November 2008 - Vol 68, No. 3 - International Technology and ...

November 2008 - Vol 68, No. 3 - International Technology and ...

addressing issues related to technology and engineering • Producing tV coMMercials in high school teTechnologyTEACHERThe Voice of Technology EducationtheNovember 2008Volume 68 • Number 3Stepping OutsideMy TechnologyClassroom BoxHow One Teacher SpentHis Summer “Vacation”

Don’t Miss ITEA’s 71st Annual Conference and Birthday Celebration!Everything you need to know about the 71st is there for you at you are looking for details on the compelling general sessions with author/educatorAlfie Kohn or Nate Ball, host of the engineering reality-competition program Design Squad on PBS,details on the programming available for CTTE, TECC, TECA, EPT, CS, and Engineering byDesign, informationon the eight specialized preconference workshops, afternoon educational tours on Thursday andFriday, a glimpse at the exhibiting companies, registration and housing information, or details on NEWlearning labs offered by EbD—it’s all there for you on the conference website.ITEA Confererence Housing opened October 1st, and the ITEA hotels (Marriott Downtown, SpringHillSuites, and Fairfield Inn) are offering rates from $109 to $149, the best you will find in the area. At theseprices, the hotel room blocks will fill quickly, so don't delay in making your reservations. Specific detailsare available at stretch your budget money even further, be sure to take advantage of the special preregistration pricing.ITEA Professional Members will pay $279 for a full conference registration prior to February 27, 2009($319 on-site) and Student Members will pay $69 prior to February 27 ($79 on-site). Encourage your colleaguesto become ITEA members to take advantage of these special prices (nonmembers can take advantageof ITEA's membership promotion discount). Contact Lari Price at for moreinformation. (Nonmember conference pricing is $359 prior to February 27 and $399 after February 27.)This is one conference you won't want to miss,so mark your calendar and make plans now to attend!

Design Squad: Engineering Activities, Energizing KidsTuesday, November 18, 2008 4pm ESTITEA is joining forces with PBS’ Design Squad to present a FREE interactivewebinar for middle and high school teachers. “Design Squad: Engineering Activities,Energizing Kids” will introduce you to the popular reality competition show,its free resources for educators, and explain how you can use these resourcesto bring engineering to life for kids in your classroom. You’ll also get great tipson how to talk to kids about engineering and hear firsthand from ITEA membersabout how they are using Design Squad in their classrooms.To register, go to:

ContentsNOVEMBER • VOL. 68 • NO. 3Stepping Outside My TechnologyClassroom Box (My Summer RETExperience)How one teacher spent his summer “vacation.”Terry Carterpage 25Departments51Web News2TIDE News4 Calendar13 Resourcesin Technology 1934 ClassroomChallenge28FeaturesProducing Television Commercials in High School TechnologyEducation: An Authentic Standards-Based ProjectThis article is designed to introduce the reader to the curricular and pedagogical foundationsof television production technology, and how to make informed decisions when creatingcontent, projects, and assessment strategies for implementing a television production coursein a secondary school setting.Thomas Loveland and Henry L. (Hal) HarrisonSoft Skills in the Technology Education Classroom:What Do Students Need?Examines which nontechnical competencies or soft skills related to technology educationshould be developed by high school students (as indicated by university engineering faculty)as well as whether these competencies are included in the existing technology educationstandards.Kara S. Harris and George E. RogersAddressing Issues Related to Technology and EngineeringAn interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, Codirectors of Hofstra University’sCenter for Technological Literacy.Publisher, Kendall N. Starkweather, DTEEditor-In-Chief, Kathleen B. de la PazEditor, Kathie F. CluffITEA Board of DirectorsLen Litowitz, DTE, PresidentAndy Stephenson, DTE, Past PresidentEd Denton, DTE, President-ElectDoug Miller, Director, ITEA-CSScott Warner, Director, Region IMichael A. Fitzgerald, DTE, Director, Region IISteve Meyer, Director, Region IIIPatrick McDonald, Director, Region IVMichael DeMiranda, Director, CTTEPeter Wright, Director, TECAGinger Whiting, Director, TECCKendall N. Starkweather, DTE, CAE,Executive DirectorITEA is an affiliate of the American Associationfor the Advancement of Science.The Technology Teacher, ISSN: 0746-3537,is published eight times a year (Septemberthrough June with combined December/Januaryand May/June issues) by the InternationalTechnology Education Association, 1914Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston, VA20191. Subscriptions are included inmember dues. U.S. Library and nonmembersubscriptions are $90; $100 outside the U.S.Single copies are $10.00 for members; $11.00for nonmembers, plus shipping and handling.The Technology Teacher is listed in theEducational Index and the Current Index toJournal in Education. Volumes are available onMicrofiche from University Microfilm, P.O. Box1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.Advertising Sales:ITEA Publications Department703-860-2100Fax: 703-860-0353Subscription ClaimsAll subscription claims must be made within 60days of the first day of the month appearing onthe cover of the journal. For combined issues,claims will be honored within 60 days fromthe first day of the last month on the cover.Because of repeated delivery problems outsidethe continental United States, journals will beshipped only at the customer’s risk. ITEA willship the subscription copy but assumes noresponsibility thereafter.Change of AddressSend change of address notification promptly.Provide old mailing label and new address.Include zip + 4 code. Allow six weeks forchange.PostmasterSend address change to: The TechnologyTeacher, Address Change, ITEA, 1914Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston, VA20191-1539. Periodicals postage paid atHerndon, VA and additional mailing offices.Email: kdelapaz@iteaconnect.orgWorld Wide Web:

Now Available on theITEA Website:TechnologyTEACHERT h e Vo i c e o f Te c h n o l o g y E d u c a t i o ntheThere is Still Time!December 1 st is the deadline to apply for ITEA’s Grants, Scholarships, andAwards. There is something for everyone here: Don’t delay! Awards will be presented at ITEA’s AnnualConference in Louisville, KY on March 26-28, 2009. Attendance is notrequired to receive an award.Delivering the T&E in STEMGet all the latest programming, travel, and registration information Join ITEA forover 150 professional development learning sessions, specialized workshops,educational tours, a busy tradeshow, exciting general session speakers, anda fabulous evening social event at the Kentucky Derby Museum. Race you toregistration!Engineering byDesign Fall Leadership ForumITEA’s Engineering byDesign Consortium met on September 17-19 inReston, Virginia. Nineteen member states participated in developing the nextgeneration of cutting-edge curriculum, instruction, and assessment. See theITEA Consortium of States here: Review BoardChairpersonGerald DayUniversity of Maryland Eastern ShoreLori AbernethyAndrew Morrison ES, PAByron C. AndersonUniversity of Wisconsin-StoutSteve AndersenNikolay Middle School, WIStephen L. BairdBayside Middle School, VALynn BashamVirginia Department ofEducationMary L. BradenCarver Magnet HS, TXJolette BushMidvale Middle School, UTMike CichockiSalisbury Middle School, PALaura Morford ErliEast Side MS, INJeremy ErnstNorth Carolina StateUniversityMike Fitzgerald, DTEIN Department of EducationKara HarrisPurdue UniversityMarie HoepflAppalachian State UniversityLaura HummellManteo Middle School, NCDoug HuntSouthern Wells HS, INChad JohnsonWest Washington HS, INAnthony Korwin, DTENM Public EducationDepartmentFrank KruthSouth Fayette MS, PATheodore LewisUniversity of MinnesotaLinda MarkertSUNY at OswegoMary Annette RoseBall State UniversityTerrie RustOasis Elementary School, AZBart SmootDelmar MS/HS, DEJerianne TaylorAppalachian State UniversityEditorial PolicyAs the only national and international association dedicatedsolely to the development and improvement of technologyeducation, ITEA seeks to provide an open forum for the freeexchange of relevant ideas relating to technology education.Materials appearing in the journal, includingadvertising, are expressions of the authors and do notnecessarily reflect the official policy or the opinion of theassociation, its officers, or the ITEA Headquarters staff.Referee PolicyAll professional articles in The Technology Teacher arerefereed, with the exception of selected associationactivities and reports, and invited articles. Refereed articlesare reviewed and approved by the Editorial Board beforepublication in The Technology Teacher. Articles with bylineswill be identified as either refereed or invited unless writtenby ITEA officers on association activities or policies.To Submit ArticlesAll articles should be sent directly to the Editor-in-Chief,International Technology Education Association, 1914Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston, VA 20191-1539.Please submit articles and photographs via emailto Maximum length formanuscripts is eight pages. Manuscripts should be preparedfollowing the style specified in the Publications Manual ofthe American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition.Editorial guidelines and review policies are available bywriting directly to ITEA or by visiting Contents copyright© 2008 by the International Technology EducationAssociation, Inc., 703-860-2100.1 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

TIDE NewsHurry! There’s Not Much Time Left to Make theDecember 1 st Deadline…Are you interested in applying for an ITEA scholarshipor grant? The December 1 st application deadline is fastapproaching. Whether you are an undergraduate student,graduate student, or technology education classroomteacher, you will want to check out the scholarshipsand grants that ITEA has to offer ( The application process has beenstreamlined this year—applications are being acceptedelectronically—so be sure to apply prior to the cutoff date.Absolutely no applications will be accepted afterthe December 1, 2008 deadline.Louisville Speakers AnnouncedAuthor Alfie Kohn *** Design Squad host Nate Ball ***Dr. Lung-Sheng Steven Lee *** Dr. Theodore LewisWhat do these respected individuals have in common?They’ll be in Louisville, Kentucky next March forDELIVERING THE T & E IN STEM at ITEA’s 71stAnnual ConferenceEverything you need to know about the 71st Annual ITEAConference in Louisville is there for you at youare looking for details on the compelling general sessionswith author/educator Alfie Kohn or Nate Ball, host of theengineering reality-competition program Design Squadon PBS, details on the programming available for CTTE,TECC, TECA, EPT, CS, and Engineering byDesign,information on the eight specialized preconference workshops,afternoon educational tours on Thursday and Friday,a glimpse at the exhibiting companies, registration, andhousing information or details on NEW learning labs offeredby EbD—it’s all there for you on the conference website.ITEA Conference Housing opened October 1st, and theITEA hotels (Marriott Downtown, SpringHill Suites, andFairfield Inn) are offering rates from $109 to $149, the bestyou will find in the area. At these prices, the hotel roomblocks will fill quickly, so don’t delay in making your reservations.Specific details are available at stretch your budget money even further, be sure totake advantage of the special preregistration pricing. ITEAProfessional Members will pay $279 for a full conferenceregistration prior to February 27, 2009 ($319 on-site) andStudent Members will pay $69 prior to February 27 ($79on-site). Encourage your colleagues to become ITEA membersto take advantage of these special prices (nonmemberscan take advantage of ITEA’s membership promotiondiscount). Contact Lari Price at formore information. (Nonmember conference pricing is $359prior to February 27 and $399 after February 27.)This is one conference you won’t want to miss, so mark yourcalendar and make plans now to attend.NEW at the ITEA Conference in Louisville:Engineering byDesign LabsThe EbD labs are a newand exciting addition to theConference venue, by populardemand. These labs are anexcellent opportunity for teachersand other educators to experienceone of the EngineeringbyDesign (EbD) courses in a workshop environment.Comprehensive professional development is provided foreach course or instructional component. A small fee ($15)is requested to cover supplies and can be paid throughthe conference registration form. Whether you are in aConsortium state or not, whether you are currently teachingan EbD course or just want to find out more—theseworkshops are not to be missed. These sessions are handsonand minds-on, providing the fundamentals necessary toimplement the course.Thursday, March 26 – 1:00pm – 4:50pmEngineering byDesign – Exploring Technology LabThis middle school EbD Lab will provide training formiddle school teachers and administrators on the ExploringTechnology, Second Edition course guide for Grade 6.Engineering byDesign – Foundations of Technology LabThis high school EbD Lab will provide training for highschool teachers and administrators on the Foundations ofTechnology, Second Edition course guide for Grade 9.Engineering byDesign – ITEA-NASA ElementaryClassroom ChallengesThis elementary EbD Lab will provide training for elementaryschool teachers and administrators on the HumanExploration Project’s Elementary Classroom Challenges.Friday, March 27 – 2:00pm – 4:50pmEngineering byDesign – Invention and Innovation LabThis middle school EbD Lab will provide training formiddle school teachers and administrators on the Inventionand Innovation, Second Edition course guide for Grade 7.2 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Engineering byDesign – AdvancedDesign Applications LabThis high school EbD Lab will providetraining for high school teachers andadministrators on the Advanced DesignApplications course for Grades 11–12.Engineering byDesign – ITEA-NASAMiddle School ChallengesThis middle school EbD Lab will providetraining for middle school teachers andadministrators on the Human ExplorationProject’s Middle School ClassroomChallenges.Saturday, March 28 - 9:00am – 11:50amEngineering byDesign – Invention,Innovation, and Inquiry (I 3 ) LabThis elementary school EbD Lab willprovide training for elementary schoolteachers and administrators on theInvention, Innovation, and Inquiry (I 3 )NSF-funded Project for Grades 5 and 6.Engineering byDesign – TechnologicalSystems LabThis middle school EbD Lab will providetraining for middle school teachers andadministrators on the TechnologicalSystems, Second Edition course guide forGrade 8.Engineering byDesign – EngineeringDesign LabThis high school EbD Lab will providetraining for high school teachers andadministrators on the Engineering Design,Second Edition course guide for Grades11-12.Engineering byDesign – ITEA-NASAHigh School ChallengesThis high school EbD Lab will providetraining for high school teachers andadministrators on the Human ExplorationProject’s High School ClassroomChallenges.3 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

