are commonly in thetimeless present tense. This adds to the authority of the text as readers are given aversion of the world as it is. Passive structures are also employed to make the text seemmore objective and formal.Arguments often make use of nominalisation (e.g., turning verbs or adjectives intonouns) and abstract nouns to enhance the appearance of objectivity and formality. Nounpacking(long noun phrases) is a common device for developing concise and precisedescriptions. Adjectives are often stacked to produce densely packed noun-groups. Notethat the “naming” of the world through noun choice can add opinion (e.g., protestors vs.concerned citizens). Additive and causal relations are common in these texts as positionsare defined and elaborated and their underlying reasons related. Conjunctions thatexpress these relations are utilised (e.g., in addition to, and, if and then, so, because, forthis reason, etc.).Surface FeaturesGrammar:This dimension of text refers to accepted patterns in language use rather than withgrammatical choices made by writers to achieve particular purposes. Here we refer toaspects of grammar such as subject-verb agreement, the use of complete verbs/verbgroups, and the appropriate and consistent use of tense-choices for verbs. It is a student’sability to control language patterns at this level of text that is judged here.Spelling:Spelling is considered separately and is related to increasing skill and knowledge abouthigh-frequency words (HFW), simple spelling patterns, complex spelling patterns, and thespelling of irregular or technical vocabulary. The judgement of spelling is made in thecontext of the student’s text but evidence to support the judgement needs to beconsidered carefully.Punctuation:This dimension of text refers to the degree of control a writer shows over punctuation.This control ranges from showing an awareness of sentence punctuation to being able touse complex punctuation effectively. Again scorers are required to locate evidence tosupport their judgements about a student’s competence.
Scoring Rubric, Purpose: PERSUADELevel 1(Proficient)Level 2(Proficient)Level 3(Proficient)Level 4(Proficient)Level 5(Proficient)Level 6(Proficient)Audience Awareness andPurposeWriter writes primarily for self Writer recognises they arewriting for an audience otherthan self.States own opinion with littleattempt to persuade.States opinions from apersonal perspective andassumes shared knowledgewith the audience.May attempt to persuadeaudience.States opinions from apersonal perspective and mayassume shared knowledgewith the audience.Shows some awareness ofpurpose and audiencethrough choice of content,language, and writing style.Attempts to persuade theaudience by statingposition in opening.Knows that audience mayhold a different point ofview but tends to assumethere is only onegeneralised point of view.Writer shows awareness ofpurpose and audience throughchoice of content, language,and writing style.Clearly states a consistentposition to persuade theaudience.Shows some awareness ofintended audience particularlyat beginning an end of text.Writer shows awareness ofpurpose and targets theaudience through deliberatechoice of content, language,and writing style.Identifies and relates to aconcrete/specific audience.Shows awareness of intendedaudience and acknowledgesothers’ point of view.Writer consistentlypersuades intendedaudience.Shows implicit awarenessthat audience may hold arange of points of view.Uses tone for impact or tomanipulate the intendedaudience towards author’spoint of view. May effectchange.Writing includes one or moredomains appropriate topurpose, usually a positionstatement that conveys asimple idea or a responsefrom a personal perspective.Writing includes somedomains appropriate topurpose, e.g., a positionstatement in which the writeridentifies a position andmakes two or more simplerelated opinions orstatements.May include a conclusion.Includes most domainelements for argument,e.g., main points, somesupporting evidence, orillustration, a re-statementof position.Includes and begins todevelop identifiably domainelements for argument e.g., aposition statement, support formain points, restatement.Develops mainly consistentdomain elements forargument, e.g., a plausibleposition statement, support formain points, restatement.Selects content to add.Makes consideredrelevant and elaboratepoints.Chooses examples tosupport purpose.Content/IdeasMay repeat some ideas May present ideas as a list.May include a conclusionthat makes arecommendation.Restates and strengthensposition.Uses conclusion to reflectpoints made, and mayexpand the argument.Uses conclusion tointegrate the themes ofthe argument, rather thansimply repeating orsummarising the pointsmade.May include informationunrelated to the topic and/ortaskMay include some statementsunrelated to the topic and/ortask.Relates almost all materialto the given task.Provides relevant support forideas.Strongly links supportingreasons to argument.Gives consistentsupport to main points.
