European Polytechnical Institute, Ltd BACHELOR THESIS

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European Polytechnical Institute, Ltd BACHELOR THESIS

1. IntroductionTogether with the Czech Republic’s entrance to the European Union and furtherharmonization of our legal regulations, demands on introducing HACCP 1 critical controlpoint system into food sale broaden, too. The new regulations even more extend aresponsibility for food safety to individual participants in food production and distribution(raw material and food production, food distribution, providing catering services, etc.)Particular regulation fulfilment includes besides new duties, understanding principlesregarding a wider responsibility for realized activities in our case for safety food sale. Itmeans that the food seller has a wider duty to prove his knowledge regarding potentialproblem cause. He must be especially capable of proving that food safety can not bethreatened during activities he is responsible for (from purchasing products to sale to acustomer). The new requirements will require improving and correcting knowledge ofworkers and employees dealing with food circulation. Then they will have to prove thatHACCP principles were fulfilled in their company and their working is not a cause ofpotential health problems caused by sold groceries. Most food sellers not covered by thisduty already without an appropriate documentation apply the critical point system withoutthreatening their customer’s health. Fulfilling law requirements for these companies is justa question of defining actual levels of realized activities, their completing and keepingrecords about them.The aim of system implementation is not just a documentation elaboration, butnamely evaluating carried out procedure method regarding food handling in givenpremises conditions. To elaborate a manual describing the implementation procedurenecessary namely for a summary of hazards threatening given premises. It presents a realdescriptive document. The critical point system manual proves that the system wasproperly prepared and a presumption of its proper function exists. It is also important thatall workers in premises understood a sense of fulfilling individual requirements and wereaware of individual steps threatened by health hazard occurrence. They must know howprevention was ensured in order to prevent a consumer health from these hazards.1 HACCP is an English abbreviation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point6


1.1. Determination of the bachelor work targetsThis bachelor work is to provide necessary and compact information includingpractical instructions to orientate in the field of HACCP system introduction into groceriessale. In the first place it is designed to introduce the system into Oldřiška Nedělovágrocery, Náměstí No. 22, Dřevohostice but after adjusting input data and completinganalyses themselves it may be used even by other users working in this branch i.e. smalland middle-sized entrepreneurship. The bachelor work’s text includes the explanation of aproper hygienic practice, HACCP principles, review of potential health hazard by reasonof groceries, summary of personal and operational hygienic requirements on various levelsas well as concrete documentation concerning the shop in question. The shopdocumentation may serve to other sellers as a sample for introducing new procedures intotheir operation and fulfilling system registration requirements.1.2. HACCP system advantagesHACCP system advantage is a protection of a person in charge and even a legalperson from a sanction in case of contamination or epidemic occurrence. Duly conductedsystem enables user to prove that he does his best to ensure non-hazardous groceries ordishes and besides it is to prove his innocence in most unwarranted accusations orneglecting this or other regulations. It protects a person in charge and even a legal personfrom a significant financial sanction. The system fully eliminates a possibility ofcontamination occurrence in most cases. The user who caused a serious health injury ormass contamination and introduced HACCP system will not face a criminal liability forthat. This protection may however be ensured by duly conducted and transparent system,only. Deep check will practically always reveal formal and distorted records. The systemensures daily activities running always the same verified way. As far as an organizationpays enough attention to procedure verification and teaches their workers that they mustobserve the verified procedures, if the organization does at least spot checks then itimplemented important measures to ensure all the time same, first-rate and unobjectionablehandling with groceries or dish production. As a result of that it significantly reduceshazard of served food or dishes contamination and thus it protects consumer health. Thesystem increases responsibility of individual workers. The implemented system forcesindividual operational workers to confirm daily by their signature that measurements ofspecified values at production critical points were made and the specified values werereached.7


The signature is not a formality, only. Every worker suddenly behaves more responsibly asfar as he signs anything and then it is easy to trace retroactively anyone who made givenoperation and was responsible for a result. Daily signing makes him think why he signsanything and how product health perfection is related to confirmed operation. The systemcontributes to a quality improvement and food health perfection.There are three basic methods how HACCP system may be put into practice. A userwill elaborate everything by himself taking advantage of freely available methodologies,studying relevant laws and public notices and getting other needy information. Differentlyworked out studies of the relevant documentation can be found on internet or at somepublic and supervisory authorities. This alternative is very demanding from time point ofview and requires fundamental legal and hygienic consciousness of food or cateringestablishment´ user.The second alternative is designed in conjunction with an external company orexperts dealing with given problems. Most of companies deliver necessary documentationor computer programmes serving for critical point agenda administration; they train both auser and personnel and familiarize them with basic daily operations to be made. The aim isto explain system philosophy in order to enable user himself to put the system into practiceand maintain it. Then a user is able to manage himself further potential modifications andnecessary changes without any other expenses. The system introduction so-called „on turnkeybasis“. It consists in the documentation elaboration and introducing whole system byan external company. The third alternative consists in mapping all technologicalprocedures, hazard analysis and putting the system into practice ensured by an externalcompany. This method does not require user’s deep knowledge of problems what mightalso show as a disadvantage during modifications or further system changes to beimplemented by an external company. This solution is usually more expensive.8


Monitoringmeans observing and measuring of determined signs by determined procedure in order tojudge whether the critical point is in mastered condition.The proper industrial process and hygienic practiceis maintaining all legislatively modified industrial processes, requirements and applyingtechnical, technologic and hygienic rules corresponding to widely reputable scientificknowledge health perfect products achievement published in the bulletin of Czech Ministryof Agriculture.Critical point systemis a system by which significant hazards are identified, rated and controlled at the criticalpoints.By the critical point system team (HACCP)is a group of people (multi-disciplinary) who will elaborate, document, introduce andmaintain the critical point system (HACCP).Internal auditis systematic and independent rating of the critical point system level and its accord withthe critical point system plan realized by workers who are not directly responsible for thecritical point system.Productis food, dish, pasture or wrappage coming into contact with food, dish or pasture or withany other material used deliberately during all production phases, processing, storage anddistribution of groceries, dishes and pastures and which may inconveniently influence thehealth perfection of food or pasture set afloat.Signis a parameter or a quantity whose observing enables us to keep the critical point undercontrol.12


principles may especially in case of small premises working in the field of fooddistribution, catering services and food production may significantly simplify HACCPimplementation. Public notice No. 161/2004 dig. cites „If user of grocery company(producer, distributor, etc.) applies rules of the proper hygienic practice and will prove bymeans of a hazard analysis his ability to control these hazards then he may the system andthe range of critical points adjust to these rules.“ 5 To introduce HACCP into fooddistribution a seller does not introduce the critical point system in the range usual for foodmass production comprising wide documentation and keeping records. He will apply firstfive HACCP principles. In particular he is capable of proving the hazard analysisimplementation including an identification of steps, operations or activities critical forproduct safety. He will prove the implementation by elaborating a brief surroundinganalysis proving the fact he is aware of potential problems which threaten during hisactivities with his range of goods in his premises´ conditions. Simultaneously he is ready toprove by this document and his daily working that he controls the above mentionedhazards and precedes problems by reliable observance of the proper hygienic practiceprocedures. The sustainable use of the proper hygienic practice requirements can lead tofulfilling the general requirements (surrounding, order, keeping personal hygienics). It canbe for instance own evidence system monitoring the observance of conditions documentedby records about carried out cleanness checks, records about goods receipt, temperaturechecks. The above approach is fully in compliance with the application of the properhygienic practice and HACCP in European countries. The catering service manual states inthe documentation part to British regulation interpretation that regulations are not requiredto be fully documented "classical" HACCP, but users must realize that a brief explanationof their system will be useful when documenting to state supervision that their systemcorresponds to valid regulations. The interpretation of British regulations in a manualintended for retail 6 goes even further i.e. the regulations do not require keeping records onrealized monitoring, check lists (question check lists) or other records such as for instancerecords on temperature monitoring. Performing the above mentioned is howeverconsidered to be the right practice and this working may help to prove fulfilment of validlegislative´s requirements to an auditing body.The requirements are in similar way applied also in other European countries suchas in Belgium, Germany and elsewhere. Brand new EC regulation on food hygienics No.5 http://www.mze.cz/default.asp?ch=75&typ=1&val=26507&ids6 Industry Guide to Good Hygiene Practice: Catering Guide, Chadwick House Group Ltd., 199715