CalendarNovember 5-8, 2008 The PATT 20 (Pupils’ AttitudesToward Technology) international conference will takeplace in Tel Aviv, Israel. The conference will include threedays of presentations and one day visiting schools. A onedaytour to Jerusalem will be offered to the participantsas an optional fifth-day addition. The conference fees willinclude: registration, a conference publication booklet,four days of participation, four nights full accommodationin the conference hotel, one day of visiting schools, and acelebration dinner on the first evening. A special websitehas been developed for this conference and can be found at 6-7, 2008 The New Jersey EducationAssociation (NJEA) 2008 Convention will be held inAtlantic City, NJ. The theme for the convention is “21stCentury Learning,” with a focus on the following topics: coresubjects, global awareness, learning and thinking skills, lifeskills, information/communications technology, and 21stcenturyassessments. Convention and housing informationis available at Or contact JaimeWineland at or 800-466-9367,ext. 7320.November 27-29, 2008 The 5th Biennial InternationalTechnology Education Research Conference, “ExploringTechnology Education: Solutions to Issues in a GlobalisedWorld,” will be held at the Griffith Institute for EducationalResearch in Queensland, Australia. For information, 15-21, 2009 Engineers Week 2009 will takeplace nationwide. Organized by the National EngineersWeek Foundation and chaired by NSPE and Intel, the2009 celebration will continue to enrich ongoing efforts inEngineers Week’s large portfolio of educational programsdesigned to inspire young people, such as the NationalEngineers Week Future City Competition and Introduce aGirl to Engineering Day (February 19, 2009). For completeinformation, go to 6-8, 2008 The Technology EducationAssociation of Pennsylvania (TEAP) Conference will be heldat the Radisson Penn Harris Hotel and Conference Centerin Camp Hill, PA, west of Harrisburg. Information can befound at, or contactJoanne Trombley at 8-10, 2008 The Engineering/TechnologyEducators of Indiana will be holding its 77th AnnualConference at the Indianapolis Embassy Suites North. Theconference theme is “Engineering Our Students’ Future,”and its features include professional development sessions,hands-on sessions, networking opportunities, vendors, andmuch more! Additional information can be found at Contact the hotel at 317-872-7700 to make roomreservations for the conference. In order to receive the bestrate, be sure to make your reservation in the block of roomsdesignated for the Technology Educators of Indiana. Currentrates have been quoted at $109 per night (rates are subject tochange). www.indianapolisnorth.embassysuites.comNovember 12-14, 2008 DeVilbiss, Binks and OwensCommunity College have teamed up to present a SprayFinishing Technology Workshop in Toledo, Ohio. TwoContinuing Education Units are awarded. Attendees shouldbe involved with industrial, contractor, or maintenancespray finishing applications, or spray equipment salesand distribution. Information is available online at www.March 26-28, 2009 ITEA’s 71st Annual Conferenceand Exhibition and 70th Birthday Celebration willbe held in Louisville, Kentucky. The 2009 conferencetheme is “Delivering the T & E in STEM.” STEM is oneof the hottest education topics in America right now.Technology education can and does play a critical rolein helping school districts deliver all aspects of STEMeducation to students, with particular emphasis on the“T” and the “E.” The 2009 Louisville Conference willconsist of presentations that address the following fivesubthemes or tracks: TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION,DESIGN, ENGINEERING, and STEM INTEGRATION.The discussions are sure to be of crucial importance tothose interested in the field of technology and engineeringeducation. Mark your calendar now for March 26-28, 2009and join ITEA in beautiful Louisville, Kentucky for the 71stAnnual ITEA Conference and Exhibition.List your State/Province Association Conference in TTTand Inside TIDE (ITEA’s electronic newsletter). Submitconference title, date(s), location, and contact information (atleast two months prior to journal publication date) to • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Producing Television Commercials inHigh School Technology Education:An Authentic Standards-Based ProjectBy Thomas Loveland and Henry L. (Hal) Harrison, IIIExamining the use of televisioncommercial projects to providean in-depth and authenticexperience for technologyeducation students.IntroductionTelevision production technology courses are among thefastest-growing courses in public education. In Florida,the Television Production 1 (#1100300) course increasedenrollment statewide by 9.5% per year between 1995 and2005 (Florida Department of Education, 2007). Althoughtelevision production courses have been in existence forover 20 years in schools, principals from schools that donot have television production courses have qualifiedschool staff to develop these courses. Television courses aresometimes developed by media specialists working with aselect group of students to videotape daily announcementsand air them over their school’s closed circuit television(CCTV) network. Communication Technology teacherscan develop courses that go beyond daily announcementsto include more sophisticated forms of video productionin which students from all backgrounds can have learningsuccess. Examples of these productions include producinga live video recording of graduation ceremonies, filmingathletic events, taping public service announcements forlocal organizations, producing promotional videos for lowenrollmentcourses, interviewing students of the month, andcreating music videos and television commercials.St. Petersburg College Technology Education student JustinPlish, right, is interviewed by Alvaro Muente while JackGriffith videotapes.As more school administrators learn of these ways ofpromoting their schools to the public, the push fordeveloping television production courses will likely increase.5 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Once a course is in place, a move away from just tapingschool news and into more complex video productionsis a natural progression. Technology education teachers,media specialists, and technology coordinators can increasethe instructional effectiveness of television productiontechnology courses by utilizing sound pedagogical andcurricular practices. This article is designed to introducethe reader to the curricular and pedagogical foundationsof television production technology, and how to makeinformed decisions when creating content, projects,and assessment strategies for implementing a televisionproduction course in a secondary school setting.Philosophy of Standards-Based CurriculumAuthentic contextual and situated learning are twostrategies of integrating real-world experience andacademics in standards-based curriculum. Students learnbetter when they are taught knowledge within the context ofactual experience, rather than abstractly (Predmore, 2005).In authentic contextual learning, opportunities are providedthat duplicate practical experiences and require students todemonstrate their understanding through hands-on, mindsonlessons. In this curriculum, students use the same toolsand language as experts. This allows the culture of learningto match the culture of the experts. Lesson plans increasethe amount of authenticity involved in the tasks untilstudents are performing at rather complex levels of expertise(ITEA, 2005).Technological Literacy (AETL) (ITEA, 2003).• Does the project have clearly defined quality standardsthat students can use to evaluate their work and takecorrective action? (AETL Student Assessment Standard4-E: “Utilize authentic assessment.”)• Will the project require the completion of learningactivities that result in work done in a real workplaceand help students to understand and employ the majortechnologies used in the field? (AETL Program Standard4-D: “Promote student development of knowledgeand abilities that provides for the safe application ofappropriate technological tools, machines, materials, andprocesses.”)• Can the project engage students in interacting and sharingideas about ways to address a problem or situation,and the lessons learned through the project? (AETLProgram Standard 4-A: “Create and manage learningenvironments that are supportive of student interactionsand student abilities to question, inquire, design, invent,and innovate.”)• Does the project allow students to present andcommunicate their solutions to an audience ofrepresentatives from the career field? (STL Standard 11-R:“Evaluate final solutions and communicate observation,processes, and results of the entire design process, usingverbal…”)Based on anthropological studies, Jean Lave described howcraftspeople became experts in their crafts through anapprenticeship process and scaffolded learning. Throughthese observations, a theory of situated learning wasformulated (Lave & Wenger, 1991). This theory was basedon three postulates: 1) classroom learning by its very natureis out of context and extraneous, 2) the most relevant andeffective knowledge is taught within the context of workapplications and settings, and 3) learning is highly socialand interactive, involving comprehensive collaboration andmentoring within a community of practice. Situated learninggoes beyond the traditional work-based apprenticeshipmethods of observation and imitation. By giving studentsaccess, control, and choice, learning occurs from anegotiated character of meaning within a social community.In developing television projects that are standardsbased,authentic, and situated, teachers may begin byasking themselves four questions, each of which can bedirectly linked to a benchmark from either Standards forTechnological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology(STL) (ITEA, 2000/2002/2007) or Advancing Excellence inSt. Petersburg College technology education students test theaudio and camera equipment before a planned video shoot.6 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

