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Media and ImmigrationAn International Dialogue Organizedby <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


During <strong>the</strong> past twenty years,<strong>the</strong> United States, Canada andEurope have been experiencing asignificant surge in immigration,with major implications for <strong>the</strong>ir societies. While <strong>the</strong>economic crisis has altered this trend, immigrationremains a question that is widely and often hotlydebated. The media play a major role in both informing<strong>the</strong> public and intervening in <strong>the</strong> debate.The <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States hasorganized two symposia, <strong>the</strong> first in Paris, <strong>the</strong> secondin Miami, to contribute to a dialogue among mediaprofessionals on <strong>the</strong> characterization of immigrants andimmigration in all types of media, and to improve <strong>the</strong>quality and depth of <strong>report</strong>ing on immigration issues inNorth <strong>American</strong> and European societies. Most programsof <strong>the</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> are bilateral in nature—focusing on anexchange of ideas and best practices between Franceand <strong>the</strong> United States. In order to best address <strong>the</strong> scaleof <strong>the</strong> debate, we made a decision to go beyond ourtraditional focus and examine immigration coveragein <strong>the</strong> context of <strong>the</strong> political and societal tensions that<strong>the</strong> United States, Canada and countries across Europehave experienced.Fostering exchange among media professionals hasbeen an integral part of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong>’s mission forover thirty years, and we are glad to share with you<strong>the</strong> results of our Media Coverage of Immigrationprogram. The success of this program could not havebeen achieved without <strong>the</strong> generosity of foundations,corporations and individuals who sustain <strong>the</strong> work of<strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States.Please note that this <strong>report</strong> does not reflect <strong>the</strong> viewsof <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States butra<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong> conclusions drawn by conference participants<strong>the</strong>mselves. I hope you enjoy <strong>the</strong> results of what wereinformative and lively debates.Antoine G. TreuillePresidentTABLE OF CONTENTS• Executive Summary 2I. Identifying <strong>the</strong> Issue 4- Common Flaws in Immigration Coverage- Media and Political Power- State of Public Opinion- An Examination of Journalistic Practices: ImmigrationCoverage in <strong>the</strong> United States and Europe- Analysis: Immigration Coverage in <strong>the</strong> United Statesand France- The Importance of HistoryII. Challenges Faced by Journalists 8- Integrating All Voices- Choosing <strong>the</strong> Right Words- Interacting with Immigrants- Collaborating with Advocacy Groupsand Finding BalanceIII. Describing <strong>the</strong> Big Picture 11- The Economic Aspect of Immigration- Media Coverage of Immigration and Religion- The Coverage of MuslimsIV. Ethnic Media 14V. Key Takeaways and Recommendations 16- Need for Diversity in <strong>the</strong> Newsroom- Humanizing Immigration Stories- Redefining <strong>the</strong> Audience and Educating <strong>the</strong> <strong>Read</strong>er- Thinking Outside <strong>the</strong> Box- A Few Closing RecommendationsVI. Conclusion 19VII. APPENDIX 20- Quotes from Participants- O<strong>the</strong>r Resources- List of Symposia Participants<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States1


ésumé exécutifDans le cadre de son programme Media Coverage of Immigration (MCI), la <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> a organisé deuxcolloques internationaux en novembre 2009 et mai 2010, pour examiner la façon dont les médias couvrent l’immigration enAmérique du Nord et en Europe. Réunissant professionnels des médias américains et européens et experts en immigration,le colloque a servi de forum aux participants pour analyser les meilleures pratiques journalistiques en la matière et identifierles faiblesses de la couverture médiatique afin de promouvoir une meilleure information sur les questions d’immigration etd’intégration des deux côtés de l’Atlantique.Le mot immigration évoque les questions complexes des droits de l’homme, des variations démographiques, et de l’identiténationale, le tout dans un contexte de vastes changements économiques. La presse nord-américaine et européenne faisantface à une diminution de leurs ressources ainsi qu’à des changements importants dans le paysage médiatique, il peut êtredifficile de fournir une couverture médiatique qui soit à la fois complète, nuancée et précise. Ce n’est pas sans conséquence:les médias jouent un rôle majeur dans l’information du public et l’orientation du débat politique sur l’immigration.La <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> a choisi Paris pour la première conférence et Miami pour la seconde afin d’offrir auxparticipants l’expérience de l’immigration en Europe et en Amérique du Nord. Les médias représentés aux colloques incluaientdes publications nationales, tels que le New York Times et Le Figaro, ainsi que des publications et des réseaux locaux etspécialisés, tels que les médias de la diversité ou encore des acteurs du web. Les participants représentaient dix-huit pays,principalement d’Europe et d’Amérique du Nord.Chacune des deux conférences offrait des séminaires approfondis animés par d’éminents journalistes, universitaires et experts,ainsi que des visites de terrain d’une demi-journée. Au cours de ces visites de terrain, les participants ont pu rencontrerles représentants locaux de communautés d’immigrants et d’organisations non gouvernementales. Le programme MCI s’estrévélé être tout à fait opportun, chaque conférence ayant eu lieu au milieu d’un débat local actif sur l’immigration. Pendant laconférence de Paris, un débat sur l’identité nationale dominait les ondes françaises et la conférence de Miami suivait de prèsl’adoption d’une loi controversée sur l’immigration en Arizona.Au cours des colloques, les journalistes ont identifié les lacunes communes dans la couverture de l’immigration, soulignantnotamment qu’elle est souvent trop épisodique et présente les immigrants en termes simplistes (le «bon» immigrant qui s’opposeau «mauvais» immigrant par exemple) sans la moindre nuance. La représentation des immigrants par la presse des deux côtésde la l’Atlantique comporte des tendances comparables, et insiste souvent sur la « différence » des immigrants. Les participantsont également abordé les défis similaires qu’ils rencontrent lors de leurs <strong>report</strong>ages: celui d’intégrer les opinions variées surles questions d’immigration, d’accéder aux sources et de développer des relations avec les communautés immigrées, dontles membres peuvent être réticents à parler à la presse. Ils ont convenu qu’une meilleure compréhension de la dynamiquedes forces économiques et des religions représentées pourrait considérablement améliorer la qualité de leur travail. Ils ontégalement constaté qu’une plus grande collaboration entre les médias traditionnels et les medias de la diversité était possible.Enfin, ils ont examiné les implications plus larges de leur travail dans le cadre de leur contrat avec la société. Ils ont conclu quela condition préalable à une meilleure couverture de l’immigration, et à un meilleur journalisme en général, est une plus grandediversité dans les rédactions qui refléterait le large éventail des opinions et des points de vue de nos sociétés modernes.Ce rapport présente les informations et commentaires saillants des débats qui ont eu lieu au cours des deux conférences àParis et à Miami et se penche sur les conclusions tirées par les participants. Veuillez noter que les opinions exprimées dans cerapport ne représentent pas les opinions de la <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong>, ni de ses administrateurs, dirigeants, employésou représentants.2<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn November 2009 and in May 2010, <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> convened two international symposia as part ofits Media Coverage of Immigration (MCI) program, bringing toge<strong>the</strong>r <strong>American</strong> and European media professionals andimmigration experts to examine how <strong>the</strong> media cover immigration in North America and Europe. The symposia providedparticipating journalists with a forum to examine best practices with respect to immigration <strong>report</strong>ing as well as to identifyweaknesses that often characterize coverage—all part of an effort to promote better <strong>report</strong>ing on immigration and integrationissues on both sides of <strong>the</strong> Atlantic.Immigration evokes complex questions that encompass issues of national identity, human rights, and demographic shifts, allagainst a backdrop of vast economic change. With <strong>the</strong> North <strong>American</strong> and European press facing shrinking resources andsignificant changes in <strong>the</strong> media landscape, it can be difficult to provide coverage that is nuanced, accurate, and compelling.This is not without consequence: <strong>the</strong> media play a major role in informing <strong>the</strong> public and in shaping <strong>the</strong> public policy debateon immigration.The two conference locations—Paris, France for <strong>the</strong> first conference, Miami, Florida for <strong>the</strong> second—were chosen to giveparticipating journalists firsthand exposure to <strong>the</strong> immigrant experience in Europe and North America. The media representedat <strong>the</strong> symposia included national outlets, such as The New York Times and Le Figaro, as well as local and specializedpublications and networks, such as ethnic media and online entities. Participants represented eighteen countries, primarily fromEurope and North America.Each of <strong>the</strong> two conferences included in-depth seminar-style meetings, moderated by prominent journalists, academics andexperts, as well as a half-day “<strong>report</strong>ing opportunity.” During each <strong>report</strong>ing opportunity, participants met with local immigrantcommunities and NGOs, giving participants firsthand awareness of <strong>the</strong> issues at stake in local immigrant communities in Parisand Miami. The MCI program revealed itself to be timely—each conference took place amid an active debate on immigration:<strong>the</strong> conference in Paris occurred while a debate on national identity in France dominated <strong>the</strong> airwaves, while <strong>the</strong> Miamiconference followed on <strong>the</strong> heels of Arizona’s passage of a controversial immigration law.During <strong>the</strong> symposia, journalists identified some of <strong>the</strong> common flaws in immigration coverage, which is often too episodicin nature and presents immigrants in stark terms as ei<strong>the</strong>r “good” or “bad.” The characterization of immigrants by <strong>the</strong> presson both sides of <strong>the</strong> Atlantic displays similar tendencies, often emphasizing <strong>the</strong> “o<strong>the</strong>rness” of immigrants. Participants alsodescribed similar challenges in <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>report</strong>ing—that of including all voices in <strong>the</strong>ir stories, of gaining access to sources anddeveloping relationships with immigrant communities, whose members may be reluctant to speak to <strong>the</strong> press. They agreedthat a better understanding of <strong>the</strong> dynamics of economic forces and religion can tremendously improve <strong>the</strong> quality of <strong>the</strong>irwork. They also found that <strong>the</strong>re was greater opportunity for collaboration between mainstream and ethnic media. Finally, <strong>the</strong>yexamined <strong>the</strong> wider implications of <strong>the</strong>ir work as part of <strong>the</strong> media’s contract with society, and concluded that a prerequisitefor better immigration coverage—as well as journalism as a whole—was greater diversity in newsrooms in order to reflect <strong>the</strong>expanded range of modern societies’ opinions and views.This <strong>report</strong> presents <strong>the</strong> highlights of <strong>the</strong> debates that took place during <strong>the</strong> two conferences in Paris and Miami, and reflectson <strong>the</strong> conclusions drawn by participants. Please note that <strong>the</strong> views expressed in this <strong>report</strong> do not represent <strong>the</strong> views of <strong>the</strong><strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> nor its directors, officers, employees or representatives.<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States3