852/2004 dated 29. 4. 2004. 7 content corresponds to the described approach. Thisregulation is in compliance with further regulation No. 178/2004 dealing with foodhygienics problems which has been so far solved by direction No. 93/43. The regulationcame into force in all member countries after introducing next related regulations afterJanuary 1, 2006. The direction states that „requirements on HACCP should arise fromprinciples contained in Codex Alimentarius. They should provide sufficient flexibility inorder to be applicable in all situations comprising small premises. In particular it isnecessary to confess that it is impossible to identify critical control points in somepremises. Use of proper hygienic practice principles can be replaced with critical controlpoint monitoring in these premises. Similarly a demand on critical limit determination doesnot signify a necessity to determine an exact numerical limit for every case. Next, demandson keeping documentation should be applied in a flexible way in order to eliminateexcessive loading of very small premises. “The above mentioned explanations should notbe understood in any case that we do not have to do anything in relation to HACCPimplementation but they set new duties of legislative to a different level. In any case a usermust use HACCP principles. It means he must at least prove the hazard analysisperformance and be capable of documenting hazard control in his conditions. As far as hewill sustainably apply principles of the proper hygienic practice the HACCPimplementation may consist in processing and keeping a brief document summarizing allhazard sources relating to his working and control procedures. Contemporary law on foodfor the time being does not include a clear duty of food producer, distributor and cateringservice users to determine critical points in their industrial process. Requirements innational regulations may be stricter than European ones, therefore in accord with presentinterpretations reads that the system should include at least one critical point. It means thatsome monitored operation is to be conducted as the critical point comprising alladministrative requirements. Informal standpoints of auditing body’s representativesindicate that view of HACCP system will correspond to a cited regulation No. 852/2004. Itmeans that HACCP implementation will be more understood as a chance to increase ingeneral a consciousness about potential hazards and achieve more easily acceptingresponsibly for food and dish safety by users. Supervisory body will not in advance putsuch an accent on a specific form of documentation, but a user himself of his own volitionlike in other European countries will implement for his own safety certain documentation7 Translation citation of the EC regulation on food hygienics No. 852/2004 of 29. 4. 200416


and evidence level relating to realized actions frequently even exceeding the frame ofminimum legislative requirements. 82.6. Principles of personal hygienicsIt is important to take care of physical cleanness, wash hands in hot water using anappropriate detergent (eventually disinfection) before set out working, during passing fromdirty work to clean work (for instance cleaning, crude preparation), after using toilet, afterhandling with garbage and during any contamination. It is necessary to wear personalprotective agents especially overall, footwear and hat in the course of food production. Theoverall must be kept clean and as necessary changed during a shift. Workers are notallowed to leave premises during working hours in overall and footwear. It is necessary toforbear from any unsanitary behaviour in the workplace (e.g. food consummation,smoking, hair and nail dressing). It is important that your hands have shortly cut nails andare without decorative objects. Both utilized overall and civic dress must be stored indedicated place. The overall and civic dress is to be stored separately.2.7. Principles of operational hygienicsEquipment, tools, working surfaces, machine-technological equipment, transportpackages and transport means must be kept in cleanness and in such conditions to avoidfood quality hazard and food health perfection hazard. Cleaning of all workplaces andpremises is provided continuously using detergents eventually disinfectants. Hygienicfacilities namely toilets must be kept clean and in working order. Aids and agents used forcleaning must be used respectively marked or in colour differentiated and store themseparately from detergents used for cleaning workplaces and equipment getting into adirect touch with groceries. Liquidation of organic and inorganic waste must be carriedout.Objects not related to a subject of working must not be found in the shop.Unauthorized persons and animals may not be allowed to enter premises, shop ormanufactory. Purely such detergents cleansing agents and disinfectants designed forgrocery may be used for cleaning. Workers´ food and dishes can be stored separately, only8 http://www.haccp-consulting.cz/legislativa.html17


in an individual cooling plant or deepfreezer situated outside the premises. Adequatelighting in all shop premises is provided in order to ensure running individual operationsunder hygienic conditions. The lightning should not change colour and its intensity shouldcorrespond to performed operations. The lighting must be protected from damage.Simultaneously it must be installed in order to avoid accumulating impurities.Sufficient and adequate natural or mechanical aeration should be available. Thereforeshops are equipped with air-condition providing cooling and heating of sale premises andif necessary aeration as well. It is necessary to avoid directioning mechanical air flow froma contaminated part of the premises to clean one. Mechanical ventilation systems should beregularly maintained, cleaned and inspected.It is important to ensure waste collection and liquidation in the areas where it comes up.Vessels containing waste must be regularly emptied and waste must be regularly removed.Areas used for waste storage must be regularly cleaned. Waste water must be drained tosewage drains. Sewage drains system must be regularly cleaned.Just in case of power-cut company should have its emergency plan used for keepingfrozen food temperature ready. All industrial machines and all materials coming into directcontact with groceries must be maintained in perfect condition and should be suitable for acontact with groceries. (Ministry of Health’s regulation No. 38/2001dig.). The surfacesshould be made of flat materials easily washable and desinfectable. In general it isnecessary to avoid using wood.Health and professional competence requirements regarding persons working ingrocery industry are stipulated in law No. 258/2000 dig. and by execute public notice No.490/2000 dig. Essential knowledge of hygienic minimum (i.e. knowledge of relevanthygienic regulations and further related legal norms in a given branch must have personsbefore taking up an activity. Worker training on hygienic principles and requirements isvery important. Workers should also be aware of the fact how important is to keep a properproduct temperature for product quality. Persons working in grocery are bound to havetheir bill of health issued during an entry examination. Except for this entry examinationpersons working in grocery are bound to subject to any emergency medical examinationswithout delay under circumstances directly stipulated in law.18


Table No. 1 Norms applied to certifications in food chainNorm Used for : Field of applicationEurep-Gap Agriculture The EU (implementationdevelopment)GMP+ Whole chain of pastures The Netherlands(implementationdevelopment in the EU)ISO-9001Pasture, groceries, packing, World actiontransportHACCP-Criteria Groceries World actionBRC Groceries The UK, The EU(implementationdevelopment)BRC-IOP Packing for groceries The UK, The EU(implementationdevelopment)SQF-2000 Groceries Australia, AsiaNSF guideline Groceries The U.S.A.FMI Inspection Groceries The U.S.A.IFS Groceries Germany (implementationdevelopment)Source: classification society’s ( Info-kvalita 2005) manual19


3. Hazard analysis implementation and control pointdeterminationHazard analysis represents searching for sources of health hazards which mayendanger product health perfection on the way to a consumer let us say searching in such apart of the way for which the grocery user is responsible for. The analysis result leads to adetection of all potential hazard sources and simultaneously to determination of proceduresensuring that the hazard will not arise. Among the direct cause of consumer health hazardbelong biological, chemical and physical hazards.Table No. 2 Food classification in accord with a hazardFood classification in accord with a kind of hazardGroceries and food raw materials containing bacteria which causes illnessRaw meat, raw fishes and seafood, eggs, unkempt fresh vegetables and fruitGroceries with high hazardHeat processed meat products, ready cooled or frozen dishes, milk, dairy produce, eggproduct, salad creams, boiled rice, boiled pastesGroceries with lower hazardsugar, salt, flour and oils, confectionery, biscuits, bread, tea, coffee, cereals, driedgroceries, durable canned products, jams and jellies, cereal breakfastsSource: Critical points in trade manual (HACCP)20


3.1. Health hazard by reason of groceries3.1.1. Biological hazardBiological hazards are leading food hazard group regarding a number of afflictedpeople. Among biological hazards belong health hazards caused by living organismstransmitted by groceries or dishes. These are especially micro-organisms and parasitesinvoking in a human being organism serious illnesses. The causes of microbiologicalhazard occurrence divide into a primary and secondary contamination. The primarycontamination takes place during food production. Raw materials necessary for productionof groceries already contained micro-organisms or the micro-organisms reproduction tookplace during the production itself or distribution.Bacteria which cause illness are microscopic organisms living around us. Most ofthem are harmless or useful (soured dairy produce, cheese, soured cabbage, beer, vine,yeast), but some of them cause illnesses from groceries. Bacteria occur everywhere namelyin cheesy food, on people, animals, insect, in dust, in dirt and garbage. For idlenessoccurrence first food contamination by micro-organisms which may reproduce andsubsequently cause an illness is necessary. Then an illness is caused by a consummation ofgroceries usually containing high bacteria content however elders and sick people, childrenand pregnant women are more sensitive so the minimal contagious dose is smaller forthem. Bacteria number multiplication in groceries depends on a temperature, moisture,sourness, nutriment availability and air access.Temperature is a crucial factor necessary for micro-organism growth. Especially longerdelays at temperatures starting from 15 up to 50°C are dangerous regarding thereproduction since the growth of wide micro-organism spectrum is the most intensive atthat time.21