In Television Production Technology, there are numerousprojects that would be considered authentic or situated.These would include Electronic News Gathering, ElectronicField Production, multi-camera live remotes, TV newsshows, talk shows, music videos, safety videos, trainingvideos, documentaries, marketing videos, public serviceannouncements, dramatizations, concert videos, andtelevision commercials. This article examines the use oftelevision commercial projects to provide an in-depth andauthentic experience for technology education students.Project ProcessAt a large technical education center in west-central Florida,a TV Production Technology course, based on Standardsfor Technological Literacy (STL), is organized into a fourquartersystem of instructional units. During the last eightweeks of the TV Production Technology II class, advancedstudents complete a television commercial for a localcompany. This project is built around three distinct stages:preproduction, presentation before a panel of experts andproduction, and video production. During the three-weekpreproduction stage, students are expected to choose,contact, and write a contract with a local business for a30-second commercial. Students were asked to steer clearof large chains like Wal-Mart, Home Depot, or McDonalds.They were to concentrate their efforts on small restaurants,tanning salons, hair salons, automotive repair shops, andsimilar-sized local businesses.types of commercial formats are straight sell, testimonials,humor, music, and dramatization. The straight sell is aclear and simple message to the viewer. This format is oftenused when introducing a new, first-of-its-kind productto the market. Straight sell commercials stress a featureabout a particular product. Testimonial formats are usuallycelebrity-based commercials. Celebrities should be selectedwho have a past with a specific problem that a productis used for. For instance, when former Miami Dolphin’squarterback Dan Marino retired from football, he gainedweight. A weight-loss food company hired Dan to be itsspokesman and use its product to achieve weight loss. AfterMarino lost the weight, he testified in commercials thatthe company’s food products helped him lose the weight,demonstrated by “before” and “after” pictures.In the preproduction stage, students set up an officialmeeting with the local business owner who wants toproduce the video. During the meeting, students presentthe contract (Figure 1) to the client, which states the cost ofthe video and when the video is to be completed and readyfor viewing. After these items are understood, students thenTwo major decisions occur during this planning stage ofthe television commercial projects: types of appeal andtreatment guidelines. Commercials must appeal to anaudience’s basic wants and needs. The appeals fall into threecategories: ethical, logical, and emotional. When developinga treatment for preproduction, several guidelines should beemphasized (Hilliard, 2008).• The commercial should focus clearly on the product oridea.• Keep the writing centered on how the product or serviceis being sold or promoted, not extraneous details.• Commercials are only as good as the hard work andprofessional technical skills used by the creative teamproducing the video.• If the audience views a commercial and falls in lovewith the brilliance of it, try taking the product or ideaout. If they still love the commercial, it is ineffective inpresenting the idea/product.Based on the research collected and the ideas generatedduring brainstorming, videographers usually have an ideaof the format they want to use in their commercial. The five7 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Marchman Television ProductionTV Commercial AgreementI, ___________________________, owner/manager of the local Pasco County business, ____________________________,agree to let Television Production students from Marchman Technical Education Center videotape and edit a free30-second television commercial for my business. I agree to assist the students with ideas for the commercial andprovide them with access to tape on the business premises between April 16 th to May 6 th . Marchman will provide a freeVHS copy of the completed videotape to my business.If I choose to book airtime for the commercial on broadcast or cable TV, I agree to pay Marchman Television Productiona stipend of $300 for the production of the commercial. A broadcast-quality Mini-DV copy of the commercial willbe provided by Marchman to my business for this purpose. All airtime expenses and arrangements are the soleresponsibility of my business to the broadcast or cable television station.I understand that if I just want the free VHS copy for my personal archives, there is no further obligation or paymentof any kind to Marchman Television Production. Questions may be directed to the Television Production teacher atMarchman at (727) XXX-XXXX.Signed:_________________________________________________ __________________________________________________OwnerDate_________________________________________________ __________________________________________________Business Name MTEC Student #1_________________________________________________ __________________________________________________Teacher approval MTEC Student #2Figure 1. Commercial Contract Template.present their storyboards to the client. Students should notonly present copies of the storyboards to the client, but walkthem through the video as if they were telling a story, beingsure to use vivid words and sounds. After the presentation,students should be ready to answer questions from the clientand be prepared for critiques and requested changes. Thislast stage grooms the students for their presentation beforethe panel of advertising agency executives.After securing a contract, students begin preparation forthe most authentic and daunting task, a full presentationbefore a panel of advertising executives. During thatsession, student teams present their storyboards andpitches to experts from the real world of film and televisionadvertising. Students have to dress professionally and bearticulate and ready to answer all questions with clarity andthoroughness. The panel of experts is deliberately placed ona raised dais overlooking the student teams, adding a degreeof emotional pressure to the presentation. Using scriptedand spontaneous questions, the experts help encourage thestudents to sharpen their messages and ideas.During the five-week production stage, student teams leavethe campus during class time to videotape on location atthe businesses. Most students, because of liability issueswith off-campus taping, are allowed to leave campus onlywith full written consent of their parents, insurance on theirvehicle and the school video equipment, a completed scriptand shot list, and no discipline referrals. In the three yearsat the technical education center in west Florida where thisproject was developed and run, there were no off-campusincidents that tarnished the program’s reputation. Forstudents who did not meet these off-campus guidelines,opportunities were provided to produce their commercialsfor the in-school cosmetology and commercial foodsprograms, both of which conducted business with thegeneral public.When the commercial was completed, a free copy wasprovided to the business. If they approved of the commercialand wanted to run it on local broadcast or cable television,the contract stipulated that the business pay a modeststipend to the television production class.8 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Did the producers clearly communicate what they are proposing?Expert Panel Grading GuidelinesPlease answer each question below with a number (1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest score).Is the concept understandable?Is the concept creative?Does the concept meet the commercial’s goal?Do the storyboards make sense?Does the storyboard flow from one scene to the next?Did the students clearly communicate what they are proposing?Did the students exhibit professionalism during their presentation?_______/5_______/5_______/5_______/5_______/5_______/5_______/5Total_______/35Would you allow students to begin production based on their presentation?No, concept requires major revision before production.Yes, but with reservations discussed during presentation.Yes, students may begin production on their commercial._____________________Figure 2. Expert Panel Grading Guidelines.AssessmentAccording to Measuring Progress: A Guide to AssessingStudents for Technological Literacy (ITEA, 2004), “Studentassessment engages students in hands-on, minds-onactivities that foster critical thinking, decision making,and problem solving related to the use, management, andevaluation of the designed world” (p. 10). As an authenticproject, the value of using real-world standards andassessment makes sense. Expectations of students shouldbe set high, and the assessment instruments should reflectthose high standards. On the TV commercial project, theassessments were formative and summative. They werebroken down into three stages. In stage one, students wereassessed on their preproduction skills and knowledge.This accounted for 15% of their project grade. They hadfour milestones in this stage: 1) meet with business owner,2) develop audience analysis, type of appeal, steps ofpersuasion, and format, 3) with business owner’s approval,develop a concept and write the script, and 4) drawstoryboards on 3’ X 4’ poster boards and begin to preparefor their stage-two presentations. The business owner wasasked to sign the contract at this point.Stage two, worth 35% of the student’s grade, is where theword “authentic” takes on new meaning to the students.During this section, they give a 10-15 minute presentation toa panel of advertising professionals. Students were requiredto dress professionally in order to make an impression.Some teams videotaped their practice presentation to selfcritiqueit. Questions mulled over included: Is the conceptclear? Do the storyboard frames lead to a logical conclusionso that the viewer wants to purchase the product/service?Sharp teams reviewed the Expert Panel Grading Guidelines(Figure 2) to see how they were to be assessed (Harrison,Loveland, Deaton & Squibb, 2005).The last stage included the production and completion ofthe commercial. The product was assessed by the classroomteacher using a summative rubric (Figure 3) that addressesauthentic assessment guidelines listed in Measuring Progress(ITEA, 2004). These include:• Determining the level at which students can understandand use content knowledge.• Having the students work in hands-on situations that arerepresentative of the real world.• Using cognitive, psychomotor, and affective elements oflearning.• Recognizing areas of student interest.• Clearly stating to students what the expectations are, howthey will be assessed, and how feedback will be providedto them (p. 52).BenefitsCreating commercials and public service announcements asa group project in a television production technology coursehas countless benefits. Students benefit by seeing firsthandwhat the commercial production industry goes throughwhen producing a commercial from the ground up. Students9 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Target100%Acceptable75%Emergent50%Unacceptable25%ProductionCameraSteady and creativeshots that enhancevideo. Great use ofclose-ups.Clearly focused andframed with limitedzooms.Steady, but framingamateurish. Too manylong, wide shots andtoo few close-ups.Serious problems withfocus, steadiness, andframing.AudioSame as Acceptablelevel (and) room toneand sound effectsrecorded in field.Correct microphoneschosen, clear audiorecorded with goodlevels.Poor quality audiorecorded from use ofonboard microphone.No original audiorecorded.LightingExcellent and creativeuse of lightingto propel storyemotionally.Use of three-pointlighting scheme.Bounce-lit exteriors.Adequate lighting onsubjects, some videonoise in blacks.Poor ambient lightingchoices: heavy backlighting.Post ProductionContinuity andPacingShots logically pacethe story along ininteresting way.Excellent use oftransitions.Pace and timing good.Clips move along,telling the story.Moderate use oftransitions.Shots are in adequatesequence, someattempts to makeedit interesting.Transitions lookgimmicky.Shot sequencing isincomprehensible. Shotsare left way too long. Editpoints glitchy.Use of MediaAll media workseamlessly to propelstory. Clearlydemonstratesunderstanding andapplication of mediain videos.Good use of music,titles, and graphics.Music does not fitvideo, stand-alone titletaped with camcorder.No use of titles, graphics,or music.HolisticVideoEffectivenessWeighting X2Video is focused,with rich variety ofsupporting material.Client very satisfied.Topic presented withinsights. Client canuse video to meetobjectives.Meets video goals.Topics presented withbasic points covered.Does not meet projectgoals; unclear message,very sloppy video.TeamworkGroup demonstrateshigh levels ofcooperation andcollaborationthroughoutproduction process.Group agrees onassigned roles andshares workload.Some teamwork, butone person dominatesdecision making.No teamwork or sharedresponsibilities.Figure 3. Video Assessment Rubric.10 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

must brainstorm and plan the commercial, set up meetingtimes with the client, and present their idea to the clienteven before the first videotape is recorded. Through thepreproduction process, students develop an understandingthat video production is not only the finished product thatthey see on the television screen, but the culmination ofmany completed steps. Students also take a leadership rolein their group where they otherwise may not be as involved.Their contributions to ongoing projects gain value throughpractice. This value increases as the students become moreadept (Lave & Wenger, 1991).Teachers benefit by having their students see the relevanceof the television, advertising, and marketing industries. Asteachers engage students in commercial projects, studentsfeel connected to and passionate about their projectsince they are the lead contact with the client for theiradvertising services. Technology teachers often benefitTelevision Commercial Design BriefContextOne of the largest industries in the United States isthe advertising industry. This industry encompassesseveral media areas: print, radio, and television. Thearea of television can be further delineated into cable,local broadcast, and network. This multibillion dollarindustry is designed around one goal: increased salesfor profit companies. Hundreds of thousands of workersin advertising, film, and television are dependent onthis industry for support. Each commercial shoot istotally different. These differences make the advertising/commercial field interesting, creative, and fulfilling.ObjectivesSTL Benchmark 8J: The design needs to be continuallychecked and critiqued, and the ideas of the designmust be redefined and improved.STL Benchmark 17N: Information and communicationcan be used to inform, persuade, entertain, control,manage, and educate.STL Benchmark 17P: There are many ways tocommunicate information, such as graphic andelectronic means.ChallengeYour two-person team will need to contact a localbusiness to offer your services to create a 30-secondtelevision commercial. Focus on small local businesses.Do not approach large companies like Publix or HomeDepot. These companies have noncompete contractswith agencies to do their advertising. One great sourcemay be your parent’s business. Once the business owner(s)have agreed to work with you, you will need to brainstormideas for the 30-second spot. This brainstorming beginswith problem and audience analysis. What is the hook ormessage the owner wants to get across?Once you have a plan, you will be required to makestoryboards of the commercial. Note that 30 seconds isa very short amount of time to get a message across. It’smuch harder to write a 30-second spot than it is to writea 5-minute promotional. Every frame counts! When yourstoryboards are ready, you will be pitching your projectto a panel of advertising executives. You will need to sellyour concept to them. You must be able to answer theirquestions of why and how the spot will help the localbusiness owners to increase their sales.With the approval of the advertising panel, you will nowproduce your 30-second spot. Your grade on this projectwill be a combination of preproduction, advertisingpanel grade, and final video grade. This project will countheavily toward your 4 th quarter grade. Every day late inmeeting the individual deadlines will result in a 20% lossin your grade for that section of the project. Here are thedue dates and evaluation criteria:Due Dates3/31 Have business approval4/16 Advertising panel presentation5/7 Commercial finishedEvaluation15% Evidence of preproduction35% Presentation quality50% Quality of final product11 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

from these projects by working with teachers from otheracademic subject areas such as English, history, or othersocial sciences to help with the research and writing of thecommercial. This work encourages cross-curricular learningand relevance to other subject areas.Schools also benefit from commercial production becauseof the publicity they receive after the commercial isbroadcast. Schools often choose to include their name inthe commercial for increased visibility. After a successfulcommercial, schools naturally build working relationshipswith the local business owners for whom the studentsproduced the video. This increases community support forlocal schools. Finally, the schools benefit from commercialvideo projects by utilizing a multitude of academicdepartments and school resources that truly make thisproject a cross-curricular and authentic contextual-learningproject.ReferencesFlorida Department of Education. (2007). Secondary courseenrollments: 1995–2005: 1100300 television production 1.[Data file]. Tallahassee, FL: Education Data Warehouse,Accountability, Research, and Measurement.Harrison, H., Loveland, T., Deaton, V., & Squibb, K. (2005).Film technology. In R. Peterson (Ed.), The TECHknowproject: High school teacher guide 2. (pp. 40–42).Cincinnati, OH: Centre Pointe Learning.Hilliard, R. (2008). Writing for television, radio and newmedia (9 th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, Inc.International Technology Education Association.(2000/2002/2007). Standards for technological literacy:Content for the study of technology. Reston, VA: Author.International Technology Education Association. (2003).Advancing excellence in technological literacy: Studentassessment, professional development, and programstandards. Reston, VA: Author.International Technology Education Association. (2004).Measuring progress: A guide to assessing students fortechnological literacy. Reston, VA: Author.International Technology Education Association. (2005).Realizing excellence: Structuring technology programs.Reston, VA: Author.Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimateperipheral participation. Cambridge, UK: CambridgeUniversity Press.Predmore, S. (2005). Putting it into context. Techniques,80(1), pp. 22-25.This is a refereed article.Thomas Loveland, Ph.D. is a professorof Technology Education at St. PetersburgCollege, Clearwater, FL. He can be reachedvia email at L. (Hal) Harrison, III is a clinicalfaculty member in the Department of Careerand Technology Education at ClemsonUniversity, Clemson, SC. He can be reachedvia email at Technology Teacher journal is currentlyconducting a Call for Articles.Articles are intended to be used as part ofa future “themed” issue of the journal andshould relate to the topic, “Teaching GreenActivities in Technology Education.”Deadline: July 1, 2009.Questions or submissions should bedirected to • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Resources in TechnologyOffshore Oil Drilling: BuyingEnergy Independence orBuying Time?By Stephen L. BairdInformed and rational decisions canbe reached through the understandingof how complex technological systemscan impact the environment, oureconomy, our politics, and ultimatelyour culture.Skyrocketing fuel prices, unprecedented homeforeclosures, rising unemployment, escalating foodprices, increasing climate disasters, and the continuedwar on two fronts have prompted greater publicsupport for renewed offshore drilling for oil. A Galluppoll conducted in May of 2008 found that 57 percent ofrespondents favored such drilling, while 41 percent wereopposed (Wangsness, 2008). The political landscape is alsobeing changed in favor of offshore drilling, with the resultsof a Zogby poll (Zogby International has been trackingpublic opinion since 1984) showing that three in four likelyvoters—74 percent—support offshore drilling for oil inU.S. coastal waters, and more than half (59 percent) alsofavor drilling for oil in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge(Zogby, 2008). The tide is turning in favor of offshoredrilling, with environmental concerns given less thoughtbecause of the increasing financial strain being realized byFigure 1. The Arguello, Inc. Harvest Oil Platform is located about10km off the coast of central California. The platform is attachedto the sea floor and sits in about 200m of water. Conditions aretypical of the open ocean, and the seas can be quite heavy.Picture courtesy of NASA.a majority of the American public. The debate on offshoredrilling has captured headlines in newspapers, stirreddebate on talk radio, and has been at the forefront on thenightly news.The rising tide for support of offshore drilling recentlygathered momentum when, on July 14, 2008, PresidentGeorge W. Bush lifted a 1990 executive order by the first13 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