IThe MCI program served as a forum forjournalists to examine and identify bestpractices in immigration coverage, address<strong>the</strong> influence of <strong>the</strong> media over public debateand compare and contrast how <strong>the</strong> mediaapproach <strong>the</strong> topic in North America andEurope.Common Flaws in Immigration CoverageParticipants identified several common mistakes in immigrationcoverage. They generally agreed that immigration <strong>report</strong>ingis often too episodic and too focused on illegal immigration.Reporting is also often distorted by individual narrativesthat exaggerate <strong>the</strong> role of immigrants while ignoringlarger economic forces. Several participants mentioned thatmainstream print media have generally strived for nuanceand balance, while mainstream broadcast media, particularlycable news in <strong>the</strong> United States, are more prone to employingsensationalism and stereotypes in <strong>the</strong>ir coverage. Participantsagreed that <strong>the</strong> characterization of immigrants by <strong>the</strong> press isoften similar from one country to ano<strong>the</strong>r: <strong>the</strong>re is a generaltendency to “demonize” immigrants and to emphasize <strong>the</strong>ir“o<strong>the</strong>rness,” as one speaker explained.and that it cannot be fully captured in <strong>the</strong> coverage of dailynews events. One speaker likened this to covering <strong>the</strong> almostimperceptible movement of a glacier. Immigration coveragetends to focus on major news events, in which heightenedemotions often preclude balanced coverage.Media and Political PowerWhatever its flaws, media coverage has an impact. During<strong>the</strong> discussions, a number of participants argued that, as ajournalist, it is essential to be aware of <strong>the</strong> power of <strong>the</strong> mediaand <strong>the</strong> influence that <strong>the</strong> media can exert on political debate.There was a general consensus among participants that thisinfluence is a collective power exercised by journalists as awhole, ra<strong>the</strong>r than individually. As several participants pointedout, information and statistics provided by <strong>the</strong> media oftenfeed directly into political debates and are even sometimesused to create legislation. How <strong>the</strong> media portray immigrantsgreatly influences <strong>the</strong> nature and success of <strong>the</strong>ir integrationinto <strong>the</strong>ir host society. As a result, media professionals shouldbe more attuned to both this influence on immigration policiesand citizens’ perceptions of immigrants.A few participants noted that journalists sometimesunwittingly express <strong>the</strong>ir opinions in <strong>the</strong>ir work—not onlyin how <strong>the</strong>y present an issue or what tone <strong>the</strong>y employ, butalso in what <strong>the</strong>y decide to address and what <strong>the</strong>y chooseIdentifying <strong>the</strong> IssueParticipants identified a few main narratives about immigrantsthat dominate media coverage: <strong>the</strong> immigrant “problem” or“threat” (e.g., to employment opportunities, to public order);<strong>the</strong> immigrant “striver” or “hero” (for taking <strong>the</strong> jobs that noone wants); <strong>the</strong> immigrant victim (of racism, discrimination,abuse, or economic hardship). Each of <strong>the</strong>se narratives canbe problematic because it presents immigration in termsof “good” versus “bad”: <strong>the</strong> model immigrant versus <strong>the</strong>troublesome immigrant.Participants acknowledged that <strong>the</strong> media are generallygood at covering events but not processes. This is especiallyproblematic in <strong>the</strong> case of immigration coverage—participantsagreed that immigration is a story that develops over timeParticipants meet with Parlez Cités, an association that hasorganized “citizen media” initiatives in low-income suburbsof Paris.4<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


“I’m sure I will be a better <strong>report</strong>erbecause of this conference.”Karla Gomez-Escamilla, Reporter,Univision Arizonadiscussed how <strong>the</strong> media could play a greater role incorrecting such misimpressions by <strong>the</strong> public.Survey results also showed that people generally have anegative perception of illegal immigrants. Survey respondentsoften associated illegal immigrants with an increase in crimeand terrorism and viewed <strong>the</strong>m as a general burden upon <strong>the</strong>social services of <strong>the</strong>ir country.David Gura (NPR) during a conference session in Miami, FL.not to cover. This in turn affects how <strong>the</strong> public perceives<strong>the</strong> issue in question. Journalists should be conscious ofwhat drives <strong>the</strong>m to choose certain topics for coverage,and should also keep questioning <strong>the</strong>ir own judgment, inorder to ensure that <strong>the</strong>y remain objective and provide <strong>the</strong>“full picture” to <strong>the</strong>ir readers or viewers.State of Public OpinionA recent transatlantic survey of public opinion onimmigration in North America and Europe reveals how<strong>the</strong> public’s understanding of immigration is limited. Thesecond conference in Miami opened with a presentation byrepresentatives of <strong>the</strong> German Marshall Fund of <strong>the</strong> UnitedStates (GMF) about <strong>the</strong> “Transatlantic Trends” survey onimmigration. As part of <strong>the</strong> survey, around 1,000 peopleover <strong>the</strong> age of 18 from <strong>the</strong> United States, Canada andseveral European countries (including France, <strong>the</strong> UnitedKingdom and Germany) were interviewed.The GMF survey revealed that a significant “perceptionrealitygap” on immigration exists throughout Europe andNorth America: in every country participating in <strong>the</strong> survey,respondents overestimated <strong>the</strong> number of immigrantsactually living in <strong>the</strong> country. This result was true even incountries such as Canada, where a majority of respondentsdid not feel that immigrants were too numerous. ParticipantsImportant differences between public opinion in Europeand <strong>the</strong> United States were also reflected in <strong>the</strong> survey. Theoverall desire to legalize immigrants appeared to be on <strong>the</strong>rise in Europe, while it was falling in <strong>the</strong> United States. At<strong>the</strong> same time, respondents in both Europe and <strong>the</strong> UnitedStates generally favored policies that would reduce illegalimmigration, but were divided about which measures shouldbe taken to address <strong>the</strong> issue (e.g., reinforcing border control,increasing development aid, etc.).An Examination of Journalistic Practices:Immigration Coverage in <strong>the</strong> United Statesand EuropeParticipants observed that <strong>the</strong>re used to be a sharpdistinction between <strong>the</strong> way journalism was practiced by<strong>the</strong> mainstream media in <strong>the</strong> United States and in Europe.In Europe, it has long been recognized that even leadingmainstream newspapers represent one side of <strong>the</strong> politicalspectrum. However, in <strong>the</strong> United States, <strong>the</strong>re has beena sense that <strong>the</strong> mainstream media were impartial, factfinding,nonpartisan and independent. This idea has erodedin <strong>the</strong> last decade. For example, one speaker observedhow right-wing media in <strong>the</strong> United States have madeimmigration a major part of <strong>the</strong>ir coverage; in <strong>the</strong> absenceof any pushback, <strong>the</strong> speaker claimed that this has hadan insidious effect on immigration coverage. Moreover,new media, especially <strong>the</strong> blogosphere with its tendency toaddress a niche audience, have made <strong>the</strong> media landscapeand immigration debate even more complex.<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States5