Table No. 3 Temperature impact on micro-organism growthTemperature Activity example Impact on bacteriaAbove100°C65 to 100°CCookingMicro-organism cells arekilled and according toconditions bacteria actionsoccur.65 to 80°C Dish release Micro-organisms are notpractically growing50 to 65°C Minimal growth of a limitedmicro-organism spectrum15 to 50°C Storage outside a refrigerator from 10-37°COptimal conditions formicro-organism growth0 to 15°C Usual temperatures in a refrigerator from5-10°CSlow growth of a limitedmicro-organism spectrum.-5 to 0°C Freezer Very slow growth ofselected micro-organisms-18 to 0°C Micro-organisms are notpractically growing,metabolic processes stopsreaching -18°CSource: Critical points in trade manual (HACCP)One of the leading contamination sources is so-called cross contamination. The crosscontamination is a transmission of bacteria from contaminated groceries or dirty objectsand surfaces to other groceries. In particular due to a worker handling with goods thecontamination occurs. The potential contamination sources are worker hands, clothes,personal things, packages, tools, surfaces, wastes, pests, raw groceries. To prevent goodscontamination from dangerous bacteria it is necessary to keep cleanness and disinfect thepremises, equipment, surfaces and aids together with cleaning. To separate raw and highhazard groceries in the course of all handling phases (route crossing). Keep personal andoperational hygienics. Prevent package damage in case of packaged groceries. Regularinspections in order to check the aid condition and pest occurrence.If we reduce time for handling frozen and refrigerated goods during higher temperatureswe will prevent goods from bacteria reproduction. The time concerns a transport itself,22


goods receipt, and goods storage conditions. That is why it is necessary to create suchconditions during these activities to protect bacteria from reproduction in goods. Forexample the oldest stocks should be consumed first, to maintain proper conditions forstorage; frozen and refrigerated goods must be taken over as quickly as possible insummer. Goods after receipt must be in the shortest possible time placed to refrigerating orfreezing facilities in the shop or storage. Refrigerated chain is to be kept.3.1.2. Chemical hazardMost of potential chemical hazards are excluded or already handled in the course offood production. Especially chemical materials contained in food may induce healthdamage (acute or chronic organism intoxication, undesirable organism reactions) to aconsumer. Among chemical hazards belong toxic materials coming up during foodproduction such as namely materials arising during fat stilling, long-term heating orunsuitable food cooking. Among next form of chemical hazard belong natural toxicmaterials contained in groceries and materials inducing individual undesirable reactions atconsumers. It concerns chemical hazards which must be solved only in relation to aspecific consumer group having allergy on certain food components or individualsconfronted metabolic derangements. Further, chemical hazards in groceries may occur inrelation to substance extraneous such as agrochemical (pesticide, fertilizers, veterinarymedicaments, staining agents), dangerous materials coming from the surrounding (lubricants, oils, cleaning and disinfection agents, heavy metals), dangerous materials fromwrappages (softening agents, printing ink, toxic warappage elements). Food contaminationby chemical materials may happen in the course of a distribution, transport, storage andsale. It may namely happen by mutual influence during storage with groceries (cleaningagents, dry goods, lubricants, thinners) and also by handling in unsuitable conditions. Asunpacked products are concerned the contamination is induced due to a contact withobjects (showplaces, tools) cleaned by unsuitable disinfection agents. The hazard alsoimpends in case you do not observe proper disinfestation and disinfection instructions.23


3.1.3. Physical hazardAmong physical hazard by reason of groceries belong especially mechanicalimpurities, mostly hard and sharp objects which may cause the consumer health injury.The physical hazard can be divided into endogenic hazard (arising from raw materials) forinstance stones, clay, shells, sand, bones and gristles and into exogenetic hazard (arisingfrom surrounding) such as a production surrounding contamination (pieces of paint, rust,screws, dices, facade rendering), and the contamination from workers´ personal things inproduction (buttons, grips, coins, cigarette-ends, parts of textile, etc.). Foreign objectswhich may fall into groceries during production, transport, handling or storage. 9It is necessary to adopt these measures to prevent goods from the chemical andmechanical impurity contamination. To remove sources of potential chemical andmechanical contamination from premises used for storage, handling and goods sale Even aslight damage of equipment, surfaces or occurrence of rodents must be carefully observedin these premises. To prevent goods packages considering packaged groceries fromdisturbance. Keeping operational and personal hygienics.3.2. Shop identificationThe shop identification serves for a description of sale premises, storage premises,shop facilities and identification of individual sections dealing with food handling. As legalregulations are concerned, public notice No. 347/2002 dig. regarding hygienic demands onfood sale and scope of the shop’s facilities according to sold groceries exists. However itdoes not refer to sale of animals including fish, direct sale of animal products by aproducer and their sale in the market-places and market-halls. Sale itself and handling withgroceries of the animal origin then regulates properly the public notice No. 375/2003 dig.regarding veterinary demands on animal products.3.2.1. Shop location and facilitiesIn general the shop must be located and designed so that the shop’s premises andgroceries would not be unsuitable affected by external effects (rain, sun) and we mustprecede dirt accumulation, contact with toxic materials, condensation and growth of9 VOLDŘICH, M. a JECHOVÁ, M. a KAUDELOVÁ, M.. Systém kritických bodů v obchodě (HACCP).1st. ed. Praha : České a slovenské odborné nakladatelství, 2004. 73 s. ISBN 80-903401-2-124


undesirable moulds. It should be subdivided into premises and equipped based on its usagein compliance with hygienic requirements on food sale.The shop premise divide in accord with operational needs such as premises servingfor storage of inconsistent groceries (confectionery, delicatessen, meat), premises forgroceries with defined requirements on temperature and humidity during their storage –observing temperature chains (frozen goods, refrigerated goods, durable pastry, biscuits,dried products). These are followed by premises used for storing wrappages, premises forstoring returnable wrappage, garbage storage, premises used for placing cleansing agentsand auxiliary storages and administrative premises.Premises and equipment for offer, display and sale of goods which are mutuallyinconsistent must be separated (i.e. technical or operational division). The technicaldivision of premises consists in for instance building solution of individual operationalsection. The operational division means for instance time division of activities on thespecified area. Surfaces of walls and ceilings comprising soffits and suspensions must bebuilt and keep plain, well cleanable, dust-free, without humidity and moulds. Steam mustnot condensate on them and their parts, coat and decoration should not release. Drop couldresult in food contamination. Humidity and fungal surrounding affects stored groceries andit may result for instance in tin rusting. Humidity also unseemly affects groceries such asdried dairy produce, dried vegetables, biscuits, pastry. Floors must be made so that can beeasily maintained, clean, disinfect and they must be mechanically, slippery and absorptiveresistant.Picture No. 1 The shopSource: www.makro-haccp.comOur grocery is located downstairs in the western part of the building on the square in atown of Dřevohostice. The building neighbours on the left side with a one-storey housewhile on the right side there is a free space with a bus terminal. The shop entrance issituated in the direction to the town square. The shop entrance together with a shop25


window is directioned eastwards and excess solarization is compensated by shading bymeans of sun-blinds. There are also doors serving for the shop supply on this side. Thegrocery itself is designed in order to be protected from outside undesired effects. It has arectangular shape and sale area of 320 sq.m. There are shop counters with goods situatedalong both sides and in the middle. There is sausages section, fresh vegetables section andice boxes and deepfreezers at the end of the shop. Sausages sale section is provided with asale ice box and two slicing machines. It is equipped with an electronic scale servingentirely for weighing sausages and salami. This sale section is provided with an individualwash-basin including a contactless hot and cold water tap. Beside there is a fruit andvegetables section provided with an individual shop counter and individual sale stand.There is also an electronic scale used for this production range situated in this section.There are cooling plants used for dairy produce sale and deepfreezers used for frozen foodsale situated opposite these sections.The storage premises are situated at the rear right part of the building. There arealso premises for workers available at the rear part of the building. Storage premises aresubdivided according to individual food kinds. Communication and handling premisesrelated to the shop are compacted, dust-proof and cleaning is maintained.The premises are supplied with a sufficient quantity of drinking watercorresponding to requirements of Ministry of Health’s public notice No. 376/2000 dig.This stipulates demands on drinking water and frequency of its inspections. As far as ice ismade of drinking water it is stored and used so that any food contamination is excluded.Service water is not available in the premises. If service water is used in an organization(used for e.g. fire case or cooling) it must flow in separate system and must be easilyrecognizable. Separate sewage conduit systems must be properly separated and demarked,easily recognizable and any potential interconnection with drinking water must beexcluded.All grocery premises must be provided with appropriate and suitably locatedchange-rooms, wash-rooms, showers and lavatories. These premises must be properlylightened aerated, if needed heated and they can not be opened to premises used for foodhandling. Change-rooms are usually situated in separate rooms. Arrangement of itsoperation, building solution, inner equipment and technical equipment must allow keepingorder and perfect cleanness. Change-room in our organization is situated in rear part of thepremises. It is lightened by a ceiling lamp, there is a three-wing window providing bothgood aeration and natural lightening there. It is heated by an iron-plate radiator connected26


to a central heating system. Change-room is further equipped with kitchen including inbuiltdouble hot plate cooker and refrigerator used for workers´ food storage, only.There is an appropriate hygienic rear area in order to ensure personal hygienics andeliminate food contamination hazard. The equipment is installed at the end of the corridorin the right part of the shop. The equipment is duly marked and maintained. Hygienicequipment is provided with water taps including contactless hot and cold water battery.Facilities for hand washing and drying are available, too. This equipment is connected tosewerage. Sewers must not run out on the floor.3.3. Sales activity limitationThe shop serves for a self-service sale. It means that consumers participate on aselection from offered groceries and their packing. Sale of unpacked groceries is permittedjust in case of fresh fruit or fresh vegetables if these were quit of mechanical impurities orit is solved otherwise to prevent consumer’s hands from making them dirty. It is alsopermitted for a sale of solid bread and normal pastry in case conditions for a selection andtaking these groceries without direct contact with consumer’s hands are ensured. As theservice sale is concerned unpacked groceries must be handed over to a consumer in asuitable package and in case of self-service sale the packages are offered for selectedgroceries to a consumer.3.3.1 Range of goodsUser: Oldřiška Nedělová VAT No.: 47180811Premises Name: POTRAVINY (GROCERIES)Premises address: Náměstí č.22 , Dřevohostice CZ 75114Packaged durable groceries:Tins, drinkables, durable pastry, mill products, convenience food products, spice,stimulants, vinegar.Which way a product durability is ensured:Microbial and microbistatic handling – drying, thermo-sterilization, chemical preservation.Refrigerated groceries packaged by supplier or producer:Refrigerated packaged meat, sausages, fish, dairy produceWhich way a product durability is ensured:27


