SMA Solar Technology

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SMA Solar Technology

SMA Solar TechnologySolar Integration TechnologyPresented by Elie NasrBusiness Development, Utility Scale


DisclaimerIMPORTANT LEGAL INDICATIONSThis presentation is not an offer or invitation for the subscription, takeover or other acquisition of financial instruments issued by SMA SolarTechnology AG (the "company") or by a present or future subsidiary of the company (together with the company, the "SMA Group"). It does notrepresent a component of such an offer, nor should it be considered as such. This presentation or parts of it should not serve as the foundation orreference document for contracts or any obligation to acquire or subscribe to financial instruments of the company or of a member of the SMAGroup.All information in this presentation was prepared with due diligence. Nevertheless, we guarantee neither the absence of errors nor itscompleteness, and nothing in this presentation should be regarded as constituting such a guaranty.The information contained in this presentation is continually complemented, edited and updated. Some of the statements in this presentation maybe statements about expectations regarding the future, or other statements directed toward the future, which are based on the management'spresent perspectives and assumptions, which are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties. The actual results, events andperformance of the company can differ considerably from the statements made in the presentation, all of which can be a result of certain factors,changes in the business and market conditions and changes in the growth opportunities predicted by the management. These and other factorscan influence negatively the financial results of the plans and events described in the presentation. The company assumes no obligation to updateor edit statements regarding the future based on new information or events. The statements regarding the future in this document should not beconsidered to be completely reliable, since they relate only to the point in time in which the presentation takes place.This presentation serves the sole purpose of providing information and may not be disseminated further nor may it be passed on to third partieswhich are not its intended audience. No portions of the presentation may be copied, reproduced or quoted by the intended audience for purposesother than its intended use.The present document does not represent an offer for the sale of financial instruments in the United States of America. Financialinstruments may not be offered nor sold without registration or exemption from registration, in accordance with the amended versionof the US Securities Act of 1933.SMA America – Confidential2


SMA Solar TechnologyFounded in 1981Headquarters in Niestetal, GermanyPublicly traded on the Frankfurt StockExchange since June 2008Fourteen subsidiaries on fourcontinentsMore than 4,000 employeesThe oldest and largest supplier ofPV inverters in the worldCompany ProprietaryLargest Global Inverter CompanySMA America – Confidential3


State RPSSMA America – Confidential4


RankUtility Types & Installed PV Capacityas of12/31/2009Investor OwnedUtilities(MW-AC)MunicipalUtilities(MW-AC)Cooperatives(MW-AC)1 PG&E (CA) 314.6 LADWP (CA) 16.9 Sulphur Springs Valley Electric Coop(AZ)3.12 SCE (CA) 170.6 SMUD (CA) 14.2 Kauai Island Utility Co-op (HI) 2.83 NV Energy (NV) 87.9 LIPA (NY) 12.0 Trico Electric Co-op (AZ) 0.64 San Diego Gas & Electric (CA) 66.4 SRP (AZ) 8.2 Mohave Electric Co-op (AZ 0.365 XCEL Energy (CO) 43.2 IID (CA) 3.7 Graham County Electric Co-op (AZ) 0.356 PSE&G (NJ) 42.7 Austin Energy (TX) 2.5 Clay Electric Co-op, Inc. (FL) 0.227 FP&L (FL) 30.5 Palo Alto Utilities(CA)2.2 Great River Energy (MN) 0.218 APS (AZ) 21.5 Turlock IrrigationDistrict (CA)1.9 Adams-Columbia Electric Co-op(WI)0.0449 Hawaiian Electric Co (HI) 9.1 Eugene Water &Electric Board (OR)10 Portland General Electric (OR) 7.7 City of Santa Clara(CA)1.8 Douglas Electric Co-op (OR) 0.0381.6 Mountain Electric Co-op (TN)* 0.03Others 70.0 Others 14.5 Others 0.07Grand Total 864 80 8SMA America – Confidential5


Sample PV Generation Plant Single Line DiagramInverter AC Output Range{200V - 480V}MV XFMRMedium Voltage BusRange {12.5kV - 34.5kV}- ˜::::- ˜::HV XFMRPOITransmissionGrid::::::- ˜Transmission Bus≥69kVSMA America – Confidential6


PV Generation CharacteristicsInadequate Characteristics Non-Dispatchable Non-Voltage Regulating Non-Frequency Responsive Non-Controlled ramp-rate Trips-off during voltage fluctuations No Stability ModelsRequired Characteristics Dispatchable Potential to supply voltage regulation Frequency Response Power Factor Control Ramp-Rate Control LVRT Stability ModelsCurrently PV Market “Regulated” by IEEE1547, UL1741Anti-Islanding required, no LVRTLarge penetration on the Grids need to be “Reliable Penetration”NEC Code Limit of 600V DC1000V DC of interest for large scale utility installationsSMA America – Confidential7