• Format: <strong>French</strong> and U.S. newspapers approachimmigration stories differently. <strong>French</strong> media oftenfeature numerous articles on a single story or event on asingle page, presenting analyses, a debate or a collectionof diverse editorials; U.S. newspapers tend to onlypresent one feature article at a time. Participants agreedthat both methods have advantages and limitations. Ino<strong>the</strong>r words, <strong>French</strong> publications focus less on telling astory and more on presenting multiple viewpoints on asingle topic, while <strong>American</strong> publications adopt a morenarrative approach and invest more time and money inputting toge<strong>the</strong>r a single, in-depth version of a story.Participants visited a refugee center in a sou<strong>the</strong>rn suburb ofParis (photo by Claudia Núñez).Participants reflected on how this changing media landscapehas altered <strong>the</strong>ir own obligations as journalists. Virulent antiimmigrationcomments posted by readers are widely foundon <strong>the</strong> online versions of newspapers, which are often poorlymonitored. Participants generally recommended that newswebsites should be better moderated to prevent <strong>the</strong> diffusionof hateful comments by readers. In particular, anonymity wascited as a problem, since it allows intolerant remarks withoutrisk of consequence for <strong>the</strong> writer.Analysis: Immigration Coverage in <strong>the</strong>United States and FranceMuch discussion during <strong>the</strong> two conferences was dedicatedto a comparative examination of how media in Franceand <strong>the</strong> United States cover immigration and integration:• Themes: Participants discussed how <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>media are preoccupied by <strong>the</strong> <strong>the</strong>me of integration,while <strong>the</strong> conversation in <strong>the</strong> United States is dominatedby <strong>the</strong>mes centered on motion, border crossing, andsecurity. In addition, in France more often than in <strong>the</strong>United States, <strong>the</strong> media cover immigration from anangle that stresses national cohesion and that puts agreater focus on <strong>the</strong> global economy. On <strong>the</strong> o<strong>the</strong>rhand, <strong>the</strong> <strong>American</strong> media more often approachimmigration with respect to <strong>the</strong> local and national jobmarkets, considering factors such as fiscal policies and<strong>the</strong> country’s need for both skilled and cheap labor.• Sources: U.S. and <strong>French</strong> newspapers rely on similarsources for <strong>the</strong>ir coverage—government and majorpolitical parties are dominant voices in both—but researchhas shown that <strong>French</strong> journalists tend to interviewrepresentatives of civil society and minor political partiesfar more than <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>American</strong> counterparts. In <strong>the</strong> UnitedStates, pollsters and unaffiliated citizens are more oftencited by <strong>the</strong> media than in France. The perspectives ofbusiness and immigration source countries do not receivemuch coverage in ei<strong>the</strong>r country.• Immigration Coverage and <strong>the</strong> Question of NationalIdentity in France: In <strong>the</strong> fall of 2009, <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>government launched a controversial debate on “identiténationale” (national identity) in France. The first MCIconference took place against <strong>the</strong> backdrop of thisdebate, and participants from o<strong>the</strong>r countries sought tobetter grasp <strong>the</strong> nuances of <strong>the</strong> debate and its relationshipwith immigration coverage. One speaker—a <strong>French</strong>man“My experience is to do less with more.Fewer stories with more impact. It’smore important than ever to do storiesthat o<strong>the</strong>rs are not doing.”Nina Bernstein, Immigration Reporter,The New York Times6<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


of Moroccan descent—described <strong>the</strong> barriers he himselfhad faced in France, notably his difficulty finding awell-paying job, despite having an MBA. He criticized<strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong> media for its tendency to label children ofimmigrants—who are <strong>French</strong> citizens—as immigrants.He noted, “The way things are portrayed [in <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>media] is highly stereotyped… For example, untilthis day, I have never been introduced by any <strong>French</strong>corporate news as <strong>French</strong>. It was always ‘He was bornin France,’ or ‘He’s <strong>French</strong> with Moroccan parents,’ or‘He is a <strong>French</strong> first-generation immigrant.’”Ano<strong>the</strong>r speaker maintained that <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong> media’scoverage of immigration has focused on <strong>the</strong> banlieues 1 ,poverty, unemployment, and <strong>the</strong> sense that immigrantsare socially “stuck.” The <strong>French</strong> media have seemedinterested in immigrants and people of immigrantdescent only when a riot or o<strong>the</strong>r violence originatingin an immigrant neighborhood has occurred. Thespeaker claimed that since journalists have not done<strong>the</strong>ir job properly, inhabitants of <strong>the</strong> banlieues have lostconfidence in <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong> media. At <strong>the</strong> same time, moreand more children of immigrants are college-educatedand are slowly entering <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong> media; over time, <strong>the</strong>yshould assume a more important role in <strong>the</strong> conversation.Participants suggested that <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong> media shouldseek to write more neutral stories on <strong>the</strong> banlieues, as ameans of initiating a rapprochement and reconciling <strong>the</strong>banlieues, <strong>the</strong> media and o<strong>the</strong>r <strong>French</strong> citizens.The Importance of HistoryParticipants stressed <strong>the</strong> importance of history as part ofa discussion on immigration and <strong>the</strong> media. One speakerobserved that <strong>the</strong> United States is often viewed as havinga successful history of immigration, while Europe is seenas having failed to live up to its own self-proclaimedidea of being an open society. In reality, during <strong>the</strong>post-war period, <strong>the</strong> history of immigration to Europeand <strong>the</strong> United States has been quite similar, as onespeaker explained. For instance, <strong>the</strong> level of immigrationto <strong>the</strong> European Union and to <strong>the</strong> United States hasbeen comparable, and <strong>the</strong> level of segregation in major<strong>American</strong> and European cities is similar. Fur<strong>the</strong>rmore, asseen in <strong>the</strong> results of <strong>the</strong> GMF survey, public resistanceto increased levels of immigration is also comparable in<strong>the</strong> United States and in Europe.At <strong>the</strong> same time, important economic differencescharacterize immigration to <strong>the</strong> United States and inEurope. As this speaker noted, in New York, for example,more than 90% of first-generation immigrants work, whilein Amsterdam, fewer than than 50% of first-generationimmigrants are employed. The welfare state in Europe,with its relatively comprehensive social benefits, playsan important role in explaining this disparity. In turn, <strong>the</strong>speaker posited that popular acceptance of immigrationdepends to a certain extent on whe<strong>the</strong>r or not immigrantsare viewed as contributing economically to society.1The <strong>French</strong> term referring to <strong>the</strong> outskirts of a city, inhabited chiefly by lower-income people of immigrant origin, living in public housing.<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States7


IIChallenges Faced by JournalistsDuring <strong>the</strong> two conferences, participantsexamined challenges that journalists coveringimmigration often face and identifiedstrategies to address <strong>the</strong>m.Integrating All VoicesGood <strong>report</strong>ing and good stories are built on objectivity and acareful presentation of all sides of an issue, whe<strong>the</strong>r or not <strong>the</strong>ideas are representative of <strong>the</strong> journalist’s opinions. However,when covering immigration, being objective can sometimesprove especially difficult, as this is a topic that usually evokesstrong feelings and often has <strong>the</strong> power to inspire controversy.Journalists must contend with <strong>the</strong> reality that <strong>the</strong>ir audiencesand sources approach immigration with <strong>the</strong>ir own personalhistories, beliefs, and frames of reference, which often includestereotypes. Still, professional journalists need to be able todetach <strong>the</strong>mselves emotionally when writing, and provide<strong>the</strong>ir readers with a complete account.In immigration coverage as in journalism in general, conferenceattendees generally agreed that every voice needs to beheard: <strong>the</strong> rational, fact-based voices, as well as <strong>the</strong> irrationalones. In <strong>the</strong> context of immigration, journalists should includeeveryone’s opinions in <strong>the</strong>ir stories, whe<strong>the</strong>r <strong>the</strong>se opinionsadopt a pro-immigration perspective or a more restrictive, antiimmigrationangle. Immigration is about politics and debate,and <strong>the</strong>refore different voices are inevitably a part of <strong>the</strong> story.However, <strong>report</strong>ers should always clearly identify, categorize,and tag <strong>the</strong>se voices so that <strong>the</strong>ir audiences can effectivelydraw <strong>the</strong>ir own conclusions. This is not without its challenges:<strong>the</strong> question of access came up as part of <strong>the</strong> discussions.Indeed, some <strong>report</strong>ers explained that <strong>the</strong>y did not alwayshave access to certain kinds of sources.The media have <strong>the</strong> ability to steer relevant discussions onimmigration and, with that, also have a major responsibilityto apply <strong>the</strong>ir discretion wisely regarding what informationto present. Several participants noted that journalists shouldnot focus solely on <strong>the</strong> most strident voices (whe<strong>the</strong>r pro- oranti-immigration) but that <strong>the</strong>y should also cover <strong>the</strong> voices ofpeople in <strong>the</strong> middle, who do not necessarily have <strong>the</strong> most“newsworthy” views or activities, but whose opinions areequally valuable.While considering and including a wide range of sources andopinions, journalists also need to cross-check data and <strong>report</strong>reliable facts. They need to judge <strong>the</strong> validity of claims andarguments expressed by different groups, by asking: Are <strong>the</strong>secomments based on factuality, popularity, political strengthor are <strong>the</strong>y simply centered on an effort to garner attention?Participants concluded that journalists need to carefully assess towhom <strong>the</strong>y will ultimately give a voice in <strong>the</strong>ir stories.Choosing <strong>the</strong> Right WordsJournalists have to be careful with <strong>the</strong> vocabulary <strong>the</strong>ychoose to use when covering immigration, considering howreaders will interpret <strong>the</strong> words <strong>the</strong>y have employed. During<strong>the</strong> two conferences, participants examined <strong>the</strong> politicaland cultural context surrounding <strong>the</strong> specific vocabularyemployed as part of immigration coverage and politicaldebates surrounding immigration.One speaker presented <strong>the</strong> lexicon used to describe immigrantsby different sides of <strong>the</strong> political spectrum, focusing on <strong>the</strong> UnitedStates (see chart on <strong>the</strong> next page). Reporters must keep in mindthat each interest group employs different terms to describe animmigrant (alien vs. immigrant) as well as policy decisions withrespect to immigration (amnesty vs. legalization).“I found <strong>the</strong> interaction with <strong>the</strong> <strong>report</strong>erswho cover <strong>the</strong> topic in diverse countriesto be most enriching. Their commentsand critiques widened my horizon oncovering this subject.”Claudia Núñez, Reporter,La Opinión, Los Angeles8<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