President Bush banning offshore drilling, while at the sametime calling for drilling in the Arctic National WildlifeRefuge. As of August 2008, however, a 1982 congressionalban is still in place, making Bush’s action a symbolic gesture,and now the congressional ban is being debated in terms ofboth environmental issues and U.S. energy independence.In an almost complete reversal of policy, on July 30, 2008,the U.S. Department of the Interior released a news reportsaying that the nation’s energy situation has dramaticallychanged in the past year. Secretary of the Interior, DirkKempthorne, said, “Areas that were considered tooexpensive to develop a year ago are no longer necessarily outof reach based on improvements to technology and safety.”Kempthorne went on to say that, “The American peopleand the President want action, and a new initiative (thedevelopment of a new oil and natural gas leasing programfor the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf) can accelerate anoffshore exploration and development program that wouldincrease production from additional domestic energyresources.” President Bush is urging Congress to enactlegislation that would allow states to have a say regardingoperations off their shores and to share in the resultingrevenues (United States Department of the Interior, 2008).Shortly after the Interior Department released plans forjumpstarting new offshore oil exploration, on August 16,2008 the Speaker of The House, Nancy Pelosi, droppedher opposition to a vote on coastal oil exploration andexpanded offshore drilling (with appropriate safeguardsand without taxpayer subsidies to big oil) as part of broadenergy legislation to be addressed when Congress returnedin September (Hulse, 2008). Today, with the high price of oiland a widening gap between U.S. energy consumption andsupply, the ban on offshore oil drilling is being rethought bythe general public, politicians, and the oil industry.The energy stalemate between environmentalists andindustry that has inhibited U.S. offshore oil production sincethe late 1960s is being broken, environmental argumentsno longer add up, and working Americans are now takingenergy policy inaction personally. According to a PewResearch Center poll conducted in July 2008, 60 percent ofrespondents considered energy supplies more importantthan environmental protection, and a majority of youngAmericans, 18-29, now consider energy exploration moreimportant than conservation (Brinson, 2008).Addressing Environmental and Safety ConcernsThough offshore drilling conjures up fears of catastrophicspills, (such as the 80,000 barrels that spilled six miles offSanta Barbara, California, inundating beaches and aquaticlife in January 1969), the petroleum industry rightly arguesthat safety measures have improved considerably in recentyears. According to the U.S. Minerals Management Service,since 1975, 101,997 barrels spilled from among the 11.855billion barrels of American oil extracted offshore. This is a0.001 percent pollution rate. That equates to 99.999 percentclean—compare that with Mother Nature herself, as 620,500barrels of oil ooze organically from North America’s oceanfloors each year (Walsh, 2008).The United States has been a leader in the creation of themodern offshore oil industry and has pioneered manynew safety technologies, ranging from blowout preventersto computer-controlled well data designed to help oilcompanies’ efforts to prevent disasters. Sensors and otherinstruments now help platform workers monitor andhandle the temperatures and pressures of subsea oil, even asdrilling is occurring. Hurricanes have become manageable,with oil lines now being capped at or beneath the oceanfloor. Even if oil platforms snap loose and blow away,industrial seals restrain potentially destructive petroleumleaks from hundreds or even thousands of feet below theocean’s surface. In August and September of 2005, the 3,050offshore oil structures endured the wrath of HurricanesKatrina and Rita without damaging petroleum spills. While168 platforms and 55 rigs were destroyed or seriouslydamaged, the oil they pumped remained safely encased,thanks to heavy underwater machinery. The U.S. MineralsManagement Service concluded, “Due to the promptevacuation and shut-in preparations made by operating andservice personnel, there was no loss of life and no majorNet Imports and Domestic Oilas Shares of U.S. DemandU.S. Production 40% Net Imports 60%Source: Energy Information AdministrationFigure 2. The United States produces about ten percent of theworld’s oil and consumes about twenty-four percent. Much ofthe oil that is consumed in the United States is for transportationpurposes (data from the Energy Information Administration).14 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

oil spills attributed to either storm” (Murdock, 2008). If itcan be done in an environmentally friendly fashion—andwith oil companies themselves footing the bill—increasingopportunities for new offshore drilling might be worthwhile.Offshore territories and public lands like the AlaskaNational Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) that don’t allow drillinghave been estimated to contain up to 86 billion barrels ofoil according to the U.S. government’s Energy InformationAdministration. Although analysts say that amount of oilwill not greatly affect the price of oil, and that renewedoffshore drilling would have little impact on gas pricesanytime soon, in the short term, oil prices could go downslightly if Congress lifts its moratorium on new offshoredrilling because the market would factor in the prospectof additional oil supplies later on. A spokeswoman forthe American Petroleum Institute said that, “If we hadnew territory, we could hypothetically make a big find”(Wangsness, 2008). Offshore drilling might not be the endallsolution to our oil dependence, but any serious energyproposal has to be comprehensive and should include moreoil supply and production from the outer continental shelf.How Dependent Are We on Foreign Oil?Although the United States is the third largest oil producer(the U.S. produces 10 percent of the world’s oil andconsumes 24 percent), most of the oil we use is imported.The U.S. imported about 60 percent of the oil consumed in2006. (See Figure 2.) About half of the oil we import comesPersian Gulf 16%Sources of U.S. Petroleum(2006)Other Regions 14%from the Western Hemisphere (North, South, CentralAmerica, and the Caribbean including U.S. territories).(See Figure 3.) We imported only 16 percent of our crude oiland petroleum products from the Persian Gulf countries ofBahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UnitedArab Emirates. During 2006, our five biggest suppliers ofcrude oil were: Canada (17.2%), Mexico (12.4%), SaudiArabia (10.7%), Venezuela (10.4%), and Nigeria (8.1%). It isusually impossible to tell whether the petroleum productsthat you use came from domestic or imported sources ofoil once they are refined (Energy, 2008). According to theUnited States Energy Information Administration, theUnited States spends more than $20 billion, on average, permonth to purchase oil, gasoline, and diesel fuel from abroad.The negative aspects of this dependency are fairly obvious,and they have been well documented. First, oil importscontribute heavily to the United States’ trade deficit, whichis at record levels. Second, the United States is forced tomake political decisions that it might not make otherwise(invading Iraq, cooperating with hostile governments suchas Venezuela and Nigeria, looking the other way at SaudiArabia’s reactionary regime, etc.) because it needs their oil.Third, up to now the availability of oil at a fairly reasonableprice has left the United States to continue down a path ofusing more and more energy (James, 2008). From Nixon tonow, every sitting President has promised to make sure thatwe wouldn’t have a future energy problem . . . though wecertainly do now.Richard Nixon, 1974: “We will lay the foundation forour future capacity to meet America’s energy needsfrom America’s own resources.”Gerald Ford, 1975: “I am proposing a program, whichwill begin to restore our country’s surplus capacityin total energy. In this way, we will be able to assureourselves reliable and adequate energy and helpfoster a new world energy stability for other majorconsuming nations.”Africa 20%Western HemisphereJimmy Carter, 1980: “We must take whatever actionsare necessary to reduce our dependence on foreignoil—and at the same time reduce inflation.”Source: Energy Information AdministrationFigure 3. Typically the media gives the impression that theUnited States relies extensively on petroleum imported fromMiddle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Quatar, etc.;however, much of our oil imports come from Canada, Mexico, andVenezuela (data from the Energy Information Administration).Ronald Regan, 1982: “We will ensure that our peopleand our economy are never again held hostage by thewhim of any country or oil cartel.”George H. W. Bush, 1990: “The Congress should, thismonth, enact measures to increase domestic energy15 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

production and energy conservation in order toreduce dependence on foreign oil.”George W. Bush, 2008: “And here we have a seriousproblem, America is addicted to oil.” (Wallace, 2008)It is somewhat misleading when politicians talk about“America’s addiction to oil” because there are somemitigating factors that make this situation a lot less direthan it might seem. The two largest foreign suppliers ofoil to the United States are friendly to us: Canada andMexico. These countries have increased their exports to theUnited States for the past decade and are well-positionedto continue doing so. Thus, fears that the United States willbe dependent on “enemy” regimes are overblown, and theprice of oil is a world-market price, so the United Statesis not being gouged. The United States can buy oil fromanywhere (except where it imposes sanctions, like Iran),and it doesn’t really matter if the oil comes from internalsources or imports. In fact, the United States exports someoil from Alaska, because it is more efficient to send that oilto Japan than it is to send it down to refineries in California(James, 2008). The world oil markets are very competitive,and the locating, capturing, refining, and selling of oil is avery complex system. Saying that the United States is toodependent on foreign oil and that this will spell disasterin the near future is not an accurate statement. A moreaccurate statement would be to say that we have manywasteful energy habits, and that we need to focus on howto reduce our energy use and to expand alternative energysources without drastically affecting our lifestyles andour economy. But oil is essential to our country’s normalfunctioning, and therefore more American oil must be partof an American energy solution.Why Drill Offshore for New Oil?Is more drilling for American oil an essential part oflowering energy costs and freeing us from dependenceon foreign sources of energy? Opening up new areas forexploration in the Outer Continental Shelf and the AlaskaNational Wildlife Refuge in the United States, even if newsupplies won’t actually reach our gas tanks for severalyears, would immediately impact the amount of upwardspeculation on long-term commodity investment in oil. Oilspeculators would see a greater supply ahead and that thefuture of oil would be less constrained on the supply side.Also, fears of Middle Eastern turmoil or South Americanunrest that could disrupt supply shipments would be muchless of a reason to drive up the price of crude if a stableUnited States could supply additional millions of barrelsof oil.Today, oil drilling is prohibited in all offshore regionsalong the North Atlantic coast, most of the Pacific coast,parts of the Alaska coast, and most of the eastern Gulf ofMexico. The central and western portions of the Gulf ofMexico therefore account for almost all current domesticoffshore oil production, providing 27 percent of the UnitedStates’ domestic oil production. The areas under thecongressional ban contain an estimated additional 18 billionbarrels of oil. This estimate is considered conservativesince little exploration has been conducted in most ofthose areas during the past quarter of a century due to thecongressional ban. Estimates tend to increase dramaticallyas technology improves and exploration activities occur(United, 2008). Major advances in seismic technology anddeep-water drilling techniques have already led the InteriorDepartment’s Minerals Management Service to increaseits original estimate of untapped Gulf of Mexico oil from9 billion barrels to 45 billion barrels. In short, there could bemuch more oil under the sea than previously thought.The Interior Department has already taken steps for newoffshore oil exploration, announcing plans for a leaseprogram that could open up new areas off the coasts ofFlorida, Georgia, Texas, North Carolina, Virginia, and othercoastal states to drilling if Congress lifts the ban. RandallLuthi, director of the department’s Minerals ManagementService, which handles offshore oilfield regulations andleases, said, “The technology has improved . . . the safetysystems we now require have greatly improved . . . and theindustry has a good record.” According to Luthi, new toolssuch as high-tech computers that make exploration easierand tougher building materials on platforms are makingoffshore drilling safer. Seismic technology and directionaldrilling techniques let oil companies drill 100 exploratorywells from a single offshore platform, reducing the numberof derricks and therefore the potential for problems.Automatic shut-off valves underneath the seabed can cutthe flow of oil immediately if there’s a problem or a stormcoming. Blowout prevention equipment can automaticallyseal off pipes leading to the surface in the case of anunexpected pressure buildup, and undersea pipelines andwellheads can be monitored with special equipment such asunmanned, camera-equipped, and sensor-laden underwatervehicles (Keefe, 2008). New drilling technologies and theindustry’s track record in the Gulf of Mexico show thatoffshore drilling for oil is safer than it ever has been, provingthat you can drill and still be environmentally friendly.ConclusionThe demand for energy is going up, not down, and for a longtime, even as alternative sources of energy are developed,16 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