Reduced temperature, packaging of products in shielding gas, vacuum in inert gas or other„conditional“conservative methods.Frozen products packaged by supplier or producer:Packaged frozen meat, vegetables, fruit, fish, ready-mix, ice-creamsWhich way a product durability is ensured:Reduced temperature, packaging of products in shielding gas, vacuum in inert gas or other„conditional“conservative methods.Fresh fruit, vegetables, mushrooms, potatoesFresh fruit and vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, potatoes, onion, garlic, oranges,lemons, tangerines, bananas, kiwi...)Which way a product durability is ensured:Reduced temperature, providing optimal conditions for maturing.Service and self-service sale of unpackaged groceries which do not requirerefrigeration:In bulk sold goods, unpackaged sweets, bread, pastry, weighed goodsWhich way a product durability is ensured:Drying, heat treatment – baking, thermosterilization, pasteurization.Service and self-service sale of unpackaged refrigerated groceries:Refrigerated-weighed goods: sausages, cheeses, sweets, delicate salads, fishWhich way a product durability is ensured:Heat treatment– baking, thermosterilization, pasteurization.., conservation by means ofreduced temperatureGraph No. 1 Range of goods in the shop28


Graph No. 1 Range of goods in the shop7%8%Range of goods in the shop11%45%8%9%12%Durable groceries Refrigerated groceries Frozen groceriesFruit,vegetables Other goods Refrigerated goods in bulkuncooled goods in bulkSource: author29


4. Determination of signs and critical limits4.1. Hazard analysis and critical point determinationThe implemented system must provide minimal hazard to a customer health. Onthis account it is necessary to know when and where food perfection hazard in the courseof all operations we are responsible for may occur and it also must be clear how to precedesuch situations. On this account a hazard analysis table is one of the most important part ofthis system. We judge procedures during individual operations in this table. As far as wedoubt of the measure, reliability or maintaining required procedures by workers we areanyway free to make the actual system control more restrictive. Stricter approach mayconsist in written activity procedure and worker training or in implementing regularinspections by a superior, implementing monitored signs based on which measures aretaken, finally in implementation of the critical point. All these measures are so-calledcontrol points. The control range and form is user’s choice. The critical point is thenconsidered as the strictest possibility of control related to keeping records andadministrative in the range of a public notice.Complete and exact critical point identification is a basic precondition foroverruling given hazard. The procedure of critical point determination must be sufficientlydescribed whereas the critical point determination must arise from hazard analysis results.It should be clear from documentation on the basis of which data the relevant critical pointwas determined. Every individual process step must include aspects according to which theevaluation and following warrant was carried out, from which is clear whether it is criticalpoint or not. Number of critical points is not defined since it depends on a productcomplexity and character and conditions of sale. The critical point identification inconcrete production technology must allow a preventive check and following correctivemeasures and thereby sufficiently ensure health unobjectionable production.Determination of signs and critical limits for every critical point means that there is one ormore signs (parameters, quantity) determined for every critical point whose monitoringenables us to keep the critical point under control. Critical limit values are determined forevery sign whereas their exceeding indicates leaving the mastered condition. Stipulatedsigns and critical limits must be stated in the critical point system documentation. Audit ofthe critical point system (HACCP) judges whether the monitored signs and determined30


critical limits allow to judge whether the system regarding the identified hazard is inmastered condition.The critical point mastered condition system is exactly processed procedure formonitoring and measuring in order to find out whether the critical point is in masteredcondition. The description regarding critical point mastered condition system is a part ofHACCP critical point system’s documentation. The documentation must state (reasons),which way the monitoring system was developed. Regulations relating to a frequency andmethods of measurements comprising their up-dating must be stated. The way of ensuringreliable applied method of measuring must be documented. Records concerning signmonitoring at critical points are kept. The records must correspond to stipulated conditionsstated in the documentation (method of control, frequency, responsibilities, carried outinspections, etc.). Determination of corrective measures for every critical point follows.The corrective measures are defined in accord with §2 par. (9) public notice No. 147/1998dig. and they must be defined in a descriptive part of HACCP critical pointdocumentation. 10 The documentation must include a correction method for a deviation,procedure of further handling with unhealthy food, responsibilities and competencesduring implementing corrective measures, where and how will the record regarding thecorrective measures be made. All implemented corrective measures, causes, consequencesand relevant persons who implemented the measures must be recorded. The efficiencyevaluation in terms of both process and product must be carried out.4.2. Goods receiptThe first step is goods receipt. Goods are mostly delivered to the shop by suppliersor directly by producers by their own transportation. Transport is provided by lorriesequipped with various truck-bodies suitable for a given kind of food. Unsuitable transportand handling is then a part of hazard analysis. In terms of this analysis it is also importantto observe a container/crate condition and cleanness serving for goods transport inparticular considering unpacked groceries. Among the leading shop’s suppliers belongespecially the following companies: Hruška s.r.o. Ostrava-Martinov, Racek Přerov bakery,Delta bakery, Lipník nad Bečvou bakery, Olstar s.r.o. Lipník nad Bečvou, Váhala,10 VOLDŘICH, M. a JECHOVÁ, M. a KAUDELOVÁ, M.. Systém kritických bodů v obchodě (HACCP).1st. ed. Praha : České a slovenské odborné nakladatelství, 2004. 73 s. ISBN 80-903401-2-131


Kostelecké uzeniny, Martinov, Nowaco, etc. Minor part of goods the shop deliveries by itsown transportation mostly from Makro CashCarry s.r.o. wholesale.Picture No. 2 Methods of goods receipt.SUPPLIERPRODUCEROwn transportGOODS RECEIPTaccording to deliverynote by a person inchargePURCHASEITSELFCompanytransportSource: authorEntrusted worker dealing with a receipt of goods belonging to all groups must first carryout sensual and visual check of taken over product – food. During this activity he takesover specified goods in accord with a supplier’s delivery note. He must check especiallykind and a number of delivered goods. Then check of food marking, duration and usabilitydue date follows. If this check reveals that goods durability and usability due dates areunsatisfactory or these are too short the goods is in the course of next step immediatelyreturned to a supplier and this fact is indicated in the delivery note comprising aconfirmation of entrusted worker. A reason, kind and number of returned goods arerecorded. We can avoid these situations purchasing products from verified suppliers andproducers which have a good position in the market so that if such a situation happens theyre able to react without any delay and provide immediate compensations.32


The entrusted worker during goods receipt checks package safety and deformations. Asfrozen and refrigerated goods are concerned he checks in addition temperature andsupplier’s transport conditions. If goods are transported by means of own transportation i.e.by a lorry without cooling the refrigerated chain must be kept by thermo boxes. Afterpurchasing refrigerated goods it is placed in these thermo boxes in order to avoid droppingtemperature under a critical level. Frozen goods is not delivered by own transport.Picture No. 3 Goods receipt monitoring and a correction of found conditionGOODS RECEIPTaccording to deliverynote by a person inchargeSUPPLIEDGOODSRECEIPTwithout hazardHAZARDDETECTIONGOODSREPLACEMENTTO SUPPLIERPRODUCERSource: authorIt is necessary to observe proper practice procedures for all groups of goods and productsin order to eliminate hazard. This practice consists in especially proper conditions duringreceipt and proper handling with food. Delay elimination is in particular important duringfood receipt (we put the accent on namely refrigerated and frozen groceries-observingrefrigerated chain). It is necessary to maintain a proper temperature, humidity and amethod of handling during fresh fruit and vegetables receipt.33


Most common imperfections during goods receipt is goods exposition to unsuitableweather conditions (excess humidity, freeze, solar radiation) and unsuitable handlingduring receipt (handling together with other products which may product unseemly affect,long delays during food receipt under unsuitable conditions for a product).StepGoods receiptCharging by suppliers, producers, goods transport from wholesales using owntransportationHazard:Purchase and receipt of unsatisfactory goods:- Spoiled and poor quality product- Other product than declared- Contamination by micro-organisms, pests- Contamination and damage caused by foreign objects due to for instance.: seebelow- Unsuitable handling in supplier’s premises and also during own transport(unsuitable storage and transport conditions, handling together with inconsistentproducts, unsuitable condition of loading area, damage and contamination duringhandling)- Disturbed packages of vacually packaged sausages- Disturbed packages of frozen groceries- Exceeding the delivery temperature (supply by unsuitable lorry - warm)- Exceeding durability and usability dates by supplierProduct spoiling or damaging during receipt or handling:- exposition to unsuitable weather conditions during a receipt (humidity excess,freeze, solar radiation)- unsuitable handling during a receipt (simultaneous handling with other productswhich may affect the product in question, long delays during food receipt underunsuitable condition)- mechanical damage of a product- product package disturbance34