IIIDescribing <strong>the</strong> Big PictureA recurrent <strong>the</strong>me for <strong>the</strong> journalists during<strong>the</strong> MCI conferences was <strong>the</strong> importanceof providing enough context and objectiveinformation to allow <strong>the</strong>ir audiences to form<strong>the</strong>ir own opinions. Participants identifiedeconomic and religious questions as two keyelements of immigration stories that should notbe overlooked when <strong>report</strong>ing on <strong>the</strong> topic.The Economic Aspect of ImmigrationIn <strong>the</strong> media’s coverage of immigration, <strong>the</strong>re is often astrong focus on symbolic questions, such as <strong>the</strong> debate abou<strong>the</strong>adscarves in a number of European countries, yet, <strong>the</strong>reis also a need for a greater study of o<strong>the</strong>r, more concreteaspects of <strong>the</strong> topic, such as <strong>the</strong> economics of immigration.Immigration is a complex economic story that requires anunderstanding of factors that include globalization andinternational trade, and how <strong>the</strong>y impact <strong>the</strong> developingworld. Research on immigration and economic policiescan lead to a greater understanding of more concrete costsand benefits of immigration, which can <strong>the</strong>n allow mediaprofessionals to provide solid facts about immigration to <strong>the</strong>general public.One participant pointed out that many people, both in <strong>the</strong>media and <strong>the</strong> general public, tend to think solely aboutimmigrants as individuals with manual jobs and forget about<strong>the</strong> whole range of individuals who constitute immigrantcommunities. This participant explained that this “o<strong>the</strong>r” typeof migrant is too often absent from <strong>the</strong> media and <strong>the</strong>reforeremains invisible.Several participants pointed out that, when discussingimmigration, <strong>the</strong> media often focus on <strong>the</strong> impact ofimmigrants on host societies but rarely mention <strong>the</strong> countrieswhere <strong>the</strong>se immigrants are from. Studying <strong>the</strong>se countries oforigin and developing local sources could add greater depthto <strong>report</strong>ers’ stories and to <strong>the</strong> public’s understanding of <strong>the</strong>dynamics of immigration. As one participant explained, thistype of coverage will not only allow people in host societiesto understand immigration better, but it could be an efficientway to pressure <strong>the</strong> countries from which large immigrantcommunities come to improve internal conditions that driveout <strong>the</strong>ir citizens.Participants agreed that using more economic data in <strong>the</strong>irstories is an effective way to make <strong>the</strong>ir readers understandthat immigrants are not stealing jobs, and that <strong>the</strong>y insteadplay a vital role in <strong>the</strong> host country’s economy by acceptingjobs that most natives do not want. In <strong>the</strong> United States,immigrant labor—mostly from South America—has filled <strong>the</strong>se“unwanted” positions. As one speaker argued, without <strong>the</strong> helpof immigrants, many more companies would be likely to leave<strong>the</strong> United States to relocate to countries where <strong>the</strong> workforceis cheaper. With <strong>the</strong> help of immigrants, however, companieshave been able to stay, expand and pay taxes. Fur<strong>the</strong>rmore,immigrants who fill <strong>the</strong>se “unwanted” positions protect, notonly <strong>the</strong> industries <strong>the</strong>y work for, but also <strong>the</strong> <strong>American</strong>s whowork in <strong>the</strong>se industries, as well as in ancillary industries.Media Coverage of Immigration and ReligionReligion is ano<strong>the</strong>r aspect of <strong>the</strong> immigration narrativethat is under-covered, despite <strong>the</strong> fact that it is crucial tounderstanding culture and immigration patterns. Participantsagreed that journalists should be better informed aboutdifferent religious traditions and practices, in order to improve<strong>the</strong>ir work on immigration.Much like immigration itself, <strong>the</strong> topic of religion can beso complex and delicate that it is often overlooked, andjournalists fail to identify <strong>the</strong> religious angle in <strong>the</strong>ir stories.One speaker explained that <strong>the</strong>re is a widespread problemof religious illiteracy—an issue of “blindness” with respect toreligion—in <strong>the</strong> United States. Consequently, journalists oftendo not know how to deal with <strong>the</strong> subject properly. As anexample, <strong>the</strong> speaker asserted that many journalists cannotrecite all of <strong>the</strong> Ten Commandments. As ano<strong>the</strong>r speakersuggested, journalists should be more knowledgeable aboutreligion, so that <strong>the</strong>y can deepen <strong>the</strong>ir understanding of<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States11


Participants met with students of immigrant origin at a high school in <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn suburbs of Paris.various immigrant groups, and better inform <strong>the</strong>ir audienceswithout feeding into stereotypes.Participants pointed out that journalists often group immigrantswith similar religious beliefs into a single category, andlikewise fail to distinguish between different cultural, linguisticand ethnic backgrounds. For instance, Hispanics and Latinosare frequently treated as one ethnic entity, while from ananthropological viewpoint, <strong>the</strong>re is much to distinguish <strong>the</strong>two groups. Participants agreed that it is paramount for <strong>the</strong>media to be more sensitive to <strong>the</strong>se nuances.Participants agreed that journalists rarely turn <strong>the</strong>ir attentionto <strong>the</strong> value that religion can have for people, and <strong>the</strong>positive influence religious institutions can have on lives (<strong>the</strong>power to integrate for example). Conversely, <strong>the</strong>y notedthat not enough coverage is devoted to what drives peopleto become religiously radical and to move against suchpositive forces.Ano<strong>the</strong>r challenge for journalists who are trying to tacklereligious questions is that religious authorities, such as bishopsand priests, can sometimes intimidate <strong>report</strong>ers, whichcan lead to more cautious coverage and self-censorship.Moreover, journalists are often careful about what <strong>the</strong>y writebecause of <strong>the</strong>ir own religious beliefs. Instead, <strong>the</strong>y shoulddistinguish between <strong>the</strong> religious institution and religiousfaith, and remain objective.The Coverage of MuslimsThe media’s coverage of religion can have an important effecton public opinion. Conference participants acknowledgedthat this influence has particularly shaped <strong>the</strong> public’s viewof Muslims and o<strong>the</strong>r non-Christian groups. One speakerasserted that <strong>the</strong> media are responsible for <strong>the</strong> public’sgenerally negative opinion of Muslims. Ano<strong>the</strong>r speakerpointed out that <strong>the</strong>re are many conversations about Muslimsin <strong>the</strong> media but very few opportunities for Muslims to actuallybe heard. The same speaker continued by saying that it is12<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


indeed rare to hear Muslims speak for <strong>the</strong>mselves, and thatwhen <strong>the</strong>y do, journalists usually look for a specific kind ofMuslim who fits <strong>the</strong>ir preconceived notions of Muslim identity,thus limiting <strong>the</strong>ir research and coverage. Accordingly, <strong>the</strong>yoften choose to interview “angry bearded men” and womenwearing <strong>the</strong> full Islamic veil. More moderate Muslim voicesare rarely acknowledged.The same speaker noted that, after September 11th, Muslimsin <strong>the</strong> United States were suddenly forced onto <strong>the</strong> nationalstage to speak on behalf of all Muslims throughout <strong>the</strong> world.However, U.S. media have done a poor job of representing<strong>the</strong> complexity and diversity of Muslims within <strong>the</strong> countryin regard to African-<strong>American</strong> Muslims, Muslim women withheadscarves, and issues such as racism within <strong>the</strong> Muslimcommunity itself.Ano<strong>the</strong>r speaker explained that Europe was not doingbetter work on <strong>the</strong> topic, and that immigrants’ “o<strong>the</strong>rness”is often explicitly framed in terms of religion, with <strong>the</strong> word“immigrant” often being used as a synonym for Muslim. Thespeaker admitted that it can be difficult for journalists to knowwhich sources <strong>the</strong>y should use and that more Muslims shouldreach out to <strong>the</strong> media to try to have <strong>the</strong>ir voices heard. It isimportant that <strong>the</strong> media also interview Muslims about nonreligiousissues, in order to expand <strong>the</strong> conversation.“The exchanges of experiences,<strong>the</strong> contacts we made . . . wehave improved our way to work asjournalists of <strong>the</strong> migration subject.”Luis de Vega, Correspondent in Maghreb,ABC MadridIn France, <strong>the</strong>re is a specific context to understandinghow religion, and specifically <strong>the</strong> Muslim faith, is viewed.Historically, <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong> fought to remove religion from <strong>the</strong> publicsphere. As a result, public demonstrations of religious faithare often considered controversial in a much more significantway than in North America. As in many o<strong>the</strong>r countries inEurope, <strong>the</strong> story of immigration and of integration in Franceis inextricably intertwined with <strong>the</strong> question of Islam, since <strong>the</strong>majority of migrants in France are from Muslim countries. Onespeaker observed that second- or third-generation immigrantshave used Islam as a way to oppose <strong>French</strong> society, fromwhich <strong>the</strong>y often feel alienated.Jennifer Hill (left), attorney at <strong>the</strong> Florida Immigrant Advocacy Center in Miami, FL, talked with conference participants abou<strong>the</strong>r work helping immigrants.<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States13