more oil will be needed. The strongest argument againstdrilling is that it could distract the country from thepursuit of alternative sources of energy. The United Statescannot drill its way to energy independence. But with thedeveloping economies of China and India steadily increasingtheir oil needs in their latter-day industrial revolutions,the United States can no longer afford to turn its backon finding all the sources of fuel necessary to maintainits economy and standard of living. What is required is along-term, comprehensive plan that includes wind, solar,geothermal, biofuels, and nuclear—and that acknowledgesthat oil and gas will be instrumental to the United States’well-being for many years to come.Addressing Standards for Technological LiteracyThe debate surrounding whether or not the United Statesshould lift the congressional ban on offshore oil drillingis an excellent forum to help students understand thecomplex nature of the standards addressed in Chapter 4 ofStandards for Technological Literacy, Content for the Studyof Technology (STL) (ITEA, 2000/2002/2007), Technologyand Society. All of the benchmarks for Standards 4, 5, and6 can readily be taught by developing activities designedto show students that informed and rational decisions canbe reached through the understanding of how complextechnological systems can impact the environment, oureconomy, our politics, and ultimately our culture.Classroom ActivityCreate a scenario pertaining to offshore oil drilling and havestudents argue for or against the described circumstancesafter being given the opportunity to research and evaluatepossible solutions to the challenge set forth.Example of a Conceived Scenario:Congress has lifted the ban on offshore drilling, givingindividual states the right to decide whether or not to drilloff of their coasts. The Commonwealth of Virginia hasleased the rights for offshore drilling to a large oil companythat subsequently finds an extremely large deposit of oilunder the seabed. With the actual recovery process aboutto begin, North Carolina and Maryland join forces andfile a federal lawsuit to prohibit the pumping of oil, statingthat any type of uncontained oil spill would damage theircoastline, affecting their environments and economies.Challenge: Assign students to defend Virginia’s right topump oil off its coast as set forth by law, and assign otherstudents to challenge that right as advocates for NorthCarolina and Maryland. A simulated court of law can be setup in the classroom, a judge and jury picked, and the caseargued.ReferencesBrinson, R. (2008). Drilling, conservation can coexist. ThePost and Courier. Retrieved August 19, 2008, from Information Administration. (2008). How dependentare we on foreign oil. Retrieved August 21, 2008, from, C. (2008, August 17). Pelosi backpedals on coastaldrilling. The Virginian Pilot. p.7.International Technology Education Association.(2000/2002/2007). Standards for Technological Literacy:Content for the Study of Technology. Reston, VA: Author.James, B. (2008). How dependent is the U.S. on foreign oil?Helium, Inc. Retrieved August 20, 2008, from, B. (2008). Modern technology makes offshore drillingcleaner, industry claims. Retrieved August 16, 2008,from, D. (2008). Offshore oil drilling: Cleaner thanMother Nature. Human retrieved August 16,2008, from States Department of the Interior News. (2008).Interior Department initiates new five-year oil and gasleasing program for outer continental shelf. RetrievedAugust 19, 2008, from, E. (2008). Dependent on foreign oil? You bet! Retrieved August 20, 2008, from, B. (2008). Will more drilling mean cheaper gas?Retrieved August 19, 2008, from,8599,1815884,00.html?cnn=yesWangsness, L. (2008). New offshore drilling not a quickfix, analysts say. Retrieved August 16, 2008, (2008). Zogby Poll: 74% support offshore oil drillingin U. S. coastal waters. Retrieved August 19, 2008, Baird is a National BoardCertified technology education teacherfor the Virginia Beach City Public Schoolsystem and adjunct assistant professorat Old Dominion University. He can bereached via email at or • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

EducationalalttionioonaProgram ! visit our website at or call us at 713-473-6572THE HOFSTRA UNIVERSITY CENTER FOR TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY (CTL)is pleased to cosponsor a special funded workshop in conjunction with ITEA’s Louisville ConferenceThursday, March 26th; 2:00pm-5:00pm; Room 212/213.Free Conference Registration and a $2000 Honorarium for ParticipantsThis special workshop will invite twenty teachers of eighth grade technology education classes to participate in a researchand development activity that is a component of the NSF-funded MSTP Project led by the Hofstra University CTL. The workshopwill engage participants in a “hybrid” design activity that includes a computer-based design experience (using GoogleSketchup to design a bedroom) followed by a physical modeling experience in which workshop participants will constructa model once the design is screen-optimized. When implemented with students, the activity will require five weeks ofinstructional time, and its focus will be on embedding eighth grade mathematics (scale, ratio and proportion, geometry) intoTechEd. The CTL will support ITEA conference registration for all participants, pay for a snack, and provide a $2000 honorariumonce field test data is received. Interested teachers can obtain more details and apply at THE CTLThe Hofstra CTL was established in 1990 by Dr. David Burghardt, who has remained as codirector with Michael Hacker since1993. During the last fifteen years, the Center has administered seven large-scale NSF-funded projects totaling over $20M.These projects include:• MSTP: Mathematics Across the Middle School MST Curriculum• CCfT: Career Curriculum for Technology• Project ESTEEM: Equitable Science, Technology, Engineering, Education, and Mathematics• NYSPDC: New York State Professional Development Collaborative• The NYSCATE Project: New York State Curriculum for Advanced Technological Education• The MSTe Project: Integrating Mathematics, Science and Technology in Elementary Schools• NYSTEN: The New York State Technology Education NetworkThese projects have all been focused on improving the STEM literacy for K-16 students and faculty.

Soft Skills in the TechnologyEducation Classroom: What DoStudents Need?By Kara S. Harris and George E. RogersThere is more to preparing astudent to enter into a collegelevelprogram in technology orengineering than is covered bynational standards.Technology education teachers assist students inbecoming technologically literate through teachinghands-on applications of technology and designingcurriculum and learning activities that followStandards for Technological Literacy: Content for theStudy of Technology (STL) (ITEA, 2000/2002/2007). Thesestandards define the content for the study of technologyeducation in Grades K-12; however, after graduatingfrom high school and leaving the technology educationclassroom, some students continue to pursue furtherstudy in technology, engineering, and related fields at thepostsecondary level.There is more to preparing a student to enter into a collegelevelprogram in technology or engineering than is coveredby national standards. Students must also possess “softskills” in order to be successful at the postsecondary level.Soft skills have been defined by various authors as personalcharacteristics such as: work ethics, positive attitude, socialgrace, facility with language, friendliness, integrity, and thewillingness to learn (Bancino & Zevalkink, 2007; Coll &Zegwaard, 2006: Hmelo-Silver, 2007; Lewis, 2007; Lorenz,2005; Lucci, 2005). Soft skills typically complement astudent’s hard or technical skills.Soft skills, such as the ability to work as a team and communicationskills, are considered desirable attributes of incoming engineeringand technology students at the post-secondary level.Soft skills are an integral part of careers in technology andengineering. Therefore, there is a need to include these skillsin career and technical education program areas (Bancino &Zevalkink, 2007). Bancino and Zevalkink noted that:The more soft skills training can be integrated directlyinto technical training programs, the more successfulthe graduates will be in the increasingly demandingglobal economy. While some people consider softskills the intangibles, these skills are quickly becominga requirement that drives tangible and measurableincreases in personal productivity and directlytranslates to sustainable competitive advantage in aglobal marketplace (p. 22).19 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Infusing these soft skills into education should begin atan early age. However, which soft skills do secondarytechnology education teachers need to infuse to helpprepare their students for their college careers in technologyor engineering? Are some soft skills considered to be morevaluable at the postsecondary level than others? Coll andZegwaard (2206) and Lorenz (2005) have indicated thata positive work ethic, a willingness to learn, a positiveattitude, language proficiency, flexibility, self-discipline,and teamwork are soft skills that employers desire incollege graduates. However, are these the same soft skillsthat university faculty desire for their incoming freshmenengineering and technology majors? The study describedhere was designed to help answer that question.Research QuestionsThe following research questions were addressed in thisstudy.1. Which nontechnical competencies or soft skills relatedto technology education do university engineeringfaculty indicate should be developed by high schoolstudents?2. Are these identified technology-education-relatedcompetencies/attributes already included in existingnational K-12 technology education standards?The ability to effectively present ideas to groups is a desired trait ofincoming freshmen in post-secondary engineering and technologyprograms.methodologyThis study used a three-round modified Delphi technique asnoted by Paige, Dugger, and Wolansky (1996) and Wicklein(1993). Farmer (1995) indicated that the selected Delphitechnique is “the most appropriate method for attainingconsensus” (p. 2) from a large sample group related tostudent competencies. The Delphi panel for this studyconsisted of engineering and engineering technologyprofessors from South Carolina State University, ClemsonUniversity, and Purdue University, as well as Project LeadThe Way (PLTW) affiliate professors. Faculty from ClemsonUniversity and Purdue University were selected becauseof the strong engineering and engineering technologyprograms at those land-grant institutions. South CarolinaState University was selected to insure that faculty fromunderrepresented groups were included. Scott, Washer, andGenderFemale 1 (6.2%)Male 15 (93.8%)Age level40 years or less 2 (12.5%)41 to 50 years of age 6 (37.5%)Over 51 years of age 8 (50.0%)Educational levelMaster’s 11 (68.8%)PhD 5 (31.3%)Years in higher educationLess than 10 years 3 (18.8%)11 to 15 years 3 (18.8%)16 to 20 years 5 (31.3%)Over 21 years 5 (31.3%)Field of engineeringCivil 3 (18.8%)Electrical/Computer 3 (18.8%)Mechanical/Industrial 4 (25.0%)Engineering Technology 6 (37.5%)Type of institutionResearch-intensive/Land-grant 7 (43.8%)State/Community College 9 (56.2%)Table 1Demographic Descriptions of the PanelN = 1620 • The Technology Teacher • november 2008

Wright (2006) indicated that the section of panelists shouldinsure “individuals actively engaged in the field” (p. 47).Therefore PLTW affiliate professors were selected based ontheir demonstrated commitment to infuse engineering andtechnology into secondary education.From this population of professors, a group of 16 agreedto participate as the panel in this Delphi study. The panelcovered a range of engineering fields, including civilengineering (18.75%), electrical or computer engineering(18.75%), and mechanical or industrial engineering(25.0%), plus professors of engineering technology (37.5%).Professors from research-intensive or land-grant universitiescomprised 43.75% (n = 7) of the panel, while professors fromsmaller state colleges, technical institutes, or communitycolleges comprised 56.25% (n = 9) of the panel. Thedemographic description of the panelists can be viewed inTable 1. The same 16 panel members were used throughoutthe study’s three rounds.In the study’s first round, the participants were instructedto identify the basic competencies that they foresee asecondary student needing in order to be successful intheir college-level engineering or engineering technologyprogram. Round one findings were then grouped into likecompetencies and attributes. Round two of the Delphisurvey consisted of asking participants whether thecompetencies and attributes that emerged from roundone should be included as a component of high schooltechnology education. A four-point Likert-type scale wasused for this rating, with 4 = strongly agree, 3 = agree, 2 =disagree, and 1 = strongly disagree. Using the Likert-typescale was suggested for the second round of this type ofstudy by Farmer (1999), Zargari (1996), and McCall (2001).Nontechnical Competencies and Affective Domain AttributesCompetency/Attribute M SDStudents should be able to communicate effectively through writing (proper grammar). 3.89 0.33Students should possess a high level of reading comprehension. 3.78 0.44Students should demonstrate honesty. 3.78 0.44Students should possess a willingness to learn. 3.78 0.44Students should be open-minded to new concepts and ideas. 3.78 0.44Students should demonstrate problem-solving skills. 3.78 0.44Students should be able to follow directions. 3.78 0.44Students should be able to communicate effectively through speech (public speaking). 3.67 0.50Students should demonstrate a strong work ethic. 3.67 0.50Students should demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills. 3.56 0.53Students should possess a high level of organizational skills. 3.56 0.53Students should be able to effectively communicate technical data. 3.44 0.53Students should possess a high level of computer literacy. 3.44 0.53Students should have a basic understanding of technical terminology. 3.33 0.50Students should understand aspects of group dynamics. 3.22 0.44Students should be able to perform basic research. 3.00 0.53Table 221 • The Technology Teacher • november 2008