Level 1(Proficient)Level 2(Proficient)Level 3(Proficient)Level 4(Proficient)Level 5(Proficient)Level 6(Proficient)Some semblance oforganisation (based around asingle idea) may be evident atsentence level.Semblance of organisatione.g., some grouping of ideas,generally at sentence level, isevident.Attempts overallstructuring of content bygrouping ideas within andacross sentences.Groups content logically atthe level of main idea by usingtopic sentences to guide thereader’s understanding.Uses structure to add to theintended impact of argumente.g., by developing a logical,consistently flowing argument.Uses an explicit, logicalstructure to enhance theargument.StructureMay attempt simpleconjunctions e.g., “and”,“because”, etc.May make opinion statementsas discrete elementsAttempts simple conjunctionsto link ideas within sentences,e.g., “and”, “because”, etc.Uses simple connectivesand linkages within andacross sentences, e.g.,“since”, “though”, etc.Consistent uses a variety ofconnectives and linkages withinsentences and betweenparagraphs, e.g., “on the onehand”, “however”, etc.Uses complex linkages withinand between paragraphs,e.g., varied linking words andphrases, conjunctions, andtext connectives.Uses complex linkages,e.g., varied linking wordsand phrases,conjunctions, and textconnectives.Attempts paragraphing.Uses paragraphing, linkingmain ideas and supportingdetails.Uses paragraphs with mainideas and supporting details.Links sentences thematicallyto topic of paragraph orsection.Uses logically arrangedreasoned ideas in wellcraftedparagraphs andstrong topic sentences toguide the reader’sunderstanding of theargument.Uses language featuresfor effect to involve andpersuade the intendedaudience.Uses simple opinionstatements from a personalperspective, e.g., “I like”, etc.Uses simple persuasivestatements from a personalperspective, e.g., “I think”,etc.Uses some features ofpersuasive language e.g.rhetorical questions,imperatives, passive voice,data.Uses features of persuasivelanguage, e.g., rhetoricalquestions, imperatives, passivevoice, data.Deliberately uses a range offeatures of persuasivelanguage for effect in order toinvolve and persuade theintended audienceLanguage ResourcesUses some topic-specificlanguage to express anopinion. Uses mainly highfrequencywords.Uses topic or content-specificlanguage but languagechoices convey little opinion,e.g., mainly neutral nouns,basic descriptors, and limitedverbs and adverbialsBegins to select languageto create a particular effectto influence the audience,e.g., “point of view” nouns,viewpoint adverbials andopinion adjectives to adddetail and weight to opinionstatements and evidenceMay use some modalauxiliary verbs, e.g., “can”,“might,” “should”, “may”,etc.Largely controls pronounuseUses language to identify aparticular viewpoint andpersuade the audience.Uses passive structures andmodal auxiliaries tostrengthen argument.Considers and selectslanguage features foreffect with the intention ofmanipulating and/orinfluencing the audience.Uses tone, e.g., sarcastic,threatening, humorous,emotive etc., to underpinselective languagefeatures and strengthenargument.Shows some understandingof pronoun use.Shows some understandingof pronoun use.