IVEthnic MediaEach MCI conference included a discussion dedicated toethnic media. An important thread that emerged from <strong>the</strong>discussions was <strong>the</strong> eagerness of participants to find concreteways to move toward greater collaboration between ethnicmedia and mainstream media. A number of participantsacknowledged that ethnic media outlets have a certainadvantage because <strong>the</strong>y have much closer ties to <strong>the</strong>irrespective communities than mainstream media. As a result,increased interaction between ethnic and mainstream mediacould open new doors for journalism, especially in <strong>the</strong>setimes of crisis for <strong>the</strong> media industry.Despite difficulties wrought by <strong>the</strong> economic crisis, ethnicmedia in <strong>the</strong> United States are well positioned and oftenconsidered reputable. For instance, according to NewAmerica Media, <strong>the</strong> audience for ethnic media in <strong>the</strong>United States stood at 50 million people in 2009, and it is<strong>the</strong> fastest-growing sector of <strong>American</strong> journalism. A 2009New America Media poll showed that one out of four adultsin America access ethnic media for news, information andentertainment, and that <strong>the</strong>re is not a single state in <strong>the</strong>United States that does not have ethnic media. One speakerexplained that ethnic media have long been compared tomainstream journalism, but that it has in fact always playeda distinctive role in journalism. Ethnic media is a genre thathas to be seen on its own terms.Immigrant communities, understandably, have differentinterests and perspectives than mainstream audiences. Forexample, as one participant pointed out, when it comes tohistory, Mexican immigrants often reflect upon <strong>the</strong> invasionby <strong>the</strong> United States of Mexico in <strong>the</strong> 19th century, unlikemost <strong>American</strong>s who rarely consider this moment in history.Audiences need to be able to relate to what <strong>the</strong>y read andview, which is why ethnic media play such an important role.They offer a distinct perspective on <strong>the</strong> immigrant experienceby studying it from <strong>the</strong> immigrant’s point of view. Ethnic mediagive a voice to communities whose voices are not usuallyheard, and thus create opportunities for broader debate.At <strong>the</strong> same time, ethnic media faces its own set ofchallenges. First of all, presenting views unpopular withone’s own community can be a challenge. In addition,as part of conference discussions, journalists who areimmigrants <strong>the</strong>mselves admitted that <strong>the</strong>y face ano<strong>the</strong>r set ofchallenges: pro-immigrant groups generally expect <strong>the</strong>m tobe on <strong>the</strong>ir side, and groups with a restrictionist approach toimmigration may refuse to speak with <strong>the</strong>m, accusing <strong>the</strong>mof being partial. One speaker pointed out that stereotypes ofethnic media journalists exist and that <strong>the</strong>se journalists aresometimes considered less educated, and are assumed tohave inferior skills in <strong>the</strong> country’s language.Significantly, ethnic media in <strong>the</strong> United States are evolvingalongside <strong>the</strong>ir audiences. The Project for Excellence inJournalism has observed that, as <strong>the</strong> proportion of <strong>American</strong>bornHispanics continues to rise, some Hispanic media haveabandoned a purely Spanish-language format, becomingbilingual or even adopting a solely English-language format.As one speaker underlined, ethnic media is a type of mediathat is “hungry” to be better at what it does.“Wonderful opportunity to speakwith immigrants on <strong>the</strong>ir particulartraumatic experiences and how itsignaled so many massive problemswith <strong>the</strong> U.S. immigration system.”Iván Roman, Executive Director,National Association of Hispanic Journalists14<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


Immigrant family at a refugee center in <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn suburbs of Paris visited by participants.By contrast, ethnic media in Europe often lag behind<strong>the</strong>ir peers across <strong>the</strong> Atlantic. For example, <strong>the</strong>re are noArabic newspapers in France, despite <strong>the</strong> sizeable Arabcommunity in <strong>the</strong> country. The role and characterization ofethnic media in Europe is often influenced by <strong>the</strong> specificculture and history of a country, according to a <strong>report</strong>from <strong>the</strong> Institut Panos. It is known as “diversity media”in France, “multicultural media” in Italy and “communitymedia” in Belgium.One speaker explained that, growing up in France in <strong>the</strong>1980s, he could not find any role models in <strong>the</strong> media that“really looked like him,” because of <strong>the</strong> virtual absence ofethnic media in France. This pushed him to move to <strong>the</strong> UnitedKingdom and <strong>the</strong>n to <strong>the</strong> United States to create his ownpublication, with an “ethnic” minority readership in mind. Hedefined <strong>the</strong> perspective of his publication as “transcultural,”with <strong>the</strong> aim to find <strong>the</strong> “common ground between differentcultures.” Once in New York, his publication was ableto grow rapidly. He explained that having a successfulethnic media depends largely on finding advertisers whovalue ethnic media, which is <strong>the</strong> case in <strong>the</strong> United States.According to him, France is years behind <strong>the</strong> United States interms of targeting ethnic media, as <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong> establishmentdoes not really believe that it is a viable sector.A German speaker, based at a mainstream outlet, viewed<strong>the</strong> question from a different angle. In Germany afterSeptember 11 th , he and his colleagues realized that <strong>the</strong>ywere neglecting a considerable portion of society as partof <strong>the</strong>ir coverage. He recognized that mainstream media ingeneral were not offering enough to immigrant communities,which explained <strong>the</strong>ir reliance on ethnic media or satellitetelevision. He felt it was important for mainstream media toreach out to immigrant communities and make certain <strong>the</strong>yfelt part of German society. Likewise, he felt it was importantto promote more interaction between ethnic and mainstreammedia, making sure that ethnic media do not remain in aseparate niche.<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States15


VKey Takeaways and RecommendationsNeed for Diversity in <strong>the</strong> NewsroomParticipants generally agreed that traditional media must takegreater measures in favor of diversity (in <strong>the</strong> newsroom, in <strong>the</strong>irapproach to <strong>report</strong>ing, etc.), as part of <strong>the</strong> media’s contractwith society. Participants also agreed that newsrooms needto be diverse to better reflect <strong>the</strong> societies <strong>the</strong>y serve, andthat <strong>the</strong> promotion of diversity should be a priority for newsorganizations. Reporters from immigrant backgrounds shouldbe recognized for <strong>the</strong> value <strong>the</strong>y add to <strong>the</strong> newsroom, because<strong>the</strong>y can offer <strong>the</strong>ir own insights and new perspectives onimmigration stories as well as on o<strong>the</strong>r topics. Never<strong>the</strong>less,as one participant asserted, “It should be a goal for anynewsroom to be as diverse as possible, and not solely for <strong>the</strong>coverage of immigration.” Participants were careful to make<strong>the</strong> point that being from an immigrant background is in noway necessary for being a capable <strong>report</strong>er on immigration.Some participants contended that diversifying <strong>the</strong> newsroomshould not be difficult, as <strong>the</strong>re is an increasing number ofhighly qualified journalists from immigrant backgroundsin Europe and <strong>the</strong> United States. However, participantspointed out that <strong>the</strong> hiring process remains a major obstacleto diversifying newsrooms. This process often passesthrough already established social networks—which arenot necessarily diverse—ra<strong>the</strong>r than functioning in a strictlymeritocratic way. Some participants were more optimisticthan o<strong>the</strong>rs about <strong>the</strong>se efforts to diversify <strong>the</strong>ir recruiting.Some media organizations have developed specific pipelinesfor recruiting talent, while some journalists remarked upon <strong>the</strong>“I will remain very active on immigrationissues and this experience; <strong>the</strong> contactswill be a great help in <strong>the</strong> outreach Iam doing for <strong>the</strong> Council on ForeignRelations.”Edward Alden, Senior Fellow,Council on Foreign Relations,former Washington bureau Chieffor <strong>the</strong> Financial Timesrelative “backwardness” of <strong>the</strong>ir organizations in this regard,highlighting <strong>the</strong> lack of gender as well as ethnic diversity.In addition to asserting that media executives must strive toincrease diversity in <strong>the</strong>ir organizations, participants thoughtthat it was essential for universities to diversify <strong>the</strong>ir studentbodies by recruiting more students from minority communities.Discussion turned to how discrimination often begins inschools, where many students of immigrant origin are placedon tracks that will never lead <strong>the</strong>m to careers in professionaljournalism. Participants concluded that a thorough reviewof <strong>the</strong> entire pipeline for <strong>the</strong> recruitment of new journalists isnecessary in order to address this problem.Humanizing Immigration StoriesIndividual voices are central to <strong>the</strong> narratives of immigrationcoverage. Participants asserted that journalists should findways to bring <strong>the</strong>ir subjects closer to <strong>the</strong>ir readers, so that <strong>the</strong>latter can better relate to immigrants’ stories. Individual storiesare a powerful way to explain larger forces, and can serveto fight against both <strong>the</strong> dehumanization of <strong>the</strong> immigrantnarrative and <strong>the</strong> increasing separation between audienceand immigrant.Participants felt that it was part of <strong>the</strong>ir responsibility as mediaprofessionals to find ways to give a voice to <strong>the</strong> “invisible”people among immigrant communities, and not only <strong>report</strong> on<strong>the</strong> most vocal and visible ones. As one speaker pointed out,<strong>the</strong> media should not focus on <strong>the</strong> “spectacle” of immigrationrelatedphenomena (such as <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong> riots).The media should attempt to eradicate stereotypes andeducate both <strong>the</strong> receiving and sending countries about <strong>the</strong>challenges and process of immigration. For example, <strong>the</strong>media should better cover how <strong>the</strong> fear of deportation affects<strong>the</strong> lives of immigrants and <strong>the</strong>ir families. While it is essentialto give more room to immigrants’ voices in stories, journalistsshould recognize that fear can make it harder for immigrantsto talk about <strong>the</strong>ir situations, and should fully consider <strong>the</strong>impact media coverage can have on <strong>the</strong>ir lives.16<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