Round three of the Delphi study consisted of a validation ofthe second round findings that received a mean score of 3.00or higher. Items that received a mean rating below M = 3.00were not considered to be a requisite soft skill of high schooltechnology education students. From the study’s thirdround, 16 nontechnical competencies and affective domainattributes emerged.FindingsTable 2 presents the mean ratings for the 16 validatednontechnical competencies/soft-skill attributes. Eleven ofthese competencies were rated at a mean of 3.50 or higher.The highest rated of these soft skills was the students’ abilityto communicate effectively through writing (M = 3.89, SD= 0.33). Next on the ratings were students possessing a highlevel of reading comprehension, demonstration of honesty,a willingness to learn, being open minded to new ideas,problem-solving skills, and the ability to follow directions(M = 3.78, SD = 0.44). A student’s ability to communicateeffectively through speech and their demonstration of astrong work ethic were both rated at 3.67 (SD = 0.50).Table 3 presents the soft skills that were mentioned aboveand how these skills align with current national standardsfor secondary education. It should be noted that all affectivedomain attributes or soft skillsthat participants indicatedwere desirable in engineeringand technology students at thepostsecondary level are currentlybeing included at the secondarylevel by either STL (ITEA,2000/2002/2007) or the Secretary’sCommission of AchievingNecessary Skills (SCANS): ASCANS report for America 2000(U.S. Department of Labor, 1999).This SCANS report divided thefoundation skills in to three skillsets: basic skills, thinking skills,and personal skills. In addition,some attributes are beingaddressed by both SCANS andSTL; for instance, that studentsshould demonstrate problemsolvingskills, and students shouldbe able to perform basic research.Implications for the Technology EducationClassroomAs noted by the U.S. Department of Labor (1999) andRogers (1995), affective domain personal attributes mustbe a key component of any technology education program.Communication skills were also noted as an essentialcompetency for high school graduates entering engineeringor technology programs. Programs must require in theirstudents competency in written communications, verbalcommunications, reading, honesty, strong work ethics, anda willingness to learn. Technology education teachers canstructure a design activity that requires the students to 1)work in teams, 2) organize their thoughts, 3) communicatewith team members, 4) solve a problem, 5) present theirfindings orally, and 6) evaluate their success through awritten document. This type of learning activity shouldalso cause students to work outside of their comfort zone,thereby stretching soft-skill development. These types ofproblem-based learning activities should also be formulatedacross discipline lines and must be an essential andintegrated expectation from day one through graduationand beyond.The ability to effectively present ideas to groups is a desired trait of incoming freshmen inpost-secondary engineering and technology programs.22 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Competency/Attributes and their Corresponding National K-12 StandardsCompetency/AttributeStudents should be able to communicate effectivelythrough writing (proper grammar).Students should possess a high level of readingcomprehension.Students should demonstrate honesty.Students should possess a willingness to learn.Students should be open-minded to new conceptsand ideas.Students should demonstrate problem-solvingskills.Students should be able to follow directions.Students should be able to communicate effectivelythrough speech (public speaking).Students should demonstrate a strong work ethic.Students should demonstrate effectiveinterpersonal communication skills.Students should possess a high level oforganizational skills.Students should be able to effectively communicatetechnical data.Students should possess a high level of computerliteracy.Students should have a basic understanding oftechnical terminology.Students should understand aspects of groupdynamics.Students should be able to perform basic research.StandardSCANS: Foundation Basic Skills WritingSCANS: Foundation Basic Skills ReadingSCANS: Foundation Personal Qualities Integrity/HonestySCANS: Foundation Thinking Skills How to LearnSCANS: Foundation Personal Qualities SociabilitySTL: Students will develop an understandingof the role of troubleshooting, research anddevelopment, invention and innovation, andexperimentation in problem solving.SCANS: Foundation Thinking Skills ProblemSolvingSCANS: Foundation Basic Skills ListeningSCANS: Foundation Basic Skills SpeakingSCANS: Foundation Personal QualitiesResponsibilitySCANS: Foundation Basic Skills ListeningSCANS: Foundation Basic Skills SpeakingSCANS: Foundation Personal Qualities SelfManagementSCANS: Foundation Basic Skills WritingSTL: Students will develop the abilities to use andmaintain technological products and systems.STL: Students will develop an understanding ofand be able to select and use information andcommunication technologies.STL: Students will develop an understanding ofthe core concepts of technology.SCANS: Foundation Personal Qualities SocialSCANS: Foundation Personal Qualities ReasoningSTL: Students will develop an understandingof the role of troubleshooting, research anddevelopment, invention and innovation, andexperimentation in problem solving.Table 323 • The Technology Teacher • november 2008

In addition, Bancino & Zevalkink (2007) suggested usingreal-world examples that are directly related to the field oftechnology to help integrate soft skills into the technologyeducation curriculum. Using these real-world examples willaid in getting individuals who are “more linear-thinking”or have “task-oriented personalities” involved in theincorporation of soft skills into the classroom.ConclusionsThe results of this study clearly indicate that university-levelengineering and engineering technology professors ratestudents’ interpersonal, communication, and work ethiccompetencies as desired attributes in students enteringinto postsecondary engineering and technology programs.Similarly Rogers (1995) noted that “instructors perceived theaffective domain competencies as more important benefitsof technology education programs than competencies in thecognitive or psychomotor domains” (p. 68). These affectivedomain competencies and communication skills thereforeneed to be a vital component of the high school technologyeducation program.This study’s findings also support the U.S. Departmentof Labor (1999) report Skills and tasks for jobs: A SCANSreport for America 2000. The U.S. Department of Labornoted foundation skills like responsibility, honesty, reading,problem-solving, and writing were essential for high schoolstudents to develop.ReferencesBancino, R. & Zevalkink, C. (2007). Soft Skills: The newcurriculum for hard-core technical professionals.Techniques, 82(5), 20-22.Coll, R. & Zegwaard, K. (2006). Perceptions of desirablegraduate competencies for science and technologynew graduates. Research in Science and TechnologicalEducation, 24(1), 29-58.Farmer, E. I. (1995). A Delphi study of tech prep initiatives inhigher education: Research priorities in teacher education.State College, PA: The Pennsylvania State University.(ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 392471).Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., & Chinn, C. A. (2007).Scaffolding and achievement in problem-based andinquiry learning: A response to Kirschner, Sweller, andClark. (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99-107.International Technology Education Association.(2000/2002/2007). Standards for technological literacy:Content for the study of technology. Reston, VA: Author.Lewis, C. D. (2007). Get ready, get set, get to work!Techniques, 82(5), 18-19.Lorenz, K. (2005). What are soft skills? Retrieved September26, 2007, from, W. (2005). Stafford Technical Center: Designing afuture for architects and builders. Tech Directions, 64(6),14-16.McCall, C. H. (2001). An empirical examination of the Likertscale: Some assumptions, development and cautions.Paper presented at the annual meeting of the CERAConference, South Lake Tahoe, CA.Paige, W. D., Dugger, J. C., & Wolansky, W. D. (1996).Essential components of doctoral program for industrialtechnology education. Journal of Technology Studies,22(2), 15-20Rogers, G. E. (1995). Technology education curricularcontent: A trade and industrial education perspective.Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 32(3), 59-74.Scott, D. G., Washer, B. A., & Wright, M. D. (2006). ADelphi study to identify recommended biotechnologycompetencies for first-year/initially certified technologyeducation teachers. Journal of Technology Education,17(2), 44-56.U.S. Department of Labor. (1999). Skills and tasks for jobs:A SCANS report for America 2000. Washington, DC:Author.Wicklein, R. C. (1993). Identifying critical issues andproblems in technology education using a modifiedDelphi technique. Journal of Technology Education, 5(1),54-71. U.S. Department of Labor. (1999). Skills and tasksfor jobs: A SCANS report for America 2000. Washington,DC: Author.Zargari, A. (1996). Survey results guide total qualitymanagement (TQM) course development in industrialtechnology. Journal of Technological Studies, 22(1), 60-61.This is a refereed article.Kara S. Harris is an assistant professor atIndiana State University in Terre Haute,Indiana. She can be reached via email E. Rogers is a professor at PurdueUniversity in West Lafayette, Indiana. Hecan be contacted at • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Stepping Outside My TechnologyClassroom Box(My Summer RET Experience)By Terry CarterThe smell of academia hit melike a cool blast of air thatrefreshed my soul.Me in the lab at Vanderbilt University.As if sitting in the morning rush hour traffic wasnot bad enough, it was also the first Monday of mysummer vacation. My commute to school is usuallyan uneventful fifteen minutes, but thinking of goinginto the city for six weeks was starting to make me feel liketurning around in the median and heading back to bed.Luckily for me, I did not.A colleague of mine from another school had told me aboutan RET (Research Experience for Teachers) at VanderbiltUniversity’s School of Engineering. What was I thinking? Iam just a Foundations of Technology/Algebra I teacher ata middle school in the suburbs. Most of my formal traininghad been in business and education. However, I decidedto take a leap of faith and try this experience not only formyself, but for the enrichment it could possibly provide formy students.I had been assigned to work in the optics lab doing researchwith lasers, mice, and who knows what else. Anxiety wasoverwhelming as I tried to make some sense of what it was Iwould be doing. Did I really think I could go into a lab full ofspecialists and get anything from this for my classroom? Myknowledge of optics and lasers was pretty much limited tothe laser pointer in my desk. As for the mice, my mouser ofa cat would bring them to me when he was finished playingwith them.I finally arrived at the campus, found the parking area,and exited my car. Despite the heat and relative humidity,the smell of academia hit me like a cool blast of air thatrefreshed my soul. How long had it been since I was on acollege campus in search of new knowledge? Judging howthe anxiety suddenly turned to excitement and anticipation,I would have to say it had probably been too long.25 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Once in the meeting room with the other participants, Ibegan to feel the camaraderie that forms when teacherscome together. We came from different places but sharedthe common desire to enrich our students’ experiences inour classrooms. Everyone would be in multiple labs doingvarious research assignments with different teams. Whowould I get as teammates? I was told it would be Dr. DucoJansen and graduate student Jerry Wilmink.To get us ready for the experience, Dr. Stacy Klein providedan example mosaic (a group of modules to solve a largerchallenge) she had created that would be a template forthe module we would create as a result of our experience.The module was an in-depth look at EKGs that includedthe science, technology, engineering, and mathematics(STEM) involved. How could I create something this greatwith a limited knowledge of subject matter and experience?Anxiety once again appeared as I thought of what I wouldbe asked to do. Sensing some of the group’s discomfort,Dr. Klein masterfully eased our pain by telling us to enjoythe research and deal with the module part at the end.The three days of training passed in a flash, and it was timeto enter the world of research. I finally met my graduatestudentteammate, Jerry (now Dr. Wilmink). He wasobviously excited about his research project and seemedhappy to have a helper. After a thorough and interestingexplanation by Jerry, I was able to grasp the gist of theproject. What is HSP-70? What were the differencesbetween CO 2, Free, Diode, and HeNe lasers? Did he saysomething about bioluminescence using luciferin andluciferase? What is a tensiometer and bioluminescenceimagining? The questions came out faster than he couldanswer. However, he was very patient and eventuallyanswered all my questions over the next five weeks.with diabetic or cosmetic patients. The really neat partof all the research was how we collected the data. Thosesmelly mice were almost magical! They were geneticallyengineered to be bioluminescent. These transgenic mice hada special luciferase gene attached to their DNA that, whenexposed to luciferin, would emit light (compliments of ourfavorite summer insect, the firefly). By having the luciferasestrategically attached to the HSP-70, we were able to see (byuse of a highly sensitive camera) where and how much HSP-70 was present in the mice.Why was the presence of HSP-70 so important? The reasonis that previous research had indicated that this protein wasa major part of the wound-healing process. The HSP-70 actslike an emergency response team whenever there is traumain the skin. The more that is present, the more quicklythe affected area can begin the repair process. It was veryexciting to see the hypothesis being tested and finding it tobe true!Needless to say, the next five weeks came and went at thespeed of laser light. It was time to go back to the group,share my experience, and create a module. Oh no! Howwas I going to take this research and make it into a fun andrelative experience for my students? The brainstormingbegan. “Students in the middle school did not have theneeded bank of previous knowledge to do what I did allsummer,” rang through my skull. Wait! That sounded awfullyfamiliar to a voice I had heard just a few weeks earlier.Working side by side with experts in a research facility wasso much fun! Who would have thought it? I certainly wouldnot have thought so beforehand. Participating in researchthat would have an impact on people was truly amazing. Ifmy biology and other science classes would have allowedme to experience this, my life may have been altered. Seeingthe effects of laser treatment to skin prior to surgery versusnontreated skin allowed me to grasp the role that HSP-70(one of our heat-shock proteins) plays in the healing processin our bodies.Basically, what I learned (from the medical perspective)is that by pretreating an area of skin with a laser, that skinwill heal faster and stronger than skin that is untreated.This new knowledge could be useful for surgeons workingSome equipment used in a module.26 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Ad IndexBall State University....................................... 27Sample of an eighth grade system.It was time to step out of the box and let students discoverand get as excited over the material as I had. So, with littleeffort, “The Challenge of Protecting the Mummified Troll”was born. The challenge charged the students to create alow-cost, invisible security system to protect the troll thatwas discovered in our school’s yard (not really, but I had anews story that said so). Through the process we learnedin our training, the students would brainstorm possiblesolutions, learn (as well as share) the scientific conceptsinvolved with light, research different types and applicationsof laser technologies, create a prototype of a system, andsell the principal on why he should choose their system toprotect our beloved troll.Goodheart-Willcox Publisher.........................7Hofstra University (CTL).............................. 18Kelvin Electronics..............................................3LHR................................................................... 18The College of New Jersey............................ 36WGBH............................................................C-4This past year, I used the module in my technology classmultiple times (my students are on a nine-week rotation)and was able to see excitement in my students. No morelectures and disconnected lessons for my students. I haveseen the excitement and caught its contagiousness in myclassroom. I want more!My application is complete for next summer. It is in themail. No more doing odds and ends jobs for me in thesummer! This time, I am taking a fellow teacher with me tocatch the excitement. Hopefully, after this next summer’sRET experience, other teachers will see the effect ourcollaboration has on raising the excitement level in ourschool. Maybe they will want to join us in making thelearning process a joy for everyone.Terry Carter is a teacher at HawkinsMiddle School in Hendersonville, TN. Hecan be reached via email at • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Addressing Issues Related toTechnology and EngineeringAn Interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, Codirectors ofHoftra University’s Center for Technological LiteracyOur teachers need to beaware of the problems kidsare facing, and how topresent these problems inan engaging context.Over the past decade, you have done considerableresearch pertaining to the overlapping prin ciples,concepts, and activities related to technologyand engineering. What are a few of the keycharacteristics that you have found?We’ve done a research-based comparison of the professionalcompetencies required by ABET for engineers and byNCATE for technology teachers. The comparison in Table1 shows a focus on rigorous technical content preparationfor both groups—an emphasis on mathematics and sciencefor engineers, and on pedagogy for teachers. There is a highdegree of alignment with respect to other competencies,and both professional groups are well prepared in areasof professional practice, design and problem solving,team functioning, ethical and professional responsibility,communication skills, social and cultural impacts, andprofessional growth.A major area of congruence is the focus on design as thecore process that underlies engineering and technologicaldevelopment. ABET defines engineering design as “theprocess of devising a system, component, or process tomeet desired needs. It is a decision-making process (ofteniterative), in which the basic sciences, mathematics, andthe engineering sciences are applied to convert resourcesoptimally to meet these stated needs (ABET, 2008).”Engineering design is defined as “the process of devising asystem, component, or process to meet desired needs.”A clear difference is how engineers are rigorously preparedin mathematics and science. In the area of knowledgeapplication, engineers are well prepared to solve real-worlddesign problems requiring mathematics, science, andengineering topical knowledge, whereas teachers are wellprepared to design instructional environments.28 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Table 1Comparison of Professional Competencies Required for Engineers and Technology TeachersCompetencyProfessionalPracticeDesign andProblemSolvingTeamFunctioningEthical andProfessionalResponsibilityCommunicationSkillsThe Nature ofTechnologyand its Socialand CulturalImpactsProfessionalGrowthEngineersABET Criteria For AccreditingEngineering TechnologyPrograms (2008)Use the techniques, skills, and modernscientific and technical tools necessary forprofessional practice.Design and conduct experiments, andanalyze and interpret data.Design a system, component, orprocess to meet desired needs withinrealistic constraints such as economic,environmental, social, political, ethical,health and safety, manufacturability, andsustainability.Function on multidisciplinary teams.Understand professional and ethicalresponsibility.Communicate effectively.Understand the impact of engineeringsolutions in a global, economic,environmental, and societal context.Develop knowledge of contemporaryissues.Recognize the need for, and an ability toengage in lifelong learning.Technology TeachersNCATE/ITEA/CTTE ProgramStandardsPrograms for the Preparation ofTechnology Education Teachers (2003)Design, create, and manage learning environmentsthat promote technological literacy.Become actively involved in professionalorganizations and attend professionaldevelopment activities to become better preparedto teach technology education.Develop an understanding of design.Manage technological activities in both individualand group settings.Display a philosophy and understanding oftechnology education.Apply multicultural and global perspectives asthey relate to the study of technology. Applyvalues and ethics as they relate to content issues inthe study of technology.Apply various marketing principles and conceptsto promote technology education and the study oftechnology.Develop an understanding of the nature oftechnology within the context of the designedworld.Develop an understanding of technology andsociety.Understand and value the importance of engagingin comprehensive and sustained professionalgrowth to improve the teaching of technology.29 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Table 1 (Continued)Comparison of Professional Competencies Required for Engineers and Technology TeachersCompetencyContentKnowledgePedagogicalKnowledgeApplication ofKnowledge andSkillsEngineersABET Criteria For AccreditingEngineering TechnologyPrograms (2008)An appropriate mastery of the knowledge,techniques, skills, and modern tools oftheir disciplines.Content Proficiency. Engineeringprograms require proficiency in statics,strength of materials, thermodynamics,fluid mechanics, and electric circuits.Mathematics and Science. Programsrequire proficiency in mathematics throughdifferential equations, probability andstatistics, calculus-based physics, andgeneral chemistry.Engineering topics. One-and-one-halfyears of engineering topics consistingof engineering sciences and engineeringdesign appropriate to the field of study.Design. Students must engage in a majordesign experience based on the knowledgeand skills acquired in earlier course workand incorporating appropriate engineeringstandards and multiple realistic constraints.An ability to use the techniques, skills, andmodern engineering tools necessary forengineering practice.Technology TeachersNCATE/ITEA/CTTE ProgramStandardsPrograms for the Preparation ofTechnology Education Teachers (2003)Develop an understanding of the Designed World.Subjects. Areas of study in the DesignedWorld include medical, agricultural andrelated biotechnologies, energy and power,information and communication, transportation,manufacturing, and construction technologies.An ability to analyze, select, use, and effectivelyimprove technologies in Designed-Worldcontexts.Design, implement, and evaluate curricula basedupon Standards for Technological Literacy.Understand students as learners, and howcommonality and diversity affect learning.Use a variety of effective teaching practices thatenhance and extend the learning of technology.Design, create, and manage learning environmentsthat promote technological literacy.Follow safe practices and procedures in the use oftools and equipment.Develop abilities for a technological world.30 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