Level 1(Proficient)Level 2(Proficient)Level 3(Proficient)Level 4(Proficient)Level 5(Proficient)Level 6(Proficient)Language Resources(continued)May express opinions from apersonal perspective.Mainly uses simplesentences, with somevariation in beginnings. Mayattempt compound andcomplex sentences.Uses some languageappropriate to purpose andaudience.Uses simple and compoundsentences with some variationin beginning. May attemptcomplex sentences.Uses language that isgenerally appropriate topurpose and audience.Uses a variety of sentencestructures, beginnings, andlengths.Uses language appropriate topurpose and audience.Uses a variety of sentencestructures, beginnings, andlengths for effect.Uses a variety of sentencestructures, beginnings, andlengths for effect and impact.Uses complex,appropriate, variedsentence construction.GrammarAttempts to use basicgrammatical conventionswhen writing simple andcompound sentences, e.g.,consistent tenseUses most basicgrammatical conventionscorrectly when writing simpleand compound sentencese.g.,consistent tense,subject-verb agreement,consistent pronouns correctuse of prepositions).Uses most grammaticalconventions correctlywhen writing simple,compound, and somecomplex sentences.Uses most grammaticalconventions correctly whenwriting simple, compound, andcomplex sentences.Uses almost all grammaticalconventions correctly whenwriting simple, compound,and complex sentences.Sustained control ofsentence grammarevident throughout piece.Control enhancescommunication.Errors may interfere with meaning. Errors no longer interfere with meaning Uses the conventions of grammar with few intrusiveerrors.Shows some simplesentence indication, e.g.capital letters, full stops.Uses most simple sentenceindication i.e., caps, full stops,question marks.Uses simple correctsentence indication i.e.,caps, full stops, questionmarks.Uses consistent correctsentence indication i.e., caps,full stops, question mark,exclamation.Uses the conventions of punctuation with few intrusiveerrors.PunctuationErrors may interfere with comprehension.Attempts some other basicpunctuation e.g., caps forproper nouns, commas inlists, speech marks,apostrophes for contraction.Uses some other basicpunctuation correctlye.g., caps for propernouns, commas in lists,speech marks,apostrophes forcontractionErrors do not interfere with comprehension.Mostly uses accuratecomplex punctuation e.g.,commas, colons, hyphen,ellipsis, apostrophe ofpossession, and thepunctuation for dialogueUses complex punctuation accurately e.g.,apostrophes, colons, hyphensSome success with using commas, semicolons forembedded, parenthetical, and conditional phrases orclauses.
Level 1(Proficient)Level 2(Proficient)Level 3(Proficient)Level 4(Proficient)Level 5(Proficient)Level 6(Proficient)Spells some high frequencywords (Lists 1-3) correctlySpells most high frequencywords (Lists 1-4) correctly.Spells most high frequencywords (Lists 1-6) correctly.Few errors within highfrequency words (Lists 1-7).SpellingBegins to use come commonspelling patterns, e.g., “and”,“band”, “hand”Understands frequently usedspelling patterns (e.g.,changing y to ies, doubleconsonant when adding ing).Understands most spellingpatterns including somecomplex patterns (e.g.,plurals using ch,sh,x,o).Understands most spellingpatterns including mostcomplex patterns e.g., soft ‘g’or ‘c’, keep the ‘e’ manageable.Demonstrates a good understanding of spelling patternswith few intrusive errors.Attempts to spell words byrecording dominant sounds inorder.Approximate spellings showknowledge of consonantsounds, blends, and vowelsounds.Has some success withmulti-syllabic (hygienic),irregular (yacht), ortechnical words.Uses complex multi-syllabicirregular or technical words.Sustains control of complexmultisyllabic, irregular, ortechnical words.Sustains control ofcomplex multisyllabic,irregular, or technicalwords.
Annotated Examples for Persuade or Argue PurposeAudience Awareness and Purpose3BLanguage use and writing style isacceptable to addressing the Principaland appropriate to persuading a reader.Position in inferred. There are a numberof attempts to influence the reader. Thisis a reader-based piece.To score above 3B This writer needs totarget language use further so that toneand style reflect better the reader/writerrelationship. Make position explicit.Content / Ideas 2PContent is limited but relevant. Noposition statement is evident but positionis clear (inferred). Examples/relatedpoints are many but scope is limited.To score higher than 2P This writerneeds to generate more content topersuade the reader by weight ofevidence (quantity) and relevance(quality) of his/her evidence.Structure/Organisation 2ASome structuring of text is evident in thegrouping of ideas but linking of ideas islimited (through limited conjunction use‘so’, ‘and’, ‘or’). Effect is a text lacking influency.To score higher than 2A This writerneeds to group ideas around main pointsto be made. S/he needs to make linksbetween ideas so that the text andargument is followed more easily.Language Resources 4BThis writer utilises a sophisticatedpersuasive device by writing theargument from the perspective ofimplications for the reader. While contentand structure are limited, the languagechoices and perspective (if you, and thatleaves you, you will have to pay them)show an awareness of persuasivepower.To score higher than 4B This writerwould have to add to the argument.Grammar 2BThere are two sentences in this text. The first is 14 lines long and doesnot function. The second does. Tense subject verb agreement correctbut errors in sentence construction and a lack of conjunctions makethis difficult to follow.To score higher than 2B This writer needs to learn to control simplesentences both syntactically (grammar and structure) and semantically(thematic consistency).Punctuation 2BLimited use of sentencepunctuation interferes withmeaning. Apostrophe ofcontraction evident, exclamationmark use evident (thoughoverused). No capitals forproper nouns (numberworks,kip magrath). Uses comma inlist.To score higher than 2BAlthough the writer is aware ofbasic sentence punctuation (fullstop, capital letter) s/he needsto demonstrate consistent useand other basic skills (capitalsfor proper nouns).Spelling 2PBasic knowledge of HFW present.Limited topic-related vocabularymeans few complex pattern.Attempts all words usingapproximate phonetic spelling.Note the use of Americanspellings – not penalised –(favorite, programs)To score higher than 2P Thewriter needs to be able to controlbasic spellings such as your andwork on using homonyms (there,their; board, bored) within thecontext.