Defect elimination measures:For all goods groups:- sense, visual control of taken over product, food- delivery note check- marking- check of durability and usability dates (date of expiry)- purchasing products from verified suppliers- check of package integrity- transport conditions- refrigerated, frozen groceries-checking the food temperature during a receiptFor all groups-maintaining procedures and proper practice:- proper conditions for food receipt- proper handling (damage prevention, separating inconsistent kinds)- excluding delays during food receipt- refrigerated products: maintaining a refrigerated chain- frozen products: to observe a refrigerated chain- fresh fruit and vegetables: observing conditions for handling (temperature,moisture)35


Picture No. 4 Methods of ensuring the right procedureWRITTENPROCEDUREANDTRAININGPROCEDURESUPERIOR´SCHECKMONITORINGANDKEEPINGRECORDSCRITICALPOINTINTRODUCTIONSource: authorBoth this step and following one is to show us how observing the proper procedure isensured. The possibility of choice is not limited in given limits, but it is important toobserve required procedures.The first possibility is a written procedure and worker training.The written procedure describes an activity i.e. who and what realizes, what controls andwhat cares of. Observing proper procedures is then ensured by regular training of workers.The second possibility is a control by a superior.In this case a superior systematically controls his subordinates.The third possibility is a systematic monitoring together with keeping records.Stipulated monitored sign implementation consists in monitoring of signs (package safety,cleanness, temperature, etc.). Based on the signs the following measures are implemented(goods non-acceptance, rendering goods, raw material or package to a supplier, rendering36


aw materials, products and products from a process, stopping product processing, nextprocessing after analysis or for instance usage for other purposes, for a production,repeating the industrial process, stopping production facilities and repeating processing,product recalling from production or sale).Critical point implementation.Implementing one or more critical points contributes to further control tightening up. Inthis case the control system is the same including systematic monitoring and keepingrecords.The critical point is basically an operation, procedure or step in which a regular controlmust be carried out. If there is no control realized an unacceptable hazard which can not beeliminated in the future may occur.Typical critical points:Food supply or transport (observing refrigerated chain)Food storage (temperature)Using proper temperature during dish preparationReady dishes output (temperature and time)Sign and critical limit determination in specified critical points is a process where for everycritical point any sign or parameter (for instance temperature, time) providing critical pointmonitoring must be determined. For every determined sign (parameter) the limits withinwhich the critical point is out of hazard must be determined. These intervals are largelydetermined by legislative requirements.37


Picture No. 5 Critical point determination – decision diagramCan hazard cross requested border?YESNOHazard will beminimized oreliminated during nextprocess steps, or it ispossible to changeprocess to reducehazardThere is no criticalpoint in this step; wecan come over anotherprocess step.NOYESStep is a criticalpoint which must bemonitored and keptrecords about it.Source: www.makro-haccp.com38


Table No. 4 Determination of signs, limits, and procedures for systematic monitoring ofimportant activities during goods receipt.O P E R A T I O N SR E C E I P Tcharging by suppliers, producers, goods supply from wholesales by own lorry withoutrefrigerationMonitoredsignLimits ofadmissibility(Critical limit)MonitoringprocedureMonitoringfrequencyRemedy(Correctivemeasure)ProcedureverificationComparisonofsupply /delivery noteMinimaldurabilitytime, usabilitytime( DMT, DP)Sensory signsof taken overgoods,unloadingconditionsGoodstemperature atreceiptCleanness andpackagesafety checkTransportconditioncheckDelivery doesnot conform toa specificationlong enoughDMT, DTIt does notconform to aspecificationMaximaltemperatureaccording to aspecificationIt does notconform torequirementsIt does notconform torequirementsProduct origin Product isdelivered froma confidentialsource,markingmatcheslegislativerequirementsVisual checkMonitoringDMT,DPGoods visualcheck,handlingpremisescheckTemperaturemeasuringCleanness andpackagesafetyobservationVisual checkof loadingareaMarkingcheck, productspecificationverification,supplierreliabilityverificationAt everyreceiptReceiptdetentionDeliveryrejectionCarrying outthe check inparallel byanotherperson -by asupervisor-workertrainingThermometertestSource: Critical points in trade manual (HACCP)39


In steps in which systematic monitoring including keeping records will be implementedsuitable signs (DMT, DP, goods temperature, product origin, etc.) enabling monitoringwhether activities proceed well will be chosen. The implementation of appropriatedocumentation into this point is necessary. The documentation is to comprise forms forevery step in which we decided to monitor realized activities. This form is completed withappropriate selected signs, group of products or a product subjected to check is clarified,limits are specified and corrective measures are completed. In case of temperaturemonitoring, we keep temperature records simultaneously on another common form.4.3. Goods storageOnly such groceries for which storage, keeping and sale the shop createdfavourable conditions can be sold. The conditions mean requirements stipulated by asupplier on the package, by a public notice and special legal regulations.Storage condition review for some kinds of groceries:Frozen groceries of inanimal originStorage temperature: in deepfreezers at temperature -18°C or lowerHandle with groceries so that the food temperature will not exceed -15°CTransport by such transport means in order to keep a frozen goods temperature -18°C orlower, the temperature may on a short-term basis reach at maximum -15°C.Frozen groceries of animal originStorage temperature: frozen groceries are stored at temperature -12°C and lower, deeplyfrozen at temperature -18°C and lower.Meat ovenwares packedStorage temperature for ground meat – lower than 2°C ; for fresh meat – lower than 7°C ;for poultry meat – lower than 4°C ; with a content of inwards – lower than 3°C.EggsStorage temperature from 5-18°C, for cold-store eggs -1,5 up to 5°C at relative airhumidity 70-85%. Cold-store eggs circulated then must fulfil even requirements defined inspecial legal enactment.Salad creamStorage temperature from 0 to 15°C, maximal temperature during a transport 24°C.40


Dairy produce, durable, concentrated, driedStorage temperature at maximum 24°C, relative air humidity for dried dairy produce atmaximum 70%. Other dairy produce are stored at temperature from 4 up to 8°C includingduring transport.Vegetable fats, oil, shorteningsStorage temperature at maximum 20°C, for sliceable fat at maximum 15°C. Thesetemperatures must be kept during transport, too. Food fats are then stored and transportedso that they would be protected from a direct solar radiation.Fresh fruit and vegetablesFresh fruit and vegetables are stored separately in clean well aerated premises or onwooden pads in premises with controlled atmosphere.Mill and cereal products and rice, dried pastesThe important condition for storage is a separation from aromatic materials, storage onfloors at least 5cm from the wall.Bread and common pastryThe most important condition for storage is a prohibition of using crates and other meansused for handling and other purposes. As unpacked confectionery is concerned storagetemperature at maximum 8 °C is stipulated.SugarStorage temperature at maximum 30°C. Relative air humidity for sugar at maximum 70%and for powdered sugar at maximum 65%.Soft drinks and beerThey must be protected from a direct solar radiation during storage and transport. Thiscondition is extra important speaking about soft drinks packed in translucent packages.It is important for all food groups to separate them from such goods groups that mayunseemly affect them. It is also necessary to observe personal and operational hygienics,check of pest presence, providing a protection from pests (regular desinfestation anddisinfection). Check and observe storage conditions for individual kinds of goods. Observethe refrigerated chain at frozen and refrigerated groceries. When storing fresh fruit andvegetables it is important to observe handling conditions (temperature, humidity) andregular sensual check of stored goods and durability due date control.41


StepStorageHazard:Spoiling and/or contamination of products by micro-organisms, pests, chemicalmaterials and foreign objects due to:- storage in unsuitable conditions (breaking storage conditions)- temperature- humidity- light access, etc.- Micro-organism growth- undesirable chemical alternations (oxidation)- storage together with products which may unseemly influence them- smells- mechanical impurities- exceeding durability due date- storage for too long period of time- package disturbanceDefect elimination measures:For all product groups:- separated storage from products which may unseemly influence them- to maintain order- check of pest presence- to provide protection from pests ( regular desinfestation and disinfection)- to observe and keep storage conditions (temperature, relative air humidity, placingall within sufficient distance from walls, light access elimination, etc.)Refrigerated:- maintaining a refrigerated chainFrozen:- maintaining a refrigerated chainFresh vegetables and fruit:- to observe handling conditions ( temperature, moisture )- stored goods regular visual (sensual) control- goods durability regular control42