When it comes down to it, isn’t the level of rigor (suchas with mathematics; i.e., calculus) one of the keycomponents that separates the teaching of technologyfrom the teaching of engineering due to the differences inthe level of reasoning that takes place?You’re exactly right about the mathematics. Technologyteachers don’t take very much mathematics or science asundergraduates. But there is a real opportunity for ourteachers to make a real contribution to core disciplinaryknowledge, particularly in mathematics.Because mathematics is often taught in an algorithmic way,students question its value; and it’s true that some of themathematics that is required of students, particularly atthe middle level, is not easily related to grade-appropriatecontexts in other subjects. Some math, however, that isdifficult for students and occurs frequently on standardizedassessments can indeed be contextualized within atechnology education program. And it doesn’t rise to thelevel of calculus. It’s algebra and geometry and numbersense; ratio and proportion and scale. It’s a matter of ourteachers first knowing what math kids are responsiblefor, and second, knowing how to teach it. I’ll give youan example. A math assessment item that kids have realdifficulty with is this one:“Solve multistep equations by combining like terms, usingthe distributive property, or moving variables to one side ofthe equation.”Note: The distributive property is an algebraic propertythat is used when you multiply terms within parenthesesby a term outside the parentheses. As an example, 4(5 +6) = 20 + 24 = 44 (the 4 is distributed across the terms inthe parentheses). This math concept appears frequently onstandardized tests.OK, say the kids are designing an emergency shelter forvictims of an air crash on a snowy mountain top wherea cargo plane was carrying materials to be delivered to ahome center distribution facility, and these materials arenow strewn around the mountain. Makes for a pretty gooddesign problem if the kids are the four- or five-personcrew that survives and they have to build a shelter that willsustain them until a rescue team (that they radioed for help)is able to reach them. If the shelter must be heated by bodytemperature and an external heat source when the outsidetemperature is say, 25 o Fahrenheit, we have a heat-flowproblem that can be modeled by a simple algebraic equation.Once the kids propose a design, they have to determine iftheir proposed shelter would provide an inside temperaturethat allows the inhabitants to be comfortable, or if theywill need to make changes to their design. Guess what:The formula for heat flow involves a simple (eighth-gradelevel) algebraic equation that specifically requires the kidsto solve multistep equations by combining like terms, usingthe distributive property, or moving variables to one sideof the equation. The formula is q = kA (T i- T o)/s (this is asimplified formula to find conductive heat flow) whereq = heat flow (BTU/hour)k = thermal conductivity (BTU/hour-ft-deg F)A = area of surface through which heat is conducted(Square Feet)s = thickness of insulation material (Feet)T i= Inside Temperature (Degrees F)T o= Outside Temperature (Degrees F)It’s not a difficult problem. It’s simple algebra, but it does agreat job of contextualizing a problem that causes kids a lotof difficulty. Our teachers need to be aware of the problemskids are facing, and how to present these problems in anengaging context. We admit that it’s not trivial, but it’scertainly within the capability of our teachers, particularly ifthey team up with a math colleague.Kids also have a lot of difficulty with ratio and proportion.We’ve developed an activity where kids design theirown bedroom and have to do math related to ratio andproportion and scale. It’s in context. Kids understand thereason why they have to do the math. The math works in theservice of their design.Is the technology teaching profession capable of raising itslevel of instruction to address the rigor that you suggest isneeded?We believe so, but the key is a change in the undergraduaterequirements. We’ve done a survey of 19 institutionsthat prepare technology teachers at the undergraduatelevel. Most require only one mathematics course of theirfuture technology teachers, and sometimes the math is ashop math course without very much rigor. A couple ofschools require two courses (see Table 2). Undergraduaterequirements must change if our teachers are going toaddress any “engineering” content. It destroys our credibilitywhen we claim to be teaching engineering-related materialwhile our teachers have such a poor grounding in math.We can do only so much with in-service professionaldevelopment. It’s treating the wound, not the cause. Our31 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