Audience Awareness andPurpose 6POpening paragraph suggestsconfusion about the audience,consistently persuasive but rarelyidentifies a specific audience, oreven acknowledges the reader –inclusive “we” and “us” is about theargument not the audience.Content/Ideas 6PPurpose directly introduced, wellstatedproposal; paragraphsestablish well-developed points,with sound expansion. Exampleslinked to New Zealand situation toemphasise the needs and contrasts.Structure/Organisation 6BGood sequence, proposal followedby organised justifications, reachesa climax of persuasion if notspecifically arguing the proposal.Includes, sequentially, education,water, food, clothes and shelter,labour, and normality. Paragraphsstate a link, expand the contrast,and relate the money likely to beraised, but lack a defining topicsentence.Language Resources 6BVariety of persuasive techniques –personalised statements, audienceinclusion, contrasts of “normal”,details of the negatives, simplicityof the solutions (despite recognitionof the “not enough” reality).Vocabulary selection enhances thedescriptions.Grammar 5AUses a variety of complexsentences, sound mechanically.Punctuation 4APrecise accurate presentation –minor sentences in penultimateparagraph of body copy arestylistically clumsy.Spelling 5AOne probable error – impoverished.Handwriting is a possible cause.
Audience Awareness andPurpose 5PFirmly places writer in the samesituation as the audience (usstudents). Consistent address ofaudience.Content/Ideas 5PAssertions of quantity and impact(social retards, slee deprevatedzombies, mentally drainedindividuals (sic)). Only the onespecific example. Good linking ofhomework to other teenagecommitments.Structure/Organisation 5PStrong opening, focusedintroduction, good conclusion.Paragraphed appropriately.Sequence of ideas appropriate.Language Resources 5PEmotive vocabulary/sentenceconstruction reasonable with atendency to run-on /changessubject in one instance from They toWe. Personalises the material byfirst-person references. Some wellconstructedexpressionsGrammar 5PGood control of sentenceconstruction and word use. Severallapses a missing verb.Punctuation 4BUses subordinate or coordinatedconstructions but not totally incontrol of the punctuation.Spelling 5BGood control of a strong selection ofemotive vocabulary.To achieve Level 6 The writerwould need to develop content forthe justification of ideas. Linkparagraphs to establish more of theargument. Control the overuse ofcomplex (and run-on) sentences.