Picture No. 6 Hazard analysis during goods storageS T O R A G EHAZARD:Spoiling and/or contamination ofproducts by micro-organisms,pests, chemical materials andforeign objects due to:- Storage in unsuitableconditions (breakingstorage conditions)- temperature- humidity- light access, etc.- Micro-organism growth- undesirable chemicalalternations (oxidation)- storage together withproducts which mayunseemly influence them- smells- mechanical impurities- exceeding durability duedate- storage for too long periodof time- package disturbanceMEASURE:For all productgroupsRefrigerated,frozen, fresh fruitand vegetablesObserving the procedureDeficiencydetectionDisplayRendering fromcirculationLiquidationSource: author43


Table No. 5 Determination of signs, limits, and procedures for systematic monitoring ofimportant activities during goods storage.O P E R A T I O NS T O R A G EMonitoredsignLimits ofadmissibility(Critical limit)MonitoringprocedureMonitoringfrequencyRemedy(Correctivemeasure)ProcedureverificationConditions forstorage:- disorder instorage- presence ofpests- presence ofproducts orobjects whichmay affect aproduct- spoiledproducts instorageMinimaldurabilitytime, usabilitytime( DMT, DP)Sensory signsof storedgoods,Goodstemperatureduring storageCleanness andpackage safetycheckIt does notconform torequirementslong enoughDMT, DTIt does notconform to aspecificationMaximaltemperatureaccording toaspecificationIt does notconform torequirementsConditioncheckMonitoringDMT,DPGoods visualcheck, storagepremises checkTemperaturemeasuringCleanness andpackage safetymonitoringOnce a shiftCorrectivemeasuresRendergoodsfromcirculationCarrying outthe check inparallel byanotherperson -by asupervisor-workertrainingThermometertestSource: Critical points in trade manual (HACCP)44


4.4. Goods displayGoods based on kinds is transported from a storage to the shop where is displayedon designated stand places. During this activity it is necessary to handle with goods so thatsome damage on goods may happen (package damage, goods deformation), or workershandling with food under unsuitable conditions (high temperature, humidity,contamination by micro-organisms). When displaying goods it is necessary to avoiddisplaying goods together with products that may unseemly affect groceries – separateddisplay of inconsistent products.Observe the refrigerated chain when displaying refrigerated and frozen groceries.Shorten to the limit time of handling with these kinds of groceries especially duringsummer so that the temperatures would not exceed the critical limit. Monitor thetemperature in ice boxes and deepfreezers and keep records in forms. Observe foodhandling conditions when displaying fresh fruit and vegetables. Provide a sensual controlin order to avoid imperfect goods display. Revealing defects on displayed goods ensurethen their liquidation (garbage, container). In case of fresh fruit and vegetables returnimperfect goods to a supplier (in advance agreed losses).StepDisplay and further handling with groceriesHazard:Spoiling and/or contamination of products by micro-organisms, pests, chemicalmaterials and foreign objects due to:- display, handling in unsuitable conditions (breaking storage conditions)- temperature- humidity- micro-organism growth- undesirable chemical alternations (oxidation)- display together with a product which may unseemly influence it- exceeding durability due date- storage for too long period of time- product disturbance- package disturbance (product may be contaminated by a seller, surrounding, tools,package, etc.)45


Defect elimination measures:For all groups of products:- separating displayed products from the ones which may unseemly affect groceries,separated display of inconsistent products- to maintain order- observing personal and operational hygienics by a seller- palletization, unwrapping in defined premises- regular visual, sensory check of displayed goods- regular durability and usability time of displayed goods- regular goods rotation- preventing goods from a damage, proper procedures during taking the goods outfrom packages- check of pest presence- to provide protection from pests ( regular desinfestation, disinfection)- to observe and keep display conditions (temperature, relative air humidity, placingall within sufficient distance from walls, light access elimination, etc.)Refrigerated:- to observe refrigerator chain- to minimize delays outside the refrigerated areaFrozen:- keeping the refrigerator chainFresh vegetables and fruit:- observing handling conditions ( temperature, moisture )- stored goods regular visual (sensual) control- goods durability regular control46


Picture No. 7 Hazard analysis during goods displayS T O R A G ED I S P L A YSpoiling and/or contamination ofproducts by micro-organisms, pests,chemical materials and foreignobjects due to:- display, handling inunsuitable conditions(breaking storage conditions)- temperature- humidity- micro-organism growth- undesirable chemicalalternations (oxidation)- display together with aproduct which may unseemlyinfluence it- exceeding durability due date- storage for too long period oftime- product disturbance- package disturbance (productmay be contaminated by aseller, surrounding, tools,package, etc.)MEASURE:For all productgroupsRefrigerated,frozen, fresh fruitand vegetablesObserving the procedureDeficiencydetectionSaleRendering fromcirculationSubstitution ofsupplier bycommercialrepresentativeLiquidationSource: author47


Table No. 6 Determination of signs, limits, and procedures for systematic monitoring ofimportant activities during goods display.O P E R A T I O ND I S P L A YhandlingMonitoredsignLimits ofadmissibility(Critical limit)MonitoringprocedureMonitoringfrequencyRemedy(Correctivemeasure)ProcedureverificationDisplayconditionsMinimaldurability time,usability time( DMT, DP)Sensory signsof displayedgoods,Keepingtemperatureduring storageCleanness andpackage safetycheck, handlinghygienicscheckIt does notconform torequirementsLong enoughDMT, DT( even 1 daybeforeending)It does notconform to aspecificationMaximaltemperatureaccording to aspecificationIt does notconform torequirementsConditioncheck(temperaturemeasurements)MonitoringDMT,DPGoods visualcheckTemperaturemeasuringCleannesscheck beforegoods display,packagesafety check,monitoringpremises andvessels´cleanness.Every timeproducts aredisplayedCorrectivemeasuresSpeeding upgoodsrotationIf higherdisplaytemperatureoccursmeasureproducttemperature,in case theproducttemperatureexceedsstipulatedtemperatureabout lessthan +2 o Cstratifyproducts,increasecoolingefficiency,hand over tofunctionalcooling plantfor aftercooling,otherwisereject it fromcirculation.Carrying outthe check inparallel byanotherperson -by asupervisor-workertrainingThermometertest48


Render foodfromcirculationIn case ofexceedingDP render itfromcirculation. IfDMT isexceededmark it anddisplayseparatelyfrom otherproducts inthe shop.Source: Critical points in trade manual (HACCP)4.5. Goods saleStepSale-unwrapping, weighing, packingHazard:Contamination of packaged, unpackaged products by micro-organisms, pests,chemical materials and foreign objects due to:- non-performance of handling conditions- temporary sale together with a product which may unseemly affect groceries- non-performance of personal and operational hygienics by a customerFor packaged products:- product mechanical damage- display together with products which may groceries unseemly affect- package disturbance (product may be contaminated by a seller, surrounding, tools,package, etc.)49


Defect elimination measures:For all groups of products:- separating displayed products from the ones which may unseemly affect groceries,separated display of inconsistent products- to maintain order- observing personal and operational hygienics by a seller- regular visual, sensory check of displayed goods- regular durability and usability time of displayed goods- regular goods rotation- preventing goods from a damage, proper procedures during taking the goods outfrom packages- check of pest presence- to provide protection from pests ( regular desinfestation and disinfection)- to observe and keep display conditions (temperature, relative air humidity, placingall within sufficient distance from walls, light access elimination, etc.)Refrigerated:- to observe refrigerator chain- limiting delays outside cooled spaceFrozen:- to observe refrigerator chainFresh vegetables and fruit:- to observe handling conditions ( temperature, moisture )- stored goods regular visual (sensual) control- goods durability regular control50


Picture No. 8 Hazard analysis during goods saleD I S P L A YS A L EContamination of packaged,unpackaged products by microorganisms,pests, chemicalmaterials and foreign objects dueto:- non-performance ofhandling conditions- temporary sale togetherwith a product which mayunseemly affect groceries- non-performance ofpersonal and operationalhygienics by a customerFor packaged products:- product mechanicaldamageMEASURE:For all goodsgroupsRefrigeratedfrozen fresh fruitand vegetablesObserving the procedure- display together withproducts which maygroceries unseemly affect- package disturbance(product may becontaminated by a seller,surrounding, tools,package, etc.)DeficiencydetectionSale to aconsumerSubstitution ofsupplier bycommercialrepresentativeRendering fromcirculationLiquidationSource: author51


Table No. 7 Determination of signs, limits, and procedures for systematic monitoring ofimportant activities during goods sale.O P E R A T I O NS A L Eunwrapping, weighing, packingMonitoredsignLimits ofadmissibility(Critical limit)MonitoringprocedureMonitoringfrequencyRemedy(Correctivemeasure)ProcedureverificationSale conditions,observingpersonalhygienicsIt does notconform torequirementsConditioncheck andmonitoring,cleanness andhygienicsvisual check.CorrectivemeasuresDo cleaningand sanitation.Operatingpersonneltraining.Every timewe startsale ofproducts.Once ashiftIf higherdisplaytemperatureoccurs measureproducttemperature, incase theproducttemperatureexceedsstipulatedtemperatureabout less than+2 o C stratifyproducts,increasecoolingefficiency,hand over tofunctionalcooling plantfor aftercooling,otherwise rejectit fromcirculation.Carrying outthe check inparallel byanotherperson -by asupervisor-workertrainingThermometertestRendering foodfrom52


circulationIn case ofexceeding DPrender it fromcirculation. IfDMT isexceeded markit and displayseparately fromother productsin the shop.Source: Critical points in trade manual (HACCP)53