Integrating Renewable Energy – A look at Europe Target: Maximum possible percentage of electricityfrom renewable energy sources European countries introduce Feed-In-Tariffs (FIT).Force acceptance of PV inverters and guaranteeinterconnection access. PV plants increase in size from residential, tocommercial to utility plants. PV grid connection evolution mimicking wind Situation then: Renewable PV generation systems donot contribute to grid stability Expert’s opinion: increasing share of renewablesources will require new standards forinterconnections Example: German MV Directive (6/2008) and FrenchNational Act (4/2008)SMA America – Confidential8


Requirements of New Medium Voltage Directive (Germany)Simplified illustration of grid control using PV plants (medium-voltage grid)Source: Erzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz. BDEW, Release June 2008SMA America – Confidential9


Active Power Limitation with Power Reducer BoxPrevent overload orcongestion4 default settings butconfigurable up to 16 steps.e.g.:100 % power60 % power30 % power0 % powerRamp Configurable %rate increase vs. % ratedecrease from 20sec to60minSMA America – Confidential10


Maintaining Grid Stability: Over Frequency ResponseSMA 1000V Inverters Designed for Static and Dynamic Active Power ControlPPMPowerincrease upto MPPFrequency risePowerreduction 28% Reduction of active power dependenton Grid Frequency.> In Case of Grid Failures> in Case of Power Surplus> to avoid Grid Instabilities 4% active power reduction / 0.1Hz Configurable for 60Hz and various % slopes50.05 50.2 50.9 51.5 f [Hz]Source: Erzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz. BDEW, Release June 2008SMA America – Confidential11


Grid Support: Reactive Power Supplylagging leading Objective: Maintain stable grid voltage Static power factor / reactive power supplydefined/required by utility(SMA Range @ Full Power: cos ϕ = 0.90 ind to 0.90 cap ) Dynamic reactive power supply on demandremotely controlled by utility Dynamic reactive power supply depending ongrid voltage Dynamic power factor according to a predefinedschedule> Impact on PV inverter and plant design! German Market PF Requirement: 0.95 laggingto 0.95 leading at point of common couplingSMA 1000V Inverters Designed for PF Control and VAR CompensationSource: Erzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz. BDEW, Release June 2008SMA America – Confidential12


Mathematical Formulation According to Pythagoream TheoremSPQCos ϕapparent poweractive powerreactive powerpower factortan (phi) = Q/PSMA America – Confidential13


Voltage and Current are linked together> If current i and voltage v are in phase, afluctuating but always positive power results -pure active power.In the case of a phase shift of 90degrees between i and v, theaverage value of the power is zero -pure reactive power.SMA America – Confidential14


Adjustable Inverter Current Angle = Adjustable Power FactorAC Voltage & CurrentsSync. VoltageCurrent, 100%Current, 60%Angle phi atwhich invertercurrent is imposedinto a voltage sourceCOS phi = Power FactorTimeSMA America – Confidential15


Grid Management in ActionSMA America – Confidential16


SMA Inverters Q(V) CharacteristicV A rQ M a xV olW idN omQ min, max,± 0…..50% of P maxVolWidNom 0 to 20% of V Grid-NomVolNomP1, P2 Voltage Deadband 1 & 2, 0.8pu to 1.20puVArGradNom Reactive Power Gradient( 0 to 10%P max/V inv-nom)V A rG raN o mV o lN om P 2V olN o m P 1G d V tgQ M a xV o lW idN o mSMA America – Confidential17


Grid Support : Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT)Grenzkurven Voltage CharacteristicSpannungsverlaufGrenzlinie V/V U/U cLimit 1 GrenzlinieLimit 2C100%70%45%30%15%0 150 700 1.500Zeitpunkt eines StörungseintrittsTime of failure (short circuit)3.000Lower limit ofunterer Wert desSpannungsbandesvoltage rangeBelow blue line:Unterhalb der blauenKennlinie bestehen keineno requirementsAnforderungen hinsichtlichdes Verbleibens am Netz.for FRTZeit in time [msec] German Market Low Voltage Ride-Through(LVRT) Requirement> Objective: Stay connected during HV griddisturbances in a manner similar to FERC Order661-A. Why? To avoid simultaneous shutdownof generation sources.> Required performance:> Voltage dip to “0” at utility interconnection point(HV side of the transformer)> Inverter must stay connected during a gridfailure for 150 ms (7.5 cycles for 50Hz systems)> If within 150 ms voltage is back above Limit 1:stable operation> If after 150 ms voltage stays below Limit 2 (30%of V nom): May disconnect from the grid> If voltage between Limit 1 and Limit 2, thenrecovery behaviour to be defined by utilityinterconnected to.SMA 1000V Inverters Designed to Support LVRT RequirementSource: Erzeugungsanlagen am Mittelspannungsnetz. BDEW, Release June 2008SMA America – Confidential18


LVRT Or Fault Ride Through – WorldwideWorst Case?SMA America – Confidential19


LVRT for North America: SMA Inverters Can SupportCourtesy ERCOT Operating GuideSMA America – Confidential20


SOLAR TECHNOLOGYQuestions?Elie NasrElie.Nasr@SMA-America.com(cell) 518-986-8777(office) 916-316-5385

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