Selected glossary of terms for the ‘to persuade’ purposePurpose:- to argue a position or to persuade a reader to a particular viewpoint and- make a reader believe or accept the writer’s position on a topic.Terms Explanation General examplesNoun A noun answers the question: who or what? Some types of nouns are:Abstract: hope, love, joy, beautyCollective: class, team, swarm, schoolCommon: apple, dog, hat, boyProper: Monday, New Zealand, Easter, Board of TrusteesNeutral nouns Nouns that are not gender orientated, i.e., people, children, friendsneither masculine nor feminine.Point of view Words selected to represent the world in a bureaucrat, crime, victim, problem, hero, home invasionnounsPronounsAdjectives/AdjectivalsVerbscertain way and to present a point of view.Pronouns are used often, but not always, to‘replace’ a noun or noun phrase and help thewriter to avoid repetition. They can be confusingto a reader if the pronoun references are notclearly made.Adjectives are words that describe somebody orsomething. They build upInformation around the noun. They answer thequestion which, whose, how many, what like orwhat type?Opinion adjectives give the writer’s evaluationof the thing in question and can be formed byadding a suffix to a noun or a verb, e.g., ful, y,ed, ish, ous or ing.An adjectival is a group of words that are usedto give information about the noun. They may bepreceded by preposition.Verbs express an action, happening, process ora state of being. Action verbs: are the morephysical actions that can be observed.Stative verbs: give information about a state ofbeing or a state of mind. Sensing verbs: can beused in arguments to describe the writer’sCats are killing machines. Cats are violent bullies.Some of the categories of pronouns are:Demonstrative: this, that, these, thoseIndefinite: anyone, everything, nobody, someoneInterrogative: who, whom, whose, whichPersonal: I/me, you, he/him, she/her, we/us, they/them, itPossessive: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, itsReflexive: myself, herself, themselvesRelative: which, that, whoseSome types of adjectives are:Classifying: African, plastic, wooden, social,Comparing: smoother, prettier, smallestDescriptive/factual: old, busy, careful, horrible, soft, redDistributive: each, every, eitherIndefinite: some, few, many, mostInterrogative: which, what, whoseOpinion: elegant, poor, scary, difficult,Quantity: three, eighth, one dozenOpinion: lovely, elegant, difficult, poor, smelly, favourite, worn,wonderful, funny, frightening, marvellous, foolish, respectable,embarrassedwith a great deal of, plenty of, most idiotic idea, broadest andsilliest ruleSome types of verbs are:Action: eat, play, twisted, screams, repeated, creptSaying: said, pleaded, replied, shouted, criedSensing /feeling: think, decide, hope, feel, prefer, love,believe, like, assume, consider, know, want, fear, understand,imagine, enjoy, wonder, disgust, observethoughts, feelings, opinions or beliefs.Active voice: when the verb is active, the subject performs the action. The sentence is written in the active voice, e.g., I am concernedthat… Police have warned residents. Passive voice: when the verb is passive, the subject has the action done to it by an agent whomay/may not be named, e.g., Concern has also been raised about… Residents have been warned.Modal auxiliaryverbsModal verbs are those verbs that express arange of judgements about the likelihood ofevents. They allow us to make three kinds ofjudgement.I think that all cats should be exterminated.Provide an option: can, could, may, mightMake a requirement: must, should, need to, ought to, hadbetter, have got to, be supposed toAnticipate the future: will, would, shall, be going to
Terms Explanation General examplesAdverbs give extra meaning to a verb, anadjective, another adverb or a whole sentence.Adding -ly to an adjective forms many adverbs,but there are many that do not end in -ly.Adverbs/AdverbialsConjunctionsConnectives/linkagesSimplesentenceCompoundsentenceComplexsentenceAn adverbial phrase is a group of words thatfunctions in the same way as an adverb.Viewpoint adverbials express a viewpoint andthe writer’s attitude towards the topic.Join two clauses together and only operatewithin a sentence.Connectives are words or phrases that form linksbetween sentences. They can be used at variousplaces within a sentence and help contribute tothe cohesion of the text.Simple sentences have a single clause. Theyhave one main idea expressed as subject, verband object.Compound sentences have two or more clausesjoined together by conjunctions such as ‘and’and ‘but’. The clauses are of equal weight; thatis, they are main clauses.Complex sentences contain at least one clausethat does not make sense without the otherclause(s), i.e., the rest of the sentence.In many cases, adverbs tell us:how (manner): slowly, carefully, sadly, hopefullywhere (place): here, there, away, home, outsidewhen (time): now, tomorrow, later, soonhow often (frequency): often, never, sometimeswhy (reason): because, so, consequentlyModal adverbs: perhaps, definitely, certainly, possiblyfirst of all, like a dream, as a result of, due to her efforts, forthat reason, a few years agoin my opinion, unfortunately, from my point of view, of courseand, or, but (most common ones used),so, because, since, wheneverConnectives have the following functions:adding information: also, furthermore, moreover, similarlyclarifying: in other words, I mean, to put it another way, to bemore precise, in particular, in factexplaining: for example, in other words, that is to say, for thatreasonindicating time: afterwards, before that, at this moment,previouslyindicating result: therefore, consequently, as a result, so,because of this,opposition: however, nevertheless, although, on the onehand, on the other handsequencing ideas/ listing: firstly, secondly, first of all, finally,given the above points, to conclude,I think children should go to school.People should not drop rubbish because it makes theplayground messy.However, even if all this is done, cats will still kill.Although sweets taste good they can be bad for you.