5. Implementation of verification procedures and internal audit5.1. System verificationProcedure controlProcedure of method verification in monitored activities is described in the above tables.System function verificationis carried out every six months or directly during management session. In the course of theverification observing procedures is judged, causes of exceeding limits are explained,customer claims are evaluated, etc. The session release is a report containing particularconclusions comprising listed persons in charge of procedure and term solutions.5.2. Internal auditThe audit carries out the shop owner, head assistant if not stated otherwise quarterly.The audit includes:- premises cleanness- to observe operational and personal hygienics- procedure control of a proper hygienic practice and HACCPAt the end of screening a record is kept. The record consisting of control questions or a listof controlled premises, activities, persons and concrete audit results including plan ofcorrective measures (persons in charge, terms, etc.).Verification procedures determination – verification planThe aim of the verification system is to adduce evidence proving that the system workswell. An organization defines the verification procedures in accord with § 2 par (10) publicnotice No. 147/1998 dig. Description of the verification procedures and records on theirimplementation must be a part of the supplier’s critical point system evidence.The verification plan must contain a task and responsibilities of entrusted workers,frequencies, methods, procedures, inspections and tests of the verification proceduresincluding an evaluation of the following aspects: registered claims, implemented correctivemeasures, monitoring system results, occurrence of deficiencies, accidental sample taking,54


etc. The verification should be carried out periodically and results must be systematicallyevaluated.Worker training implementationSeller must provide regular training for all workers in the field of the critical point system(HACCP) and related problems. A part of required documentation is an education plancontaining training schedule. Workers´ participation on trainings is filed together withtraining records.Recommended review of documentation relating to the critical point systemCritical point system plan for individual products or product groups (documentationrequired by a public notice).Documentation regarding system generation (product specification, process diagrams,hazard analysis documentation including operating measures, concerning critical pointdetermination and critical point limits, monitoring procedures, etc.)The documentation concerning system operation (forms regarding critical pointmonitoring, forms concerning corrective measure implementation, records concerningverification procedures, record regarding lot handling – a product in unmastered condition)Emergency rules and orders(upgraded about activity descriptions regarding power cuts, water supply interruption,breakdowns, etc. also with regard to a destiny of semifinished lots, products, technologies,etc. – for a producer)Scope of work for individual positions in production let us say organizational chart andtechnologic proceduresTest methods and take down control procedures, sampling procedures, descriptions of avisual let us say sensual investigation, etc.Employee health evidenceMethod and evidence of worker trainingSupply contract and demands on raw material quality and test certificatesThe above documentation may have a character of a company norm or direction. Thedocumentation usually already exists in a company and during the system implementation55


is just verified, upgraded and newly structurized to avoid a duplicity in realized activitiesand in an administrative.5.3. HACCP certification in the Czech RepublicThe Czech government adopted within its mission statement dated in August, 1998an obligation to proclaim the National quality assurance politics as one of instruments forstrengthening the competitive advantage and implementation of conditions favourable forentering Czech entrepreneurial subjects the EU common market. One of the spheressupported within the National quality assurance politics is the quality assurance systemcertification since this presents possibilities to strengthen company competitiveadvantages.In the course of late 90´s a demand on critical point (HACCP – Hazard AnalysisCritical Control Point) certification in the field of grocery occurred in relation to increaseddemands on food health perfection. This certified system allows producer to verify afitness of by him built critical point system (HACCP) via third independent party. Thisway he obtains information about the system efficiency and effectiveness. 11While field of quality assurance system certification (in accord with ISO 9001) andrules intended for classification societies accreditation were due to existing Europeannorms adopted without any problems, but there are no widely valid norms for the field ofthe critical point system (HACCP) (the reason is an existence of national laws andregulations which may be different). The EU individual countries have been alreadycertifying these systems – mostly in relation to ISO 9001 certification based on CodexAlimentarius and national legislative. It is important to say that the certification may berealized by classification societies accredited in national accreditation systems, only. Suchconditions were recently created also in the Czech Republic under which the critical pointsystem (HACCP) can be certified on voluntary basis in an organization.Base document used for the critical point (HACCP) certification is a documentcalled „General requirements for the critical point system (HACCP) and conditionsrelating to its certification“elaborated by an independent team of experts adopted by CzechMinistry of Agriculture after reminder proceedings. This document determines a generalframe which must fulfil all food producers applying for the critical control point (HACCP)11 http://www.mbk.cz/haccp56


certificate issue including all demands on classification societies. You can more closelyfamiliarize with the document in bulletin of Ministry of Agriculture no. 1/2001. 12To verify implemented critical point (HACCP) system’s functionality andefficiency food producer can apply for the system certification. The critical control point(HACCP) certification is voluntary and the certificate holder proves fulfilling requirementsexceeding the national legislative.Reasons for voluntary certification of HACCP critical control point system- competitive advantage in business contact- HACCP certificate proving supplier’s solidity (this fact is to come out not just in theforeign markets, but also in inland - advantage of public orders)- stability of industrial process- minimizing the citizens´ health hazard by means of systematic and preventive working- introducing standard „order in management“in a company (making company processesmore transparent)- increased demands on worker’s qualification – production quality growth- compatibility of critical point system (HACCP) with practice in the EU countries- Czech producers quickly coped with the EU requirements after entering the EU- competence verification of HACCP critical point system by an independent third party 135.4. HACCP researchIn terms of my bachelor work I carried out a research concentrating onimplementing and keeping HCCP system in grocery shops. I conducted the research byquestioning. The object of my research became premises situated in smaller towns withpopulation up to 3000 citizens in Přerov district. These are mostly small trader shops.There is just user himself working in some shops, but mostly there are several employeesworking in the shop. On the occasion of conducting this research I visited 30 shops wheregroceries sale was leading subject of their working. Supplementary sale of goods likechemist's, stationer's, garden equipment, domestics, sale of newspapers and magazines wasoffered in all the above shops.12 http://perspektivyjakosti.cz/jakost/view.php?cisloclanku=20040802013 http://www.haccpservis.cz/certifikace.htm57


Visiting above shops I addressed 16 users, 9 head assistants. In 5 cases when therewas neither user nor head assistant I addressed the shop’s personnel.Question No.1Do you have HACCP system introduced?Yes 22 i.e. 73%Yes, but not completely 4 i.e. 13%No, we have been working on that 2 i.e. 7%No 2 i.e. 7%Do you have HACCP system introduced?Yes Yes, but not completely No,we have been working on that NoSpeaking about the first question I wanted to learn basic information i.e. whether premiseshave introduced functioning HACCP system. Most of shops responded (22 addressedinformants) that they have functional HACCP system introduced. Four informantsresponded that they have the system introduced but they have been working on it, yet andhave been removing deficiencies. HACCP system has not been introduced into twoaddressed shops, although they have been already working on it while two premises havenot started to work on the critical points.Question No.2Who introduced or has been introducing HACCP system into premises?Head assistant 3 i.e. 10%Expert – physical entity 11 i.e. 39%Authorized company 12 i.e. 40%Someone else 2 i.e. 7%58


Who introduced or has been introducing HACCP systéminto premises ?Head assistant Expert-physical entity Authorized company Someone elseConsidering answers to my second question it is quite clear that shopkeepers let HACCPsystem carried out by an authorized company or expert – physical entity who understandsproblems in question and is experienced with introducing such a system. Three casesshowed that head assistant himself introduced the system while two shops answered thatthe system was introduced by someone else.Question No.3Do you find HACCP system useful and beneficial in your shop?YES, it is definitely a benefit to groceries sale improvement 12 i.e. 42%YES, but I have some reservations 8 i.e. 29%NO, it is useless 3 i.e. 11%I do not know 5 i.e. 18%Do you find HACCP system useful and beneficial in your shop?Yes, it is a benefit Yes, but I have some reservations No, it is useless I do not knowShopkeepers mostly appreciate HACCP system introduction into their shops, but some ofthem have certain reserves (question No. 4). They found HACCP system useless in three59


addressed shops and in other five premises they simply do not know whether there is anybenefit. Next question concentrated on negative points for shopkeepers regarding HACCPsystem functioning in their premises. An absolute majority of addressed premises andshops marked an increase of bureaucracy in relation to observing procedures and thesystem as the main negative point. Five shopkeepers then mentioned financial expensesrelated to system implementation and verification. Head assistants in three cases markedincreasing number of tasks and demands on workers.Question No. 4Which of these possibilities do you consider as the most negative in HACCP system?Bureaucracy in terms of HACCP20 i.e.Financial expenses related to implementation and verification5 i.e.New tasks for workers3 i.e.I do not know any negative points 0 i.e. 0%Which of these possibilities do you consider as the most negative inHACCP system?Bureaucracy Finanial expenses New tasks for workers I do not know60