Participants met at <strong>the</strong> Collège des Bernardins in Paris to debrief on <strong>the</strong>ir meetings with immigrant groups and representatives.Redefining <strong>the</strong> Audienceand Educating <strong>the</strong> <strong>Read</strong>erThe two conferences took place at a time when mediaorganizations on both sides of <strong>the</strong> Atlantic were facingfinancial strains and declining revenues, forcing journalists toreflect on <strong>the</strong> “current state of journalism” and its impact on<strong>the</strong>ir work. Participants observed that, in <strong>the</strong> current economy,journalists are so nervous about dwindling circulation andextensive layoffs that <strong>the</strong>y try to cater to what <strong>the</strong>y perceive as<strong>the</strong>ir “core” audience. These individuals are often imagined tobe older and white, even though this may not be <strong>the</strong> case. Themedia should redefine <strong>the</strong>ir respective audiences to adjust forchanging demographics, since people prefer news sources towhich <strong>the</strong>y can relate.One speaker insisted that journalists must also be aware of <strong>the</strong>limits of <strong>the</strong>ir influence. According to this speaker, journalistscan have a real impact on <strong>the</strong>ir audience, but <strong>the</strong>y also haveto understand that people read stories and assimilate <strong>the</strong>mbased on <strong>the</strong>ir own stereotypes. Indeed, immigration is anemotional topic and <strong>the</strong> public’s perspectives are informed bydeep feelings, history, beliefs, and frames of reference thatshape <strong>the</strong>ir opinions.Erkan Arikan, <strong>report</strong>er and editor at ARD-aktuell, duringa conference session in Miami, FL.<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States17


Media professionals should work to overcome <strong>the</strong>misconceptions of <strong>the</strong>ir audience, and to fur<strong>the</strong>r educate<strong>the</strong>m. For instance, most people do not realize that, in <strong>the</strong>United States, <strong>the</strong>re is virtually no way to become “legal” ifyou are currently “undocumented.” At <strong>the</strong> same time, <strong>the</strong>re isa need for greater focus by journalists on solutions that areavailable to help immigrants, ra<strong>the</strong>r than only covering <strong>the</strong>problems and crises.Thinking Outside <strong>the</strong> BoxAs one speaker asserted, one cannot understand immigrationand integration by adopting a moralizing approach, treatingimmigration solely as a societal enrichment. It is importantto write about <strong>the</strong> dynamics of loss that occur as well. Forimmigrants, <strong>the</strong>re is a loss of family traditions, of religion,and of children to host societies, etc. The sense of loss on <strong>the</strong>part of host societies should be acknowledged as well—<strong>the</strong>sense among native-born citizens that <strong>the</strong> world is changingaround <strong>the</strong>m. This understanding of loss should serve, not as acriticism of immigration, but ra<strong>the</strong>r as a way to acknowledgeand understand <strong>the</strong> dynamics that define this process.A Few Closing RecommendationsDuring <strong>the</strong> MCI conferences, participants articulated severalgeneral recommendations that may be useful to mediaprofessionals who work on <strong>the</strong> topic of immigration:• Journalists should always focus on <strong>the</strong> quality of <strong>the</strong>irstories, not on <strong>the</strong> quantity. They should concentrateon writing fewer stories that have greater impact;• Journalists should fight for <strong>the</strong> stories in which <strong>the</strong>ybelieve. They should be prepared to defend <strong>the</strong>irstories to <strong>the</strong>ir editors and demonstrate <strong>the</strong> importanceof immigration stories and what <strong>the</strong>y tell us aboutsociety;• Journalists should use history as part of <strong>the</strong>ir <strong>report</strong>ing:looking at <strong>the</strong> past adds depth to stories and can offerinsight into potential future trends.Additionally, <strong>the</strong> conflict between a host society andimmigrants should be seen as a part of <strong>the</strong> processes ofimmigration and integration, and also as a sign of mutualengagement. This conflict should be placed within <strong>the</strong> contextof <strong>the</strong> history of immigration. Conflict should not, <strong>the</strong>refore,be interpreted as a sign that <strong>the</strong> integration of immigrants isnot working; instead, it should be recognized as a part of along process.The topic of immigration is often viewed as an isolatedquestion that only concerns immigrants, when in reality,<strong>the</strong> fundamental questions being asked are questions aboutsociety at large. Immigration forces society to reflect upon itsideals, freedoms and institutions, and journalists, too, shouldreflect on <strong>the</strong>se larger questions as part of <strong>the</strong>ir work.“I did make lots of contacts who havehelped explain European Union policiesand individual countries’ policies.”Susan Ferriss, Reporter, The Sacramento BeeParticipants met with elected officials of immigrant origin in<strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>astern suburbs of Paris.18<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


VIconclusionParticipant Moïse Gomis, director of a <strong>French</strong> radio station, interviews fellow participant Sandy Close, Executive Director of NewAmerica Media.Regardless of changes in <strong>the</strong> media industry, <strong>the</strong> state of<strong>the</strong> world economy and even patterns of migration, <strong>the</strong>way immigrants are depicted by <strong>the</strong> media remains acrucial issue in Europe, <strong>the</strong> United States and Canada.For immigration <strong>report</strong>ers, <strong>the</strong> challenge is mastering ahighly complex and emotional issue, defined by importanteconomic, social and political forces. The language used todescribe immigration can be highly polemical, and <strong>the</strong> way<strong>report</strong>ers select whose voices are represented and how <strong>the</strong>yare labeled as part of coverage is essential in this context.The relationship between <strong>the</strong> media, <strong>the</strong>ir audience, andimmigrant communities is also complicated, and mediamust adapt to better identify <strong>the</strong>ir core audience, and tobetter connect with immigrant communities. Ethnic mediatarget a more precise audience and often have deeper tieswithin immigrant communities than do mainstream media,and opportunity remains for greater collaboration betweenmainstream and ethnic media.Despite <strong>the</strong> challenges that participants in <strong>the</strong> MCIconferences described, <strong>the</strong>y also admitted to great joy anddiscovery in <strong>the</strong>ir work. Participants also viewed <strong>the</strong>ir workas part of a fundamental dialogue on <strong>the</strong> broader valuesof <strong>the</strong>ir own societies: as one <strong>American</strong> participant shared,“Immigration is a great story. It is a complex story and avery hard story to get right. But, you know, I really think itis one of <strong>the</strong> great stories of our days. Not only because itopens for <strong>American</strong>s a window on our traditions, but alsobecause it opens a window on every aspect of <strong>American</strong>life. And maybe, even more important, what kind of countrywe want to be.”<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States19