professoriate must make the commitment to review theteacher education programs. Our suggestion is to make itlook more like an engineering education program. Moremath, more science, more rigorous design that relies on anunderstanding and an application of the math and science. Itcan be done, but entrenched traditionalism gets in the way.You are conducting research to address more rigorousmathematics and science in low-performing schools usingtechnology and engineering. What are you finding andwhat successes or opportunities do you see?It’s been a very interesting journey for us. We’ve conductedseven large-scale National Science Foundation-fundedprojects during the last 15 years. Much of our work hasbeen done with teachers who teach in low-performingschools. We’ve learned a lot. We’ve learned that teamsof math, science, and tech ed teachers work really welltogether. They learn to value each other’s expertise and cancollaborate in meaningful ways to improve student attitudesand understanding. We’ve learned that design problemsresonate with elementary school teachers, and in one ofour projects we found that students who were engaged inintegrated STEM design problems did better on fourthgradeassessments in mathematics and in science than theirsame-school peers who were taught conventionally.At middle level, where math scores are lowest, we’re findingthat students do better when they study mathematics incontext. In our current NSF project (called MSTP: Math,Table 2Tech Ed Undergraduate Math Requirements at Selected TeacherEducation InstitutionsName of University Math Requirement 2008Appalachian StateBall StateBowling GreenBuffalo StateBrigham YoungCalifornia University of PACollege of New JerseyIllinois StateMillersvilleMontana StateNorth Carolina StateOhio StateOld DominionPurdueOswegoSouthwestern Oklahoma StateUniversity of WI - StoutUniversity of Southern MaineVirginia StateOne CourseOne CourseTwo CoursesTwo CoursesOne CourseTwo CoursesTwo CoursesOne CourseOne CourseOne CourseTwo CoursesOne CourseTwo CoursesTwo CoursesOne CourseOne CourseTwo CoursesOne CourseOne Course32 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Science, Technology Partnership), we did a pilot researchstudy in middle school science that examined studentand teacher change using teacher surveys, math contentknowledge assessments adapted from NYS math and sciencetests, observations, and focus groups. Even with minimaldirect exposure to math instruction (between four and eighthours of math instruction were embedded into 20 daysof science instruction), where math was infused, studentsdemonstrated statistically significant increased knowledge ofmath concepts and improved attitudes toward math. We’redoing a study now that specifically looks at the efficacy ofmath infusion into technology education.One of the most important things we’ve learned is that designis an excellent strategy to teach math and science, but it hasto be done correctly. Too often, design is a matter of studentsdoing trial-and-error problem solving—little more thangadgetering.Over the years, we’ve evolved a design pedagogy that wecall Informed Design that has been developed and validatedthrough several of our NSF projects. The difference betweenthis method and more conventional design approaches isthat informed design prompts students to acquire STEMknowledge to inform their understanding before they begindesigning. To provide the foundation for informed designactivity, students work through a progression of knowledgeand skill builders (KSBs), which are short, focused activitiesdesigned to teach salient concepts and skills. The KSBsprepare students to approach the design challenge from aknowledgeable (informed) base. They also provide evidencefor the teacher that can be used to assess understanding ofthese important ideas and skills. So, as background for designactivity, KSBs enable students to reach informed designsolutions, as opposed to engaging in trial-and-error problemsolving where conceptual closure is often not attained.What are your “bigger picture” recommendations asto how our profession should proceed on a state andnational level to address and take advantage of theseopportunities to improve teaching and learning?We believe that there should be an effort undertaken todevelop new curriculum frameworks that reflect andrespond to the STEM paradigm. One idea that has surfacedin our own conversations and in conversations with othersis that tech ed programs might consider having the firsttwo years in common with engineering programs andthen becoming more focused into technological contentdomains. A caveat is that there should be more of a focus onanalysis at the higher levels. Of course, this would require achange in the way teachers are prepared, and undergraduateeducation might involve some courses that are taught by orteam-taught with engineering faculty.Shouldn’t we also develop a national research agenda andbecome more research-based in our curricular decisionmakingand in planning instructional interventions forstudents and planning professional development for faculty?We think that a research agenda should be set in a STEMcontext where there will be increased expectations regardingresearch rigor. For example, experimental and comparisongroup teachers should be used to plan and assess the efficacyof professional development models and materials that aredesigned to improve student understanding.We should encourage STEM professionals to considerteaching careers so that the technology education workforceis comprised of people with backgrounds in engineering,architecture, and similar disciplines. What about the ideaof a STEM certification for engineers and other STEMprofessionals who take lots of math, science, and technologyas undergraduates?In New York, and we suspect in other states as well, thereare not sufficient new graduates to replace teachers retiringfrom the teaching profession. It would be very beneficial iftech ed teachers took coursework that would enable themto become certified to teach in another STEM contentarea. This could encourage administrators to maintain,even expand, course offerings and would provide teacherswho know enough STEM content to truly integrate subjectmatter.ResourceAccreditation Board for Engineering and Technology.(2008). 2008-2009 Criteria for Accrediting EngineeringPrograms. ABET Engineering Accreditation Commission.Baltimore, MD.Michael Hacker is Codirector of HofstraUniversity’s Center for TechnologicalLiteracy, Londonville, NY. He can bereached via email at Burghardt is Codirector of HofstraUniversity’s Center for TechnologicalLiteracy, Londonville, NY. He can bereached via email at • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Classroom ChallengeThe Old Airplane ChallengeBy Harry T. RomanOpen-ended design challengeslike this are very common in thebusiness world.Ever wonder what happens to old airplane fuselages?Can anything useful ever come from these long tubesthat once had wings attached to them? I am willing tobet that creative students would have a good deal offun trying to figure out what to do with such geometries—and I bet your class would like the opportunity to try.IntroductionThe heart of this completely unstructured design challengerests upon the creativity of your students. They are free toidentify new and unique uses for these commercial airlinerstructures.Initially, it is suggested students familiarize themselveswith the physical structure of the fuselage(s). Some earlyquestions to be addressed would be:• How large are these structures?• Are they all similar in size and shape?• What are they made of?• How much do they weigh?• How can they be moved?• Can they be easily shortened if necessary?• Can they be fashioned into shorter modules thatreconnect later?Help your students to identify new and unique uses for commercialairline structures.• Can the landing gear be removed?• Have they ever been used in unique applicationsbefore?This will get the creative ideas flowing. Encourage thestudents to visualize the fuselage as a complete system forhousing both passengers and cargo. They should spendsome time understanding the many features the fuselageincorporates—and building upon those features as part ofits new application here on the ground.34 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

Where can your students find out about how a fuselage isconstructed? Perhaps an aeronautical engineer or an airlinepilot can be invited in to talk to the students. Is there a localcollege professor who teaches aeronautical engineeringwho can discuss this design activity with the class? Studentsmay also write away to commercial airline companies andairplane manufacturing companies to learn more. They canalso mention the kind of design challenge they are doing.Maybe a visit to a local airport would allow the students totour an airplane and hear experts speak about them.Identifying the ApplicationsOnce some basic understanding of the fuselage is complete,the highly creative idea generation can begin. Here youmay use individual students or a team-based approachto the challenge. Or you may want to consider a mixture,depending upon classroom dynamics.When businesses brainstorm new product and service ideas,it is done across a wide body of the corporate population,including folks with many different kinds of skills likeengineering, research, environmental, legal, marketing,customer service, etc. This corporate team usually developsa matrix of ideas from which they then impose an evaluationcriteria for identifying the most promising ones. Such anevaluation criteria usually looks at the potential of the newideas from multiple perspectives and then gives an overallrank to the ideas, and then a few winners at the top areselected. For instance, the students might use evaluationcriteria examining each idea from perspectives like:• Can it solve an important problem in society?• Can it be implemented quickly?• Is the cost to implement it acceptable to society?Students are free to generate ideas in any way they wish.Encourage them to think across the entire spectrum ofpotential application classes. Start with some broad thinkinglike . . . how do you think old airplane fuselages might beused in these sectors of our economy and society?• Business• Housing• Government• Schools• Manufacturing• Civic• Libraries• Police• Recreation• Military• Transportation• Construction• EmergenciesThis pump-priming list will help students organize andclassify their idea generation along familiar lines, probablygenerating families of applications within the classifications.This will lead to multiple idea generation, which can lead tohybrid and combination ideas, usually the high-value ideas.Students should aim to prepare a final report on this designchallenge that identifies a variety of raw applications andcontains a selection process that picks the top three ideas.Plenty of concept and plan drawings should adorn the finalreport. The selection process should be given some seriousthought as it directly relates to the real world.Ever wonder what happens to old airplane fuselages?35 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

• Will any new technology or research be needed toimplement it?• Will its application be environmentally friendly?Certainly the students should all use the same evaluationcriteria, so perhaps near the beginning of this designchallenge, this might be mentioned and discussed by you.This is how it is done in business. The evaluation criteriais put into place, usually after the raw idea generation hasbegun to yield results, and helps to focus the raw ideas intoworkable possibilities. Sometimes the evaluation criteria canspur combination or hybrid ideas.Students and teams should give a brief oral presentationon their ideas and how they selected them for possibleapplication. It might be quite interesting to let the folks whomay have helped (like the airplane companies, and airportfolks) see what the students conceived. Maybe they can stopby and discuss the concepts later with the students.Open-ended design challenges like this are very commonin the business world. Many of your students will encountersuch an exercise on the job. Make sure everyone has fun anda chance to be creative.Harry T. Roman recently retired from hisengineering job and is the author of a varietyof new technology education books. He canbe reached via email at Technology Education/Pre-Engineering Faculty PositionDepartment of Technological Studies InvitesApplications for a Tenure-Track Faculty PositionThe Department of Technological Studies in the School of Engineering at The College of New Jersey invites applications for atenure-track faculty position starting September 2009. An earned doctorate in Technology Education or a closely related field is required.Each successful candidate must present evidence of experience and capabilities in Technology Education with a preferencefor P-12 pre-engineering. Additional experience with undergraduate teaching, curriculum and laboratory development, research,directing student design projects, involving undergraduate students in research, first-year engineering education, and potential fornational leadership in the field is highly desirable.The Department of Technological Studies has created one of the first majors in technology education with a pre-engineering focusand is establishing a national dialog between engineering and education. Our vision is to graduate the next generation of educationalleaders with pedagogical and pre-engineering content knowledge and capabilities necessary to create technologically andpre-engineering literate children. Graduates will be able to gain qualifications to teach in Project Lead The Way (PLTW) programs.The Department consists of 5 faculty members, a Center for STEM Education (over $13 million in research over the past 12 years),publishes TIES Magazine, and offers four-year programs that lead to Bachelor of Science degrees inTechnology Education/Pre-Engineering, M/S/T Elementary Education, M/S/T Early Childhood Education, M/S/T Deaf and Hard ofHearing Education, and an M.A.T. in Technology Education. There are currently 140 students enrolled in these programs.Enrolling 6,000 students, the College is a highly selective public institution and is ranked the number one public regional universityin the North by U.S.News and World Report. The College is located on a beautiful 265-acre suburban campus setting approximately10 miles south of Princeton within easy commuting distance of New York and Philadelphia. Applicant screening will begin immediatelyand continue until the position is filled. Applicants must submit a vita, a letter clarifying their experience in K-12 pre-engineeringeducation and professional goals, student evaluations or other evidence of teaching ability, and three references to: Deanof Engineering, The College of New Jersey, P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628. To enrich education through diversity, The College ofNew Jersey is an AA/EOE employer.36 • The Technology Teacher • November 2008

D E L I V E R I N G T H E T & E I N S T E MPlanning to attend ITEA’s 71st Annual Conference in Louisville? If so consider presenting at the Teaching TechnologyShowcase (aka Tech Fest). The Teaching Technology Showcase is an interactive session where you share and describeideas with others. This is an exhibition of best practices in the teaching of technology education. Showcasers include, butare not limited to, K–12 technology teachers, teacher educators, administrators, undergraduate and graduate students, andinformal educators.The Showcase provides a forum for those concerned with advancing technological literacy to feature an idea, technique,or best practice related to learning activities, marketing materials, career guidance, facility design, program design, assessmentmethods, equity, or classroom and laboratory management techniques, among other unique practices. Plan nowto be a part of the Teaching Technology Showcase in Louisville, Kentucky by completing the online application at before March 13, 2009.We are seeking lessons, projects, and activities for Elementary through High School and University level as well. If youhave something please share it with us. If you know someone who is doing something interesting, please let us know sowe may contact them.This is a great chance to gain some valuable recognition for your program and the hard work you do. So, don’t miss thisextraordinary opportunity to collaborate with your peers and celebrate the future of our profession. See you in Louisville!AWARDS DEADLINE IS DECEMBER 1, 2008Hurry! There’s Not Much Time to Left Make the December 1st Deadline…Are you interested in applying for an ITEA scholarship or grant? TheDecember 1st application deadline is fast approaching. Whether you arean undergraduate student, graduate student, or technology educationclassroom teacher, you will want to check out the scholarships and grantsthat ITEA has to offer. The application process has been streamlined thisyear—applications are being accepted electronically—so be sure to applyprior to the cutoff date. Absolutely no applications will be acceptedafter the December 1, 2008 deadline.Here are some of the available awards:Grants Scholarships AwardsPitsco/Hearlihy (FTE) Litherland Scholarship (FTE) Program Excellence AwardGreer/FTE (FTE) Maley Teacher Scholarship (FTE) Teacher Excellence AwardUndergraduate Scholarship (FTE)Tetterton Scholarship (FTE)Special Recognition NominationsDistinguished Technology Educator (DTE)College Student LeadershipMaley Outstanding Grad Student (FTE)Apply TODAY to make the deadline.Go to: for complete information regarding all ITEA grants, awards, and scholarships.

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