6. ConclusionThe theme of my bachelor work is HACCP critical control point systemintroduction into grocery working. HACCP analysis introduces a preventive procedurewhich prevents, identifies and evaluates a consumer’s health hazard even before thishazard may arise. It determines procedures and means necessary to prevent potentialhazards before they may occur. In given premises it introduces ways of monitoring anddetermines corrective measures since warranting that the preventive system is efficient.My bachelor work is intended for especially Oldřiška Nedělová grocery in a townof Dřevohostice developing this way existing documentation used for this system. Then thebachelor work definitely helped to describe more precisely individual process steps, betterhazard analysis and to set new procedure used for monitoring the system. Based on theanalysis of individual operations the shop employees were trained and familiarized withcorrective measures together with demands on the system verification.Regarding the bachelor work content and its various hazard interpretations the workmay be introduced into in terms of size close grocery premises. One of the bachelor worktarget is thus met in this point so that even other users working in this branch regardingsmall and middle-size entrepreneurship after a modification of input data and completingown analysis may use this work as well. Due to this reason it does not define in its analysisconcrete critical points which are to be defined by existing shop according to its situation.I experienced a significant interest in this topic in grocery premises I visited interms of this bachelor work research. This research confirmed my presumption that most ofshopkeepers have already been observing this system speaking about an essential majorityof steps and by the system implementation the stated procedures were documented andtheir control was tightened up.61


ResumeHACCP is an abbreviation of three English words i.e. Hazard Analysis and CriticalControl Point. It is a system which analysis individual processes and procedures, identifiesand evaluates a consumer’s health hazard and preventively implements measureseliminating potential hazards in concrete company. Duly conducted system enables user toprove that he does his best to ensure non-hazardous food or dishes and besides it is toprove his innocence in most unwarranted accusations or neglecting this or otherregulations. The system fully eliminates a possibility of the contamination occurrence inmost cases. This bachelor work in first chapters focuses on HACCP history and descriptionand deals with an interpretation of the most important concepts in connection with thisanalysis. Next chapters explain principles of keeping proper hygienic practice in premiseswhich may significantly simplify the HACCP implementation and maintenance in theshop. Followed by a specification of food health hazards and shop identification while achapter called determination of signs and critical limits analyzes individual process stepsand with the aid of the decision diagrams determines the procedure enabling determinationof critical points and corrective measures. Last chapter together with a research explainsverification procedure implementation and provides information regarding the systemcertification.HACCP je zkratkou anglických slov Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. Jeto systém, který analyzuje v konkrétní firmě jednotlivé procesy a postupy, identifikuje avyhodnocuje nebezpečí ohrožení zdraví spotřebitelů a preventivně zavádí opatření, kteráodstraňují případná rizika. Řádně vedený systém umožňuje provozovateli prokázat, že dělávše podstatné pro zajištění nezávadnosti potraviny či pokrmu a prokáže nevinu ve většiněneopodstatněných nařčení o porušení nebo zanedbání toho či onoho předpisu. Ve většiněpřípadů systém zcela vyloučí možnost vzniku nákazy. Tato práce se v prvních kapitoláchzabývá historií a vysvětlení systému HACCP. Dále pak výkladem nejdůležitějších pojmův souvislosti s touto analýzou. V dalších kapitolách vysvětluje zásady dodržování správnéhygienické praxe v provozu, která může významně usnadnit zavedení a udržování HACCPv prodejně. Následuje specifikace zdravotních nebezpečí z potravin a identifikaceprodejny. V kapitole stanovení znaků a kritických mezí analyzuje jednotlivé kroky procesůa pomocí rozhodovacích diagramů stanovuje postup ke stanovení kritických bodů anápravných opatření. V poslední kapitole spolu s výzkumem vysvětluje zavedeníověřovacích postupů a informuje o certifikaci systému.62


List of applied literature(1) VOLDŘICH, M. a JECHOVÁ, M. a KAUDELOVÁ, M.. Systém kritických bodův obchodě (HACCP). 1st. ed. Praha : České a slovenské odborné nakladatelství, 2004. 73 s.ISBN 80-903401-2-1(2) HAMMOND, R.. Chytře vedená prodejna. 1 st . ed. Praha : Grada Publishing, 2005. 144s. ISBN 80-247-1066-8(3) SPÁČIL, A..Péče o zákazníky. 1st. ed. Praha : Grada Publishing, 2005. 116 s.ISBN 80-247-0514-1(4) SCHMIDTOVÁ, J.. Hygienická péče a předpisy v zařízeních potravinářského obchodua společného stravování. 2nd ed. Praha : Merkur, 1994. 185 s. ISBN 80-7032-350-7(5) NIKITIN, S..Pozor,škodlivé potraviny. 1st. ed. Praha : Lott, 2005. 182 s. ISBN 80-86854-03-5(6) HAVELKOVÁ, I. a MAHDIOVÁ, Z. a ŽÁČEK, M..Praktický postup pro zavedení afunkční provozování systémů HACCP. 1st. ed. Praha : HASAP Gastro Consulting, 2004. 16s. ISBN 80-86605-03-5(7) VOLDŘICH, M.. Zavádění systému kritických bodů HACCP. 1st. ed. Praha : Ústavzemědělských a potravinářských informací, 2000. 96 s. ISBN 80-7271-004-4(8) ROLKOVÁ, D.. Systémy Managementu bezpečnosti potravin-požadavky na organizaciv potravinářském řetězci. 1st. ed. Praha : Národní informační středisko pro podporujakosti, 2005. 146 s. ISBN 80-7283-185-2(9) STEVENSON, K.. A systematic approach to food safety. 3rd. ed.: Food ProcessorsInstitute, 1999. 224 s. ISBN 0937774111(10) HAYES, P. a FORSYTHE, S.. Food hygiene microbiology and HACCP. 3rd. ed.:Springer, 1999. 449 s. ISBN 0834218151(11) Verlag Dashofer : Perspektivy jakosti [on-line]. Česká společnost pro jakost, 2006.[cit.March 19, 2006]. Available at websites.http://perspektivyjakosti.cz/jakost/view.php?cisloclanku=2004080304(11) Ministry of Agriculture : Bezpečnost potravin pohledem spotřebitele [on-line]. Praha.2005. [cit.March 25, 2006]. Available at websites.http://www.mze.cz/attachments/Potraviny-zprava_MZ.pdf(12) Ministry of Agriculture : Usnadnění HACCP v malých potravinářských podnicích[on-line]. Praha. 2004. [cit. March 25, 2006]. Available at websiteshttp://www.mze.cz/attachments/SANCO_3069_2004.rtf63


List of tablesTable No. 1 Norms applied to certifications in food chain .................................................. 19Table No. 2 Food classification in accord with a hazard ..................................................... 20Table No. 3 Temperature impact on micro-organism growth ............................................. 22Table No. 4 Determination of signs, limits, and procedures for systematic monitoring ofimportant activities during goods receipt. ............................................................................ 39Table No. 5 Determination of signs, limits, and procedures for systematic monitoring ofimportant activities during goods storage. ........................................................................... 44Table No. 6 Determination of signs, limits, and procedures for systematic monitoring ofimportant activities during goods display. ........................................................................... 48Table No. 7 Determination of signs, limits, and procedures for systematic monitoring ofimportant activities during goods sale. ................................................................................ 52Graph No. 1 Range of goods in the shop ............................................................................ 29List of picturesPicture No. 1 The shop ........................................................................................................ 25Picture No. 2 Methods of goods receipt. ............................................................................. 32Picture No. 3 Goods receipt monitoring and a correction of found condition ..................... 33Picture No. 4 Methods of ensuring the right procedure ....................................................... 36Picture No. 5 Critical point determination – decision diagram ........................................... 38Picture No. 6 Hazard analysis during goods storage .......................................................... 43Picture No. 7 Hazard analysis during goods display .......................................................... 47Picture No. 8 Hazard analysis during goods sale ................................................................ 51List of enclosuresEnclosure No. 1 Specimen Temperature measurement form Week No./YearEnclosure No. 2 Specimen Selected sign inspection form64


Enclosure No. 1 Specimen.FORM.TPAWeek No./Year Temperature measurement formForm fortemperaturemeasurementsPremises:Taken by:Week:Place ofmeasurements,frequency ofmeasurements,requiredtemperatureDetected temperature in o CMON TUE WED THU FRI SAT SUNRecord on implementing a corrective measure in case of „unsatisfactory temperature“(date, product, what was checked)Inspection records:Source: Critical points in trade manual (HACCP)65


Enclosure No. 2 Specimen.FORM.TPA Week No./Year Selected sign inspection formInspection recordStep:Premises:Critical pointPerson in charge of:Week:Inspected sign:Group ofproducts, productRequired condition:Sign inspection made, it satisfies: yes / noMON TUE WED THU FRI SAT SUNRecord on implementing a corrective measure in case of „unsatisfactory inspection“(date, product, what was checked)Inspection records:Date: Inspected sign: Condition foundduring an inspection:Condition foundby a superior:Person in chargeof an inspectionsignature:Source: Critical points in trade manual (HACCP)66

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