VIIAppendixQuotes from ParticipantsParis Symposium“[The conference] provided new information and anew way of looking at <strong>the</strong> conflicts and clashes thatcome with immigration.”Emily Bazar, Immigration Reporter, USA Today“I was hoping to get in contact with colleaguescovering immigration as well as with scientificexperts in order to network and get inspiration anda new view on immigrant politics, as well as onmedia covering. The conference totally met all myexpectations. To me it was a great inspiration.”Andrea Brandt, Correspondent, Der Spiegel[Speaking about <strong>the</strong> <strong>report</strong>ing opportunity in Paris‘Chinatown] Moïse Gomis explained that while hehas been producing a radio show about “immigrantmemory” in Haute Normandie, it was “thanks toyou [that] I was able to gain new tools in orderto have a better approach and comprehension ofAsian [immigrant] communities.”Moïse Gomis, Directeur, Radio des Hauts de Rouen“This was truly an enriching experience that hasbegun to reveal itself in my <strong>report</strong>ing.”Claudia Núñez, Reporter, La Opinión, Los AngelesMiami Symposium“I learned a great deal about some of <strong>the</strong> subtleand not so subtle forms of abuse that some migrantsface. I suspect I will write and research more on<strong>the</strong> issues of low-wage migrants (much of my writinghas been about high-skilled immigration).”Edward Alden, Senior Fellow,Council on Foreign Relations,former Washington bureau Chief for <strong>the</strong> Financial Times“I’ve learnt a lot and met very, very interesting peopleand professionals. The conference opened a lot ofdoors and questions and ideas. Above all, it mademigration (and its coverage) appear clearly whatfor what it is, an international question (we sharemore than we think, professionally speaking).”Pascale Egré, Reporter, Le Parisien“I want to write a column comparing some Europeanchallenges on immigration and demographic changewith those in <strong>the</strong> U.S. I’ve picked up some ideas forcomparing labor issues, reactions to <strong>the</strong> economic crisis,and <strong>the</strong> scapegoating of immigrants and challenges eachcontinent faces as it comes to terms with ethnic diversity.”Susan Ferriss, Reporter, The Sacramento Bee“Plan to use what I’ve learned in <strong>the</strong> efforts by ourorganization to promote, advocate for, and push for<strong>the</strong> improvement of immigration coverage in <strong>the</strong> U.S.”Iván Roman, Executive Director,National Association of Hispanic Journalists20<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


o<strong>the</strong>r resourcesFur<strong>the</strong>r reading on migration and media in Europe and <strong>the</strong> United States:• Statistics and o<strong>the</strong>r resources from <strong>the</strong> OECD: see www.oecd.org (see Topics/International Migration)• Country resources from <strong>the</strong> Migration Policy Institute, an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit think tank in Washington,DC, dedicated to analysis of <strong>the</strong> movement of people worldwide:http://www.migrationinformation.org/Resources/• “Current Immigration Debates in Europe,” a series of country-specific <strong>report</strong>s published by <strong>the</strong> Migration Policy Group,an independent European nonprofit organization dedicated to strategic thinking and acting on equality and mobility:http://www.migpolgroup.com/publications_detail.php?id=119• “Democracy in <strong>the</strong> Age of New Media: A Report on <strong>the</strong> Media and <strong>the</strong> Immigration Debate” by Banu Akdenizli, E.J.Dionne, Jr., and Roberto Suro. This <strong>report</strong> examines <strong>the</strong> impact of <strong>the</strong> U.S. media on policy making on immigration. Itincludes an analysis of how <strong>the</strong> media have covered immigration going back to 1980, along with an analysis of publicopinion survey data regarding <strong>the</strong> development of attitudes toward immigration and <strong>the</strong> media’s role in shaping <strong>the</strong>m:http://www.brookings.edu/<strong>report</strong>s/2008/0925_immigration_dionne.aspx• A list of resources from <strong>the</strong> Religion Newswriters Association. It includes a section dedicated to religion andimmigration: http://www.religionlink.com/Public Opinion Surveys on Immigration:• “47-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Survey: World Publics Welcome Global Trade — But Not Immigration” by <strong>the</strong> PewResearch Center: http://pewglobal.org/<strong>report</strong>s/display.php?ReportID=258• “Transatlantic Trends: Immigration” by <strong>the</strong> German Marshall Fund of <strong>the</strong> United States, <strong>the</strong> Lynde and Harry Bradley<strong>Foundation</strong>, <strong>the</strong> Compagnia di San Paolo, <strong>the</strong> Barrow Cadbury Trust and <strong>the</strong> Fundación BBVA. This study compiles <strong>the</strong>results of a public opinion survey addressing immigration and integration issues including national identity, citizenship,migration management policies, national security, and <strong>the</strong> economic opportunities and challenges brought on bymigrants. It measures broad public opinion in <strong>the</strong> United States, Canada, <strong>the</strong> United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy,<strong>the</strong> Ne<strong>the</strong>rlands, and Spain: http://www.gmfus.org/trends/immigration/index.htmlMedia Guides and Reporting Toolkits:• “Reporting Immigration” by Stephen Franklin and Teresa Puente (International Center for Journalists):http://issuu.com/icfjournalists/docs/icfj_immigration_eng• “A Diversity Toolkit for factual programs in public television” by <strong>the</strong> European Broadcasting Union’s Intercultural andDiversity Group (IDG):http://www.ebu.ch/en/union/under_banners/CulturalDiversity_2008.phphttp://www.ebu.ch/CMSimages/en/toolkit%20low_tcm6-56142.pdf• The Ethical Journalism Initiative (EJI), launched by <strong>the</strong> International Federation of Journalists, contains guidelines onethical journalism and includes a chapter on “Journalism in <strong>the</strong> Face of Intolerance and Racism:”A link to <strong>the</strong> site: http://ethicaljournalisminitiative.org/enAnd to <strong>the</strong> book: http://ethicaljournalisminitiative.org/pdfs/EJI_book_en.pdf<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States21


List of symposia participantsTitles at time of participationMuddassar Ahmed, Chief Executive, Unitas CommunicationsEdward Alden, Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations;Former Washington Bureau Chief for <strong>the</strong> Financial TimesYves Ekoué Amaïzo, Economist; Head of <strong>the</strong> think tank“Afrology”Zouhair Amri, Executive Director, Oumma MediaErkan Arikan, Reporter and Editor, ARD-aktuellTodd Babiak, Columnist, Edmonton JournalTom Barry, Senior Analyst; blog “Border Lines”, TransBorderProject of <strong>the</strong> Center for International PolicyEmily Bazar, Immigration Reporter, USA TodayEleanor Beardsley, Paris Correspondent, National PublicRadioAngeline Benoit, Responsable de la rubrique Economie, 20minutesRodney Benson, Associate Professor and Director ofGraduate Studies, Department of Media, Culture, andCommunication, Affiliated Faculty, Department of Sociology,New York UniversityNina Bernstein, Immigration Reporter, The New York TimesStefanie Bolzen, Correspondent, Die WELT / WELT amSonntagLuis Botello, Senior Program Director for Digital Media,International Center for JournalistsAndrea Brandt, Correspondent, Der SpiegelNicolàs Castellano Flores, Journalist, Cadena SER(Sociedad Española de Radiodifusión)Adam Clark Estes, Editor of Citizen Journalism, HuffingtonPost Investigative FundSandy Close, Executive Director, New America MediaMercita Coronel, Editor in Chief Wereldjournalisten.nl, MiraMediaMihaela Danga, Deputy Director, Center for IndependentJournalismGeert De Clercq, Diversity Advisor, VRT (Vlaamse Radio-enTelevisieomroeporganisatie)Luis de Vega, Correspondent in Maghreb, ABC MadridDavid Dieudonné, Reporter, Agence France—PresseFabienne Doucet, Chief Editor, Oumma Media, Oumma.comValérie Dufour, Journalist, RueFrontenac.comPascale Egré, Reporter, Le Parisien / Aujourd’hui en FranceMona Eltahawy, Columnist, Qatar’s Al Arab newspaper, TheJerusalem Report, Politiken, Metro Canada and ContributingWriter, The Washington Post and <strong>the</strong> International HeraldTribuneUdo Clement Enwereuzor, Member Management Board,Head of Research and Policy on Immigration, Integration andEquality, COSPE ITALYAdriano Farano, Editor, Cafebabel.comLeonardo Ferreira, Associate Professor, School ofCommunication, University of MiamiSusan Ferriss, Senior Reporter, The Sacramento BeeClaire Frachon, European Media Consultant and SeniorJournalist / ProducerFrank-Dieter Freiling, Senior Vice President of InternationalAffairs, ZDF-German TelevisionCécilia Gabizon, Special Correspondent, Le FigaroKarla Gomez Escamilla, Reporter, Univision ArizonaMoïse Gomis, Directeur, Radio des Hauts de RouenJames Graff, World Editor, Sphere.com / AOL NewsDan Grech, Facilitator, International Center for Journalists;Radio News Director, <strong>the</strong> WLRN Miami Herald ReportClaude Grunitzky, Founder, Chairman, and Editor in Chief,Trace Magazine; Founder and Chairman, TRUE AgencyDavid Gura, Associate Editor, National Public RadioDelancey Gustin, Program Associate, Immigration andIntegration, The German Marshall Fund of <strong>the</strong> United StatesLoreto Gutiérrez Prats, Journalist, Madrid Correspondent,Canarias 7Jeff Heinrich, Journalist, The Gazette, MontrealMoira Herbst, Reporter, Bloomberg NewsHicham Houdaifa, Journalist / Reporter, Human Rights,Le Journal hebdomadaire, CasablancaSallie Hughes, Associate Professor of Journalism and Latin<strong>American</strong> Studies, School of Communication, University ofMiamiSunny Hundal, Founder and Editor, Asians in MediaMagazineTamar Jacoby, President and CEO, ImmigrationWorks USAMike Jempson, Director, The MediaWise Trust; VisitingProfessor in Media Ethics, Lincoln University; Senior Lecturer,University of <strong>the</strong> West of EnglandAlan Jenkins, Executive Director, The Opportunity AgendaFrans Jennekens, Head of Diversity, Ne<strong>the</strong>rlandsProgrammes Service (NPS), President of <strong>the</strong> EurovisionIntercultural and Diversity Group (EBU)Marina Jimenez, Senior Feature Writer, The Globe and Mail,TorontoBilly Kahora, Managing Editor, Kwani?Jerry Kammer, Senior Research Fellow, Center forImmigration Studies; Pulitzer Prize winner and former journalistat Copley News Service specializing on immigration and U.S.-Mexico relations22<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


Renée Kaplan, Senior Producer of Newsmagazines and TalkShows, FRANCE 24Angela Maria Kelley, Vice President, Immigration Policyand Advocacy, Center for <strong>American</strong> ProgressNacer Kettane, CEO, Beur FM / BeurTVPeter Kwong, Professor of Asian <strong>American</strong> Studies,Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Hunter College /Professor of Sociology, Graduate Center of <strong>the</strong> City Universityof New YorkPhilippe Le Corre, Partner, Publicis ConsultantsValentina Lombardo, Media and Diversity Manager,COSPERuadhán Mac Cormaic, Paris Correspondent, The IrishTimesDebra Mason, Executive Director, Religion NewswritersAssociation; Director of <strong>the</strong> Center on Religion and <strong>the</strong>Professions (CORP), University of Missouri’s School ofJournalismMagatte Mbengue, Journalist, Africa n°1John J. McDonald III, Publisher, Edmonton JournalJoel Millman, Reporter, The Wall Street JournalMichelle Mittelstadt, Director of Communications, MigrationPolicy InstituteBen Monterroso, Assistant to <strong>the</strong> Executive Vice President of<strong>the</strong> Service Employees International Union (SEIU) and NationalDirector of Civic ParticipationChristal Morehouse, Project Manager, Bertelsmann StiftungIlona Moricz, Director, Center for Independent JournalismMohamed Nassim, Communication Manager, ClubAverroesRuben Navarrette, Syndicated Columnist, San Diego Union-Tribune Editorial Board,Weekly Contributor, CNN.comViorica Nechifor, Journalist, ANSI (Associazione Nazionalestampa interculturale) (National Association of <strong>the</strong> InterculturalMedia)Nezua, Writer, “The Unapologetic Mexican” BlogJan Niessen, Director, The Migration Policy GroupClaudia Núñez, Reporter, La Opinión, Los AngelesZsolt Nyiri, Director of Transatlantic Trends, The GermanMarshall Fund of <strong>the</strong> United StatesClement Ogar, Managing Editor, Obodo-Oyinbo NewsOnlineMichael Oreskes, Senior Managing Editor, The AssociatedPressAndrás Petho, Reporter, Origo newsportalMario Porqueddu, Immigration Reporter, Corriere Della SeraMizanur Rahman, Immigration Editor, Houston ChronicleDamaso Reyes, Photojournalist / Photographer for THEEUROPEANSTed Robbins, Southwest Correspondent, National Desk,National Public RadioAlberto Romagnoli, Paris Correspondent, RAIIván Román, Executive Director, National Association ofHispanic JournalistsFlemming Rose, Editor, Jyllands-PostenSusan Sachs, Freelance Correspondent, The Globe and Mail;journalism professor, Sciences Po (Paris)Paul Scheffer, Professor of Urban Geographies, University ofAmsterdamLisbet Schulz-Contreras, Project Manager, UR The SwedishEducational Broadcasting CompanyHamid Senni, Director, Vision Enabler LtdCarmelita Serkei, Program Manager Research &Development, Mira MediaLevon Sevunts, Producer/journalist, Radio CanadaInternational (Canadian Broadcasting Corp.)Frank Sharry, Founder and Executive Director, America’sVoiceSuhail Siddiq, Chief Marketing Officer, Umma UnitedKim Snyder, Director/Producer, BeCause <strong>Foundation</strong>Roberto Suro, Professor, USC Annenberg, School forCommunicationMichael S. Teitelbaum, Demographer, Harvard Law Schooland Alfred P. Sloan <strong>Foundation</strong>Joseph B Treaster, John S. and James L. Knight Chair inCross Cultural Communication, University of MiamiAbel Ugba, Senior Journalism Lecturer, University of EastLondonKa<strong>the</strong>rine Leal Unmuth, Education Reporter, The DallasMorning NewsArjumand Bano Wajid, Media Trainer in Children’s Rightsand Reporting Diversity; Presenter/Producer, BBC World ServiceVivienne Walt, TIME MagazineEstelle Youssouffa, Newscaster and Reporter, Al JazeeraEnglishJeremiah Zagar, Film Editor, BeCause <strong>Foundation</strong>Daniele Zappalà, Paris correspondent, AVVENIRE<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States23


thank youThe <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States is grateful for <strong>the</strong> generous support of <strong>the</strong> following organizations:The mission of <strong>the</strong> foundation is to reduce poverty andinjustice and promote democratic values, internationalcooperation and human achievement. Grants are madein three broad programs: Asset Building and CommunityDevelopment; Peace and Social Justice; and Knowledge,Creativity and Freedom.Andrew Carnegie envisioned Carnegie Corporation as afoundation that would “promote <strong>the</strong> advancement and diffusionof knowledge and understanding.” In keeping with thismandate, our work incorporates an affirmation of our historicrole as an education foundation but also honors AndrewCarnegie’s passion for international peace and <strong>the</strong> health ofour democracy. While Mr. Carnegie’s primary aim was tobenefit <strong>the</strong> people of <strong>the</strong> United States, he later determinedto use a portion of <strong>the</strong> funds for members of <strong>the</strong> British overseasCommonwealth. Currently, this area of our grantmakingfocuses on selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa.Unbound Philanthropy works in <strong>the</strong> field of human migrationto transform long-standing but solvable barriersto <strong>the</strong> human rights of migrants and refugees and <strong>the</strong>irintegration into host societies. We seek to streng<strong>the</strong>n social,civic, and economic opportunities and relationshipsof mutual responsibility and respect across communities.We are a national foundation with local roots. We choose,as <strong>the</strong> Knight bro<strong>the</strong>rs chose, to seek opportunitiesthat can transform both communities and journalism, andhelp <strong>the</strong>m reach <strong>the</strong>ir highest potential. We advance journalismin <strong>the</strong> digital age and invest in <strong>the</strong> vitality of communitieswhere <strong>the</strong> Knight bro<strong>the</strong>rs owned newspapers.We focus on projects that promote informed, engagedcommunities and lead to transformational change. Webelieve that information is a core community need. Wewant to ensure that all citizens get <strong>the</strong> information <strong>the</strong>yneed to thrive in a democracy and act in <strong>the</strong>ir own bestinterest.And we ask, as we evaluate opportunities and grants, “Isthis truly transformational?” Because grant making requiresa sound financial base, we preserve <strong>the</strong> Knight bro<strong>the</strong>rs’gift through prudent investment and careful management.The Open Society Institute works to build vibrant and tolerantdemocracies whose governments are accountable to<strong>the</strong>ir citizens. To achieve its mission, OSI seeks to shapepublic policies that assure greater fairness in political,legal, and economic systems and safeguard fundamentalrights. On a local level, OSI implements a range ofinitiatives to advance justice, education, public health,and independent media. At <strong>the</strong> same time, OSI buildsalliances across borders and continents on issues suchas corruption and freedom of information. OSI placesa high priority on protecting and improving <strong>the</strong> lives ofpeople in marginalized communities.24<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States


Board of DirectorsHonorary ChairmanChairmanVice-ChairmenPresidentWalter J.P. CurleyAllan M. ChapinElizabeth FondarasFrancois Bujon de l’EstangAntoine G. TreuillePierre AlbouyJacques BouhetAnne Cox ChambersPaul B. ClemenceauAlain CoblenceBertrand CollombMichel David-WeillShannon FairbanksCharles FergusonAdam GopnikJean-Marie GuéhennoCatharine HamiltonArthur A. HartmanJohn G. HeimannJanet HowardYves-André IstelJean KaroubiHoward H. LeachJames G. LowensteinJoanne LymanDavid T. McGovernClare Tweedy McMorrisWilliam B. MattesonChristophe NavarreMichael E. PattersonMarie-Noëlle PierceLeah PisarDouglas PriceClyde E. Rankin, IIIFelix G. RohatynAlfred J. Ross, Esq.Ernest-Antoine SeillièreAnthony A. SmithCraig R. StapletonMarie-Monique SteckelPierre TattevinJohn A. ThainG. Richard ThomanAntonio WeissGuy WildensteinHow to give to <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United StatesThe <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> depends on <strong>the</strong> financialsupport of individuals, corporations and foundations, whichserves to fund <strong>the</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong>’s portfolio of programs andto cover its operating expenses. Programs are rigorouslyevaluated to ensure that <strong>the</strong>y continually streng<strong>the</strong>n <strong>the</strong> <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> relationship—and keep that relationship vivid andrelevant for new generations.The <strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> is an independent, nonpartisan,not-for-profit qualifying tax-exempt organization asdescribed in section 501(c) (3) of <strong>the</strong> United States InternalRevenue Code. Contributions are deductible to <strong>the</strong> full extentallowed by law.For fur<strong>the</strong>r information or to make a donation, please contact212-829-8804.<strong>French</strong>-<strong>American</strong> <strong>Foundation</strong> – United States25


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